Natural History By PLINY ELDER 23 - 79
37 Pliny Books 1 - 20
1 Dedication
2 World & Elements
3 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
4 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
5 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
6 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
7 Man: Birth, Organization, Invention of Arts
8 Nature of Terrestial Animals
9 History of Fish
10 Natural History of Birds
11 Various kinds of Insects
12 History of Trees
13 History of Exotic Trees & an account of Unguents
14 History of Fruit Trees 1
15 History of Fruit Trees 2
16 History of Forest Trees
17 History of Cultivated Trees
18 History of Grain
19 Nature & Cultivation of Flax & Account of various Garden Plants
20 Remedies from Garden Plants
 
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37 Pliny Books 21 - 37
21 Flowers & Those used for Chaplets particularly
22 Properties of Plants & Fruits
23 Remedies from Cultivatedrees
24 Remediesfrom Forestrees
25 History of Wild Plant
26 Remediesfrom Plants classified by Diseases
27 Description of Plants & Rmds fromhem
28 Rmds from Living Creatures 1
29 Rmds from Living Creatures 2
30 Rmds from Living Creatures 3
31 Rmds from Aquatic Production
32 Rmds from Aquatic Animals
33 History of Metals
34 History of Metals
35 Paintings & Colors
36 History of Stones
37 History of Precious Stones
2 World & Elements 11:43:42
21 Dimensions of world
22 Stars which appear suddenly, or of comets
23 Their nature, situation & species
24 Doctrine of Hipparchus about stars
25 Examples from history of celestial prodigies
26 Of colours of sky & of celestial flame
27 Colours of sky of celestial flame
28 Celestial coronae
29 Sudden circles
30 Unusually long eclipses of sun
31 Many suns
32 Many moons
33 Daylight in night
34 Burning shields
35 Ominous appearance in heaven, that was seen only once
36 stars which move about in various directions
37 stars which are named Castor & Pollux
38 On air & on cause of showers of stones
39 Stated seasons
40 Rising of dog-star
61 nature of hail, snow, hoar, mist, dew, forms of clouds
62 Peculiarities of weather in different places
63 Nature of earth
64 Form of earth
65 Whether there be antipodes
66 How water is connected with earth, navigation of sea & rivers
67 Whether Ocean surrounds Earth
68 What part of world is inhabited
69 That earth is in middle of world
70 Obliquity of zones
71 Inequality of climates
72 In what places eclipses are invisible, & why this is case
73 What regulates daylight on earth
74 remarks on dials as connected to this subject
75 When & where there are no shadows
76 Where this takes place twice in year & where shadows fall in opposite direction
77 Where days are longest & where shortest
78 1st dial
79 Of mode in which days are computed
80 Difference of nations as depending on nature of world
81 Earthquakes
82 Clefts of earth
83 Signs of an approaching earthquake
84 Preservatives against future earthquakes
85 Prodigies of earth which have occurred once only
86 Wonderful circumstances attending earthquakes
87 In what places sea has receded
88 mode in which islands rise up
89 What islands have been formed, & at what periods
90 Lands which have been separated by sea
91 Islands which have been united to main land
92 Lands which have been totally changed into seas
93 Lands which have been swallowed up
94 Cities which have been absorbed by sea
95 Vents in earth
96 certain lands which are always shaking, & of floating islands
97 Places in which it never rains
98 wonders of various countries collected together
99 Concerning cause of fowing and ebbing of sea
100 Where tides rise & fall in an unusual manner
101 Wonders of sea
102 power of moon over land & sea
103 power of sun
104 Why sea is salt
105 Where sea is deepest
106 wonders of fountains & rivers
107 Summary wonders of fire & water united
108 Maltha
109 Naphtha
110 Places which are always burning
111 Wonders of fire alone
112 dimensions of earth
113 harmonical proportions of universe
       
3 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
14:02:52
0 Introduction
1 boundaries & gulfs of Europe 1st set forth in a general way
2 Spain generally
3 Baetica
5 province of Gallia Narbonensis
6 Italy
7 9th region of Italy
8 7th region of Italy
9 1st region of Italy, Tiber, Rome
10 3rd region of Italy
11 64 islands, among which are Baleares
12 Corsica
13 Sardinia
14 Sicily
15 Magna Graecia, beginning at Locri
16 2nd region of Italy
17 4th region of Italy
18 5th region of Italy
19 6th region of Italy
20 8th region of Italy, Padus
21 11th region of Italy, Italia Transpadana
22 10th region of Italy
23 Summary Istria, its people & locality
24 Alps & Alpine nations
25 Liburnia & Illyricum
26 Dalmatia
27 Norici
28 Pannonia
29 Moesia
30 Islands of Ionic Sea & Adriatic
1 Epirus
2 Acarnania
3 Aetolia
4 Locris & Phocis
5 Peloponnesus
6 Achaia
7 Messenia
8 Laconia
9 Argolis
10 Arcadia
11 Attica
12 Boeotia
13 Doris
14 Phthiotis
15 Thessaly Proper
16 Magnesia
17 Macedonia
18 Thrace, Aegean Sea
19 islands which lie before lands already mentioned
20 Crete
21 Euboeia
22 Cyclades
23 Sporades
24 Hellespont - lake Maeotis
25 Dacia, Sarmatia
26 Scythia
27 Islands of Euxine, Islands of northern ocean
28 Germany
29 96 islands of Gallic Ocean
30 Britannia
31 Gallia Belgica
32 Gallia Lugdunensis
33 Gallia Aquitanica
34 Nearer Spain, its coast along Gallic Ocean
35 Lusitania
36 islands in Atlantic Ocean
37 general measurement of Europe

 

5 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
14:02:52
1 2 Mauritanias
2 Numidia
3 Africa
4 Syrtes
5 Cyrenaica
6 Libya Mareotis
7 Islands in vicinity of Africa
8 Countries on other side of Africa
9 Egypt & Thebais
10 River Nile
11 cities of Egypt
12 coasts of Arabia, situate on Egyptian sea
13 Syria
14 Idumaea, Palaestina & Samaria
15 Judaea
16 Decapolis
17 Phoenice
18 Syria Antiochia
19 Remaining parts of Syria
20 Euphrates
21 Syria upon Euphrates
22 Cilicia & adjoining nations
23 Isauria and Homonades
24 Pisidia
25 Lycaonia
26 Pamphylia
27 Mount Taurus
28 Lycia
29 Caria
30 Lydia
31 Ionia
32 Aeolis
33 Troas & adjoining nations
34 Islands which lie in front of Asia
35 Cyprus
36 Rhodes
37 Samos
38 Chios
39 Lesbos
40 Summary Hellespont & Mysia
41 Phrygia
42 Galatia & adjoining nations
43 Bithynia
44 Islands of Propontis
6 Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances & Peoples who exist or did
14:02:52
1 Euxine & Maryandini
2 Paphlagonia
3 Cappadocia
4 Region of Themiscyra & nations therein
5 Region of Colica, nations of Achaei & other nations in same parts
6 Cimmerian Bosporus
7 Lake Maeotis & adjoining nations
8 Situation of Cappadocia
9 Lesser & Greater Armenia
10 Rivers Cyrus & Araxes
11 Albania, Iberia & adjoining nations
12 passes of Caucasus
13 Islands of Euxine
14 nations in vicinity of Scythian Ocean
15 Caspian & Hyrcanean sea
16 Adiabene
17 Media & Caspian Gates
18 Nations situated around Hyrcanian sea
19 nations of Scythia & countries on Eastern Ocean
20 Seres
21 Nations of India
22 Ganges
23 Indus
24 Taprobane
25 Ariani & adjoining nations
26 voyages to India
27 Carmania
28 Persian & Arabian Gulfs
29 Parthian Empire
30 Mesopotamia
31 Tigris
32 Arabia
33 gulfs of Red Sea
34 Troglodytice
35 Aethiopia
36 Islands of Aethiopian Sea
37 Fortunate Islands
38 Comparative distances of places on face of earth
39 division of earth into parallels & shadows of equal length

7 Man: Birth, Organization, Invention of Arts

21 Instances of acuteness of sight
22 Instances of remarkable acuteness in hearing
23 Instances of endurance of pain
24 Memory
25 Vigour of mind
26 Clemency & greatness of mind
27 Heroic exploits
28 Union in same person of three of highest qualities with greatest purity
29 Instances of extreme courage
30 Men of remarkable genius
31 Men who have been remarkable for wisdom
32 Precepts most useful in life
33 Divination
34 Man who was pronounced to be most excellent
35 Most chaste matrons
36 Instances of highest degree of affection
37 Men who have excelled in arts, astrology, grammar & medicine
38 Geometry & architecture
39 Painting, engraving on bronze, marble & ivory, carving
40 slaves for which a high price has been given
41 Supreme happiness
42 Rare instances of good fortune continuing in same family
43 Remarkable example of vicissitudes
44 Remarkable examples of honours
45 10 very fortunate circumstances which have happened to same person
46 Misfortunes of Augustus
47 Men whom gods have pronounced to be most happy
48 Man whom gods ordered to be worshipped during his life-time, Remarkable flash of lightning
49 Greatest length of life
50 Variety of destinies at birth of man
51 Various instances of diseases
52 Death
53 Persons who have come to life again after being laid out for burial
54 Instances of sudden death
55 Burial
56 Manes, or departed spirits of soul
58 Things about which mankind 1st of all agreed, ancient letters
59 When barbers 1st employed
60 When 1st time-pieces were made
 
 

8 Nature of Terrestial Animals

21 Wonderful feats performed by lions
22 Man recognized & saved by a dragon
23 Panthers
24 Decree of Senate, & laws respecting African animals, who brough them to Rome & who brought most
25 Tigers: when 1st seen at Rome, their nature
26 Camels: different kinds
27 Cameleopard: when it was 1st seen at Rome
28 Chama & cepus
29 Rhinoceros
30 Lynx, sphynx, crocotta & monkey
31 Terrestrial animals of India
32 Animals of Aethiopia, wild beast which kills with its eye
33 Serpents called basilisks
34 Wolves, origin of story of Versipellis
35 different kinds of serpents
36 Ichneumon
37 Crocodile
38 Seincus
39 Hippopotamus
40 Who 1st exhibited hippopotamus & crocodile at Rome
61 Qualities of dog, examples of its attachment to its master, nations which have kept dogs for purpose of war
62 Generation of dog
63 Rmds against canine madness
64 Nature of horse
65 Disposition of horse, remarkable facts concerning chariot horses
66 Generation of horse
67 Mares impregnated by wind
68 Ass: its generation
69 Nature of mules & other beasts of burden
70 Oxen: their generation
71 Egyptian Apis
72 Sheep & their propagation
73 Different kinds of wool & their colours
74 Different kinds of cloth
75 Different shapes of sheep, Musmon
76 Goats & their propagation
77 Hog
78 Wild boar, who was 1st to establish parks for wild animals
79 Animals in a half-wild state
80 Apes
81 Different species of hares
82 Animals tamed in part only
83 Places in which certain animals are not to be found
84 animals which injure strangers only, as also animals which injure natives of country only, & where they are found
 

9 History of Fish

1 Why largest animals are found in sea
2 Sea monsters of Indian Ocean
3 Largest animals that are found in each ocean
4 Forms of Tritons & Nereids, Forms of sea-elephants
5 Balaena & Orca
6 Whether fishes respire & whether they sleep
7 Dolphins
8 Human beings who have been beloved by dolphins
9 Places where dolphins help men to fish
10 Other wonderful things relating to dolphins
11 Tursio
12 Turtles: various kinds of turtles & where they are caught
13 Who 1st invented art of cutting tortoise shell
14 Distribution of aquatic animals into various species
15 Those which are covered with hair,or have none, & how they bring forth, sea-calves or phocae
16 How many kinds of fish there are
18 Tunnies, cordyla & pelamides & various parts of them that are salted, melandrya, apolecti & cybia
19 Aurias & Scomber
20 Fishes which are never found in Euxine. Those which enter it & return
21 Why fishes leap above surface of water
22 That auguries are derived from fishes
23 What kinds of fishes have no males
24 Fishes which have a stone in their head. Those which keep themselves concealed during winter.
25 Fishes which conceal themselves during summer. Influenced by stars
26 mullet
27 Acipenser
28 Lupus, Asellus
29 Scarus, Mustella
30 Various kinds of mullets & sargus that attends them
31 Enormous prices of some fish
32 Same kinds are not everywhere equally esteemed
33 Gills & Scales
34 Fishes which have a voice, fishes without gills
35 Fishes which come on land, proper time for catching fish
36 Classification of fishes, according to shape of body
37 Fins of fish, & their mode of swimming
38 Eels
39 Murena
40 Various kinds of flat fish
41 Echeneis & its uses in enchantments
42 Fishes which change their colour
43 Fishes which fly above water, Sea swallow, fish that shines in night, horned fish, sea-dragon
44 Fishes which have no blood, fishes known as soft fish
45 Saepia, Loligo, Scallop
46 Polypus
47 Nautilus, or sailing polypus
48 Various kinds of polypi, their shrewdness
49 Sailing nauplius
50 Sea-animals which are enclosed with a crust, cray-fish
51 Various kinds of crabs, pinnotheres, sea urchin, cockles & scallops
52 Various kinds of shell-fish
53 What numerous appliances of luxury are found in sea
55 How pearls are found
56 Various kinds of pearls
57 Remarkable facts connected with pearls - their nature
58 Instances of use of pearls
59 How pearls 1st came into use at Rome
60 Nature of murex & purple
61 Different kinds of purples
62 How wools are dyed with juices of purple
63 When purple was 1st used at Rome, Laticlave Vestment & Praetexta 1st worn
64 Fabrics called conchyliated
65 Amethyst, Tyrian, hysgnian & crimson tints
66 Pinna & Pinnotheres
67 Sponges: Various kinds & where they are produced: Proofs that they are gifted with life by nature
68 Bodies which have a 3rd nature, that of animal & vegetable combined, sea-nettle
69 Sponges: various kinds of them, & where they are produced, proofs that they are gifted with life by nature
70 Dog-fish
71 Fishes which are enclosed in a stony-shell, sea-animals which have no sensation, other animals which live in mud
72 Venomous sea-animals
73 Maladies of fishes
74 Generation of fishes
75 Fishes which are both oviparous & viviparous
76 Fishes belly of which opens in spawning, & then closes again
77 Fishes that have a womb. Those which impregnate themselves
78 Longest lives known among fishes
79 1st person that formed artificial oyster-beds
80 Who was 1st inventor of preserves for other fish
81 Who invented preserves for murenae
82 Who invented preserves for sea-snails
83 Land-fishes
84 Mice of Nile
85 How fish called anthias is taken
86 Sea-stars
87 Marvellous properties of dactylus
88 Anthipaties & sympathies that exist between aquatic animals

10 Natural History of Birds

21 Birds which have hooked talons
22 Peacock
23 Who was 1st to kill peacock for food. Who 1st taught art of cramming them
24 Dunghill cock
25 How cocks are castrated. Cock that once spoke
26 Goose
27 Who 1st taught us to use liver of goose for food
28 Commagenian medicament
29 Chenalopex, cheneros, tetrao & oris
30 Cranes
31 Storks
32 Swans
33 Foreign birds which visit us, Quail, Glottis, Cychramus, Lotus
34 Swallows
35 Birds that take their departure from us, & whither they go: Thrush, Blackburd, Starling, who lose feathers during retirement. Turtle Dove. Ring Dove. Flight of Starlings & Swallows.
36 Birds which remains with us throughout year. Birds that remain with us only 6 or 3 months. Witwalls & Hoopoes.
37 Memnonides
38 Meleagrides
39 Seleucides
40 Ibis
41 Places in which certain birds are never found
42 Various kinds of birds which afford omens by their note. Birds which change their colour & their voice
43 Nightingale
44 Melancoryphus, Erithacus & Phoenicurus
45 Oenanthe, chlorion, blackbird & ibis
46 Times of Incubation of birds
47 Halcyones: halcyon days that are favourable to navigation
48 Other kinds of aquatic birds
49 Instinctive cleverness displayed by birds in construction of their nests, Wonderful works of swallow, Bank Swallow
50 Acanthyllis & other birds
51 Merops - Partidges
52 Pigeons
53 Wonderful things done by them. Prices at which they have been sold
54 Different modes of flight & progression in birds
55 Birds called Apodes or Cypseli
56 Respecting food of birds - caprimulgus, platea
57 Instinct of birds - carduelis, taurus, anthus
58 Birds which speak - parrot
59 Pie which feeds on acorns
60 Sedition that arose among Roman people in consequence of a raven speaking
61 Birds of Diomedes
62 Animals that can learn nothing
63 Mode of drinking with birds, Porphyrio
64 Haematopous
65 Food of birds
66 Pelican
67 Foreign birds: phalerides, pheasant & numidicae
68 Phoenicopterus, attagen, phalacrocorax, pyrrhocorax & lagopus
69 New Birds, Vipio
70 Fabulous birds
71 Who 1st invented art of cramming poultry: why 1st Censors forbade this practice
72 Who 1st invented aviaries, dish of Aesopus
73 Generation of birds: other oviparous animals
74 Various kinds of eggs & their nature
75 Defects in brood-hens & their Rmds
76 An augury derived from eggs by an empress
77 Best kinds of fowls
78 Diseases of fowls & their Rmds
79 When birds lay & how many eggs, various kinds of herons
80 What eggs are called hypenemia & what cynosura, how eggs are best kept
81 Only winged animal that is viviparous & nurtures its young with milk
82 Terrestrial animals that are oviparous. Various kinds of serpents
83 Generation of all kinds of terrestrial animals
84 Position of animals in uterus
85 Animals whose origin is still unknown
86 Salamanders
87 Animals which are born of beings that have not been born themselves - animals which are born themselves, but are not reproductive - animals which are of neither sex
88 Senses of animals - that all have senses of touch & taste - those which are more remarkable for their sight, smell or hearing - moles - whether oysters have sense of hearing
89 Which fishes have best hearing
90 Which fishes have finest sense of smell
91 Diversities in feeding of animals
92 Animals which live on poisons
93 Animals which live on earth - animals which will not die of hunger or thirst
94 Diversities in drinking of animals
95 Antipathies of animals, proofs that they are sensible of frienship & other affections
96 Instances of affection shown by serpents
97 Sleep of animals
98 What animals are subject to dreams

11 Kinds of Insects

2 Whether insects respire & whether they have blood
3 Bodies of insects
4 Bees
5 Order displayed in work of bees
6 Meaning of terms commosis, Pissoceros & Propolis
7 Meaning of Erithace, Sandaraca or Cerinthos
8 Flowers used by Bees in their work
9 People who have made Bees their study
10 Mode in which bees work
11 Drones
12 Qualities of honey
13 Where Honey is best produced
14 Kinds of Honey peculiar to various places
15 How Honey is tested, Ericaeum. Tetralix or Sisirum
16 Reproduction of bees
17 Mode of government by bees
18 Happy omens sometimes afforded by a swarm of bees
19 Various kinds of Bees
20 Diseases of Bees
21 Things that are Noxious Bees
22 How to keep Bees to hive
23 Methods of renewing swarm
24 Wasps & Hornets: Who take what belongs to others
25 Bombyx of Assyria
26 Larvae of Silk-Worm & who invented silk cloths
27 Silk-Worm of Cos-How Coan Vestments are made
28 Spiders, kinds that make webs, materials used in so doing
29 Generation of spiders
30 Scorpions
31 Stelio
32 Grasshopper: Neither mouth or outlet for food
33 Wings of insects
34 Beetle, glow-worm, other kinds of beetles
35 Locusts
36 Ants
37 Chrysalis
38 Animals which breed in wood
39 Insects that are parasites of man. Which is smallest animal? Animals found in wax.
40 Animal which has no passage for evacuations
41 Moths, cantharides, gnats, insects that breed in snow
42 Animal found in fire - Pyrallis or Pyrausta
43 Animal called Hemeroboin
44 Nature and characteristics of all animals considered limb by limb. Those which have tufts and crests.
45 Various kinds of horns. Animals in which they are moveable
46 Heads of animals. Those which have none
47 Hair
48 Bones of Head
49 Brain
50 Ears. Animals which hear without ears or aperatures
51 Face, Forehead, Eyebrows
52 Eyes. Animals with 1 eye or no eyes
53 Diversity of color of eyes
54 Theory of sight. Person who can see by night
55 Nature of pupil. Eyes that don't shut.
56 hair of eyelids
57 animals which have no eyelids
58 cheeks
59 nostrils
60 mouth, lips, chin, Jaw Bone
61 TEETH; VARIOUS KINDS OF TEETH; WHAT ANIMALS THEY ARE NOT ON BOTH SIDES: ANIMALS WITH HOLLOW TEETH
62 TEETH OF SERPENTS; THEIR POISON. BIRD WITH NO TEETH
63 WONDERFUL CIRCUMSTANCES CONNECTED WITH TEETH
64 HOW ESTIMATE IS FORMED OF AGE OF ANIMALS FROM THEIR TEETH
65 TONGUE; ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO TONGUE. NOISE MADE BY FROGS. PALATE
66 TONSILS; UVA; EPIGLOSSIS; ARTERY; GULLET
67 NECK; THROAT; DORSAL SPINE
68 THROAT; GULLET; STOMACH
69 HEART; BLOOD; VITAL SPIRIT
70 ANIMALS WITH LARGEST & SMALLEST HEART, ANIMALS WITH 2 HEARTS
71 WHEN CUSTOM WAS 1ST ADOPTED OF EXAMINING HEART IN INSPECTION OF ENTRAILS
72 LUNGS: WHAT ANIMALS HAVE LARGEST SMALLEST. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NOTHING BUT LUNGS INSIDE. CAUSES OF EXTRAORDINARY SWIFTNESS IN ANIMALS
73 LIVER: IN WHAT ANIMALS, & IN WHAT PART THERE ARE 2 LIVERS FOUND
74 GALL; WHERE SITUATE, & WHAT ANIMALS IT IS DOUBLE. ANIMALS WITH NO GALL, & OTHERS IN WHICH IT IS NOT SITUATE IN LIVER
75 PROPERTIES OF GALL
76 WHAT ANIMALS LIVER INCREASES & DECREASES WITH MOON. OBSERVATIONS OF ARUSPICES RELATIVE THERETO, & REMARKABLE PRODIGIES
77 DIAPHRAGM. NATURE OF LAUGHTER
78 BELLY: ANIMALS WITH NO BELLY. ONLY ANIMALS THAT VOMIT
79 SMALL GUTS, FRONT INTESTINES, ANUS, COLON. CAUSES OF INSATIATE VORACITY OF CERTAIN ANIMALS
80 OMENTUM: SPLEEN; ANIMALS WHICH ABE WITHOUT IT
81 KIDNEYS: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE 4 KIDNEYS. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NONE
82 BREAST: RIBS
83 BLADDER: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO BLADDER
84 WOMB: WOMB OF SOW: TEARS
85 ANIMALS WHICH HAVE SUET: ANIMALS WHICH DO NOT GROW FAT
86 MARROW: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO MARROW
87 BONES AND FISH-BONES: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NEITHER. CARTILAGES
88 NERVE: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NONE
89 ARTERIES; VEINS: ANIMALS WITHOUT ARTERIES OR VEINS. BLOOD & SWEAT
90 ANIMALS W/ BLOOD THAT COAGULATES FASTEST & WHICH DOES NOT COAGULATE. ANIMALS WITH THICKEST & THINNEST BLOOD: ANIMALS WITH NO BLOOD
91 ANIMALS WHICH ARE WITHOUT BLOOD AT CERTAIN PERIODS OF YEAR
92 WHETHER BLOOD IS PRINCIPLE OF LIFE
93 HIDE OF ANIMALS
94 HAIR & COVERING OF SKIN
95 PAPS: BIRDS W/ PAPS. REMARKABLE FACT'S CONNECTED WITH DUGS OF ANIMALS
96 MILK: BIESTINGS. CHEESE; OF WHAT MILK CHEESE CANNOT BE MADE. RENNET; VARIOUS KINDS OF ALIMENT IN MILK
97 VARIOUS KINDS OF CHEESE
98 DIFFERENCES OF MEMBERS OF MAN FROM THOSE OF OTHER ANIMALS
99 FINGERS, ARMS
100 RESEMBLANCE OF APE TO MAN
101 NAILS
102 KNEES & HAMS
103 PARTS OF HUMAN BODY TO WHICH CERTAIN RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE ATTACHED
104 VARICOSE VEINS
105 GAIT, FEET, LEGS
106 HOOFS
107 FEET OF BIRDS
108 ANIMAL FEET, THOSE W/ 2 FEET TO 100. DWARFS
109 SEXUAL PARTS. HERMAPHRODITES
110 TESTES: 3 CLASSES OF EUNUCHS
111 TAILS OF ANIMALS
112 DIFFERENT VOICES OF ANIMALS
113 SUPERFLUOUS LIMBS
114 SIGNS OF VITALITY & MORAL DISPOSITION OF MAN, FROM LIMBS
115 RESPIRATION & NUTRIMENT
116 ANIMALS IMMUNE TO POISON, & FLESH OF WHICH IS POISONOUS
117 REASONS FOR INDIGESTION. Rmds FOR CRUDITY
118 FROM WHAT CAUSES CORPULENCE ARISES; HOW IT MAY BE REDUCED
119 WHAT THINGS, BY MERELY TASTING OF THEM, ALLAY HUNGER & THIRST
       

12 History of Trees

1 honourable place occupied by trees in system of nature
2 early history of trees
3 exotic trees, When & where plane-tree came from
4 Nature of Plane Tree
5 REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH PLANE-TREE
6 CHAMÆPLATANUS. 1ST TO CLIP GREEN SHRUBS
7 HOW CITRON IS PLANTED
8 trees of India
9 WHEN EBONY WAS FIRST SEEN AT ROME. VARIOUS KINDS OF EBONY
10 INDIAN THORN
11 INDIAN FIG
12 PALA: FRUIT CALLED ARIENA
13 Indian trees, names of which are unknown, Indian trees which bear flax
14 pepper-tree
15 CARYOPHYLLON, LYCION, & CHIRONIAN PYXACANTHUS
16 macir
17 sugar
18 TREES OF ABIANA, GEDROSIA, AND HYRCANIA
19 TREES OF BACTRIANA, BDELLIUM, OR BROCHON, OTHERWISE MALACHA, OR MALDACON, SCORDASTUM. ADULTERATIONS USED IN ALL SPICES & AROMATICS; VARIOUS TESTS OF THEM & THEIR RESPECTIVE VALUES
20 trees of Persis
21 trees of islands of Persian sea, cotton tree
22 CYNA TREE. TREES FROM WHICH FABRICS FOR CLOTHING ARE MADE IN EAST
23 COUNTRY WHERE TREES NEVER LOSE THEIR LEAVES
24 VARIOUS USEFUL PRODUCTS OF TREES
25 COSTUS
26 NARD. 12 VARIETIES
27 ASARUM, OR FOAL-FOOT
28 AMOMUM.—AMOMIS
29 CARDAMOMUM
30 country of frankincense
31 trees that bear frankincense
32 various kinds of frankincense
33 Myrrh
34 Trees that produce myrrh
35 nature & various kinds of myrrh
36 mastich
37 ladanum & stobolon
38 enhaemon
39 TREE CALLED BRATUS
40 TREE CALLED STOBRUM
41 why Arabia was called happy
42 cinnamomum, xylocinnamum
43 Cassia
44 cancamum & tarum
45 serichatum & gabalium
46 myrobalanum
47 phoenicobalanus
48 sweet-scented calamus
49 hammoniacum
50 sphagnos
51 cypros
52 asphalatos
53 maron
54 balsamum
55 storax
56 galbanum
57 panax
58 spondylium
59 malobathrum
60 omphacion
61 BRYON, ŒNANTHE, & MASSARIS
62 elate or sphate
63 cinnamon or Comacum
 

13 History of Exotic Trees & an account of Unguents

1 at what period they were 1st introduced
2 various kinds of unguents
3 diaspa, magma, modes of testing unguents
4 excess to which luxury has run in unguents
5 when unguents were 1st used by Romans
6 palm tree
7 nature of palm tree
8 how palm tree is planted
9 different varieties of palm trees & their characteristics
10 trees of Syria: pistacia, cottana, damascena & myxa
11 CEDAR. TREES WHICH HAVE ON THEM FRUIT OF THREE YEARS AT ONCE
12 TEREBINTH
13 SUMACH-TREE
14 trees of Egypt, fig-tree of Alexandria
15 fig tree of Cyprus
16 carob tree
17 PERSIAN TREE. IN WHAT TREES FRUITS GERMINATE 1 BELOW OTHER
18 Cucus
19 Egyptian thorn
20 nine kinds of gum, sarcocolla
21 papyrus, use of paper, when it was 1st invented
22 mode of making paper
23 9 different kinds of paper
24 mode of testing goodness of paper
25 peculiar defects in paper
26 paste used in preparation of paper
27 books of Numa
28 trees of Aethiopia
29 trees of Mount Atlas, citrus & tables made of wood there of
30 points that are desirable or otherwise in these tables
31 citron-tree
32 lotus
33 trees of Cyrenaica, paliurus
34 9 varieties of Punic apple, balaustium
35 TREES OF ASIA & GREECE; EPIPACTIS, ERICA, CNIDIAN GRAIN OR THYMELÆA, PYROSACHNE, CNESTRON, OR CNEORON
36 tragion, tragacanthe
37 tragos or scorpio
38 euonymos
39 tree called eon
40 ANDRACHLE
41 COCCYGIA; APHARCE
42 FERULA
43 THAPSIA
44 CAPPARIS OR CYNOSBATON, OTHERWISE OPHIOSTAPHYLE
45 SARIPHA
46 royal thorn
47 CYTISUS
48 TREES & SHRUBS OF MEDITER- RANEAN. PHYCOS, PRASON, OR ZOSTER
49 sea bryon
50 plants of red sea
51 plants of Indian sea
52 PLANTS OF TROGLODYTIC SEA; HAIR OF ISIS: CHARITO-BLEPHARON
   

14 History of Fruit Trees

1 Nature of Vine, its mode of fructification
2 Nature of Vine, its mode of fructification
3 nature of grape & cultivation of vine
4 91 varieties of vine
5 Remarkable facts connected with culture of vine
6 most ancient wines
7 nature of wines
8 50 kinds of generous wines
9 38 varieties of foreign wines
10 7 kinds of salted wines
11 18 varieties of sweet wines
12 at what period generous wines were 1st commonly made in Italy
13 inspection of wine ordered by king Romulus
14 wines drunk by ancient Romans
15 some remarkable facts connected with wine-lofts
16 Opimian wine
17 at what period 4 kinds of wine were 1st served at table
18 uses of wild vine
19 66 varieties of artificial wine
20 hydromeli or melicraton
21 OXYMELI
22 12 kinds of wines with miraculous properties
23 what wines it is not lawful to use in sacred rites
24 How must is usually prepared
25 pitch & resin
26 vinegar-less of wine
27 wine vessels, wine cellars
28 drunkenness
29 liquors with strength of wine made from water & corn
 
 
 

15 HISTORY OF FRUIT-TREES

1 OLIVE: HOW LONG IT EXISTED ONLY IN GREECE. When 1st brought to ITALY, SPAIN, & AFRICA
2 nature of olive & of new olive oil
3 olive oil: countries in which it is produced & its various qualities
4 15 varieties of olives
5 nature of olive oil
6 culture of olive: its mode of preservation, method of making olive oil
7 VARIETIES OF ARTIFICIAL OILS. CICUS-TREE OR CROTON, OR SILI, OR SESAMUM
8 amurca
9 various kinds of fruit-trees & their natures, 4 varieties of pine nuts
10 QUINCE. FOUR KINDS OF CYDONIA, AND FOUR VARIETIES OF STRUTHEA
11 6 varieties of peach
12 12 kinds of plums
13 peach
14 DIFFERENT KINDS OF POMES. AT WHAT PERIOD FOREIGN FRUITS WERE 1ST INTRODUCED INTO ITALY, AND WHENCE
15 fruits that have been most recently introduced
16 41 varieties of pear
17VARIOUS METHODS OF GRAFTING TREES. EXPIATIONS FOR LIGHTNING
18 mode of keeping various fruits & grapes
19 29 varieties of fig
20 historical anecdotes connected with fig
21 caprification
22 3 varieties of medlar
23 4 varieties of sorb
24 9 varieties of nut
25 18 varieties of chestnut
26 Carob
27 fleshy fruits, mulberry
28 fruit of arbutus
29 relative natures of berry fruits
30 9 varieties of cherry
31 Cornel, lentisk
32 13 different flavours of juices
33 COLOUR & SMELL OF JUICES
34 various natures of fruit
35 myrtle
36 HISTORICAL ANECDOTES CONNECTED WITH MYRTLE
37 11 varieties of myrtle
38 myrtle used at home in ovations
39 Laurel, 13 varieties
40 HISTORICAL ANECDOTES CONNECTED WITH LAUREL
     

16 HISTORY OF FOREST TREES

1 COUNTRIES THAT HAVE NO TREES
2 WONDERS CONNECTED WITH TREES IN NORTHERN REGIONS
3 ACORN OAK. CIVIC CROWN
4 ORIGIN OF PRESENTATION OF CROWNS
5 PERSONS PRESENTED WITH A CROWN OF LEAVES
6 13 VARIETIES OF ACORN
7 BEECH
8 OTHER ACORNS-WOOD FOR FUEL
9 GALL-NUT
10 OTHER PRODUCTIONS ON THESE TREES BESIDES ACORN
11 CACHRYS
12 KERMES BERRY
13 AGARIC
14 9 VARIETIES OF NUT
15 SHINGLES
16 PINE
17 PINASTER
18 PITCH-TREE: FIR
19 LARCH: TORCH-TREE
20 YEW
21 METHODS OF MAKING TAR—HOW CEDRIUM IS MADE
22 METHODS BY WHICH THICK PITCH IS PREPARED
23 HOW RESIN CALLED ZOPISSA IS PREPARED
24 TREES WOOD OF WHICH IS HIGHLY VALUED. 4 VARIETIES OF ASH
25 2 VARIETIES OF LINDEN-TREE
26 10 VARIETIES OF MAPLE
27 BERUSCUM: MOLLUSCUM; STAPHYLODENDRON
28 3 VARIETIES OF BOX-TREE
29 4 VARIETIES OF ELM
30 NATURES OF VARIOUS TREES ACCORDING TO THEIR LOCALITIES: MOUNTAIN TREES, & TREES OF PLAIN
31 TREES WHICH GROW ON A DRY SOIL: THOSE WHICH ARE FOUND IN WET LOCALITIES: THOSE WHICH ARE FOUND IN BOTH INDIFFERENTLY
32 DIVISION OF TREES INTO VARIOUS SPECIES
33 TREES WHICH DO NOT LOSE THEIR FOLIAGE. RHODODOENDRON. TREES WHICH DO NOT LOSE WHOLE OF THEIR FOLIAGE. PLACES IN WHICH THERE ARE NO TREES
34 NATURE OF LEAVES WHICH WITHER AND FALL
35 TREES WHICH HAVE LEAVES OF VARIOUS COLOURS; TREES WITH LEAVES OF VARIOUS SHAPES. THREE VARIETIES OF POPLAR
36 LEAVES WHICH TURN ROUND EVERY YEAR
37 CARE BESTOWED ON LEAVES OF PALM, & USES TO WHICH THEY ARE APPLIED
38 REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH LEAVES
39 NATURAL ORDER OF PRODUCTION OF PLANTS
40 TREES WHICH NEVER BLOSSOM. JUNIPER
41 FECUNDATION OF TREES. GERMINATION: APPEARANCE OF FRUIT
42 IN WHAT ORDER TREES BLOSSOM
43 AT WHAT PERIOD EACH TREE BEARS FRUIT. CORNEL
44 TREES WHICH BEAR WHOLE YEAR. TREES WHICH HAVE ON THEM FRUIT OF 3 YEARS
45 TREES WHICH BEAR NO FRUIT: TREES LOOKED UPON AS ILL-OMENED
46 TREES WHICH LOSE THEIR FRUIT OR FLOWERS MOST READILY
47 TREES WHICH ARE UNPRODUCTIVE IN CERTAIN PLACES
48 MODE IN WHICH TREES BEAR
49 TREES IN WHICH FRUIT APPEARS BEFORE LEAVES
50 Acanthyllis & other birds
51 WHICH TREES BECOME OLD WITH GREATEST RAPIDITY, & WHICH MOST SLOWLY
52 TREES WHICH BEAR VARIOUS PRODUCTS. CRATÆGUM
53 DIFFERENCES IN TREES IN RESPECT OF TRUNKS & BRANCHES
54 BRANCHES OF TREES
55 BARK OF TREES
56 ROOTS OF TREES
57 TREES WHICH HAVE GROWN SPONTANEOUSLY FROM GROUND
58 HOW TREES GROW SPONTANEOUSLY—DIVERSITIES IN THEIR NATURE, SAME TREES NOT GROWING EVERYWHERE
59 PLANTS THAT WILL NOT GROW IN CERTAIN PLACES
60 CYPRESS
61 EARTH OFTEN BEARS PRODUCTIONS WHICH IT HAS NEVER BORNE BEFORE
62 IVY: 20 VARIETIES
63 SMILAX
64 WATER PLANTS: RUSH: 28 VARIETIES OF REED
65 REEDS USED FOR ARROWS, & FOR PURPOSE OF WRITING
66 FLUTE REEDS: TET REEDOF ORCHOMENTFS; REEDS USED FOR FOWLING & FISHING
67 VINE-DRESSERS' REED
68 WILLOW: EIGHT VARIETIES OF IT
69 TREES IN ADDITION TO WILLOW, WHICH ARE OF USE IN MAKING WITHES
70 RUSHES: CANDLE-RUSHES: RUSHES FOR THATCHING
71 ELDER: BRAMBLE
72 JUICES OF TREES
73 VEINS & FIBRES OF TREES
74 FELLING OF TREES
75 OPINION OF CATO ON FELLING OF TIMBER
76 SIZE OF TREES: NATURE OF WOOD: SAPPINUS
77 METHODS OF OBTAINING FIRE FROM WOOD
78 TREES WHICH ARE PROOF AGAINST DECAY: TREES WHICH NEVER SPLIT
79 HISTORICAL FACTS CONNECTED WITH DURABILITY OF WOOD
80 VARIETIES OF TEREDO
81 WOODS USED IN BUILDING
82 CARPENTERS' WOODS
83 WOODS UNITED WITH GLUE
84 VENEERING
85 AGE OF TREES. TREE PLANTED BY 1ST SCIPIO AFRICANUS. TREE AT ROME 500 YEARS OLD
86 TREES AS OLD AS CITY
87 TREES IN SUBURBAN DISTRICTS OLDER THAN CITY
88 TREES PLANTED BY AGAMEMNON 1ST YEAR OF TROJAN WAR: OTHER TREES WHICH DATE FROM TIME THAT PLACE WAS CALLED ILIUM, ANTERIOR TO TROJAN WAR
89 TREES PLANTED AT ARGOS BY HERCULES: OTHERS PLANTED BY APOLLO. A TREE MORE ANCIENT THAN ATHENS ITSELF
90 TREES WHICH ARE MOST SHORT-LIVED
91 TREES THAT HAVE BEEN RENDERED FAMOUS BY REMARKABLE EVENTS
92 PLANTS THAT HAVE NO PECULIAR SPOT FOR THEIR GROWTH: OTHERS THAT GROW UPON TREES, & WILL NOT GROW IN GROUND. 9 VARIETIES OF THEM: CADYTAS, POLYPODION, PHAULIAS, HIPPOPHÆSTON
93 3 VARIETIES OF MISTLETOE. NATURE OF MISTLETOE & SIMILAR PLANTS
94 METHOD OF MAKING BIRDLIME
95 HISTORICAL FACTS CONNECTED WITH MISTLETOE

17 HISTORY OF CULTIVATED TREES

1 TREES WHICH HAVE BEEN SOLD AT ENORMOUS PRICES
2 INFLUENCE OF WEATHER UPON TREES: WHAT IS PROPER SITUATION FOR VINE
3 WHAT SOILS ARE TO BE CONSIDERED BEST
4 8 KINDS OF EARTH BOASTED OF BY GAULS & GREEKS
5 EMPLOYMENT OF ASHES
6 MANURE
7 CROPS WHICH TEND TO IMPROVE LAND: CROPS WHICH EXHAUST IT
8 PROPER MODE OF USING MANURE
9 MODES IN WHICH TREES BEAR
10 PLANTS WHICH ARE PROPAGATED BY SEED
11 TREES WHICH NEVER DEGENERATE
12 PROPAGATION BY SUCKERS
13 PROPAGATION BY SLIPS AND CUTTINGS
14 SEED-PLOTS
15 MODE OF PROPAGATING ELM
16 HOLES FOR TRANSPLANTING
17 INTERVALS TO BE LEFT BETWEEN TREES
18 NATURE OF SAD THROWN BY TREES
19 DROPPINGS OF WATER FROM LEAVES
20 TREES WHICH GROW BUT SLOWLY: THOSE WHICH GROW WITH RAPIDITY
21 TREES PROPAGATED FROM LAYERS
22 GRAFTING: FIRST DISCOVERY OF IT
23 INOCULATION OR BUDDING
24 VARIOUS KINDS OF GRAFTING
25 GRAFTING VINE
26 GRAFTING BY SUTCHEONS
27 PLANTS WHICH GROW FROM A BRANCH
28 TREES WHICH GROW FROM CUTTINGS; MODE OF PLANTING THEM
29 CULTIVATION OF OLIVE
30 TRANSPLANTING OPERATIONS AS DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT VARIOUS SEASONS OF YEAR
31 CLEANING & BARING ROOTS, & MOULDING THEM
32 WILLOW-BEDS
33 REED-BEDS
34 OTHER PLANTS THAT ARE CUT FOR POLES & STAKES
35 CULTURE OF VINE & VARIOUS SHRUBS WHICH SUPPORT IT
36 HOW GRAPES ARE PROTECTED FROM RAVAGES OF INSECTS
37 DISEASES OF TREES
38 PRODIGIES CONNECTED WITH TREES
39 TREATMENT OF DISEASES OF TREES
40 METHODS OF IRRIGATION
41 REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH IRRIGATION
42 INCISIONS MADE IN TREES
43 OTHER Rmds FOR DISEASES OF TREES
44 CAPRIFICATION, & PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH FIG
45 ERRORS THAT MAY BE COMMITTED IN PRUNING
46 PROPER MODE OF MANURING TREES
47 MEDICAMENTS FOR TREES
   

18 HISTORY OF GRAIN

1 TASTE OF ANCIENTS FOR AGRICULTURE
2 WHEN 1ST WREATHS OF CORN WERE USED AT ROME
3 JUGERUM OF LAND
4 HOW OFTEN & ON WHAT OCCASIONS CORN HAS SOLD AT REMARKABLY LOW PRICE
5 ILLUSTRIOUS MEN WHO HAVE WRITTEN UPON AGRICULTURE
6 POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN BUYING LAND
7 PROPER ARRANGEMENTS FOR A FARM-HOUSE
8 MAXIMS OF ANCIENTS ON AGRICULTURE
9 DIFFERENT KINDS OF GRAIN
10 HISTORY OF VARIOUS KINDS OF GRAIN
11 SPELT
12 WHEAT
13 BARLEY: RICE
14 POLENTA
15 PTISAN
16 TRAGUM
17 AMYLUM
18 NATURE OF BARLEY
19 ARINCA, & OTHER KINDS OF GRAIN THAT ARE GROWN IN EAST
20 WINTER WHEAT. SIMILAGO, OR FINE FLOUR
21 FRUITFULNESS OF AFRICA IN WHEAT
22 SESAME. ERYSIMUM, OR IRIO. HORMINUTM
23 MODE OF GRINDING CORN
24 MILLET
25 PANIC
26 VARIOUS KINDS OF LEAVEN
27 METHOD OF MAKING BREAD: ORIGIN OF ART
28 WHEN BAKERS WERE 1ST INTRODUCED AT ROME
29 ALTCA
30 LEGUMINOUS PLANTS: BEAN
31 LENTILS. PEASE
32 SEVERAL KINDS OF CHICK-PEASE
33 KIDNEY-BEAN
34 RAPE
35 TURNIP
36 LUPINE
37 VETCH
38 FITCH
39 SILICIA
40 SECALE OR ASIA
41 FARRAGO: CRACCA
42 OCINUM: ERVILIA
43 LUCERNE
44 DISEASES OF GRAIN: OAT
45 BEST Rmds FOR DISEASES OF GRAIN
46 CROPS THAT SHOULD BE SOWN IN DIFFERENT SOILS
47 DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF CULTIVATION EMPLOYED BY VARIOUS NATIONS
48 VARIOUS KINDS OF PLOUGHS
49 MODE OF PLOUGHING
50 METHODS OF HARROWING, STUBBING, & HOEING, EMPLOYED FOR EACH DESCRIPTION OF GRAIN. USE OF HARROW
51 EXTREME FERTILITY OF SOIL
52 METHOD OF SOWING MORE THAN ONCE IN YEAR
53 MANURING OF LAND
54 HOW TO ASCERTAIN QUALITY OF SEED
55 WHAT QUANTITY OF EACH KIND OF GRAIN IS REQUISlTE FOR SOWING A JUGEBRUM
56 PROPER TIMES FOR SOWING
57 ARRANGEMENT OF STARS ACCORDING TO TERRESTRIAL DAYS AND NIGHTS
58 RISING & SETTING OF STARS
59 EPOCHS OF SEASONS
60 PROPER TIME FOR WINTER SOWING
61 WHEN TO SOW LEGUMINOUS PLANTS & POPPY
62 WORK TO BE DONE IN COUNTRY IN EACH MONTH RESPECTIVELY
63 WORK TO BE DONE AT WINTER SOLSTICE
64 WORK TO BE DONE BETWEEN WINTER SOLSTICE & PREVALENCE OF WEST WINDS
65 WORK TO BE DONE BETWEEN PREVALENCE OF WEST WINDS & VERNAL EQUINOX
66 WORK TO BE DONE AFTER VERNAL EQUINOX
67 WORK TO BE DONE AFTER RISING OF VERGILIÆ: HAY-MAKING
68 SUMMER SOLSTICE
69 CAUSES OF STERILITY
70 Rmds AGAINST THESE NOXIOUS INFLUENCES
71 WORK TO BE DONE AFTER SUMMER SOLSTICE
72 HARVEST
73 METHODS OF STORING CORN
74 VINTAGE, & WORKS OF AUTUMN
75 REVOLUTIONS OF MOON
76 THEORY OF WINDS
77 LAYING OUT OF LANDS ACCORDING TO POINTS OF WIND
78 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM SUN
79 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM MOON
80 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM STARS
81 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM THUNDER
82 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM CLOUDS
83 WOODS UNITED WITH GLUE
84 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM MISTS
85 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM WATER
86 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM TEMPESTS THEMSELVES
87 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM AQUATIC ANIMALS, & BIRDS
88 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM QUADRUPEDS
89 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM PLANTS
90 PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM FOOD

19 Nature & Cultivation of Flax & Account of various Garden Plants

1 NATURE OF FLAX—MARVELLOUS FACTS RELATIVE THERETO
2 HOW FLAX IS SOWN: TWENTY-SEVEN PRINCIPAL VARIETIES OF IT
3 MODE OF PREPARING FLAX
4 LINEN MADE OF ASBESTOS
5 AT WHAT PERIOD LINEN WAS FIRST DYED
6 WHEN COLOURED AWNINGS 1ST EMPLOYED IN THEATRES
7 NATURE OF SPARTUM
8 MODE OF PREPARING SPARTUM
9 WHEN SPARTUM 1ST EMPLOYED
10 BULB ERIOPHORUS
11 PLANTS WHICH SPRING UP & GROW WITHOUT A ROOT—PLANTS WHICH GROW, BUT CANNOT BE REPRODUCED FROM SEED
12 MISY; ITON; AND GERANION
13 PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH TRUFFLE
14 PEZICA
15 LASERPITIUM, LASER, & MASPETUM
16 MAGYDARIS
17 MADDER
18 RADICULA
19 PLEASURES OF GARDEN
20 LAYING OUT OF GARDEN GROUND
21 PLANTS OTHER THAN GRAIN & SHRUBS
22 HISTORY OF 20 KINDS OF PLANTS WHICH GROW IN GARDENS— PROPER METHODS TO BE FOLLOWED IN SOWING THEM RESPECTIVELY
23 VEGETABLES OF A CARTILAGINOUS NATURE—CUCUMBERS. PEPONES
24 GOURDS
25 RAPE. TURNIPS
26 RADISHES
27 PARSNIPS
28 SKIRRET
29 ELECAMPANE
30 BULBS, SQUILLS, & ARUM
31 ROOTS, FLOWERS, & LEAVES OF ALL THESE PLANTS. GARDEN PLANTS WHICH LOSE THEIR LEAVES
32 VARIETIES OF ONION
33 LEEK
34 GARLIC
35 NUMBER OF DAYS REQUIRED FOR RESPECTIVE PLANTS TO MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE ABOVE GROUND
36 NATURE OF VARIOUS SEEDS
37 PLANTS OF WHICH THERE IS BUT A SINGLE KIND PLANTS OF WHICH THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS
38 NATURE & VARIETIES OF 23 GARDEN PLANTS. LETTUCE; ITS DIFFERENT VARIETIES
39 ENDIVE
40 BEET: 4 VARIETIES OF IT
41CABBAGES; SEVERAL VARIETIES
42 WILD & CULTIVATED ASPARAGUS
43 THISTLES
44 OTHER PLANTS THAT ARE SOWN IN GARDEN: OCIMUM; ROCKET; & NASTURTIUM
45 RUE
46 PARSLEY
47 MINT
48 OLUSATRUM
49 CARAWAY
50 LOVAGE
51 DITTANDER
52 GITH
53 POPPY
54 OTHER PLANTS WHICH REQUIRE TO BE SOWN AT AUTUMNAL EQUINOX
55 WILD THYME; SISYMBRIUM
56 4 KINDS OF FERULACEOUS PLANTS. HEMP
57 MALADIES OF GARDEN PLANTS
58 PROPER Rmds FOR THESE MALADIES. HOW ANTS ARE BEST DESTROYED. BEST Rmds AGAINST CATER- PILLARS & FLIES
59 WHAT PLANTS ARE BENEFITTED BY SALT WATER
60 PROPER METHOD OF WATERING GARDENS
61 JUICES & FLAVOURS OF GARDEN HERBS
62 PIPERITIS, LIBANOTIS, & SMYRNIUM
 

20 Remedies FROM GARDEN PLANTS

1 INTRODUCTION
2 WILD CUCUMBER; 26 Rmds
3 ELATERIUM; 27 Rmds
4 ANGUINE OR ERRATIC CUCUMBER: 5 Rmds
5 CULTIVATED CUCUMBER: 9 Rmds
6 PEPONES: 11 Rmds
7 GOURD: 17 Rmds. SOMPHUS: 1 Rmd
8 COLOCYNTHIS: 10 Rmds
9 RAPE; 9 Rmds
10 WILD RAPE: 1 Rmd
11 TURNIPS; THOSE KNOWN AS BUNION AND BUNIAS: 5 Rmds
12 WILD RADISH, OR ARMORACIA: 1 Rmd
13 CULTIVATED RADISH: 43 Rmds
14 PARSNIP: 5 Rmds. HIBISCUM, WILD MALLOW, OR PLISTOLOCHIA: ELEVEN Rmds
15 STAPHYLINOS, OR WILD PARSNIP: 22 Rmds
16 GINGIDION: 1 Rmd
17 SKIRRET: 11 Rmds
18 SILE, OR HARTWORT: 12 Rmds
19 ELECAMPANE: 11 Rmds
20 ONIONS: 27 Rmds
21 CUTLEEK: 32 Rmds
22 BULBED LEEK: 39 Rmds
23 GARLIC: 61Rmds
24 LETTUCE: 42 Rmds. GOAT- LETTUCE: 4 Rmds
25 CÆSAPON: 1 Rmd. ISATIS: 1 Rmd. WILD LETTUCE: 7 Rmds
26 HAWK-WEED: 17 Rmds
27 BEET: 24 Rmds
28 LIMONION, OR NEUROIDES: THREE Rmds
29 ENDIVE: 3 Rmds
30 CICHORIUM OR CHRESTON, OTHERWISE CALLED PANCRATION, OK AMBULA: 12 Rmds
31 HEDYPNOÏS: FOUR Rmds
32 SERIS, 3 VARIETIES OF IT: 7 Rmds BORROWED FROM IT
33 CABBAGE: 87 Rmds. RE- CIPES MENTIONED BY CATO
34 PINIONS OF GREEKS RELATIVE THERETO
35 CABBAGE-SPROUTS
36 WILD CABBAGE: 37 Rmds
37 LAPSANA: 1 Rmd
38 SEA-CABBAGE: 1 Rmd
39 SQUILL: 23 Rmds
40 BULBS: 30 Rmds
41 BULBINE; 1 Rmd. BULB EMETIC
42 GARDEN ASPARAGUS; WITH NEXT 24 Rmds
43 CORRUDA, LIBYCUM, OR ORMINUM
44 PARSLEY; 17 Rmds
45 APIASTRUM, OR MELISSOPHYLLUM
46 OLUSATRUM OR HIPPOSELINON: 11 Rmds. OREOSELINON; 2 Rmds. HELIOSELINON; 1 Rmd
47 PETROSELINON; 1 Rmd. BUSELINON; 1 Rmd
48 OCIMUM; 35 Rmds
49 ROCKET: 12 Rmds
50 NASTURTIUM: 42 Rmds
51 RUE: 84 Rmds
52 WILD MINT: 20 Rmds
53 MINT: 41 Rmds
54 PENNYROYAL: 25 Rmds
55 WILD PENNYROYAL: 17 Rmds
56 NEP: 9 Rmds
57 CUMMIN: 48 Rmds. WILD CUMMIN: 26 Rmds
58 AMMI: 10 Rmds
59 CAPPARIS OR CAPER: 18 Rmds
60 LIGUSTICUM, OR LOVAGE: 4 Rmds
61 CUNILA BUBULA: 5 Rmds
62 CUNILA GALLINACEA, OR ORIGANUM: 5 Rmds
63 CUNILAGO: 8 Rmds
64 SOFT CUNILA: 3 Rmds. LIBANOTIS: 3 Rmds
65 CULTIVATED CUNILA; 3 Rmds. MOUNTAIN CUNILA; 7 Rmds
66 PIPERITIS, OR SILIQUASTRUM: 5 Rmds
67 ORIGANUM, ONITIS, OR PRASION: 6 Rmds
68 TRAGORIGANUM: 9 Rmds
69 3 VARIETIES OF HERACLEOTIC ORIGANUM: 30 Rmds
70 DITTANDER: 3 Rmds
71 GITH, OR MELANTHION: 23 Rmds
72 ANISE: 61 Rmds
73 WHERE BEST ANISE IS FOUND: VARIOUS Rmds DERIVED FROM THIS PLANT
74 DILL: 9 Rmds
75 SACOPENIUM, OR SAGAPENON: 13 Rmds
76 WHITE POPPY: 3 Rmds. BLACK POPPY: 8 Rmds. REMARKS ON SLEEP. OPIUM. REMARKS IN DISFAVOUR OF POTIONS KNOWN AS "ANODYNES, FEBRIFUGES, DIGESTIVES, & CŒLIACS." IN WHAT WAY JUICES OF THESE PLANTS ARE TO BE COLLECTED
77 POPPY CALLED RHŒAS: 2 Rmds
78 WILD POPPY CALLED CERATITIS, GLAUCIUM, OR PARALIUM: 6 Rmds
79 WILD POPPY CALLED HERACLIUM, OR APHRON: 4 Rmds. DIACODION
80 POPPY CALLED TITHYMALON, OR PARALION: 3 Rmds
81 PORCILLACA OR PURSLAIN, OTHERWISE CALLED PEPLIS: 25 Rmds
82 CORIANDER: 21 Rmds
83 ORAGE: 14 Rmds
84 MALLOW CALLED MALOPE: 13 Rmds. MALLOW CALLED MALACHE: 1 Rmd. MALLOW CALLED ALTHÆA, OR PLISTOLOCHIA: 59 Rmds
85 WILD LAPATHUM OR OXALIS, OTHERWISE CALLED LAPATHUM CANTHERINUM, OR RUMEX: 1 Rmd. HYDROLAPATHUM: 2 Rmds. HIPPOLAPATHUM: 6 Rmds. OXYLAPATHUM: 4 Rmds
86 CULTIVATED LAPATHUM: 21 Rmds. BULAPATHUM: 1 Rmd
87 MUSTARD, 3 KINDS OF IT: 44 Rmds
88 ADACA: 48 Rmds
89 MARRUBIUM OR PRASION, OTHERWISE LINOSTROPHON, PHILOPAIS, OR PHILOCHARES: 29 Rmds
90 WILD THYME: 18 Rmds
91 SISYMBRIUM OR THYMBRÆUM: 23 Rmds
92 LINSEED: 30 Rmds
93 BLITE: 6 Rmds
94 MEUM, & MEUM ATHAMANTICUM: 7 Rmds
95 FENNEL: 22 Rmds
96 HIPPOMARATHRON, OR MYRSINEUM: 5 Rmds
97 HEMP: 9 Rmds
98 FENNEL-GIANT: 8 Rmds
99 THISTLE OR SCOLYMOS: 6 Rmds
100 COMPOSITION OF THERIACA

21 FLOWERS. & THOSE USED FOR CHAPLETS MORE PARTICULARLY

1 NATURE OF FLOWERS & GARLANDS
2 GARLANDS & CHAPLETS
3 WHO INVENTED ART OF MAKING GARLANDS: WHEN THEY 1ST RECEIVED NAME OF "COROLLÆ," & FOR WHAT REASON
4 WHO WAS 1ST TO GIVE CHAPLETS WITH LEAVES OF SILVER & GOLD. LEMNISCI: WHO WAS 1ST TO EMBOSS THEM
5 GREAT HONOUR IN WHICH CHAPLETS WERE HELD BY ANCIENTS
6 SEVERITY OF ANCIENTS IN REFERENCE TO CHAPLETS
7 CITIZEN DECKED WITH FLOWERS BY ROMAN PEOPLE
8 PLAITED CHAPLETS. NEEDLE-WORK CHAPLETS. NARD-LEAF CHAPLETS. SILKEN CHAPLETS
9 AUTHORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN ON FLOWERS. AN ANECDOTE RELATIVE TO QUEEN CLEOPATRA & CHAPLETS
10 ROSE: 12 VARIETIES OF IT
11 LILY: 4 VARIETIES
12 NARCISSUS: 3 VARIETIES
13 HOW SEED IS STAINED TO PRODUCE TINTED FLOWERS
14 HOW SEVERAL VARIETIES OF VIOLET ARE RESPECTIVELY PRODUCED, GROWN, & CULTIVATED. 3 DIFFERENT COLOURS OF VIOLET. 5 VARIETIES OF YELLOW VIOLET
15 CALTHA. SCOPA REGIA
16 BACCHAR. COMBRETUM. ASARUM
17 SAFFRON: IN WHAT PLACES IT GROWS BEST. WHAT FLOWERS WERE KNOWN AT TIME OF TROJAN WAR
18 NATURE OF ODOURS
19 IRIS
20 SALIUNCA
21 POLIUM, OR TEUTHRION
22 FABRICS WHICH RIVAL COLOURS OF FLOWERS
23 AMARANTH
24 CYANOS: HOLOCHRYSOS
25 PETILIUM: BELLIO
26 CHRYSOCOME, OR CHRYSITIS
27 SHRUBS, BLOSSOMS OF WHICH ARE USED FOR CHAPLETS
28 SHRUBS, LEAVES OF WHICH ARE USED FOR CHAPLETS
29 MELOTHRON, SPIRÆA, & ORIGANUM. CNEORUM OR CASSIA; 2 VARIETIES OF IT. MELISSOPHYLLUM OR MELITTÆNA. MELILOTE, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS CAMPANIAN GARLAND
30 3 VARIETIES OF TREFOIL: MYOPHONUM
31 2 VARIETIES OF THYME. PLANTS PRODUCED FROM BLOSSOMS & NOT FROM SEED
32 CONYZA
33 FLOWER OF JOVE. HEMEROCALLES. HELENIUM. PHLOX. PLANTS IN WHICH BRANCHES & ROOTS ARE ODORIFEROUS
34 ABROTONUM. ADONIUM: 2 VARIETIES OF IT. PLANTS WHICH REPRODUCE THEMSELVES. LEUCANTHEMUM
35 2 VARIETIES OF AMARACUS
36 NYCTEGRETON, CHENOMYCHE, OR NYCTALOPS
37 WHERE MELILOTE IS FOUND
38 SUCCESSION IN WHICH FLOWERS BLOSSOM: SPRING FLOWERS. VIOLET. CHAPLET ANEMONE. ŒNANTHE. MELANION. HELICHRYSOS. GLADIOLUS. HYACINTH
39 SUMMER FLOWERS— LYCHNIS: TIPHYON. 2 VARIETIES OF POTHOS. 2 VARIETIES OF ORSI- NUM. VINCAPERIVINCA OR CHAMÆDAPHNE— PLANT WHICH IS AN EVER-GREEN
40 DURATION OF LIFE IN VARIOUS KINDS OF FLOWERS
41 PLANTS WHICH SHOULD BE SOWN AMONG FLOWERS FOR BEES. CERINTHA
42 MALADIES OF BEES, & Rmds FOR THEM
43 FOOD OF BEES
44 POISONED HONEY, & Rmds TO BE EMPLOYED BY THOSE WHO HAVE EATEN OF IT
45 MADDENING HONEY
46 HONEY THAT FLIES WILL NOT TOUCH
47 BEEHIVES, & ATTENTION WHICH SHOULD BE PAID TO THEM
48 THAT BEES ARE SENSIBLE OF HUNGER
49 METHOD OF PREPARING WAX. BEST KINDS OF WAX. PUNIC WAX
50 PLANTS WHICH GROW SPONTANEOUSLY: USE MADE OF THEM BY VARIOUS NATIONS, THEIR NATURE, & REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH THEM. STRAW- BERRY, TAMNUS, & BUTCHER'S BROOM. BATIS, 2 VARIETIES OF IT. MEADOW PARSNIP. HOP
51 COLOCASIA
52 CICHORIUM. ANTHALIUM OR ANTICELLIUM, OR ANTHYLLUM. ŒTUM. ARACHIDNA. ARACOS. CANDRYALA. HYPOCHŒRIS. CAUCALIS. ANTHRISCUM. SCANDIX. TRAGOPOGON. PAR- THENIUM OR LEUCANTHES, AMARACUS, PERDICIUM, OR MURALIS. TRYCHNUM OR STRYCHNUM, HALICACABUM, CALLIAS, DOR- YCNION, MANICON, PERITTON, NEURAS, MORIO, OR MOLY. CORCHORUS. APHACE. ACYNOPOS. EPIPETRON. PLANTS WHICH NEVER FLOWER. PLANTS WHICH ARE ALWAYS IN FLOWER
53 4 VARIETIES OF CNECOS
54 PLANTS OF A PRICKLY NATURE: ERYNGE, GLYCYRRIZA, TRIBULUS, ANONIS, PHEOS OR STŒBE, & HIPPOPHAES
55 4 VARIETIES OF NETTLE. LAMIUM & SCORPIO
56 CARDUUS, ACORNA, PHONOS, LEUCACANTHOS, CHALCEOS, CNECOS, POLYACANTHOS, ONOPYXOS, HELXINE, SCOLYMOS, CHAMÆLEON, TETRALIX, & ACANTHICE MASTICHE
57 CACTOS; PIERNIX, PAPPUS, & ASCALIAS
58 TRIBULUS: ANONIS
59 PLANTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR STEMS: CORONOPUS, ANCHUSA, ANTHEMIS, PHYLLANTHES, CREPIS, & LOTUS
60 PLANTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR LEAVES. PLANTS WHICH NEVER LOSE THEIR LEAVES: PLANTS WHICH BLOSSOM A LITTLE AT A TIME: HELIOTROPIUM & ADIANTUM, Rmds DERIVED FROM WHICH WILL BE MENTIONED IN FOLLOWING BOOK
61 VARIOUS KINDS OF EARED PLANTS: STAN- YOPS; ALOPECUROS; STELEPHUROS, ORTYX, OR PLAN- TAGO; THRYALLIS
62 PERDICIUM. ORNITHOGALE
63 PLANTS WHICH ONLY MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE AT END OF A YEAR. PLANTS WHICH BEGIN TO BLOSSOM AT TOP. PLANTS WHICH BEGIN TO BLOSSOM AT LOWER PART
64 LAPPA, A PLANT WHICH PRODUCES WITHIN ITSELF. OPUNTIA, WHICH THROWS OUT A ROOT FROM LEAF
65 IASIONE. CHONDRYLLA. PICRIS, WHICH REMAINS IN FLOWER WHOLE YEAR THROUGH
66 PLANTS IN WHICH BLOSSOM MAKES ITS APPEARANCE BEFORE STEM. PLANTS IN WHICH STEM APPEARS BEFORE BLOSSOM. PLANTS WHICH BLOSSOM THREE TIMES IN YEAR
67 CYPIROS. THESION
68 ASPHODEL, OR ROYAL SPEAR. ANTHERICUS OR ALBUCUS
69 6 VARIETIES OF RUSH: 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM CYPIROS
70 CYPEROS: 14 Rmds. CYPERIS. CYPIRA
71 HOLOSCHŒNUS
72 10 Rmds DERIVED FROM SWEET-SCENTED RUSH, OR TEUCHITES
73 Rmds DERIVED FROM FLOWERS BEFORE MENTIONED: 32 Rmds DERIVED FROM ROSE
74 21 Rmds DERIVED FROM LILY
75 16 Rmds DERIVED FROM NARCISSUS
76 17 Rmds DERIVED FROM VIOLET
77 Rmds DERIVED FROM BACCHAR. 1 Rmd DERIVED FROM COMBRETUM
78 8 Rmds DERIVED FROM ASARUM
79 8 Rmds DERIVED FROM GALLIC NARD
80 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM PLANT CALLED "PHU."
81 20 Rmds DERIVED FROM SAFFRON
82 SYRIAN CROCOMAGNA: 2 Rmds
83 41 Rmds DERIVED FROM IRIS: 2 Rmds DERIVED FROM SALIUNCA
84 18 Rmds DERIVED FROM POLIUM
85 3 Rmds DERIVED FROM HOLOCHRYSOS.
6 Rmds DERIVED FROM CHRYSOCOME
86 21 Rmds DERIVED FROM MELISSOPHYLLUM
87 13 Rmds DERIVED FROM MELILOTE
88 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM TREFOIL
89 28 Rmds DERIVED FROM THYME
90 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM HEMEROCALLES
91 5 Rmds DERIVED FROM HELENIUM
92 22 Rmds DERIVED FROM ABROTONUM
93 1 Rmd DERIVED FROM LEUCANTHEMUM. 9 Rmds DERIVED FROM AMARACUS
94 10 Rmds DERIVED FROM ANEMONE OR PHRENION
95 6 Rmds DERIVED FROM ŒNANTHE
96 11 Rmds DERIVED FROM HELICHRYSOS
97 8 Rmds DERIVED FROM HYACINTH
98 7 Rmds DERIVED FROM LYCHNIS
99 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM VINCAPERVINCA
100 3 Rmds DERIVED FROM BUTCHER'S BROOM
101 2 Rmds DERIVED FROM BATIS
102 2 Rmds DERIVED FROM COLOCASIA
103 6 Rmds DERIVED FROM ANTHYLLIUM OR ANTHYLLUM
104 8 Rmds DERIVED FROM PARTHENIUM, LEUCANTHES, OR AMARACUS
105 8 Rmds DERIVED FROM STRYCHNUM OR STRYCHNUM, HALICACABUM, CALLIAS, DORCYNION, MANICON, NEURAS, MORIO, OR MOLY
106 6 MEDICINES DERIVED FROM CORCHORUS
107 3 Rmds DERIVED FROM CNECOS
108 1 Rmd DERIVED FROM PESOLUTA
109 EXPLANATION OF GREEK TERMS RELATIVE TO WEIGHTS & MEASURES
       

22 PROPERTIES OF PLANTS & FRUITS

1 PROPERTIES OF PLANTS
2 PLANTS USED BY NATIONS FOR ADORNMENT OF PERSON
3 EMPLOYMENT OF PLANTS FOR DYEING. EXPLANATION OF TERMS SAGMEN, VERBENA, & CLARIGATIO
4 GRASS GROWN: HOW RARELY IT HAS BEEN AWARDED
5 ONLY PERSONS THAT HAVE BEEN PRESENTED WITH THIS CROWN
6 ONLY CENTURION THAT HAS BEEN THUS HONOURED
7 Rmds DERIVED FROM OTHER CHAPLET PLANTS
8 ERYNGE OR ERYNGIUM
9 ERYNGIUM, CALLED CENTUM CAPITA: 30 Rmds
10 ACANOS; 1 Rmd
11 GLYCYRRHIZA OR ADIPSOS: 15 Rmds
12 2 VARIETIES OF TRIBULUS; 12 Rmds
13 STŒBE OR PHEOS
14 2 VARIETIES OF HIPPOPHAES: 2 Rmds
15 NETTLE: 61 Rmds
16 LAMIUM: 7 Rmds
17 SCORPIO, 2 KINDS OF IT: 1 Rmd
18 LEUCACANTHA, PHYLLOS, ISCHIAS, OR POLYGONATOS: 4 Rmds
19 HELXINE: 12 Rmds
20 PERDICIUM, PARTHENIUM, URCEOLARIS, OR ASTERCUM: 11 Rmds
21 CHASMÆLEON, IXIAS, ULOPRONON, OR CYNOZOLON; 2 VARIEIES OF IT: 12 Rmds
22 CORONOPUS
23 ANCHUSA: 14 Rmds
24 PSEUDOANCHUSA, ECHIS, OR DORIS: 3 Rmds
25 ONOCHILON, ARCHEBION, ONOCHELIS, RHEXIA, OR ENCHRYSA: 30 Rmds
26 ANTHEMIS, LEUCANTHEMIS, LEUCANTHEMUM, CHAMÆXMELUM, OR MELANTHIUM; 3 VARIETIES OF IT: 11 Rmds
27 LOTUS PLANT: 4 Rmds
28 LOTOMETRA: 2 Rmds
29 HELIOTROPIUM, HELIOSCOPIUM, OR VERRUCARIA: 12 Rmds. HELIOTROPIUM, TRICOCCUM, OR SCORPIURON: 14 Rmds
30 ADIANTUM, CALLITRICHOS, TRICHOMANES, POLYTRICHOS, OR SAXIFRAGUM; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 28 Rmds
31 PICRIS; 1 Rmd. THESION; 1 Rmd
32 ASPHODEL; 51 Rmds
33 HALIMON: 14 Rmds
34 ACANTHUS, PÆDEROS, OR MELAMPHYLLOS: 5 Rmds
35 BUPLEURON: 5 Rmds
36 BUPRESTIS: 1 Rmd
37 ELAPHOBOSCON: 9 Rmds
38 SCANDIX: 9 Rmds. ANTHRISCUM: 2 Rmds
39 IASIONE; 4 Rmds
40 CAUCALIS: 12 Rmds
41 SIUM: 11 Rmds
42 SILLYBUM
43 SCOLYMOS OR LIMONIA: 5 Rmds
44 SONCHOS; 2 VARIETIES: 15 Rmds
45 CONDRION OR CHONDRYLLA: SIX Rmds
46 MUSHROOMS: PECULIARITIES OF THEIR GROWTH
47 FUNGI; SIGNS BY WHICH VENOMOUS KINDS MAY BE RECOGNIZED: 9 Rmds
48 SULPHUR: 7 Rmds
49 LASER: 39 Rmds
50 PROPOLIS: 5 Rmds
51 VARIOUS INFLUENCES OF DIFFERENT ALIMENTS UPON DISPOSITION
52 HYDROMEL: 18 Rmds
53 HONIED WINE: 6 Rmds
54 MELITITES: 3 Rmds
55 WAX: 8 Rmds
56 REMARKS IN DISPARAGEMENT OF MEDICINAL COMPOSITIONS
57 Rmds DERIVED FROM GRAIN. SILIGO: 1 Rmd. WHEAT: 1 Rmd. CHAFF: 2 Rmds. SPELT: 1 Rmd. BRAN: 1 Rmd. OLYRA, OR ARINCA: 2 Rmds
58 VARIOUS KINDS OF MEAL: 28 Rmds
59 POLENTA: 8 Rmds
60 FLOUR: 5 Rmds. PULS: 1 Rmd. MEAL USED FOR PASTING PAPYRUS: 1 Rmd
61 ALICA: 6 Rmds
62 MILLET: 6 Rmds
63 PANIC: 4 Rmds
64 SESAME: 7 Rmds. SESAMOIDES: 3 Rmds. ANTICYRICUM: 3 Rmds
65 BARLEY: 9 Rmds. MOUSE-BARLEY, BY GREEKS CALLED PHŒNICE: 1 Rmd
66 PTISAN: 4 Rmds
67 AMYLUM: 8 Rmds. OATS: 1 Rmd
68 BREAD: 21 Rmds
69 BEANS: 16 Rmds
70 LENTILS: 17 Rmds
71 ELELISPHACOS, SPHACOS, OR SALVIA: 13 Rmds
72 CHICKPEA & CHICHELING VETCH: 23 Rmds
73 FITCH: 20 Rmds
74 LUPINES: 35 Rmds
75 IRIO, OR ERYSIMUM, BY GAULS CALLED VELA: 15 Rmds
76 HORMINUM: 6 Rmds
77 DARNEL: 5 Rmds
78 PLANT MILIARIA: 1 Rmd
79 BROMOS: 1 Rmd
80 OROBANCHE, OR CYNOMORION: 1 Rmd
81 Rmds FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY INSECTS WHICH BREED AMONG LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
82 USE MADE OF YEAST OF ZYTHUM

23 Remedies FROM CULTIVATED TREES

1 INTRODUCTION
2 VINE
3 LEAVES & SHOOTS OF VINE: 7 Rmds
4 OMPHACIUM EXTRACTED FROM VINE: 14 Rmds
5 ŒNANTHE: 21 Rmds
6 GRAPES, FRESH GATHERED
7 VARIOUS KINDS OF PRESERVED GRAPES: 11 Rmds
8 CUTTINGS OF VINE: 1 Rmd
9 GRAPE-STONES: 6 Rmds
10 GRAPE-HUSKS: 8 Rmds
11 GRAPES OF THERIACA: 4 Rmds
12 RAISINS, OR ASTAPHIS: 14 Rmds
13 ASTAPHISAGRIA, OTHERWISE CALLED STAPHIS OR TAMINIA: 12 Rmds
14 LABRUSCA, OR WILD VINE: 12 Rmds
15 SALICASTRUM: 12 Rmds
16 WHITE VINE, OTHERWISE CALLED AMPELOLEUCE, STAPHYLE, MELOTHRON, PSILOTRUM, ARCHEZOSTIS, CEDROSTIS, OR MADON: 31 Rmds
17 BLACK VINE, OTHERWISE CALLED BRYONA, CHIRONIA, GYNÆCANTHE, OR APRONIA: 35 Rmds
18 MUST: 15 Rmds
19 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO WINE
20 SURRENTINE WINES: 3 Rmds. ALBAN WINES: 2 Rmds. FALERNIAN WINES: 6 Rmds
21 SETINE WINES; 1 OBSERVATION UPON THEM. STATAN WINES; 1 OBSERVATION UPON THEM. SIGNIAN WINES; 1 Rmd
22 OTHER WINES: 64 Rmds
23 61 OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE TO WINE
24 IN WHAT MALADIES WINE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED; HOW IT SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED, & AT WHAT TIMES
25 91 OBSERVATIONS WITH REFERENCE TO WINE
26 ARTIFICIAL WINES
27 VINEGAR: 28 Rmds
28 SQUILL VINEGAR: 17 Rmds
29 OXYMELI: 7 Rmds
30 SAPA: 7 Rmds
31 LEES OF WINE: 12 Rmds
32 LEES OF VINEGAR: 17 Rmds
33 LEES OF SAPA: 4 Rmds
34 LEAVES OF OLIVE: 23 Rmds
35 BLOSSOM OF OLIVE: 4 Rmds
36 WHITE OLIVES: 4 Rmds. BLACK OLIVES: 3 Rmds
37 AMURCA OF OLIVES: 21 Rmds
38 LEAVES OF WILD OLIVE: 16 Rmds
39 OMPHACIUM: 3 Rmds
40 OIL OF ŒNANTHE: 28 Rmds
41 CASTOR OIL: 16 Rmds
42 OIL OF ALMONDS: 16 Rmds
43 OIL OF LAUREL: 9 Rmds
44 OIL OF MYRTLE: 20 Rmds
45 OIL OF CHAMÆMYRSINE OR OXYMYRSINE; OIL OF CYPRESS; OIL OF CITRUS; OIL OF WALNUTS; OIL OF CNIDIUM: OIL OF MASTICH; OIL OF BALANUS; VARIOUS Rmds
46 CYPRUS, & OIL EXTRACTED FROM IT; 16 Rmds. GLEUCINUM: 1 Rmd
47 OIL OF BALSAMUM: FIFTEEN Rmds
48 MALOBATHRUM: 5 Rmds
49 OIL OF HENBANE: 2 Rmds. OIL OF LUPINES: 1 Rmd. OIL OF NARCISSUS: 1 Rmd. OIL OF RADISHES: 5 Rmds. OIL OF SESAME: 3 Rmds. OIL OF LILIES: 3 Rmds. OIL OF SELGA: 1 Rmd. OIL OF IGUVIUM: 1 Rmd
50 ELÆOMELI: 2 Rmds. OIL OF PITCH: 2 Rmds
51 PALM: 9 Rmds
52 PALM WHICH PRODUCES MYROBALANUM: 3 Rmds
53 PALM CALLED ELATE: SIXTEEN Rmds
54 Rmds DERIVED FROM BLOSSOMS, LEAVES, FRUIT, BRANCHES, BARK, JUICES, WOOD, ROOTS, & ASHES OF VARIOUS KINDS OF TREES. 6 OBSERVATIONS UPON APPLES. 22 OBSERVATIONS UPON QUINCES. 1 OBSERVATION UPON STRUTHEA
55 SWEET APPLES CALLED MELIMELA: 6 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. SOUR APPLES: 4 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
56 CITRONS: 5 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
57 PUNIC APPLES OR POMEGRANATES: 26 Rmds
58 COMPOSITION CALLED STOMATICE: 14 Rmds
59 CYTINUS: 8 Rmds
60 BALAUSTIUM: 12 Rmds
61 WILD POMEGRANATE
62 PEARS: 12 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
63 FIGS: 111 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
64 WILD FIG: 42 OBSERVATIONS UPON IT
65 HERB ERINEON: 3 Rmds
66 PLUMS: 4 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
67 PEACHES: 2 Rmds
68 WILD PLUMS: 2 Rmds
69 LICHEN ON PLUM-TREES: 2 Rmds
70 MULBERRIES: 39 Rmds
71 MEDICAMENT CALLED STOMATICE, ARTERIACE, OR PANCHRESTOS. 4 Rmds
72 CHERRIES: 5 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM
73 MEDLARS: 2 Rmds. SORBS: 2 Rmds
74 PINE-NUTS: 13 Rmds
75 ALMONDS: 29 Rmds
76 GREEK NUTS: 1 Rmd
77 WALNUTS: 24 Rmds. MITHRIDATIC ANTIDOTE
78 8HAZEL-NUTS:
3 OBSERVATIONS PISTACHIO-NUTS: 8 OBSERVATIONS CHESNUTS: 5 OBSERVATIONS
79 CAROBS: 5 OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CORNEL; 1 Rmd. FRUIT OF ARBUTUS
80 LAUREL; 69 OBSERVATIONS UPON IT
81 MYRTLE; 60 OBSERVATIONS UPON IT
82 MYRTIDANUM: 13 Rmds
83 WILD MYRTLE, OTHERWISE CALLED OXYMYRSINE, OR CHAMÆMYRSINE, & RUSCUS: 6 Rmds

24 Remedies DERIVED FROM FOREST TREES

1 ANTIPATHIES & SYMPATHIES WHICH EXIST AMONG TREES & PLANTS
2 LOTUS OF ITALY: 6 Rmds
3 ACORNS: 13 REMEDTES
4 TIE KERMES-BERRY OF HOLM-OAK: 3 Rmds
5 ALL-NUTS: 23 Rmds
6 MISTLETOE: 11 Rmds
7 EXCRESCENCES WHICH GROW ON ROBUR: 1 Rmd. CHRRUS: 8 Rmds
8 CORK TREE: 2 Rmds
9 BEECUH: 4 Rmds
10 CYPRESS: 23 Rmds
11 DRONES
12 CEDRIDES: 10 Rmds
13 GALBANUM: 23 Rmds
14 KINDS OF HONEY PECULIAR TO VARIOUS PLACES
15 STORAX: 10 Rmds
16 SPONDYLIUM: 17 Rmds
17 MODE OF GOVERNMENT OF BEES
18 TEREBINTH: 6 Rmds
19 PITCH-TREE & LARCH: 8 Rmds
20 DISEASES OF BEES
21 PITYUSA: 6 Rmds
22 RESINS: 22 Rmds
23 METHODS OF RENEWING SWARM
24 PISSELÆON & PALIMPISSA: 16 Rmds
25 PISSASPHALTOS: 2 Rmds
26 LARVÆ OF SILK-WORM-WHO 1ST INVENTED SILK CLOTHS
27 TORCH-TREE: 1 Rmd
28 LENTISK: 22 Rmds
29 GENERATION OF SPIDERS
30 ASH: 5 Rmds
31 MAPLE: 1 Rmd
32 GRASSHOPPER: THAT IT HAS NEITHER MOUTH NOR OUTLET FOR FOOD
33 ELM: 16 Rmds
34 LINDEN-TREE: 5 Rmds
35 LOCUSTS
36 JUNIPER: 20 Rmds
37 WILLOW: 14 Rmds. WILLOW OF AMLERIA: 1 Rmd
38 ANIMALS WHICH BREED IN WOOD
39 ERICA; 1 Rmd
40 BROOM; 5 Rmds
41 MOTHS, CANTHARIDES, GNATS–AN INSECT THAT BREEDS IN SNOW
42 BBYA: 29 Rmds
43 BLOOD-RED SHRUB: 1 Rmd
44 NATURE & CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL ANIMALS CONSIDERED LIMB BY LIMB. THOSE WHICH HAVE TUFTS & CRESTS
45 PRIVATE: 8 Rmds
46 ALDER: 1 KEMEDY
47 HAIR
48 CISTHOS: 5 Rmds
49CISSOS ERYTIRANOS: 2 Rmds. CHAMÆCISSOS:
2 REMIEDIES. SMILAX: 3 Rmds. CLEMATIS: 18 Rmds
50 EARS. ANIMALS WHICH HEAR WITHOUT EARS OR APERTURES
51 PAPYRUS & PAPER MADE FROM IT: 3 Rmds
52 EBONY: 5 Rmds
53 DIVERSITY OF COLOUR OF EYES
54 RHUS OR SUMACH TREE; 2 VARIETIES: 8 Rmds. STOMATICE
55 RHUS ERYTHROS: 9 Rmds
56 HAIR OF EYE-LIDS: WHAT ANIMALS ARE WITHOUT THEM. ANIMALS WHICH CAN SEE ON 1 SIDE ONLY
57 ALYSSON: 2 Rmds
58 RADICULT OR STRUTHION: 13 Rmds. APOCYNUMI: 2 OBSERVATIONS UPON IT
59 NOSTRILS
60 SEED CALLED CACHRYS
61 HERB SAVIN: 7 Rmds
62 TEETH OF SERPENTS; THEIR POISON. A BIRD WHICH HAS TEETH
63 SAMOLUS: 2 Rmds
64 GUM: 11 Rmds
65 TONGUE; ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO TONGUE. NOISE MADE BY FROGS. PALATE
66 WHITE THORN: 2 Rmds. ACANTHION; 1 Rmd
67 GUM ACACIA: 18 Rmds
68 THROAT; GULLET; STOMACH
69 ERYSISCEPTRUM, ADIPSATHEON, OR DIAXYLON: 8 Rmds
70 THORN CALLED APPENDIX: 2 Rmds. PYRACANTHA: 1 Rmd
71 WHEN CUSTOM WAS 1ST ADOPTED OF EXAMINING HEART IN INSPECTION OF ENTRAILS
72 AGRIFOLIA. AQUIFOLIA: 1 Rmd. YEW: 1 PROPERTY BELONGING TO IT
73 BRAMBLE: 51 Rmds
74 GALL; WHERE SITUATE, & IN WHAT ANIMALS IT IS DOUBLE. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO GALL, & OTHERS IN WHICH IT IS NOT SITUATE IN LIVER
75 IDÆAN BRAMBLE
76 RHAMNOS; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 5 Rmds
77 LYCIIUM: 18 Rmds
78 SARCOCOLLA: 2 Rmds
79 SMALL GUTS, FRONT INTESTINES, ANUS, COLON. CAUSES OF INSATIATE VORACITY OF CERTAIN ANIMALS
80 TRIXAGO, CHAMÆDRYS, CHAMÆDROPS, OR TECRIA: 16 Rmds
81 CHAMÆDAPHNE: 5 Rmds
82 BREAST: RIBS
83 CHAMÆSYCE: 8 Rmds
84 CHAMÆCISSOS: 1 Rmd
85 ANIMALS WHICH HAVE SUET: ANIMALS WHICH DO NOT GROW FAT
86 CHAMÆPEUCE: 5 Rmds. CHAMCYPARISSOS: 2 Rmds. AMPELOPRASON; 6 RE- MEDIES. STACHYS: 1 Rmd
87 CLINOPODION, CLEONICION, ZOPYRON, OR OCIMOÏDES: 3 Rmds
88 NERVE: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NONE
89 CLEMATIS ECHITES, OR LAIINE
90 EGYPTIAN CLEMATIS, DAPHNODES, OR POLYGONOÏDES: 2 Rmds
91 ANIMALS WHICH ARE WITHOUT BLOOD AT CERTAIN PERIODS OF YEAR
92 AON: 13 Rmds
93 DRACUNCLUS; 2 Rmds
94 HAIR & COVERING OF SKIN
95 MILLEFOIJUM OR MYRIOPHYLLON; 7 Rmds
96 PSEUDOBUNION: 4 Rmds
97 VARIOUS KINDS OF CHEESE
98 ONOBRYCHIS: 3 Rmds
99 CORACESTA & CALLICIA
100 RESEMBLANCE OF APE TO MAN
101 APROXIS: 6 Rmds
102 AGLAOPHOTIS OR MARMARITIS. ACHLEMENIS OR HIPPOPHOBAS. THEOBROTION OR SEMNION. ADAMANTIS. ARIANIS. THŒRIONARCA. ÆTHIOPIS OR MEROIS. OPHIUSA. THALASSEGLE OR POTAMAUGIS. THEANGELIS. GELOTOPHYLLIS. HESTIATORIS OR PROTOMEDIA. CASIGNETES OR DIONYSONYMPHAS. HELIANTHES OR HELIOCALLIS. HERMESIAS. ÆSCHYNOMENE. CROCIS. ŒNOTHERIS. ANACAMPISEROS
103 PARTS OF HUMAN BODY TO WHICH CERTAIN RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE ATTACHED
104 WOOL PLANT: 1 Rmd. LACTORIS: 1 Rmd. MILlTARIS: 1 Rmd
105 STRATIOTES: 5 Rmds
106 HOOFS
107 PLANT GROWING ON BANKS OF A RIVER: 1 Rmd
108 HERB CALLED IJNGUA: 1 Rmd
109 SEXUAL PARTS. HERMAPHRODITES
110 PLANTS GROWING UPONDUNGHILLS: 1 Rmd
111 PLANTS THAT HAVE BEEN MOISTENED WITH URINE OF A DOG: 1 Rmd
112 DIFFERENT VOICES OF ANIMALS.
113 PLANT CALLED IMPIA: 2 Rmds.
114 PLANT CALLED VENUS' COMB: 1 Rmd.
115 RESPIRATION & NUTRIMENT.
116 PHILANTHROPOS: 1 Rmd. LAPPA CANARIA: 2 Rmds
117 TORDYLON OR SYREON: 3 Rmds
118 FROM WHAT CAUSES CORPULENCE ARISES; HOW IT MAY BE REDUCED
119 DACTYLOS; 5 Rmds
120 FENUGREEK OR SILICIA: 31 Rmds
       

25 HISTORY OF WILD PLANT

1 WHEN WILD PLANTS WERE 1ST BROUGHT INTO USE
2 LATIN AUTHORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN UPON THESE PLANTS
3 AT WHAT PERIOD ROMANS ACQUIRED SOME KNOW- LEDGE OF THIS SUBJECT
4 GREEK AUTHORS WHO HAVE DELINEATED PLANTS IN COLOURS
5 1ST GREEK AUTHORS WHO WROTE UPON PLANTS
6 WHY A FEW OF PLANTS ONLY HAVE BEEN USED MEDICINALLY. PLANTS, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF WHICH HAVE BEEN MIRACULOUSLY DISCOVERED. CYNORRHODOS: 2 Rmds. PLANT CALLED DRACUNCULUS: 1 Rmd. BRITANNICA: 5 Rmds
7 WHAT DISEASES ARE ATTENDED WITH GREATEST PAIN. NAMES OF PERSONS WHO HAVE DISCOVERED FAMOUS PLANTS
8 MOLY: 3 Rmds
9 DODECATHEOS: 1 Rmd
10 PÆONIA, PENTOROBUS, OR GLYCYSIDE: 1 Rmd
11 PANACES ASCLEPION: 2 Rmds
12 PANACES HERACLEON: 3 Rmds
13 PANACES CHIRONION: 4 Rmds
14 PANACES CENTAURION OR PHARNACION: 3 Rmds
15 HERACLEON SIDERION: 4 Rmds
16 AMPELOS CHIRONIA: 1 Rmd
17 HYOSCYAMOS, KNOWN ALSO AS APOLLINARIS OR ALTERCUM; 5 VARIETIES OF IT: 3 Rmds
18 LINOZOSTIS, PARTHENION, HERMUPOA, OR MERCURIALIS; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 22 Rmds
19 ACIIILLEOS, SIDERITIS, PANACES HERACLEON, MILLEFOLIUM, OR SCOPÆ REGLÆ; 6 VARIETIES OF IT: 3 Rmds
20 TEUCRION, HEMIONION, OR SPLENION: 2 Rmds
21 MELAMIPODIUM, HELLEBORE, OR VERATRUM: 3 VARIETES OF IT. WAY IN WHICH IT IS GATHERED, & HOW THES QUALITY OF IT IS TESTED
22 24 Rmds DERIVED FROM BLACK HELLEBORE. HOW IT SHOULD BE TAKEN
23 23 Rmds DERIVED FROM WHITE HELLEBORE
24 88 OBSERVATIONS UPON 2 KINDS OF HELLEBORE
25 TO WHAT PERSONS HELLEBORE SHOULD NEVER BE ADMINISTERED
26 MITHRIDATIA
27 SCORDOTIS OR SCORDION: 4 Rmds
28 POLEMONIA, PHILETÆRIA, OR CHILIODYNAMUS: 6 Rmds
29 EUPATORIA: 1 Rmd
30 CENTAURION OR CHIRONION: 20 Rmds
31 CENTAURION LEPTON, OR LIBATION, KNOWN ALSO AS FELL TERRÆ: 22 Rmds
32 CENTAURIS TRIORCHIS: 2 Rmds
33 CLYMENUS: 2 Rmds
34 GENTIAN: 13 Rmds
35 LYSIMACHIA: 8 Rmds
36 ARTEMISIA, PARTHENIS, BOTRYS, OR AMBROSIA: 5 Rmds
37 NYMPHÆA, HERACLEON, RHOPALON, OR MADON; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 4 Rmds
38 2 VARIETIES OF EUPHORBIA: 4 Rmds. CHAMELÆA
39 2 VARIETIES OF PLANTAGO: 46 Rmds
40 BUGLOSSOS: 3 Rmds
41 CYNOGLOSSOS: 3 Rmds
42 BUPHTALMOS OR CACHLA: 1 Rmd
43 PLANTS WHICH HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED BY CERTAIN NATIONS. SCYTHICE: 1 Rmd
44 HIPPACE: 3 Rmds
45 ISCHÆMON: 2 Rmds
46 CESTROS, PSYCHOTROPEION, VETTONICA, OR SERRATULA: 48 Rmds
47 CANTABRICA: 2 Rmds
48 DOG-PLANT: 1 Rmd
49 ELAPHOBOSCON
50 PLANTS DISCOVERED BY CERTAIN ANIMALS. CHELIDONIA: 6 Rmds
51 DOG-PLANT: 1 Rmd
52 ELAPHOBOSCON
53 DICTAMNON: 8 Rmds. PSEUDODICTAMNON OR CHONDRIS. IN WHAT PLACES MOST POWERFUL PLANTS ARE FOUND. HOW THAT MILK IS DRUNK IN ARCADIA FOR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF PLANTS UPON WHICH CATTLE FEED
54 ARISTOLOCHIA, CLEMATITIS, CRETICA, PLISTOTOCHIA, LOCHIA POLYRRHIZOS, OR APPLE OF EARTH: 22 Rmds
55 EMPLOYMENT OF THESE PLANTS FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY SERPENTS
56 ARIGEMONIA: 4 Rmds
57 AGARIC: 33 Rmds
58 ECHIOS; 3 VARIETIES OF IT: 2 Rmds
59 HIERABOTANE, PERISTEREON, OR VERBENACA; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 10 Rmds
60 BLATTARIA: 1 Rmd
61 LEMONIUM : 1 Rmd
62 QUINQUEFOLIUM, KNOWN ALSO AS PENTAPETES, PENTAPHYLLON, OR CHAMÆZELON: 33 Rmds
63 SPARGANION: 1 Rmd
64 4 VARIETIES OF DAUCUS: 18 Rmds
65 THERIONARCA: 2 Rmds
66 PERSOLATA OR ARCION; 8 Rmds
67 CYCLAMINOS OR TUBER TERRÆ: 12 Rmds
68 CYCLAMINOS CISSANTHEMOS: 4 Rmds
69 CYCLAMINOS CHAMÆCISSOS: 3 Rmds
70 PEUCEDANUM: 28 Rmds
71 EBULUM: 6 Rmds
72 POLEMONIA: 1 Rmd
73 PHLOMOS OR VERBASCUM: 15 Rmds
74 PHLOMIS: 1 Rmd. LYCHNITIS OR THRYALLIS
75 THELYPHONON OR SCORPIO: 1 Rmd
76 PHLYNION, NEURAS, OR POTERION; 1 Rmd
77 ALISMA, DAMASONION, OR LYRON: 17 Rmds
78 PERISTEREOS: 6 Rmds
79 Rmds AGAINST CERTAIN POISONS
80 ANTIRREHINUM, ANARRHlNON, OR LYCHNIS AGRIA: 3 REMDIES
81 EUCLEA: 1 Rmd
82 PERICARPUM; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 2 Rmds
83 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF HEAD. NYMPHÆA HERACLIA: 2 Rmds
84 LINGULACA: 1 Rmd
85 CACALIA OR LEONTICE: 3 Rmds
86 CALLITRICHOS: 1 Rmd
87 HYSSOP: 10 Rmds
88 LONCHITIS : 4 Rmds
89 XIPHION OR PHASGANION: 4 Rmds
90 PSYLLION, CYNOÏDES, CRYSTALLION, SICELICON, OR CYNOMYIA; 16 Rmds. TIRYSELINUM: 1 Rmd
91 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF EYES
92 ANAGALLIS, OR CORCHORON; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 6 Rmds
93 ÆGILOPS: 2 Rmds
94 MANDRAGORA, CIRCÆON, MORION, OR HIPPOPHLOMOS; 2 VARIETIES OF IT: 24 Rmds
95 HEMLOCK: 13 Rmds
96 CRETHMOS AGRIOS : 1 Rmd
97 MOLYBDÆNA: 1 Rmd
98 1ST KIND OF CAPNOS, KNOWN ALSO AS CHICKEN'S FOOT: 1 Rmd
99 ARBORESCENT CAPNOS: THREE Rmds
100 ACORON OR AGRION: FOURTEEN Rmds

26 Remedies from Plants classified by Diseases

1 NEW FORMS OF DISEASE
2 NATURE OF LICHEN
3 AT WHAT PERIOD LICHEN FIRST MADE ITS APPEARANCE IN ITALY
4 CARBUNCLE
5 ELEPHANTIASIS
6 COLIC
7 NEW SYSTEM OF MEDICINE: ASCLEPIADES PHYSICIAN
8 TIE CHANGES EFFECTED BY ASCLEPIADES IN PRACTICE OF MEDICINE
9 REMARKS IN DISPRAISE OF PRACTICES OF MAGIC
10 LICHEN: 5 Rmds
11 QUINZY
12 SCROFULA
13 PLANT CALLED BELLIS: 2 Rmds
14 CONDURDUM
15 COUGH
16 BECHION, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS ARCION, CHAMÆ LEUCE OR TUSSILAGO: 3 Rmds
17 BECHION, KNOWN ALSO AS SALVIA: 4 Rmds
18 AFFECTIONS OF SIDE, CHEST, & STOMACH
19 MOLON OR SYRON. AMOMUM
20 EPHEDRA OR ANABASIS; THREE Rmds
21 GEUM: THREE Rmds
22 TRIPOLIUM : THREE Rmds
23 GROMPHÆNA
24 MALUNDRUM : 2 Rmds
25 CHALCETUM; 2 Rmds. MOLEMONIUM; 1 Rmd
26 HALUS OR COTONEA: 5 Rmds
27 CHAMSHOPS: 1 Rmd. STŒCHAS: 1 Rmd
28 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF BELLY
29 ASTRAGALUS: 6 Rmds
30 LADANUM: 18 Rmds
31 CHONDRIS OR PSEUDODICTAMNON: 1 Rmd. HYPOCISTHIS OR OROBETHRON; 2 VARIETIES: 8 Rmds
32 LAVER OR SION: 2 Rmds
33 POTAMOGITON: 8 Rmds. STATICE: 3 Rmds
34 CERATIA: 2 Rmds. LEONTOPODION, LEUCEORON, DORIPETRON, OR THORYBETHRON. LAGOPUS: 3 Rmds
35 EPITHYMON OR HIPPOPHEOS: 8 Rmds
36 PYCNOCOMON; 4 Rmds
37 POLYPODION: 3 Rmds
38 SCAMMONY; 8 Rmds
39 TITHYMALOS CHARACIAS
40 TITHYMALOS MYRTITES, OR CARYITES; 21 Rmds
41 TITHYMALOS PARALIOS, OR TITHYMALIS: 4 Rmds
42 TITHYMALOS HELIOSCOPIOS: 18 Rmds
43 TITHYMALOS CYPARISSIAS : 18 Rmds
44 TITHYMALOS PLATYPHYLLOS, CORYMBITES, OR AMYGDALITES: 3 Rmds
45 TITHYMALOS DENDROÏDES, COBIOS, OR LEPTOPHYLLOS: 18 Rmds
46 APIOS ISCHAS, OR RAPHANOS AGRIA: 2 Rmds
47 Rmds FOR GRIPING PAINS IN BOWELS
48 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF SPLEEN
49 Rmds FOR CALCULI & DISEASES OF BLADDER
50 CRETHMOS: 11 Rmds. CACHRY
51 ANTHYLLION; 1 Rmds ANTHYLLIS: 2 Rmds
52 CEPÆA: 1 Rmd
53 HYPERICON, CHAMÆPITYS, OR CORISON: 9 Rmds
54 CAROS OR HYPERICON: 10 Rmds
55 CALLITHRIX: 1 Rmd. PERPRESSA: 1 Rmd. CHRYSANTHEMUM: 1 Rmd. ANTHEMIS: 1 Rmd
56 SILAUS: 1 Rmd
57 PLANT OF FULVIUS
58 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF TESTES & FUNDAMENT
59 INGUINALIS OR ARGEMO
60 Rmds FOR INFLAMED TUMOURS. CHRYSIPPIOS: 1 Rmd
61 APHRODISIACS & ANT APHRODISIACS
62 ORCHIDS OR SERAPES: 5 MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. SATYR ION
63 SATYRION: 3 MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. SATYRION ERYTHRAÏCON: 4 MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
64 Rmds FOR GOUT & DISEASES OF FEET
65 LAPPAGO OR MOLLUGO: 1 Rmd. ASPERUGO: 1 Rmd
66 PHYCOS THALASSION OR SEA-WEED: 3 VARIETIES OF IT. LAPPA BOARIA
67 MALADIES WHICH ATTACK WHOLE OF BODY
68 GERANION, MYRRHIS, OR MYRTIS; 3 VARIETIES OF IT: 6 Rmds
69 ONOTHERAS OR ONEAR: 3 Rmds
70 Rmds FOR EPILEPSY
71 Rmds FOR FEVERS
72 Rmds FOR PHRENITIS, LETHARGY, & CARBUNCLES
73 Rmds FOR DROPSY. ACTE OR EBULUM. CHAMÆACTE
74 Rmds FOR ERYSIPELAS
75 Rmds FOR SPRAINS
76 Rmds FOR JAUNDICE
77 Rmds FOR BOILS
78 Rmds FOR FISTULA
79 EMEDIES FOR ABSCESSES & HARD TUMOURS
80 Rmds FOR BURNS
81 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF SINEWS & JOINTS
82 Rmds FOR HÆMORRHAGE
83 HIPPURIS, OTHERWISE CALLED EPHEDRON, ANABASIS, OR EQUISÆTUM; 3 KINDS OF IT: 18 Rmds
84 STEPHANOMELIS
85 Rmds FOR RUPTURES & CONVULSIONS. ERYSITHALES: 1 Rmd
86 Rmds FOR PHTHIRIASIS
87 Rmds FOR ULCERS & WOUNDS
88 POLYCNEMON: 1 Rmd
89 Rmds FOR WARTS & APPLICATIONS FOR REMOVAL OF SCARS
90 Rmds FOR FEMALE DISEASES
91 ARSENOGONON: 1 MEDICINAL PROPERTY. THELYGONON: 1 MEDICINAL PROPERTY
92 MASTOS: 1 Rmd
93 APPLICATIONS FOR HAIR. LYSIMACHIA. OPHRYS

27 Description of Plants & Remedes from them

1 RESEARCHES OF ANCIENTS UPON THIS SUBJECT
2 ACONITE, OTHERWISE CALLED THELYPHONON, CAMMARON, PARDALIANCHES, OR SCORPIO; 4 Rmds
3 ÆTHIOPIS: 4 Rmds
4 AGERATON: 4 Rmds
5 ALOE; 29 Rmds
6 ALCEA: 1 Rmd
7 ALYPON: 1 Rmd
8 ALSINE, A PLANT USED FOR SAME PURPOSES AS HELXINE: 5 Rmds
9 ANDROSACES: 6 Rmds
10 ANDROSÆMON OR ASCYRON: 6 Rmds
11 AMBROSIA, BOTRYS, OR ARTEMISTA: 3 Rmds
12 ADONIS OR ONONIS: 5 Rmds
13 ANAGYROS OR ACOPON: 3 Rmds
14 ANONYMOS: 2 Rmds
15 APARINE, OMPHIALOCARPOS, OR PHILANTHROPOS: 3 Rmds
16 ARCTION OR ARCTURUM: 5 Rmds
17 ASPLENON OR HEMIONION: 2 Rmds
18 ASCLEPIAS: 2 Rmds
19 ASTER OR BUBONION: 3 Rmds
20 ASCYRON & ASCYROÏDES: 3 Rmds
21 APHACA: 3 Rmds
22 ALCIBIUM: 1 Rmd
23 ALECTOROSLOPHOS OR CRISTA: 2 Rmds
24 ALUM, ALSO CALLED SYMPHYTON PETRÆON: 14 Rmds
25 ALGA RUFA OR RED SEA-WEED: 1 Rmd
26 ACTÆA: 1 Rmd
27 AMPELOS AGRIA, OR WILD VINE: 4 Rmds
28 ABSINTHIUM OR WORMWOOD; 4 VARIETIES: 48 Rmds
29 ABSINTHIUM: MARINUM OR SERIPHUM
30 BALLOTES, MELAMPRASION, OR BLACK LEEK: 3 Rmds
31 BOTRYS, AMBROSIA, OR ARTEMISIA: 1 Rmd
32 BRABYLA: 1 Rmd
33 BRYON MARITIMUM: 5 Rmds
34 BUPLEURON: 1 Rmd
35 CATANANCE; 1 OBSERVATION. CEMOS: 1 OBSERVATION
36 CALYX: 3 Rmds
37 CALYX, KNOWN ALSO AS ANCHUSA OR ONOCLIA: 2 Rmds
38 CIRCÆA: 3 Rmds
39 CIRSION: 1 Rmd
40 CRATÆGONON; 2 KINDS OF IT: 8 Rmds
41 CROCODILEON: 2 Rmds
42 CYNOSORCHIS OR ORCHIS: 4 Rmds
43 CHRYSOLACHANUM; 2 VARIETIES: 3 Rmds. COAGULUM: TERAÆ: 2 Rmds
44 CUCUBALUS, STRUMUS, OR STRYCHNON: 6 Rmds
45 CONFERVA: 2 Rmds
46 COCCUS CNIDIUS, OR GRAIN OF CNIDOS: 2 Rmds
47 DIPSACOS: 2 Rmds
48 DRYOPTERIS: 2 Rmds
49 DRYOPHONON
50 ELATINE: 2 Rmds
51 EMPETROS. BY OUR PEOPLE CALLED CALCIFRAGA: 4 Rmds
52 EPIPACTIS OR ELLEBORINE: 2 Rmds
53 EPIMEDION: 3 Rmds
54 ENNEAPHYLLON: 2 Rmds
55 2 VARIETIES OF FILIX OR FERN, KNOWN TO GREEKS AS PTERIS, OR BLACHNON, & AS THELYPTERIS, OR NYMPHÆ PTERIS: 11 Rmds
56 FEMUR BUBULUM, OR OX THIGH
57 GALEOPSIS, GALEOBDOLON, OR GALION: 6 Rmds
58 GLAUX: 1 Rmd
59 GLAUCION: 3 Rmds. DIAGLAUCIA: 2 Rmds
60 GLYCYSIDE, PÆONIA, OR PENTOROBOS: 20 Rmds
61 GNAPHALIUM OR CHAMÆZELON: 6 Rmds
62 GALLIDRAGA: 1 Rmd
63 HOLCUS OR ARISTIS
64 HYOSERIS: 1 Rmd
65 HOLOSTEON: 3 Rmds
66 HIPPOPHÆSTON: 8 Rmds
67 HYPOGLOSSA: 1 Rmd
68 HYPECOÖN
69 IDÆA HERBA, OR PLANT OF IDA: 4 Rmds
70 ISOPYRON OR PHASIOLON: 2 Rmds
71 LATHYRIS: 2 Rmds
72 LEONTOPETALON OR PARDALION: 2 Rmds
73 LYCAPSOS: 2 Rmds
74 LITHOSPERMUM, EXONYCHON, DIOSPYRON, OR HERACLEOS: 2 Rmds
75 LAPIDIS MUSCUS, OR STONE MOSS: 1 Rmd
76 LIMEUM: 1 Rmd
77 LEUCE, MESOLEUCON, OR LEUCAS: 3 Rmds
78 LEUCOGRAPHIS: 5 Rmds
79 MEDION: TREE Rmds
80 MYOSOTA OR MYOSOTIS: 3 Rmds
81 MYAGROS: 1 Rmd
82 NYMA: 1 Rmd
83 NATRIX: 1 Rmd
84 ODONTITIS: 1 Rmd
85 OTHONNA: 1 Rmd
86 ONOSMA: 1 PROPERTY
87 ONOPORDON: 5 Rmds
88 OSYRIS: 4 Rmds
89 OXYS: 2 Rmds
90 POLYANTHEMUM OR BATRACHION: 3 Rmds
91 POLYGONOS, POLYGONATOS, TEUTHALIS, CARCI- NETHRON, CLEMA, OR MYRTOPETALOS, OTHERWISE KNOW AS SANGUINARIA OR ORIOS; 4 VARIETIES OF IT: 40 Rmds
92 PANCRATIUM: 12 Rmds
93 PEPLIS, SYCE, MECONION, OR MECON APHRODES: 3 Rmds
94 PERICLYMENOS: 5 Rmds
95 PELECINON: 1 Rmd
96 POLYGALA: 1 Rmd
97 POTERION, PHRYNION, OR NEURAS: 4 Rmds
98 PHALANGITIS, PHALANGION, OR LEUCACANTHA: 4 Rmds
99 PHYTEUMA: 1 PROPERTY
100 PHYLLON: 1 PROPERTY
         
101 PHELLANDRION: 2 Rmds
102 PHALARIS: 2 Rmds
103 POLYRRHIZON: 5 Rmds
104 PROSERPINACA: 5 Rmds
105 RHACOMA: 36 Rmds
106 RESEDA: 2 Rmds
107 STŒCHAS: 3 Rmds
108 SOLANUM, BY GREEKS CALLED STRYCHNON: 2 REMEDIAL PROPERTIES
109 SMYRNION: 32 Rmds. SINON: 2 Rmds
110 TELEPHION: 4 Rmds
111 TRICHOMANES: 5 Rmds
112 THALICTRUM: 1 Rmd
113THLASPI & PERSICON NAPY: 4 Rmds
114 TRACHINIA: 1 PROPERTY
115 TRAGONIS OR TRAGION: 4 Rmds
116 TRAGOS OR SCORPION: 4 Rmds
117 TRAGOPOGON OR COME
118 AGES OF PLANTS
119 HOW GREATEST EFFICACY IN PLANTS MAY BE ENSURED
120 MALADIES PECULIAR TO VARIOUS NATIONS
       

28 Rmds from Living Creatures

1 INTRODUCTION
2 Rmds DERIVED FROM MAN
3 WHETHER WORDS ARE POSSESSED OF ANY HEALING EFFICACY
4 THAT PRODIGIES & PORTENTS MAY BE CONFIRMED, OR MADE OF NO EFFECT
5 DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS USAGES
6 226 OBSERVATIONS ON Rmds DERIVED FROM MAN. 8 Rmds FROM CHILDREN
7 PROPERTIES OF HUMAN SPITTLE
8 Rmds DERIVED FROM WAX OF HUMAN EAR
9 Rmds DERIVED FROM HUMAN HAIR, TEETH, ETC
10 Rmds DERIVED FROM HUMAN BLOOD, SEXUAL CONGRESS, ETC.
11 Rmds DERIVED FROM DEAD
12 VARIOUS REVERIES & DEVICES OF MAGICIANS
13 Rmds DERIVED FROM HUMAN EXCRETIONS
14 Rmds DEPENDING UPON HUMAN WILL
15 Rmds DERIVED FROM SNEEZING
16 Rmds DERIVED FROM SEXUAL CONGRESS
17 VARIOUS OTHER Rmds
18 Rmds DERIVED FROM URINE
19 INDICATIONS OF HEALTH DERIVED FROM URINE
20 41 Rmds DERIVED FROM FEMALE SEX
21 Rmds DERIVED FROM WOMAN'S MILK
22 Rmds DERIVED FROM SPITTLE OF FEMALES
23 FACTS CONNECTED WITH MENSTRUAL DISCHARGE
24 Rmds DERIVED FROM FOREIGN ANIMALS: ELEPHANT, 8 Rmds
25 10 Rmds DERIVED FROM LION
26 10 Rmds DERIVED FROM CAMEL
27 79 Rmds DERIVED FROM HYÆNA
28 19 Rmds DERIVED FROM CROCODILE
29 15 Rmds DERIVED FROM CHAMÆLEON
30 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM SCINCUS
31 SEEN Rmds DERIVED FROM HIPPOPOTAMUS
32 5 Rmds DERIVED FROM LYNX
33 Rmds FURNISHED IN COMMON BY ANIMALS OF SAME CLASS, WHETHER WILD OR TAME. 54 MEDICINAL USES OF MILK, WITH OBSERVATIONS THEREON
34 12 Rmds DERIVED FROM CHEESE
35 25 Rmds DERIVED FROM BUTTER
36 OXYGALA: 1 Rmd
37 VARIOUS USES OF FAT & 52 OBSERVATIONS
38 SUET
39 MARROW
40 GALL
41 BLOOD
42 PECULIAR Rmds DERIVED FROM VARIOUS ANIMALS, & CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MALADIES. Rmds AGAINST POISON OF SERPENTS, DERIVED FROM STAG, FAWN, OPHION, SHE-GOAT, KID, & ASS
43 Rmds FOR BITE OF MAD DOG. Rmds DERIVED FROM CALF, HE-GOAT, & VARIOUS OTHER ANIMALS
44 Rmds TO BE ADOPTED AGAINST ENCHANTMENTS
45 Rmds FOR POISONS
46 Rmds FOR DIEASES OF HEAD, & FOR ALOPECY
47 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF EYES
48 Rmds FOR DISEASES & AFFECTIONS OF EARS
49 Rmds FOR TOOTH-ACHE
50 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF FACE
51 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF TONSILLARY GLANDS, & FOR SCROFULA
52 Rmds FOR PAINS IN NECK
53 Rmds FOR COUGH & FOR SPITTING OF BLOOD
54 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF STOMACH
55 Rmds FOR LIVER COMPLAINTS & FOR ASTHMA
56 Rmds FOR PAINS IN LOINS
57 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF SPLEEN
58 Rmds FOR BOWEL COMPLAINTS
59 REMEDES FOR TENESMUS, TAPEWORM, & AFFECTIONS OF COLON
60 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF BLADDER, & FOR URINARY CALCULI
61 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF GENERATIVE ORGANS & FUNDAMENT
62 Rmds FOR GOUT & FOR DISEASES OF FEET
63 Rmds FOR EPILEPSY
64 Rmds FOR JAUNDICE
65 Rmds FOR BROKEN BONES
66 Rmds FOR FEVERS
67 Rmds FOR MELANCHOLY, LETHARGY, & PHTHSIS
68 Rmds FOR DROPSY
69 Rmds FOR ERYSIPELAS, & FOR PURULENT ERUPTIONS
70 Rmds FOR SPRAINS, INDURATIONS & BOILS
71 Rmds FOR BURNS. METHOD OF TESTING BULL-GLUE; 7 Rmds
72 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF SINEWS & CONTUSIONS
73 Rmds FOR HÆMORRHAGE
74 Rmds FOR ULCERS & CARACINOMATOUS SORES
75 Rmds FOR ITCH
76 METHODS OF EXTRACTING FOREIGN SUBSTANCES WHICH ADHERE TO, BODY, & RESTORING SCARS TO THEIR NATURAL COLOUR
77 Rmds FOR FEMALE DISEASES
78 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF INFANTS
79 ROVOCATIVES OF SLEEP
80 STIMLANTS FOR SEXUAL PASSIONS
81 REMARKABLE FACTS RELATIVE TO ANIMALS

29 Remedies from Living Creatures

1 ORIGIN OF MEDICAL ART
2 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO HIPPOCRATES. DATE OF ORIGIN OF CLINICAL PRACTICE & OF THAT OF IATRALIPTICS
3 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO CHRYSIPPUS & ERASISTRATUS
4 EMPIRIC BRANCH OF MEDICINE
5 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO HEROPHILUS & OTHER CELEBRATED PHYSICIANS. VARIOUS CHANGES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE IN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
6 WHO 1ST PRACTISED AS A PHYSICIAN AT ROME, & AT WHAT PERIOD
7 OPINIONS ENTERTAINED BY ROMANS ON ANCIENT PHYSICIANS
8 EVILS ATTENDANT UPON PRACTICE OF MEDICINE
9 35 Rmds DEEIVED FROM WOOL
10 32 Rmds DERIVED FROM WOOL-GREASE
11 22 Rmds FROM EGGS
12 SERPENTS' EGGS
13 METHOD OF PREPARING COMMAGENUM. 4 Rmds DERIVED FROM IT
14 Rmds DERVED FROM DOO
15 Rmds CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT MALADIES. Rmds FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY SERPENTS. Rmds DERIVED FROM MICE
16 Rmds DERIVED FROM WEASEL
17 Rmds DERIVED FROM BUGS
18 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO ASP
19 Rmds DERIVED FROM BASILISK
20 Rmds DERIVED FROM DRAGON
21 Rmds DERIVED FROM VIPER
22 Rmds DERIVED FROM OTHER SERPENTS
23 Rmds DERIVED FROM SALAMANDER
24 Rmds DERIVED FROM BIRDS FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY SERPENTS. Rmds DERIVED FROM VULTURE.
25 Rmds DERIVED FROM POULTRY
26 Rmds DERIVED FROM OTHER BIRDS
27 27 Rmds FOR BITE OF PHALANGIUM, SEVERAL VARIETIES, & OF SPIDER
28 Rmds DERIVED FROM STELLIO OR SPOTTED LIZARD
29 Rmds DERIVED FROM VARIOUS INSECTS
30 Rmds FROM CANTHARIDES
31 VARIOUS COUNTER-POISONS
32 Rmds FOR BITE OF MAD DOG
33 Rmds FOR OTHER POISONS
34 Rmds FOR ALOPECY
35 Rmds FOR LICE & PORRIGO
36 Rmds FOR HEAD-ACHE & WOUNDS ON HEAD
37 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF EYELIDS
38 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF EYES
39 Rmds FOR PAINS & DISEASES OF EARS
     

30 Remedies from Living Creatures

1 ORIGIN OF MAGIC ART
2 WHEN & WHERE ART OF MAGIC ORIGINATED: BY WHAT PERSONS IT WAS 1ST PRACTISED
3 WHETHER MAGIC WAS EVER PRACTISED IN ITALY. AT WHAT PERIOD SENATE 1ST FORBADE HUMAN SACRIFICES
4 DRUIDS OF GALLIC PROVINCES
5 VARIOUS BRANCHES OF MAGIC
6 SUBTERFUGES PRACTISED BY MAGICIANS
7 OPINIONS OF MAGICIANS RELATIVE TO MOLE. 5 Rmds DERIVED FROM IT
8 OTHER Rmds DERIVED FROM LIVING CREATURES. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RESPECTIVE DISEASES. Rmds FOR TOOTH-ACHE
9 Rmds FOR OFFENSIVE ODOURS & SORES OF MOUTH
10 Rmds FOR SPOTS UPON FACE
11 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF THROAT
12 Rmds FOR QUINZY & SCROFULA
13 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF SHOULDERS
14 Rmds FOR PAINS IN VISCERA
15 Rmds FOR PAINS IN STOMACH
16 Rmds FOR PAINS IN LIVER, & FOR SPITTING OF BLOOD
17 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF SPLEEN
18 Rmds FOR PAINS IN SIDE & LOINS
19 Rmds FOR DYSENTERY
20 REMEDES FOR ILIAC PASSION & OTHER MALADIES OF BOWELS
21 Rmds FOR URINARY CALCULI AND AFFECTIONS OF BLADDER
22 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF FUNDAMENT & GENERATIVE ORGANS
23 Rmds FOR GOUT & FOR DISEASES OF FEET
24 Rmds FOR EVILS WHICH ARE LIABLE TO AFFECT WHOLE BODY
25 Rmds FOR COLD SHIVERINGS
26 Rmds FOR PARALYSIS
27 Rmds FOR EPILEPSY
28 Rmds FOR JAUNDICE
29 Rmds FOR PHRENITIS
30 Rmds FOR FEVERS
31 Rmds FOR DROPSY
32 Rmds FOR ERYSIPELAS
33 Rmds FOR CARBUNCLES
34 Rmds FOR BOILS
35 Rmds FOR BURNS
36 Rmds FOR AFFECTIONS OF SINEWS
37 Rmds FOR MALADIES OF NAILS & FINGERS
38 METHODS FOR ARRESTING HÆMORRHAGE
39 Rmds FOR ULCEROUS SORES & WOUNDS
40 Rmds FOR BROKEN BONES
41 APPLICATIONS FOR CICATRIZATIONS & CURE OF MORPHEW
42 METHODS OF EXTRACTING FOREIGN SUBSTANCES FROM BODY
43 Rmds FOR FEMALE COMPLAINTS
44 METHODS OF FACILITATING DELIVERY
45 METHODS OF PRESERVING BREASTS FROM INJURY
46 VARIOUS KINDS OF DEPILATORIES
47 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF INFANTS
48 PROVOCATIVES OF SLEEP
49 APHRODISIACS & ANTAPHRODISIACS
50 Rmds FOR PHTHIRIASIS & VARIOUS OTHER AFFECTIONS
51 Rmds FOR INTOXICATION
52 PECULIARITIES RELATIVE TO CERTAIN ANIMALS
53 OTHER MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH ANIMALS
   

31 Remedies from Aquatic Production

1 REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH WATER
2 DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF WATERS
3 Rmds DERIVED FROM WATER
4 WATERS PRODUCTIVE OF FECUNDITY. WATERS CURATIVE OF INSANITY
5 WATERS REMEDIAL FOR URINARY CALCULI
6 WATERS CURATIVE OF WOUNDS
7 WATERS PREVENTIVE OF ABORTION
8 WATERS WHICH REMOVE MORPHEW
9 WATERS WITCH COLOR HAIR
10 WATERS WHICH COLOUR HUMAN BODY
11 WATERS WHICH AID MEMORY, OR ARE PRODUCTIVE OF FORGETFULNESS
12 WATERS WHICH SHARPEN OR DULL SENSES. WATERS WHICH IMPROVE VOICE
13 WATERS WHICH CAUSE A DISTASTE FOR WINE. WATERS WHICH PRODUCE INEBRIETY
14 WATERS WHICH SERVE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR OIL
15 SALT & BITTER WATERS
16 WATERS WHICH THROW UP STONES. WATERS WHICH CAUSE LAUGHTER & WEEPING. WATERS WHICH ARE SAID TO BF CURATIVE OF LOVE
17 WATERS WHICH PRESERVE THEIR WARMTH FOR 3 DAYS
18 OTHER MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH WATER. WATERS IN WHICH EVERYTHING WILL SINK. WATERS IN WHICH NOTHING WILL SINK
19 DEADLY WATERS. POISONOUS FISHES
20 WATERS WHICH PETRIFY, THEMSELVES, OR CAUSE OTHER OBJECTS TO PETRIFY
21 WHOLESOMIENESS OF WATERS
22 IMPURITIES OF WATER
23 MODES OF TESTING WATER
24 MARCIAN WATERS
25 VIRGIN WATERS
26 METHOD OF SEARCHING FOR WATER
27 SIGNS INDICATIVE OF PRESENCE OF WATER
28 DIFFERENCES IN WATERS, ACCORDING TO NATURE OF SOIL
29 QUALITIES OF WATER AT DIFFERENT SEASONS OF YEAR
30 HISTORICAL OBSERVATIONS UPON WATERS WHICH HAVE SUDDENLY MADE THEIR APPEARANCE OR SUDDENLY CEASED
31 METHOD OF CONVEYING WATER
32 HOW MINERAL WATERS SHOULD BE USED
33 USES OF SEA-WATER. ADVANTAGES OF A SEA-VOYAGE
34 HOW ARTIFICIAL SEA-WATER MAY BE MADE IN PLACES AT A DISTANCE FROM SEA
35 HOW THALASSOMELI IS MADE
36 How HYDROMELI IS MADE
37 METHODS OF PROVIDING AGAINST INCONVENIENCE OF DRINKING SUSPECTED WATER
38 6 Rmds DERIVED FROM MOSS. Rmds DERIVED FROM SAND
39 39 VARIOUS KINDS OF SALT; METHODS OF PREPARING IT, & Rmds DERIVED FROM IT. 204 OBSERVATIONS
40 MURIA
41 VARIOUS PROPERTIES OF SALT: 120 HISTORICAL REMARKS RELATIVE THERETO
42 FLOWER OF SALT: 20 Rmds. SALSUGO: 2 Rmds
43 GARUM: 15 Rmds
44 ALEX: 8 Rmds
45 NATURE OF SALT
46 VARIOUS KINDS OF NITRUM, METHODS OF PREPARING IT, & Rmds DERIVED FROM IT: 221 OBSERVATIONS THEREON
47 SPONGES, & Rmds DERIVED FROM THEM: 92 OBSERVATIONS THEREON
   

32 Remedies from Aquatic Animals

1 POWER OF NATURE AS MANIFESTED IN ANTIPATHIES. ECHENEÏS: 2 Rmds
2 TORPEDO: 9 Rmds
3 SEA HARE: 5 Rmds
4 MARVELS OF RED SEA
5 INSTINCTS OF FISHES
6 MARVELLOUS PROPERTIES BELONGING TO CERTAIN FISHES
7 PLACES WHERE FISH EAT FROM HAND
8 PLACES WHERE FISH RECOGNIZE HUMAN VOICE. ORACULAR RESPONSES GIVEN BY FISH
9 PLACES WHERE BITTER FISH ARE FOUND, SALT, OR SWEET
10 WHEN SEA-FISH WERE 1ST EATEN BY PEOPLE OF ROME.
ORDINANCE OF KING NUMA AS TO FISH
11 CORAL: 43 Rmds & OBSERVATIONS
12 ANTIPATHIES & SYMPATHIES WHICH EXIST BETWEEN CERTAIN OBJECTS. HATREDS MANIFESTED BY CERTAIN AQUATIC ANIMALS. PASTINACA: 8 Rmds. GALEOS: 15 Rmds. SUR-MULLET: 15 Rmds
13 AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. CASTOREUM: 66 Rmds & OBSERVATIONS
14 TORTOISE: 66 Rmds & OBSERVATIONS
15 Rmds DERIVED FROM AQUATIC ANIMALS, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RESPECTIVE DISEASES
16 Rmds FOR POISONS, & FOR NOXIOUS SPELLS.
DORADE: 4 Rmds. SEA-STAR: 7 Rmds
17 Rmds FOR STINGS OF SERPENTS, FOR BITES OF DOGS, & FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY VENOMOUS ANIMALS, SEA-DRAGON: 3 Rmds. 25 Rmds DERIVED FROM SALTED FISH. SARDA: 1 Rmd. 11 Rmds DERIVED FROM CYBIUM
18 SEA-FROG: 6 Rmds. RIVER-FROG: 52 Rmds. BRAMBLE-FROG: 1 Rmd.
32 OBSERVATIONS ON THESE ANIMALS
19 ENHYDRIS: 6 Rmds. RIVER-CRAB: 14 Rmds. SEA-CRAB: 7 Rmds. RIVER-SNAIL: 7 Rmds. CORACINUS: 4 Rmds. SEA-PIG: 2 Rmds
20 SEA-CALF: 10 Rmds. MURÆNA: 1 Rmd. HIPPOCAMPUS: 9 Rmds. SEA-URCHIN: 11 Rmds
21 21 VARIOUS KINDS OF OYSTERS: 58 Rmds & OBSERVATIONS. PURPLES: 9 Rmds
22 SEA-WEED: 2 Rmds
23 Rmds FOR ALOPECY, CHANGE OF COLOUR IN HAIR, & ULCERATIONS OF HEAD. SEA-MOUSE: 2 Rmds. SEA-SCORPION: 12 Rmds. LEECH: 7 Rmds. MUREX: 13 Rmds. CONCHYLIUM: 5 Rmds
24 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF EYES & EYE-LIDS. 2 Rmds DERIVED FROM FAT OF FISHES. CALLIONYMUS: 3 Rmds. GALL OF CORACINUS: 1 Rmd. SÆPIA: 24 Rmds. ICHTHYOCOLLA: 5 Rmds
25 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF EARS. BATIA: 1 Rmd.
BACCHUS OR MYXON: 2 Rmds. SEA-LOUSE: 2 Rmds
26 Rmds FOR TOOTH-ACHE. DOG-FISH: 4 Rmds. WHALE'S FLESH
27 Rmds FOR LICHENS, & FOR SPOTS UPON FACE. DOLPHIN: 9 Rmds. COLUTHIA OR CORYPHIA: 3 Rmds. HALCYONEUM : 7 Rmds. TUNNY : 5 Rmds
28 Rmds FOR SCROFULA, IMPOSTHUMES OF PAROTID GLANDS, QUINSY, & DISEASES OF FAUCES. MÆNA: 13 Rmds. SEA-SCOLOPENDRA: 2 Rmds. SAURUS: 1 Rmd. SHELL-FISH: 1 Rmd. SILURUS: 15 Rmds
29 Rmds FOR COUGH & DISEASES OF CHEST
30 Rmds FOR PAINS IN LIVER & SIDE.
ELONGATED CONCH: 6 Rmds. TETHEA: 5 Rmds
31 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF BOWELS. SEA-WORT: 1 Rmd. MYAX: 25 Rmds. MITULUS: 8 Rmds. PELORIDES: 1 Rmd.
SERIPHUM: 2 Rmds. ERYTHINUS: 2 Rmds
32 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF SPLEEN, FOR URINARY CALCULI, & FOR AFFECTIONS OF BLADDER. SOLE: 1 Rmd. TURBOT: 1 Rmd. BLENDIUS: 1 Rmd. SEA-NETTLE: 7 Rmds. PULMO MARINUS: 6 Rmds. ONYCHES: 4 Rmds
33 Rmds FOR INTESTINAL HERNIA, & FOR DISEASES OF RECTUM. WATER-SNAKE: 1 Rmd. HYDRUS: 1 Rmd. MULLET: 1 Rmd. PELAMIS: 3 Rmds
34 Rmds FOR INFLAMED TUMOURS, & FOR DISEASES OF GENERATIVE ORGANS. SCIÆNA: 1 Rmd. PERCH: 4 Rmds. SQUATINA: 3 Rmds. SMARIS: 3 Rmds
35 None
36 36 Rmds FOR GOUT, & PAINS IN FEET. BEAVER: 4 Rmds. BRYON: 1 Rmd
37 Rmds FOR EPILEPSY
38 Rmds FOR FEVERS.
FISH CALLED ASELLUS: 1 Rmd. PHAGRUS: 1 Rmd. BALÆNA: 1 Rmd
39 Rmds FOR LETHARGY, CACHEXY, & DROPSY
40 Rmds FOR BURNS & FOR ERYSIPELAS
41 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF SINEWS
42 METHODS OF ARRESTING HÆMORRHAGE & LETTING BLOOD. POLYP: 1 Rmd
43 METHODS OF EXTRACTING FOREIGN BODIES FROM FLESH
44 Rmds FOR ULCERS, CARCINOMATA, & CARBUNCLES
45 Rmds FOR WARTS, & FOR MALFORMED NAILS. GLANIS: 1 Rmd
46 Rmds FOR FEMALE DISEASES. GLAUCISCUS: 1 Rmd
47 METHODS OF REMOVING SUPERFLUOUS HAIR. DEPILATORIES
48 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF INFANTS
49 METHODS OF PREVENTING INTOXICATION.
FISH CALLED RUBELLIO: 1 Rmd. EEL: 1 Rmd. GRAPE-FISH: 1 Rmd
50 ANTAPHRODISIACS & APHRODISIACS.
HIPPOPOTAMUS: 1 Rmd. CROCODILE: 1 Rmd
51 Rmds FOR DISEASES OF ANIMALS
52 OTHER AQUATIC PRODUCTIONS.
ADARCA OR CALAMOCHNOS: 3 Rmds. REEDS: 8 Rmds. INK OF SÆPIA
53 NAMES OF ALL ANIMALS THAT EXIST IN SEA, 176 IN NUMBER
54 ADDITIONAL NAMES OF FISHES FOUND IN POEM OF OVID
   

33 History of Metals

1 METALS
2 GOLD
3 WHAT WAS 1ST RECOMMENDATION OF GOLD
4 ORIGIN OF GOLD RINGS
5 QUANTITY OF GOLD POSSESSED BY ANCIENTS
6 RIGHT OF WEARING GOLD RINGS
7 DECURIES OF JUDGES
8 PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH EQUESTRIAN ORDER
9 HOW OFTEN NAME OF EQUESTRIAN ORDER HAS BEEN CHANGED
10 GIFTS FOR MILITARY SERVICES, IN GOLD & SILVER
11 AT WHAT PERIOD 1ST CROWN OF GOLD WAS PRESENTED
12 OTHER USES MADE OF GOLD, BY FEMALES
13 COINS OF GOLD. AT WHAT PERIODS COPPER, GOLD, & SILVER 1ST IMPRESSED. HOW COPPER WAS USED BEFORE GOLD & SILVER WERE COINED. WHAT WAS LARGEST SUM OF MONEY POSSESSED BY ANY 1 AT TIME OF OUR 1ST CENSUS. HOW OFTEN, & AT WHAT PERIODS, VALUE OF COPPER & OF COINED MONEY HAS BEEN CHANGED
14 CONSIDERATIONS ON MAN'S CUPIDITY FOR GOLD
15 PERSONS WHO HAVE POSSESSED GREATEST QUANTITY OF GOLD & SILVER
16 PERIOD SILVER 1ST MADE ITS APPEARANCE UPON ARENA & UPON STAGE
17 PERIODS THERE WAS GREATEST QUANTITY OF GOLD & SILVER IN TREASURY OF ROMAN PEOPLE
18 PERIOD CEILINGS WERE FIRST GILDED
19 REASONS HIGHEST VALUE SET UPON GOLD
20 METHOD OF GILDING
21 HOW GOLD IS FOUND
22 ORPIMENT
23 ELECTRUM
24 1ST STATUES OF GOLD
25 8 Rmds FROM GOLD
26 CHRYSOCOLLA
27 USE MADE OF CHRYSOCOLLA IN PAINTING
28 7 Rmds DERIVED FROM CHRYSOCOLLA
29 CHRYSOCOLLA OF GOLDSMITHS, KNOWN ALSO AS SANTERNA
30 MARVELLOUS OPERATIONS OF NATURE IN SOLDERING METALLIC SUBSTANCES, & BRINGING THEM TO A STATE OF PERFECTION
31 SILVER
32 QUICKSILVER
33 STIMMI, STIBI, ALABASTRUM, LARBASIS, OR PLATYOPHTHALMON
34 7 Rmds DERIVED FROM STIMMI
35 SCORIA OF SILVER. 6 Rmds FROM IT
36 MINIUM: FOR WHAT RELIGIOUS PURPOSES IT WAS USED BY ANCIENTS
37 DISCOVERY & ORIGIN OF MINIUM
38 CINNABARIS
39 EMPLOYMENT OF CINNABARIS IN PAINTING
40 VARIOUS KINDS OF MINIUM. USE MADE OF IT IN PAINTING
41 HYDRARGYROS. Rmds DERIVED FROM MINIUM
42 METHOD OF GILDING SILVER
43 TOUCHSTONES FOR TESTING GOLD
44 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SILVER & MODES OF TESTING IT
45 MIRRORS
46 EGYPTIAN SILVER
47 INSTANCES OF IMMENSE WEALTH. PERSONS WHO HAVE POSSESSED GREATEST SUMS OF MONEY
48 PERIOD ROMAN PEOPLE 1ST MADE VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS
49 INSTANCES OF LUXURY IN SILVER PLATE
50 INSTANCES OF FRUGALITY OF ANCIENTS IN REFERENCE TO SILVER PLATE
51 PERIOD SILVER 1ST USED AS AN ORNAMENT FOR COUCHES
52 PERIOD SILVER CHARGERS OF ENORMOUS SIZE 1ST MADE. WHEN SILVER 1ST USED AS MATERIAL FOR SIDEBOARDS. WHEN SIDEBOARDS CALLED TYMPANA 1ST INTRODUCED
53 ENORMOUS PRICE OF SILVER PLATE
54 STATUES OF SILVER
55 MOST REMARKABLE WORKS IN SILVER & MOST FAMOUS ARTISTS IN SILVER
56 SIL: PERSONS WHO 1ST USED IT IN PAINTING & METHOD THEY ADOPTED
57 CÆRULEUM
58 2 Rmds DERIVED FROM CÆRULEUM
   

34 History of Metals

1 ORES OF BRASS
2 DIFFERENT KINDS OF COPPER
3 CORINTHIAN BRASS
4 DELIAN BRASS
5 ÆGINETAN BRASS
6 STANDS FOR LAMPS
7 ORNAMENTS OF TEMPLES MADE OF BRASS
8 COUCHES OF BRASS
9 WHICH WAS 1ST STATUE OF A GOD MADE OF BRASS AT ROME
ORIGIN OF STATUES & RESPECT PAID TO THEM
10 DIFFERENT KINDS & FORMS OF STATUES. STATUES AT ROME WITH CUIRASSES
11 IN HONOUR OF WHOM PUBLIC STATUES WERE 1ST ERECTED: IN HONOUR OF WHOM THEY WERE 1ST PLACED ON PILLARS: WHEN ROSTRA WERE 1ST ERECTED
12 IN HONOUR OF WHAT FOREIGNERS PUBLIC STATUES WERE ERECTED AT ROME
13 1ST EQUESTRIAN STATUES PUBLICLY ERECTED AT ROME, & IN HONOUR OF WHAT FEMALES STATUES WERE PUBLICLY ERECTED THERE
14 AT WHAT PERIOD ALL STATUES ERECTED BY PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS WERE REMOVED FROM PUBLIC PLACES
15 1ST STATUES PUBLICLY ERECTED BY FOREIGNERS
16 THAT THERE WERE STATUARIES IN ITALY ALSO AT AN EARLY PERIOD
17 IMMODERATE PRICES OF STATUES
18 MOST CELEBRATED COLOSSAL STATUES IN CITY
19 MOST CELEBRATED WORKS IN BRASS, & ARTISTS, IN NUMBER
20 DIFFERENT KINDS OF COPPER & ITS COMBINATIONS. PYROPUS. CAMPANIAN COPPER
21 METHOD OF PRESERVING COPPER
22 CADMIA
23 15 Rmds DERIVED FROM CADMIA. 10 MEDICINAL EFFECTS OF CALCINED COPPER
24 SCORIA OF COPPER
25 STOMOMA OF COPPER; 47 Rmds
26 VERDIGRIS; 18 Rmds
27 HIERACIUM
28 SCOLEX OF COPPER; 18 Rmds
29 CHALCITIS: 7 Rmds
30 SORY: 3 Rmds
31 MISY: 13 Rmds
32 CHALCANTHUM, OR SHOEMAKERS' BLACK: 16 Rmds
33 POMPHOLYX
34 SPODOS; 5 Rmds
35 15 VARIETIES OF ANTISPODOS
36 SMEGMA
37 DIPHRYX
38 PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO SERVILIAN TRIENS
39 IRON ORES
40 STATUES OF IRON; CHASED WORKS IN IRON
41 DIFFERENT KINDS OF IRON, & MODE OF TEMPERING IT
42 METAL CALLED LIVE IRON
43 METHODS OF PREVENTING RUST
44 7 Rmds DERIVED FROM IRON
45 14 Rmds DERIVED FROM RUST
46 17 Rmds DERIVED FROM SCALES OF IRON. HYGREMPLASTRUM
47 ORES OF LEAD
48 STANNUM. ARGENTARIUM
49 BLACK LEAD
50 15 Rmds DERIVED FROM LEAD
51 15 Rmds DERIVED FROM SCORIA OF LEAD
52 SPODIUM OF LEAD
53 MOLYBDÆNA: 15 Rmds
54 PSIMITHIUM, OR CERUSE; 6 Rmds
55 SANDARACH; 11 Rmds
56 ARRHENICUM
   
1 HONOUR ATTACHED TO PAINTING
2 HONOUR ATTACHED TO PORTRAITS
3 WHEN SHIELDS WERE 1ST INVENTED WITH PORTRAITS UPON THEM; & WHEN THEY WERE 1ST ERECTED IN PUBLIC
4 WHEN THESE SHIELDS WERE 1ST PLACED IN PRIVATE HOUSES
5 COMMENCEMENT OF ART OF PAINTING. MONOCHROME PAINTINGS. EARLIEST PAINTERS
6 ANTIQUITY OF PAINTING IN ITALY
7 ROMAN PAINTERS
8 PERIOD FOREIGN PAINTINGS WERE 1ST INTRODUCED AT ROME
9 PERIOD PAINTING 1ST HELD IN HIGH ESTEEM AT ROME & FROM WHAT CAUSES
10 WHAT PICTURES EMPERORS HAVE EXHIBITED IN PUBLIC
11 ART OF PAINTING
12 PIGMENTS OTHER THAN THOSE OF METALLIC ORIGIN. ARTIFICIAL COLOURS
13 SINOPIS: 11 Rmds
14 RUBRICA; LEMNIAN EARTH: 4 Rmds
15 EGYPTIAN EARTH
16 OCHRA: Rmds DERIVED FROM RUBRICA
17 LEUCOPHORON
18 PARÆTONIUM
19 MELINUM: 6 Rmds. CERUSE
20 USTA
21 ERETRIA
22 SANDARACH
23 SANDYX
24 SYRICUM
25 ATRAMENTUM
26 PURPURISSUM
27 INDICUM
28 ARMENIUM; 1 Rmd
29 APPIANUM
30 ANULARIAN WHITE
31 WHICH COLOURS DO NOT ADMIT OF BEING LAID ON A WET COATING
32 WHAT COLORS WERE USED BY ANCIENTS IN PAINTING
33 AT WHAT TIME COMBATS OF GLADIATORS 1ST PAINTED & PUBLICLY EXHIBITED
34 AGE OF PAINTING; WITH NAMES OF MORE CELEBRATED WORKS & ARTISTS, 405 IN NUMBER
35 1ST CONTEST FOR EXCELLENCE IN PICTORIAL ART
36 ARTISTS WHO PAINTED WITH PENCIL
37 VARIOUS OTHER KINDS OF PAINTING
38 EFFECTUAL WAY OF PUTTING A STOP TO SINGING OF BIRDS S
39 ARTISTS WHO HAVE PAINTED IN ENCAUSTICS OR WAX, WITH EITHER CESTRUM OR PENCIL
40 1ST INVENTORS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF PAINTING. GREATEST DIFFICULTIES IN ART OF PAINTING. SEVERAL VARIETIES OF PAINTING. 1ST ARTIST THAT PAINTED CEILINGS. WHEN ARCHED ROOFS WERE 1ST PAINTED. MARVELLOUS PRICE OF SOME PICTURES
41 ENCAUSTIC PAINTING
42 COLORING OF TISSUES
43 INVENTORS OF ART OF MODELLING
44 1ST TO MOULD FIGURES IN IMITATION OF FEATURES OF LIVING PERSONS, OR OF STATUES
45 MOST FAMOUS MODELLERS
46 WORKS IN POTTERY
47 VARIOUS KINDS OF EARTH. PUTEOLAN DUST, & OTHER EARTHS OF WHICH CEMENTS LIKE STONE ARE MADE
48 FORMACEAN WALLS
49 WALLS OF BRICK. METHOD OF MAKING BRICKS
50 SULPHUR, & SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT: 14 Rmds
51 BITUMEN, & SEVERAL VARIETIES; 27 Rmds
52 ALUMEN, & SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; 38 Rmds
53 SAMIAN EARTH: 3 Rmds
54 VARIOUS KINDS OF ERETRIA
55 METHOD OF WASHING EARTHS FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES
56 CHIAN EARTH; 3 Rmds. SELINUSIAN EARTH; 3 Rmds. PNIGITIS; 9 Rmds. AMPELITIS; 4 Rmds
57 CRETACEOUS EARTHS USED FOR SCOURING CLOTH. CIMOLIAN EARTH; 9 Rmds. SARDINIAN EARTH. UMBRIAN EARTH. SAXUM
58 ARGENTARIA. NAMES OF FREEDMEN WHO HAVE EITHER RISEN TO POWER THEMSELVES, OR HAVE BELONGED TO MEN OF INFLUENCE
59 EARTH OF GALATA; OF CLYPEA; OF BALEARES; & OF EBUSUS
   
1 LUXURY DISPLAYED IN USE OF VARIOUS KINDS OF MARBLE
2 1ST TO EMPLOY MARBLE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS
3 1ST TO ERECT COLUMNS OF FOREIGN MARBLE AT ROME
4 1ST ARTISTS WHO EXCELLED IN SCULPTURE OF MARBLE, & VARIOUS PERIODS AT WHICH THEY FLOURISHED. MAUSOLEUM IN CARIA. MOST CELEBRATED SCULPTORS & WORKS IN MARBLE, 225 IN NUMBER
5 AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST USED IN BUILDINGS
6 1ST TO CUT MARBLE INTO SLABS & WHEN
7 1ST TO ENCRUST WALLS OF HOUSES AT ROME WITH MARBLE
8 WHEN VARIOUS KINDS OF MARBLE CAME INTO USE AT ROME
9 METHOD OF CUTTING MARBLE INTO SLABS. SAND USED IN CUTTING MARBLE
10 STONE OF NAXOS. STONE OF ARMENIA
11 MARBLES OF ALEXANDRIA
12 ONYX & ALABASTRITES; 6 Rmds
13 LYGDINUS, CORALLITIC STONE, STONE OF ALABANDA
STONE OF THEBAIS, STONE OF SYENE
14 OBELISKS
15 OBELISK WHICH SERVES AS A DIAL IN CAMPUS MARTIUS
16 MARVELLOUS WORKS IN EGYPT. PYRAMIDS
17 EGYPTIAN SPHINX
18 PHAROS
19 LABYRINTHS
20 HANGING GARDENS. A HANGING CITY
21 TEMPLE OF DIANA AT EPHESUS
22 MARVELS CONNECTED WITH OTHER TEMPLES
23 FUGITIVE STONE. 7-FOLD ECHO. BUILDINGS ERECTED WITHOUT USE OF NAILS
24 MARVELLOUS BUILDINGS AT ROME, 18 IN NUMBER
25 MAGNET: 3 Rmds
26 STONE OF SCYROS
27 SARCOPHAGUS, OR STONE OF ASSOS: 10 Rmds
28 CHERNITES
29 OSSEOUS STONES. PALM STONES. CORANI. BLACK STONES
30 MOLAR STONES. PYRITES; 7 Rmds
31 OSTRACITES; 4 Rmds. AMIANTHUS; 2 Rmds
32 GEODES; 3 Rmds
33 MELITINUS; 6 Rmds
34 GAGATES: 6 Rmds
35 SPONGITES: 2 Rmds
36 PHRYGIAN STONE
37 HÆMATITES: 5 Rmds. SCHISTOS: 7 Rmds
38 ÆTHIOPIC HÆMATITES. ANDRODAMAS; 2 Rmds. ARABIAN HÆMATITES. MILTITES OR HEPATITES. ANTHRACITES
39 AËTITES. TAPHIUSIAN STONE. CALLIMUS
40 SAMIAN STONE: 8 Rmds
41 ARABIAN STONE; 6 Rmds
42 PUMICE; 9 Rmds
43 STONES FOR MORTARS USED FOR MEDICINAL & OTHER PURPOSES.
ETESIAN STONE. THEBAIC STONE. CHALAZIAN STONE
44 STONE OF SIPHNOS. SOFT STONES
45 SPECULAR STONES
46 PHENGITES
47 WHETSTONES
48 TOPHUS
49 VARIOUS KINDS OF SILEX
50 OTHER STONES USED FOR BUILDING
51 VARIOUS METHODS OF BUILDING
52 CISTERNS
53 QUICK-LIME
54 VARIOUS KINDS OF SAND. COMBINATIONS OF SAND WITH LIME
55 DEFECTS IN BUILDING. PLASTERS FOR WALLS
56 COLUMNS. SEVERAL KINDS OF COLUMNS
57 5 Rmds DERIVED FROM LIME
58 MALTHA
59 Gypsum
60 PAVEMENTS. ASAROTOS ŒCOS
61 1ST PAVEMENTS IN USE AT ROME
62 TERRACE-ROOF PAVEMENTS
63 GRÆCANIC PAVEMENTS
64 WHEN MOSAIC PAVEMENTS WERE FIRST INVENTED. AT WHAT PERIOD ARCHED ROOFS WERE 1ST DECORATED WITH GLASS
65 ORIGIN OF GLASS
66 VARIOUS KINDS OF GLASS, & MODE OF MAKING IT
67 OBSIAN GLASS & OBSIAN STONE
68 MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH FIRE
69 3 Rmds DERIVED FROM FIRE & ASHES
70 PRODIGIES CONNECTED WITH HEARTH
 

37 History of Precious Stones

1 1ST USE OF PRECIOUS STONES
2 JEWEL OF POLYCRATES
3 JEWEL OF PYRRBUS
4 WHO WERE MOST SKILLFUL LAPIDARIES.
FINEST SPECIMENS OF ENGRAVING ON PRECIOUS STONES
5 1ST DACTYLIOTHECÆ AT ROME
6 JEWELS DISPLAYED AT ROME IN TRIUMPH OF POMPEIUS MAGNUS
7 PERIOD MURRHINE VESSELS 1ST INTRODUCED AT ROME.
INSTANCES OF LUXURY IN REFERENCE TO THEM
8 NATURE OF MURRHINE VESSELS
9 NATURE OF CRYSTAL
10 LUXURY DISPLAYED IN USE OF CRYSTAL. Rmds DERIVED FROM CRYSTAL
11 AMBER & MANY FALSEHOODS TOLD ABOUT IT
12 SEVERAL KINDS OF AMBER: Rmds DERIVED FROM IT
13 LYNCURIUM: 2 ASSERTED Rmds
14 PRECIOUS STONES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO PRINCIPAL COLOURS
15 ADAMAS: 6 VARIETIES. 2 Rmds
16 SMARAGDUS
17 12 VARIETIES OF SMARAGDUS
18 DEFECTS IN SMARAGDUS
19 PRECIOUS STONE CALLED TANOS. CHALCOSMA-RAGDOS
20 BERYLS: 8 VARIETIES OF THEM. DEFECTS IN BERYLS
21 OPALS: 7 VARIETIES OF THEM
22 DEFECTS IN OPALS: MODES OF TESTING THEM
23 SARDONYX; SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT. DEFECTS IN SARDONYX
24 ONYX: SEVERAL VARIETIES
25 CARBUNCULUS: 12 VARIETIES OF IT
26 DEFECTS IN CARBUNCULUS, & MODE OF TESTING IT
27 ANTHRACITIS
28 SANDASTROS. SANDARESOS
29 LYCHNIS: 4 VARIETIES
30 CARCHEDONIA
31 SARDA: 5 VARIETIES
32 TOPAZOS: 2 VARIETIES
33 CALLAINA
34 PRASIUS; 3 VARIETIES OF IT
35 NILION
36 MOLOCHITIS
37 IASPIS; 14 VARIETIES OF IT. DEFECTS FOUND IN IASPIS
38 CYANOS; SEVERAL VARIETIES
39 SAPPHIROS
40 AMETHYSTOS; 4 VARIETIES. SOCONDION. SAPENOS. PHARANITIS. APHRODITES BLEPHARON, ANTEROS, OR PÆDEROS
41 HYACINTHOS
42 CHRYSOLITHOS: 7 VARIETIES OF IT
43 CHRYSELECTRUM
44 LEUCOCHRYSOS: 4 VARIETIES OF IT
45 MELICHRYSOS. XUTHON
46 PÆDEROS, SANGENON, OR TENITES
47 ASTERIA
48 ASTRION
49 ASTRIOTES
50 ASTROBOLOS
51 CERAUNIA; 4 VARIETIES
52 IRIS; 2 VARIETIES
53 LEROS
54 ACHATES; SEVERAL VARIETIES. ACOPOS; Rmds DERIVED. ALABASTRITIS; Rmds DERIVED. ALECTORIA. ANDRODAMAS. ARGYRODAMAS. ANTIPATHES. ARABICA. AROMATITIS. ASBESTOS. ASPISATIS. ATIZÖE. AUGETIS. AMPHIDANES OR CHRYSOCOLLA. APHRODISIACA. APSYCTOS. ÆGYPTILLA
55 BALANITES. BATRACHITIS. BAPTES. BELI OCULUS. BELUS. BAROPTENUS OR BARIPPE. BOTRYITIS. BOSTRYCHITIS. BUCARDIA. BRONTEA. BOLOS
56 CADMITIS. CALLAIS. CAPNITIS. CAPPADOCIA. CALLAICA. CATOCHITIS. CATOPTRITIS. CEPITIS OR CEPOLATITIS. CERAMITIS. CINÆDIA. CERITIS. CIRCOS. CORSOÏDES. CORALLOACHATES. CORALLIS. CRATERITIS. CROCALLIS. CYITIS. CHALCOPHONOS. CHELIDONIA. CHELONIA. CHELONITIS. CHLORITIS. CHOASPITIS. CHRYSOLAMPIS. CHRYSOPIS. CEPONIDES
57 DAPHNEA. DIADOCHOS. DIPHYES. DIONYSIAS. DRACONITIS
58 ENCARDIA OR ARISTE. ENORCHIS. EXEBENUS. ERYTHALLS. EROTYLOS. AMPHICOMOS, OR HIEROMNEMON. EUMECES. EUMITHRES. EUPETALOS. EUREOS. EUROTIAS. EUSEBES. EPIMELAS
59 GALAXIAS. GALACTITIS, LEUCOGÆA, LEUCOGRAPRITIS, OR SYNNEPHITIS. GALLAICA. GASSINADE. GLOSSOPETRA. GORGONIA. GONIAÆA
60 HELIOTROPIUM. HEPILESTITIS. HERMUAIDOION. HEXLCONTALITROS. HIERACITIS. HAMMITIS. HAMMONIS CORNU. HORMISCION. HYÆNIA. HÆMATITIS
61 IDÆI DACTYLI. ICTERIAS. JOVIS GEMMA. INDICA. ION
62 LEPIDOTIS. LESBIAS. LEUCOPHTHALMOS. LEUCOPŒCILOS. LIBANOCHRUS. LIMONIATIS. LIPAREA. LYSIMACHOS. LEUCOCHRYSOS
63 MEMNONIA. MEDIA. MECONITIS. MITHRAX, MOROCHTHOS. MORMORION OR PROMNION. MURRHITIS. MYRMECIAS. MYRSINITIS. MESOLEUCOS. MESOMELAS
64 NASAMONITIS. NEBRITIS. NIPPARENE
65 OICA. OMBRIA OR NOTIA. ONOCARDIA. ORITIS OR SIDERITIS. OSTRACIAS. OSTRITIS. OPHICARDELON. OBSIAN STONE
66 PANCHRUS. PANGONUS. PANEROS OR PANERASTOS. PONTICA; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. PHLOGINOS OR CHRYSITIS. PHŒNICITIS. PHYCITIS. PERILEUCOS. PÆANITIS OR GÆANIS
67 SOLIS GEMMA. SAGDA. SAMOTHRACIA. SAURITIS. SARCITIS. SELENITIS. SIDERITIS. SIDEROPŒCILOS. SPONGITIS. SYNODONTITIS. SYRTITIS. SYRINGITIS
68 TRICHRUS. THELYRRHIZOS. THELYCARDIOS OR MULC. THRACIA; 3 VARIETIES OF IT. TEPHRITIS. TECOLITHOS
69 VENERIS CRINES. VEIENTANA
70 ZATHENE. ZMILAMPIS. ZORANISCÆA
71 PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF HUMAN BODY. HEPATITIS. STEATITIS. ADADUNEPHROS. ADADUOPHTHALMOS. ADADUDACTYLOS. TRIOPHTHALMOS
72 PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM ANIMALS. CARCINIAS. ECHITIS. SCORPITIS. SCARITIS. TRIGLITIS. ÆGOPHTHALMOS. HYOPHTHALMOS. GERANITIS. HIERACITIS. AETITIS. MYRMECITIS. CANTHARIAS. LYCOPHTHALMOS. TAOS. TIMICTONIA
73 PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM OTHER OBJECTS. HAMMOCHRYSOS. CENCHRITIS. DRYITIS. CISSITIS. NARCISSITIS. CYAMIAS. PYREN. PHŒNICITIS. CHALAZIAS. PYRITIS. POLYZONOS. ASTRAPÆA. PHLOGITIS. ANTHEACITIS. ENHYGROS. POLYTHRIX. LEONTIOS. PAEDALIOS. DROSOLITHOS. MELICHRUS. MELICHLOROS, CROCIAS. POLIAS. SPARTOPOLIAS. RHODITIS. CHALCITIS. SYCITIS. BOSTRYCHITIS. CHERNITIS. ANANCITIS. SYNOCHITIS. DENDRITIS
74 PRECIOUS STONES THAT SUDDENLY MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE. COCHLIDES
75 VARIOUS FORMS OF PRECIOUS STONES
76 METHODS OF TESTING PRECIOUS STONES
77 COMPARATIVE VIEW OF NATURE AS SHE APPEARS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.
COMPARATIVE VALUES OF THINGS
 

1 BOOK 1 M

1 DEDICATION M
C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS TO HIS FRIEND TITUS VESPASIAN.
THIS treatise on Natural History, a novel work in Roman literature, which I have just completed, I have taken the liberty to dedicate to you, most gracious Emperor, an appellation peculiarly suitable to you, while, on account of his age, that of great is more appropriate to your Father;—
"For still thou ne'er wouldst quite despise
The trifles that I write;"
if I may be allowed to shelter myself under the example of Catullus, my fellow-countryman, a military term, which you well understand. For he, as you know, when his napkins had been changed, expressed himself a little harshly, from his anxiety to show his friendship for his dear little Veranius and Fabius. At the same time this my importunity may effect, what you complained of my not having done in another too forward epistle of mine; it will put upon record, and let all the world know, with what kindness you exercise the imperial dignity. You, who have had the honour of a triumph, and of the censorship, have been six times consul, and have shared in the tribunate; and, what is still more honourable, whilst you held them in conjunction with your Father, you have presided over the Equestrian order, and been the Prefect of the Prætorians: all this you have done for the service of the Republic, and, at the same time, have regarded me as a fellow-soldier and a messmate. Nor has the extent of your prosperity produced any change in you, except that it has given you the power of doing good to the utmost of your wishes. And whilst all these circumstances increase the veneration which other persons feel for you, with respect to myself, they have made me so bold, as to wish to become more familiar. You must, therefore, place this to your own account, and blame yourself for any fault of this kind that I may commit.

But, although I have laid aside my blushes, I have not gained my object; for you still awe me, and keep me at a distance, by the majesty of your understanding. In no one does the force of eloquence and of tribunitian oratory blaze out more powerfully! With what glowing language do you thunder forth the praises of your Father! How dearly do you love your Brother! How admirable is your talent for poetry! What a fertility of genius do you possess, so as to enable you to imitate your Brother! But who is there that is bold enough to form an estimate on these points, if he is to be judged by you, and, more especially, if you are challenged to do so? For the case of those who merely publish their works is very different from that of those who expressly dedicate them to you. In the former case I might say, Emperor! why do you read these things? They are written only for the common people, for farmers or mechanics, or for those who have nothing else to do; why do you trouble yourself with them? Indeed, when I undertook this work, I did not expect that you would sit in judgement upon me; I considered your situation much too elevated for you to descend to such an office. Besides, we possess the right of openly rejecting the opinion of men of learning. M. Tullius himself, whose genius is beyond all competition, uses this privilege; and, remarkable as it may appear, employs an advocate in his own defence:—"I do not write for very learned people; I do not wish my works to be read by Manius Persius, but by Junius Congus." And if Lucilius, who first introduced the satirical style, applied such a remark to himself, and if Cicero thought proper to borrow it, and that more especially in his treatise "De Republica," how much reason have I to do so, who have such a judge to defend myself against! And by this dedication I have deprived myself of the benefit of challenge; for it is a very different thing whether a person has a judge given him by lot, or whether he voluntarily selects one; and we always make more preparation for an invited guest, than for one that comes in unexpectedly.

When the candidates for office, during the heat of the canvass, deposited the fine in the hands of Cato, that determined opposer of bribery, rejoicing as he did in his being rejected from what he considered to be foolish honours, they professed to do this out of respect to his integrity; the greatest glory which a man could attain. It was on this occasion that Cicero uttered the noble ejaculation, "How happy are you, Marcus Porcius, of whom no one dares to ask what is dishonourable!" When L. Scipio Asiaticus appealed to the tribunes, among whom was Gracchus, he expressed full confidence that he should obtain an acquittal, even from a judge who was his enemy. Hence it follows, that he who appoints his own judge must absolutely submit to the decision; this choice is therefore termed an appeal.

I am well aware, that, placed as you are in the highest station, and gifted with the most splendid eloquence and the most accomplished mind, even those who come to pay their respects to you, do it with a kind of veneration: on this account I ought to be careful that what is dedicated to you should be worthy of you. But the country people, and, indeed, some whole nations offer milk to the Gods, and those who cannot procure frankincense substitute in its place salted cakes; for the Gods are not dissatisfied when they are worshiped by every one to the best of his ability. But my temerity will appear the greater by the consideration, that these volumes, which I dedicate to you, are of such inferior importance. For they do not admit of the display of genius, nor, indeed, is mine one of the highest order; they admit of no excursions, nor orations, nor discussions, nor of any wonderful adventures, nor any variety of transactions, nor, from the barrenness of the matter, of anything particularly pleasant in the narration, or agreeable to the reader. The na- ture of things, and life as it actually exists, are described in them; and often the lowest department of it; so that, in very many cases, I am obliged to use rude and foreign, or even barbarous terms, and these often require to be introduced by a kind of preface. And, besides this, my road is not a beaten track, nor one which the mind is much disposed to travel over. There is no one among us who has ever attempted it, nor is there any one individual among the Greeks who has treated of all the topics. Most of us seek for nothing but amusement in our studies, while others are fond of subjects that are of excessive subtilty, and completely involved in obscurity. My object is to treat of all those things which the Greeks include in the Encyclopædia, which, however, are either not generally known or are rendered dubious from our ingenious conceits. And there are other matters which many writers have given so much in detail that we quite loathe them. It is, indeed, no easy task to give novelty to what is old, and authority to what is new; brightness to what is become tarnished, and light to what is obscure; to render what is slighted acceptable, and what is doubtful worthy of our confidence; to give to all a natural manner, and to each its peculiar nature. It is sufficiently honourable and glorious to have been willing even to make the attempt, although it should prove unsuccessful. And, indeed, I am of opinion, that the studies of those are more especially worthy of our regard, who, after having overcome all difficulties, prefer the useful office of assisting others to the mere gratification of giving pleasure; and this is what I have already done in some of my former works. I confess it surprises me, that T. Livius, so celebrated an author as he is, in one of the books of his history of the city from its origin, should begin with this remark, "I have now obtained a sufficient reputation, so that I might put an end to my work, did not my restless mind require to be supported by employment." Certainly he ought to have composed this work, not for his own glory, but for that of the Roman name, and of the people who were the conquerors of all other nations. It would have been more meritorious to have persevered in his labours from his love of the work, than from the gratification which it afforded himself, and to have accomplished it, not for his own sake, but for that of the Roman people.

I have included in thirty-six books , topics, all worthy of attention, (for, as Domitius Piso says, we ought to make not merely books, but valuable collections,) gained by the perusal of about volumes, of which a few only are in the hands of the studious, on account of the obscurity of the subjects, procured by the careful perusal of select authors; and to these I have made considerable additions of things, which were either not known to my predecessors, or which have been lately discovered. Nor can I doubt but that there still remain many things which I have omitted; for I am a mere mortal, and one that has many occupations. I have, therefore, been obliged to compose this work at interrupted intervals, indeed during the night, so that you will find that I have not been idle even during this period. The day I devote to you, exactly portioning out my sleep to the necessity of my health, and contenting myself with this reward, that while we are musing on these subjects (according to the remark of Varro), we are adding to the length of our lives; for life properly consists in being awake.

In consideration of these circumstances and these difficulties, I dare promise nothing; but you have done me the most essential service in permitting me to dedicate my work to you. Nor does this merely give a sanction to it, but it determines its value; for things are often conceived to be of great value, solely because they are consecrated in temples.

I have given a full account of all your family—your Father, yourself, and your Brother, in a history of our own times, beginning where Aufidius Bassus concludes. You will ask, Where is it? It has been long completed and its accuracy confirmed; but I have determined to commit the charge of it to my heirs, lest I should have been suspected, during my lifetime, of having been unduly influenced by ambition. By this means I confer an obligation on those who occupy the same ground with myself; and also on posterity, who, I am aware, will contend with me, as I have done with my predecessors.

You may judge of my taste from my having inserted, in the beginning of my book, the names of the authors that I have consulted. For I consider it to be courteous and to indicate an ingenuous modesty, to acknowledge the sources whence we have derived assistance, and not to act as most of those have done whom I have examined. For I must inform you, that in comparing various authors with each other, I have discovered, that some of the most grave and of the latest writers have transcribed, word for word, from former works, without making any acknowledgement; not avowedly rivalling them, in the manner of Virgil, or with the candour of Cicero, who, in his treatise "De Republica," professes to coincide in opinion with Plato, and in his Essay on Consolation for his Daughter, says that he follows Crantor, and, in his Offices, Panæcius; volumes, which, as you well know, ought not merely to be always in our hands, but to be learned by heart. For it is indeed the mark of a perverted mind and a bad disposition, to prefer being caught in a theft to returning what we have borrowed, especially when we have acquired capital, by usurious interest.

The Greeks were wonderfully happy in their titles. One work they called κηρίον, which means that it was as sweet as a honeycomb; another κέρας ᾿αμαλθείας, or Cornu copiæ, so that you might expect to get even a draught of pigeon's milk from it. Then they have their Flowers, their Muses, Magazines, Manuals, Gardens, Pictures, and Sketches, all of them titles for which a man might be tempted even to forfeit his bail. But when you enter upon the works, O ye Gods and Goddesses! how full of emptiness! Our duller countrymen have merely their Antiquities, or their Examples, or their Arts. I think one of the most humorous of them has his Nocturnal Studies, a term employed by Bibaculus; a name which he richly deserved. Varro, indeed, is not much behind him, when he calls one of his satires A Trick and a Half, and another Turning the Tables. Diodorus was the first among the Greeks who laid aside this trifling manner and named his history The Library. Apion, the grammarian, indeed—he whom Tiberius Cæsar called the Trumpeter of the World, but would rather seem to be the Bell of the Town-crier,—supposed that every one to whom he inscribed any work would thence acquire immortality. I do not regret not having given my work a more fanciful title.

That I may not, however, appear to inveigh so completely against the Greeks, I should wish to be considered under the same point of view with those inventors of the arts of painting and sculpture, of whom you will find an account in these volumes, whose works, although they are so perfect that we are never satisfied with admiring them, are inscribed with a temporary title, such as "Apelles, or Polycletus, was doing this;" implying that the work was only commenced and still imperfect, and that the artist might benefit by the criticisms that were made on it and alter any part that required it, if he had not been prevented by death. It is also a great mark of their modesty, that they inscribed their works as if they were the last which they had executed, and as still in hand at the time of their death. I think there are but three works of art which are inscribed positively with the words "such a one executed this;" of these I shall give an account in the proper place. In these cases it appears, that the artist felt the most perfect satisfaction with his work, and hence these pieces have excited the envy of every one.

I, indeed, freely admit, that much may be added to my works; not only to this, but to all which I have published. By this admission I hope to escape from the carping critics, and I have the more reason to say this, because I hear that there are certain Stoics and Logicians, and also Epicureans (from the Grammarians I expected as much), who are big with something against the little work I published on Grammar; and that they have been carrying these abortions for ten years together—a longer pregnancy this than the elephant's. But I well know, that even a woman once wrote against Theophrastus, a man so eminent for his eloquence that he obtained his name, which signifies the Divine speaker, and that from this circumstance originated the proverb of choosing a tree to hang oneself.

I cannot refrain from quoting the words of Cato the censor, which are so pertinent to this point. It appears from them, that even Cato, who wrote commentaries on military discipline, and who had learned the military art under Africanus, or rather under Hannibal (for he could not endure Africanus, who, when he was his general, had borne away the triumph from him), that Cato, I say, was open to the attacks of such as caught at reputation for themselves by detracting from the merits of others. And what does he say in his book? "I know, that when I shall publish what I have written, there will be many who will do all they can to depreciate it, and, especially, such as are themselves void of all merit; but I let their harangues glide by me." Nor was the remark of Plancus a bad one, when Asinius Pollio was said to be preparing an oration against him, which was to be published either by himself or his children, after the death of Plancus, in order that he might not be able to answer it: "It is only ghosts that fight with the dead." This gave such a blow to the oration, that in the opinion of the learned generally, nothing was ever thought more scandalous. Feeling myself, therefore, secure against these vile slanderers, a name elegantly composed by Cato, to express their slanderous and vile disposition (for what other object have they, but to wrangle and breed quarrels?), I will proceed with my projected work.

And because the public good requires that you should be spared as much as possible from all trouble, I have subjoined to this epistle the contents of each of the following books, and have used my best endeavours to prevent your being obliged to read them all through. And this, which was done for your benefit, will also serve the same purpose for others, so that any one may search for what he wishes, and may know where to find it. This has been already done among us by Valerius Soranus, in his work which he entitled "On Mysteries."

The 1st book is the Preface of the Work, dedicated to Titus Vespasian Cæsar.

The 2nd is on the World, the Elements, and the Heavenly Bodies.

The 3rd, th, th and th books are on Geography, in which is contained an account of the situation of the different countries, the inhabitants, the seas, towns, harbours, mountains, rivers, and dimensions, and the various tribes, some of which still exist and others have disappeared.

The 7th is on Man, and the Inventions of Man.

The 8th on the various kinds of Land Animals.

The 9th on Aquatic Animals.

The 10th on the various kinds of Birds.

The 11th on Insects.

The 12th on Odoriferous Plants.

The 13th on Exotic Trees.

The 14th on Vines.

The 15th on Fruit Trees.

The 16th on Forest Trees.

The 17th on Plants raised in nurseries or gardens.

The 18th on the nature of Fruits and the Cerealia, and the pursuits of the Husbandman.

The 19th on Flax, Broom, and Gardening.

The 20th on the Cultivated Plants that are proper for food and for medicine.

The 21st on Flowers and Plants that are used for making Garlands.

The 22nd on Garlands, and Medicines made from Plants.

The 23rd on Medicines made from Wine and from cultivated Trees.

The 24th on Medicines made from Forest Trees.

The 25th on Medicines made from Wild Plants.

The 26th on New Diseases, and Medicines made, for certain Diseases, from Plants.

The 27th on some other Plants and Medicines.

The 28th on Medicines procured from Man and from large Animals.

The 29th on Medical Authors, and on Medicines from other Animals.

The 30th on Magic, and Medicines for certain parts of the Body.

The 31st on Medicines from Aquatic Animals.

The 32nd on the other properties of Aquatic Animals.

The 33rd on Gold and Silver.

The 34th on Copper and Lead, and the workers of Copper.

The 35th on Painting, Colours, and Painters.

The 36th on Marbles and Stones.

The 37th on Gems.

 

2 WORLD & ELEMENTS M

1 WHETHER WORLD BE FINITE, & WHETHER THERE BE MORE THAN ONE WORLD M
The world, and whatever that be which we otherwise call the heavens, by the vault of which all things are enclosed, we must conceive to be a Deity, to be eternal, without bounds, neither created, nor subject, at any time, to destruction. To inquire what is beyond it is no concern of man, nor can the human mind form any conjecture respecting it. It is sacred, eternal, and without bounds, all in all; indeed including everything in itself; finite, yet like what is infinite; the most certain of all things, yet like what is uncertain, externally and internally embracing all things in itself; it is the work of nature, and itself constitutes nature.
It is madness to harass the mind, as some have done, with attempts to measure the world, and to publish these attempts; or, like others, to argue from what they have made out, that there are innumerable other worlds, and that we must believe there to be so many other natures, or that, if only one nature produced the whole, there will be so many suns and so many moons, and that each of them will have immense trains of other heavenly bodies. As if the same question would not recur at every step of our inquiry, anxious as we must be to arrive at some termination; or, as if this infinity, which we ascribe to nature, the former of all things, cannot be more easily comprehended by one single formation, especially when that is so extensive. It is madness, perfect madness, to go out of this world and to search for what is beyond it, as if one who is ignorant of his own dimensions could ascertain the measure of any thing else, or as if the human mind could see what the world itself cannot contain.
 
2 FORM OF THE WORLD M
That it has the form of a perfect globe we learn from the name which has been uniformly given to it, as well as from numerous natural arguments. For not only does a figure of this kind return everywhere into itself and sustain itself, also including itself, requiring no adjustments, not sensible of either end or beginning in any of its parts, and is best fitted for that motion, with which, as will appear hereafter, it is continually turning round; but still more, because we perceive it, by the evidence of the sight, to be, in every part, convex and central, which could not be the case were it of any other figure.
 
3 ITS NATURE; WHENCE THE NAME IS DERIVED M
The rising and the setting of the sun clearly prove, that this globe is carried round in the space of twenty-four hours, in an eternal and never-ceasing circuit, and with in- credible swiftness. I am not able to say, whether the sound caused by the whirling about of so great a mass be excessive, and, therefore, far beyond what our ears can perceive, nor, indeed, whether the resounding of so many stars, all carried along at the same time and revolving in their orbits, may not produce a kind of delightful harmony of incredible sweetness. To us, who are in the interior, the world appears to glide silently along, both by day and by night.
Various circumstances in nature prove to us, that there are impressed on the heavens innumerable figures of animals and of all kinds of objects, and that its surface is not perfectly polished like the eggs of birds, as some celebrated authors assert. For we find that the seeds of all bodies fall down from it, principally into the ocean, and, being mixed together, that a variety of monstrous forms are in this way frequently produced. And, indeed, this is evident to the eye; for, in one part, we have the figure of a wain, in another of a bear, of a bull, and of a letter; while, in the middle of them, over our heads, there is a white circle.

(.) With respect to the name, I am influenced by the unanimous opinions of all nations. For what the Greeks, from its being ornamented, have termed κόσμος, we, from its perfect and complete elegance, have termed mundus. The name cœlum, no doubt, refers to its being engraven, as it were, with the stars, as Varro suggests. In confirmation of this idea we may adduce the Zodiac, in which are twelve figures of animals; through them it is that the sun has continued its course for so many ages.

 
4 ELEMENTS AND THE PLANETS M
I do not find that any one has doubted that there are four elements. The highest of these is supposed to be fire, and hence proceed the eyes of so many glittering stars. The next is that spirit, which both the Greeks and ourselves call by the same name, air. It is by the force of this vital principle, pervading all things and mingling with all, that the earth, together with the fourth element, water, is balanced in the middle of space. These are mutually bound together, the lighter being restrained by the heavier, so that they cannot fly off; while, on the contrary, from the lighter tending upwards, the heavier are so suspended, that they cannot fall down. Thus, by an equal tendency in an opposite direction, each of them remains in its appropriate place, bound together by the never-ceasing revolution of the world, which always turning on itself, the earth falls to the lowest part and is in the middle of the whole, while it remains suspended in the centre, and, as it were, balancing this centre, in which it is suspended. So that it alone remains immoveable, whilst all things revolve round it, being connected with every other part, whilst they all rest upon it.
(.) Between this body and the heavens there are suspended, in this aërial spirit, seven stars, separated by determinate spaces, which, on account of their motion, we call wander- ing, although, in reality, none are less so. The sun is carried along in the midst of these, a body of great size and power, the ruler, not only of the seasons and of the different climates, but also of the stars themselves and of the heavens. When we consider his operations, we must regard him as the life, or rather the mind of the universe, the chief regulator and the God of nature; he also lends his light to the other stars. He is most illustrious and excellent, beholding all things and hearing all things, which, I perceive, is ascribed to him exclusively by the prince of poets, Homer.
 
5 GOD M
I consider it, therefore, an indication of human weakness to inquire into the figure and form of God. For whatever God be, if there be any other God, and wherever he exists, he is all sense, all sight, all hearing, all life, all mind, and all within himself. To believe that there are a number of Gods, derived from the virtues and vices of man, as Chastity, Concord, Understanding, Hope, Honour, Clemency, and Fidelity; or, according to the opinion of Democritus, that there are only two, Punishment and Reward, indicates still greater folly. Human nature, weak and frail as it is, mindful of its own infirmity, has made these divisions, so that every one might have recourse to that which he supposed himself to stand more particularly in need of. Hence we find different names employed by different nations; the inferior deities are arranged in classes, and diseases and plagues are deified, in consequence of our anxious wish to propitiate them. It was from this cause that a temple was dedicated to Fever, at the public expense, on the Palatine Hill, and to Orbona, near the Temple of the Lares, and that an altar was elected to Good Fortune on the Esquiline. Hence we may understand how it comes to pass that there is a greater population of the Celestials than of human beings, since each individual makes a separate God for himself, adopting his own Juno and his own Genius. And there are nations who make Gods of certain animals, and even certain obscene things, which are not to be spoken of, swearing by stinking meats and such like. To suppose that marriages are contracted between the Gods, and that, during so long a period, there should have been no issue from them, that some of them should be old and always grey- headed and others young and like children, some of a dark complexion, winged, lame, produced from eggs, living and dying on alternate days, is sufficiently puerile and foolish. But it is the height of impudence to imagine, that adultery takes place between them, that they have contests and quarrels, and that there are Gods of theft and of various crimes. To assist man is to be a God; this is the path to eternal glory. This is the path which the Roman nobles formerly pursued, and this is the path which is now pursued by the greatest ruler of our age, Vespasian Augustus, he who has come to the relief of an exhausted empire, as well as by his sons. This was the ancient mode of remunerating those who deserved it, to regard them as Gods. For the names of all the Gods, as well as of the stars that I have mentioned above, have been derived from their services to mankind. And with respect to Jupiter and Mercury, and the rest of the celestial nomenclature, who does not admit that they have reference to certain natural phænomena? But it is ridiculous to suppose, that the great head of all things, whatever it be, pays any regard to human affairs. Can we believe, or rather can there be any doubt, that it is not polluted by such a disagreeable and complicated office? It is not easy to determine which opinion would be most for the advantage of mankind, since we observe some who have no respect for the Gods, and others who carry it to a scandalous excess. They are slaves to foreign ceremonies; they carry on their fingers the Gods and the monsters whom they worship; they condemn and they lay great stress on certain kinds of food; they impose on themselves dreadful ordinances, not even sleeping quietly. They do not marry or adopt children, or indeed do anything else, without the sanction of their sacred rites. There are others, on the contrary, who will cheat in the very Capitol, and will forswear themselves even by Jupiter Tonans, and while these thrive in their crimes, the others torment themselves with their superstitions to no purpose.
Among these discordant opinions mankind have discovered for themselves a kind of intermediate deity, by which our scepticism concerning God is still increased. For all over the world, in all places, and at all times, Fortune is the only god whom every one invokes; she alone is spoken of, she alone is accused and is supposed to be guilty; she alone is in our thoughts, is praised and blamed, and is loaded with reproaches; wavering as she is, conceived by the generality of mankind to be blind, wandering, inconstant, uncertain, variable, and often favouring the unworthy. To her are referred all our losses and all our gains, and in casting up the accounts of mortals she alone balances the two pages of our sheet. We are so much in the power of chance, that change itself is considered as a God, and the existence of God becomes doubtful.

But there are others who reject this principle and assign events to the influence of the stars, and to the laws of our nativity; they suppose that God, once for all, issues his decrees and never afterwards interferes. This opinion begins to gain ground, and both the learned and the unlearned vulgar are falling into it. Hence we have the admonitions of thunder, the warnings of oracles, the predictions of soothsayers, and things too trifling to be mentioned, as sneezing and stumbling with the feet reckoned among omens. The late Emperor Augustus relates, that he put the left shoe on the wrong foot, the day when he was near being assaulted by his soldiers. And such things as these so embarrass improvident mortals, that among all of them this alone is certain, that there is nothing certain, and that there is nothing more proud or more wretched than man. For other animals have no care but to provide for their subsistence, for which the spontaneous kindness of nature is all-sufficient; and this one circumstance renders their lot more especially preferable, that they never think about glory, or money, or ambition, and, above all, that they never reflect on death.

The belief, however, that on these points the Gods superintend human affairs is useful to us, as well as that the punishment of crimes, although sometimes tardy, from the Deity being occupied with such a mass of business, is never entirely remitted, and that the human race was not made the next in rank to himself, in order that they might be degraded like brutes. And indeed this constitutes the great comfort in this imperfect state of man, that even the Deity cannot do everything. For he cannot procure death for himself, even if he wished it, which, so numerous are the evils of life, has been granted to man as our chief good. Nor can he make mortals immortal, or recall to life those who are dead; nor can he effect, that he who has once lived shall not have lived, or that he who has enjoyed honours shall not have enjoyed them; nor has he any influence over past events but to cause them to be forgotten. And, if we illustrate the nature of our connexion with God by a less serious argument, he cannot make twice ten not to be twenty, and many other things of this kind. By these considerations the power of Nature is clearly proved, and is shown to be what we call God. It is not foreign to the subject to have digressed into these matters, familiar as they are to every one, from the continual discussions that take place respecting God.

 
6 NATURE OF THE STARS; OF THE MOTION OF THE PLANETS M
Let us return from this digression to the other parts of nature. The stars which are described as fixed in the heavens, are not, as the vulgar suppose, attached each of them to different individuals, the brighter to the rich, those that are less so to the poor, and the dim to the aged, shining according to the lot of the individual, and separately assigned to mortals; for they have neither come into existence, nor do they perish in connexion with particular persons, nor does a falling star indicate that any one is dead. We are not so closely connected with the heavens as that the shining of the stars is affected by our death. When they are supposed to shoot or fall, they throw out, by the force of their fire, as if from an excess of nutriment, the superabundance of the humour which they have absorbed, as we observe to take place from the oil in our lamps, when they are burning. The nature of the celestial bodies is eternal, being interwoven, as it were, with the world, and, by this union, rendering it solid; but they exert their most powerful influence on the earth. This, notwithstanding its subtilty, may be known by the clearness and the magnitude of the effect, as we shall point out in the proper place. The account of the circles of the heavens will be better understood when we come to speak of the earth, since they have all a reference to it; except what has been discovered respecting the Zodiac, which I shall now detail.
Anaximander the Milesian, in the th olympiad, is said to have been the first who understood its obliquity, and thus opened the road to a correct knowledge of the subject. Afterwards Cleostratus made the signs in it, first marking those of Aries and Sagittarius; Atlas had formed the sphere long before this time. But now, leaving the further consideration of this subject, we must treat of the bodies that are situated between the earth and the heavens.

It is certain that the star called Saturn is the highest, and therefore appears the smallest, that he passes through the largest circuit, and that he is at least thirty years in completing it. The course of all the planets, and among others of the Sun, and the Moon, is in the contrary direction to that of the heavens, that is towards the left, while the hea- vens are rapidly carried about to the right. And although, by the stars constantly revolving with immense velocity, they are raised up, and hurried on to the part where they set, yet they are all forced, by a motion of their own, in an opposite direction; and this is so ordered, lest the air, being always moved in the same direction, by the constant whirling of the heavens, should accumulate into one mass, whereas now it is divided and separated and beaten into small pieces, by the opposite motion of the different stars. Saturn is a star of a cold and rigid nature, while the orbit of Jupiter is much lower, and is carried round in twelve years. The next star, Mars, which some persons call Hercules, is of a fiery and burning nature, and from its nearness to the sun is carried round in little less than two years. In consequence of the excessive heat of this star and the rigidity of Saturn, Jupiter, which is interposed between the two, is tempered by both of them, and is thus rendered salutary. The path of the Sun consists of degrees; but, in order that the shadow may return to the same point of the dial, we are obliged to add, in each year, five days and the fourth part of a day. On this account an intercalary day is given to every fifth year, that the period of the seasons may agree with that of the Sun.

Below the Sun revolves the great star called Venus, wandering with an alternate motion, and, even in its surnames, rivalling the Sun and the Moon. For when it precedes the day and rises in the morning, it receives the name of Lucifer, as if it were another sun, hastening on the day. On the contrary, when it shines in the west, it is named Vesper, as prolonging the light, and performing the office of the moon. Pythagoras, the Samian, was the first who discovered its nature, about the nd olympiad, in the nd year of the City. It excels all the other stars in size, and its brilliancy is so considerable, that it is the only star which produces a shadow by its rays. There has, consequently, been great interest made for its name; some have called it the star of Juno, others of Isis, and others of the Mother of the Gods. By its influence everything in the earth is generated. For, as it rises in either direction, it sprinkles everything with its genial dew, and not only matures the productions of the earth, but stimulates all living things. It completes the circuit of the zodiac in days, never receding from the sun more than degrees, according to Timæus.

Similarly circumstanced, but by no means equal in size and in power, next to it, is the star Mercury, by some called Apollo; it is carried in a lower orbit, and moves in a course which is quicker by nine days, shining sometimes before the rising of the sun, and at other times after its setting, but never going farther from it than degrees, as we learn from Timæus and Sosigenes. The nature of these two stars is peculiar, and is not the same with those mentioned above, for those are seen to recede from the sun through one-third or one-fourth part of the heavens, and are often seen opposite to it. They have also other larger circuits, in which they make their complete revolutions, as will be described in the account of the great year.

(.) But the Moon, which is the last of the stars, and the one the most connected with the earth, the remedy provided by nature for darkness, excels all the others in its admirable qualities. By the variety of appearances which it assumes, it puzzles the observers, mortified that they should be the most ignorant concerning that star which is the nearest to them. She is always either waxing or waning; sometimes her disc is curved into horns, sometimes it is divided into two equal portions, and at other times it is swelled out into a full orb; sometimes she appears spotted and suddenly becomes very bright; she appears very large with her full orb and suddenly becomes invisible; now continuing during all the night, now rising late, and now aiding the light of the sun during a part of the day; becoming eclipsed and yet being visible while she is eclipsed; concealing herself at the end of the month and yet not supposed to be eclipsed. Sometimes she is low down, sometimes she is high up, and that not according to one uniform course, being at one time raised up to the heavens, at other times almost contiguous to the mountains; now elevated in the north, now depressed in the south; all which circumstances having been noticed by Endymion, a report was spread about, that he was in love with the moon. We are not indeed sufficiently grateful to those, who, with so much labour and care, have enlightened us with this light; while, so diseased is the human mind, that we take pleasure in writing the annals of blood and slaughter, in order that the crimes of men may be made known to those who are ignorant of the constitution of the world itself.

Being nearest to the axis, and therefore having the smallest orbit, the Moon passes in twenty-seven days and the one-third part of a day, through the same space for which Saturn, the highest of the planets, as was stated above, requires thirty years. After remaining for two days in conjunction with the sun, on the thirtieth day she again very slowly emerges to pursue her accustomed course. I know not whether she ought not to be considered as our instructress in everything that can be known respecting the heavens; as that the year is divided into the twelve divisions of the months, since she follows the sun for the same number of times, until he returns to the commencement of his course; and that her brightness, as well as that of the other stars, is regulated by that of the sun, if indeed they all of them shine by light borrowed from him, such as we see floating about, when it is reflected from the surface of water. On this account it is that she dissolves so much moisture, by a gentle and less perfect force, and adds to the quantity of that which the rays of the sun con- sume. On this account she appears with an unequal light, because being full only when she is in opposition, on all the remaining days she shows only so much of herself to the earth as she receives light from the sun. She is not seen in conjunction, because, at that time, she sends back the whole stream of light to the source whence she has derived it. That the stars generally are nourished by the terrestrial moisture is evident, because, when the moon is only half visible she is sometimes seen spotted, her power of absorbing moisture not having been powerful enough; for the spots are nothing else than the dregs of the earth drawn up along with the moisture. (.) But her eclipses and those of the sun, the most wonderful of all the phænomena of nature, and which are like prodigies, serve to indicate the magnitude of these bodies and the shadow which they cast.

 
7 ECLIPSES OF THE MOON AND THE SUN M
For it is evident that the sun is hid by the intervention of the moon, and the moon by the opposition of the earth, and that these changes are mutual, the moon, by her interposition, taking the rays of the sun from the earth, and the earth from the moon. As she advances darkness is suddenly produced, and again the sun is obscured by her shade; for night is nothing more than the shade of the earth. The figure of this shade is like that of a pyramid or an inverted top; and the moon enters it only near its point, and it does not exceed the height of the moon, for there is no other star which is obscured in the same manner, while a figure of this kind always terminates in a point. The flight of birds, when very lofty, shows that shadows do not extend beyond a certain distance; their limit appears to be the termination of the air and the commencement of the æther. Above the moon everything is pure and full of an eternal light. The stars are visible to us in the night, in the same way that other luminous bodies are seen in the dark. It is from these causes that the moon is eclipsed during the night. The two kinds of eclipses are not, however, at the stated monthly periods, on account of the obliquity of the zodiac, and the irregularly wandering course of the moon, as stated above; besides that the motions of these stars do not always occur exactly at the same points.
 
8 MAGNITUDE OF THE STARS M
This kind of reasoning carries the human mind to the heavens, and by contemplating the world as it were from thence, it discloses to us the magnitude of the three greatest bodies in nature. For the sun could not be entirely concealed from the earth, by the intervention of the moon, if the earth were greater than the moon. And the vast size of the third body, the sun, is manifest from that of the other two, so that it is not necessary to scrutinize its size, by arguing from its visible appearance, or from any conjectures of the mind; it must be immense, because the shadows of rows of trees, extending for any number of miles, are disposed in right lines, as if the sun were in the middle of space. Also, because, at the equinox, he is vertical to all the inhabitants of the southern districts at the same time; also, because the shadows of all the people who live on this side of the tropic fall, at noon, towards the north, and, at sunrise, point to the west. But this could not be the case unless the sun were much greater than the earth; nor, unless it much exceeded Mount Ida in breadth, could he be seen when he rises, passing considerably beyond it to the right and to the left, especially, considering that it is separated by so great an interval.
The eclipse of the moon affords an undoubted argument of the sun's magnitude, as it also does of the small size of the earth. For there are shadows of three figures, and it is evident, that if the body which produces the shadow be equal to the light, then it will be thrown off in the form of a pillar, and have no termination. If the body be greater than the light, the shadow will be in the form of an inverted cone, the bottom being the narrowest part, and being, at the same time, of an infinite length. If the body be less than the light, then we shall have the figure of a pyramid, terminating in a point. Now of this last kind is the shadow which produces the eclipse of the moon, and this is so manifest that there can be no doubt remaining, that the earth is exceeded in magnitude by the sun, a circumstance which is indeed indicated by the silent declaration of nature herself. For why does he recede from us at the winter half of the year? That by the darkness of the nights the earth may be refreshed, which otherwise would be burned up, as indeed it is in certain parts; so great is his size.
 
9 OBSERVATIONS MADE ON THE HEAVENS BY DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS M
The first among the Romans, who explained to the people at large the cause of the two kinds of eclipses, was Sulpicius Gallus, who was consul along with Marcellus; and when he was only a military tribune he relieved the army from great anxiety the day before king Perseus was conquered by Paulus; for he was brought by the general into a public assembly, in order to predict the eclipse, of which he afterwards gave an account in a separate treatise. Among the Greeks, Thales the Milesian first investigated the subject, in the fourth year of the forty-eighth olympiad, predicting the eclipse of the sun which took place in the reign of Alyattes, in the th year of the City. After them Hipparchus calculated the course of both these stars for the term of years, including the months, days, and hours, the situation of the different places and the aspects adapted to each of them; all this has been confirmed by experience, and could only be acquired by partaking, as it were, in the councils of nature. These were indeed great men, superior to ordinary mortals, who having discovered the laws of these divine bodies, relieved the miserable mind of man from the fear which he had of eclipses, as foretelling some dreadful events or the destruction of the stars. This alarm is freely acknowledged in the sublime strains of Stesichorus and Pindar, as being produced by an eclipse of the sun. And with respect to the eclipse of the moon, mortals impute it to witchcraft, and therefore endeavour to aid her by producing discordant sounds. In consequence of this kind of terror it was that Nicias, the general of the Athenians, being ignorant of the cause, was afraid to lead out the fleet, and brought great distress on his troops. Hail to your genius, ye interpreters of heaven! ye who comprehend the nature of things, and who have discovered a mode of reasoning by which ye have conquered both gods and men! For who is there, in observing these things and seeing the labours which the stars are compelled to undergo (since we have chosen to apply this term to them), that would not cheerfully submit to his fate, as one born to die? I shall now, in a brief and summary manner, touch on those points in which we are agreed, giving the reasons where it is necessary to do so; for this is not a work of profound argument, nor is it less wonderful to be able to suggest a probable cause for everything, than to give a complete account of a few of them only.
 
10 RECURRENCE OF THE ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AND THE MOON M
It is ascertained that the eclipses complete their whole revolution in the space of months, that the eclipse of the sun takes place only at the conclusion or the commencement of a lunation, which is termed conjunction, while an eclipse of the moon takes place only when she is at the full, and is always a little farther advanced than the preceding eclipse. Now there are eclipses of both these stars in every year, which take place below the earth, at stated days and hours; and when they are above it they are not always visible, sometimes on account of the clouds, but more frequently, from the globe of the earth being opposed to the vault of the heavens. It was discovered two hundred years ago, by the sagacity of Hipparchus, that the moon is sometimes eclipsed after an interval of five months, and the sun after an interval of seven; also, that he becomes invisible, while above the horizon, twice in every thirty days, but that this is seen in different places at different times. But the most wonderful circumstance is, that while it is admitted that the moon is darkened by the shadow of the earth, this occurs at one time on its western, and at another time on its eastern side. And farther, that although, after the rising of the sun, that darkening shadow ought to be below the earth, yet it has once happened, that the moon has been eclipsed in the west, while both the luminaries have been above the horizon. And as to their both being invisible in the space of fifteen days, this very thing happened while the Vespasians were emperors, the father being consul for the third time, and the son for the second.
 
11 MOTION OF THE MOON M
It is certain that the moon, having her horns always turned from the sun, when she is waxing, looks towards the east; when she is waning, towards the west. Also, that, from the second day after the change, she adds / minutes each day, until she is full, and again decreases at the same rate, and that she always becomes invisible when she is within degrees of the sun. This is an argument of the greater size of the planets than of the moon, since these emerge when they are at the distance of degrees only. But their altitude causes them to appear much smaller, as we observe that, during the day, the brightness of the sun prevents those bodies from being seen which are fixed in the firmament, although they shine then as well as in the night: that this is the case is proved by eclipses, and by descending into very deep wells.
 
12 OF THE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS AND THE GENERAL LAWS OF THEIR ASPECTS M
The three planets, which, as we have said, are situated above the sun2, are visible when they come into conjunction with him. They rise visibly3 in the morning, when they are not more than 11 degrees from the sun4; they are afterwards directed by the contact of his rays5, and when they attain the trine aspect, at the distance of 120 degrees, they take their morning stationary positions6, which are termed pri- mary; afterwards, when they are in opposition to the sun, they rise at the distance of 180 degrees from him. And again advancing on the other side to the 120th degree, they attain their evening stations, which are termed secondary, until the sun having arrived within 12 degrees of them, what is called their evening setting becomes no longer visible7. Mars, as being nearer to the sun, feels the influence of his rays in the quadrature, at the distance of 90 degrees, whence that motion receives its name, being termed, from the two risings, respectively the first and the second nonagenarian8. This planet passes from one station to another in six months, or is two months in each sign; the two other planets do not spend more than four months in passing from station to station.
The two inferior planets are, in like manner, concealed in their evening conjunction, and, when they have left the sun, they rise in the morning the same number of degrees distant from him. After having arrived at their point of greatest elongation9, they then follow the sun, and having overtaken him at their morning setting, they become invisible and pass beyond him. They then rise in the evening, at the distances which were mentioned above. After this they return back to the sun and are concealed in their evening setting. The star Venus becomes stationary when at its two points of greatest elongation, that of the morning and of the evening, according to their respective risings. The stationary points of Mercury are so very brief, that they cannot be correctly observed.
 
13 WHY SAME STARS APPEAR SOME TIMES MORE LOFTY & OTHER TIMES MORE NEAR M
The above is an account of the aspects and the occultations of the planets, a subject which is rendered very complicated by their motions, and is involved in much that is wonderful; especially, when we observe that they change their size and colour, and that the same stars at one time approach the north, and then go to the south, and are now seen near the earth, and then suddenly approach the heavens. If on this subject I deliver opinions different from my predecessors, I acknowledge that I am indebted for them to those individuals who first pointed out to us the proper mode of inquiry; let no one then ever despair of benefiting future ages.
But these things depend upon many different causes. The first cause is the nature of the circles described by the stars, which the Greeks term apsides, for we are obliged to use Greek terms. Now each of the planets has its own circle, and this a different one from that of the world; because the earth is placed in the centre of the heavens, with respect to the two extremities, which are called the poles, and also in that of the zodiac, which is situated obliquely between them. And all these things are made evident by the infallible results which we obtain by the use of the compasses. Hence the apsides of the planets have each of them different centres, and consequently they have different orbits and motions, since it necessarily follows, that the interior apsides are the shortest.

(.) The apsides which are the highest from the centre of the earth are, for Saturn, when he is in Scorpio, for Jupiter in Virgo, for Mars in Leo, for the Sun in Gemini, for Venus in Sagittarius, and for Mercury in Capricorn, each of them in the middle of these signs; while in the opposite signs, they are the lowest and nearest to the centre of the earth. Hence it is that they appear to move more slowly when they are carried along the highest circuit; not that their actual motions are accelerated or retarded, these being fixed and determinate for each of them; but because it necessarily follows, that lines drawn from the highest apsis must approach nearer to each other at the centre, like the spokes of a wheel; and that the same motion seems to be at one time greater, and at another time less, according to the distance from the centre.

Another cause of the altitudes of the planets is, that their highest apsides, with relation to their own centres, are in different signs from those mentioned above. Saturn is in the th degree of Libra, Jupiter in the th of Cancer, Mars in the th of Capricorn, the Sun in the th of Aries, Venus in the th of Pisces, Mercury in the th of Virgo, and the Moon in the rd of Taurus.

The third cause of the altitude depends on the form of the heavens, not on that of the orbits; the stars appearing to the eye to mount up and to descend through the depth of the air. With this cause is connected that which depends on the latitude of the planets and the obliquity of the zodiac. It is through this belt that the stars which I have spoken of are carried, nor is there any part of the world habitable, except what lies under it; the remainder, which is at the poles, being in a wild desert state. The planet Venus alone exceeds it by degrees, which we may suppose to be the cause why some animals are produced even in these desert regions of the earth. The moon also wanders the whole breadth of the zodiac, but never exceeds it. Next to these the planet Mercury moves through the greatest space; yet out of the degrees (for there are so many degrees of latitude in the zodiac), it does not pass through more than , nor does it go equally through these, of them being in the middle of the zodiac, in the upper part, and in the lower part. Next to these the Sun is carried through the middle of the zodiac, winding unequally through the two parts of his tortuous circuit. The star Mars occupies the four middle degrees; Jupiter the middle degree and the two above it; Saturn, like the sun, occupies two. The above is an account of the latitudes as they descend to the south or ascend to the north. Hence it is plain that the generality of persons are mistaken in supposing the third cause of the apparent altitude to depend on the stars rising from the earth and climbing up the heavens. But to refute this opinion it is necessary to consider the subject with very great minuteness, and to embrace all the causes.

It is generally admitted, that the stars, at the time of their evening setting, are nearest to the earth, both with respect to latitude and altitude, that they are at the commencement of both at their morning risings, and that they become stationary at the middle points of their latitudes, what are called the ecliptics. It is, moreover, acknowledged, that their motion is increased when they are in the vicinity of the earth, and diminished when they are removed to a greater altitude; a point which is most clearly proved by the different altitudes of the moon. There is no doubt that it is also increased at the morning risings, and that the three superior planets are retarded, as they advance from the first station to the second. And since this is the case, it is evident, that the latitudes are increased from the time of their morning risings, since the motions afterwards appear to receive less addition; but they gain their altitude in the first station, since the rate of their motion then begins to diminish, and the stars to recede.

And the reason of this must be particularly set forth. When the planets are struck by the rays of the sun, in the, situation which I have described, i. e. in their quadrature, they are prevented from holding on their straight forward course, and are raised on high by the force of the fire. This cannot be immediately perceived by the eye, and therefore they seem to be stationary, and hence the term station is derived. Afterwards the violence of the rays increases, and the vapour being beaten back forces them to recede.

This exists in a greater degree in their evening risings, the sun being then turned entirely from them, when they are drawn into the highest apsides; and they are then the least visible, since they are at their greatest altitude and are carried along with the least motion, as much less indeed as this takes place in the highest signs of the apsides. At the time of the evening rising the latitude decreases and becomes less as the motion is diminished, and it does not increase again until they arrive at the second station, when the altitude is also diminished; the sun's rays then coming from the other side, the same force now therefore propels them towards the earth which before raised them into the heavens, from their former triangular aspect. So different is the effect whether the rays strike the planets from below or come to them from above. And all these circumstances produce much more effect when they occur in the evening setting. This is the doctrine of the superior planets; that of the others is more difficult, and has never been laid down by any one before me.

 
14 WHY THE SAME STARS HAVE DIFFERENT MOTIONS M
I must first state the cause, why the star Venus never recedes from the sun more than degrees, nor Mercury more than , while they frequently return to the sun within this distance. As they are situated below the sun, they have both of them their apsides turned in the contrary direction; their orbits are as much below the earth as those of the stars above mentioned are above it, and therefore they cannot recede any farther, since the curve of their apsides has no greater longitude. The extreme parts of their apsides therefore assign the limits to each of them in the same manner, and compensate, as it were, for the small extent of their longitudes, by the great divergence of their latitudes. It may be asked, why do they not always proceed as far as the th and the rd degrees respectively? They in reality do so, but the theory fails us here. For it would appear that the apsides are themselves moved, as they never pass over the sun. When therefore they have arrived at the extremities of their orbits on either side, the stars are then supposed to have proceeded to their greatest distance; when they have been a certain number of degrees within their orbits, they are then supposed to return more rapidly, since the extreme point in each is the same. And on this account it is that the direction of their motion appears to be changed. For the superior planets are carried along the most quickly in their evening setting, while these move the most slowly; the former are at their greatest distance from the earth when they move the most slowly, the latter when they move the most quickly. The former are accelerated when nearest to the earth, the latter when at the extremity of the circle; in the former the rapidity of the motion begins to diminish at their morning risings, in the latter it begins to increase; the former are retrograde from their morning to their evening station, while Venus is retrograde from the evening to the morning station. She begins to increase her latitude from her morning rising, her altitude follows the sun from her morning station, her motion being the quickest and her altitude the greatest in her morning setting. Her latitude decreases and her altitude diminishes from her evening rising, she becomes retrograde, and at the same time decreases in her altitude from her evening station.
Again, the star Mercury, in the same way, mounts up in both directions from his morning rising, and having followed the sun through a space of degrees, he becomes almost stationary for four days. Presently he diminishes his altitude, and recedes from his evening setting to his morning rising. Mercury and the Moon are the only planets which descend for the same number of days that they ascend. Venus ascends for fifteen days and somewhat more; Saturn and Jupiter descend in twice that number of days, and Mars in four times. So great is the variety of nature! The reason of it is, however, evident; for those planets which are forced up by the vapour of the sun likewise descend with difficulty.
 
15 GENERAL LAWS OF THE PLANETS M
There are many other secrets of nature in these points, as well as the laws to which they are subject, which might be mentioned. For example, the planet Mars, whose course is the most difficult to observe, never becomes stationary when Jupiter is in the trine aspect, very rarely when he is degrees from the sun, which number is one-sixth of the circuit of the heavens; nor does he ever rise in the same sign with Jupiter, except in Cancer and Leo. The star Mercury seldom has his evening risings in Pisces, but very frequently in Virgo, and his morning risings in Libra; he has also his morning rising in Aquarius, very rarely in Leo. He never becomes retrograde either in Taurus or in Gemini, nor until the th degree of Cancer. The Moon makes her double conjunction with the sun in no other sign except Gemini, while Sagittarius is the only sign in which she has sometimes no conjunction at all. The old and the new moon are visible on the same day or night in no other sign except Aries, and indeed it has happened very seldom to any one to have witnessed it. From this circumstance it was that the tale of Lynceus's quick-sightedness originated. Saturn and Mars are invisible at most for days; Jupiter for , or, at the least, for days less than this; Venus for , or, at the least, for ; Mercury for , or, at the most, for .
 
16 REASON WHY THE STARS ARE OF DIFFERENT COLOURS M
The difference of their colour depends on the difference in their altitudes; for they acquire a resemblance to those planets into the vapour of which they are carried, the orbit of each tinging those that approach it in each direction. A colder planet renders one that approaches it paler, one more hot renders it redder, a windy planet gives it a lowering aspect, while the sun, at the union of their apsides, or the extremity of their orbits, completely obscures them. Each of the planets has its peculiar colour; Saturn is white, Jupiter brilliant, Mars fiery, Lucifer is glowing, Vesper refulgent, Mercury sparkling, the Moon mild; the Sun, when he rises, is blazing, afterwards he becomes radiating. The appearance of the stars, which are fixed in the firmament, is also affected by these causes. At one time we see a dense cluster of stars around the moon, when she is only half-enlightened, and when they are viewed in a serene evening; while, at another time, when the moon is full, there are so few to be seen, that we wonder whither they are fled; and this is also the case when the rays of the sun, or of any of the above-mentioned bodies, have dazzled our sight. And, indeed, the moon herself is, without doubt, differently affected at different times by the rays of the sun; when she is entering them, the convexity of the heavens rendering them more feeble than when they fall upon her more directly. Hence, when she is at a right angle to the sun, she is half-enlightened; when in the trine aspect, she presents an imperfect orb, while, in opposition, she is full. Again, when she is waning, she goes through the same gradations, and in the same order, as the three stars that are superior to the sun.
 
17 MOTION OF THE SUN AND THE CAUSE OF THE IRREGULARITY OF THE DAYS M
The Sun himself is in four different states; twice the night is equal to the day, in the Spring and in the Autumn, when he is opposed to the centre of the earth, in the th degree of Aries and Libra. The length of the day and the night is then twice changed, when the day increases in length, from the winter solstice in the th degree of Capricorn, and afterwards, when the night increases in length from the summer solstice in the th degree of Cancer. The cause of this inequality is the obliquity of the zodiac, since there is, at every moment of time, an equal portion of the firmament above and below the horizon. But the signs which mount directly upwards, when they rise, retain the light for a longer space, while those that are more oblique pass along more quickly.
 
18 WHY THUNDER IS ASCRIBED TO JUPITER M
It is not generally known, what has been discovered by men who are the most eminent for their learning, in consequence of their assiduous observations of the heavens, that the fires which fall upon the earth, and receive the name of thunder-bolts, proceed from the three superior stars, but principally from the one which is situated in the middle. It may perhaps depend on the superabundance of moisture from the superior orbit communicating with the heat from the inferior, which are expelled in this manner; and hence it is commonly said, the thunder-bolts are darted by Jupiter. And as, in burning wood, the burnt part is cast off with a crackling noise, so does the star throw off this celestial fire, bearing the omens of future events, even the part which is thrown off not losing its divine operation. And this takes place more particularly when the air is in an unsettled state, either because the moisture which is then collected excites the greatest quantity of fire, or because the air is disturbed, as if by the parturition of the pregnant star.
 
19 DISTANCES OR THE STARS M
Many persons have attempted to discover the distance of the stars from the earth, and they have published as the result, that the sun is nineteen times as far from the moon, as the moon herself is from the earth. Pythagoras, who was a man of a very sagacious mind, computed the distance from the earth to the moon to be , furlongs, that from her to the sun is double this distance, and that it is three times this distance to the twelve signs; and this was also the opinion of our countryman, Gallus Sulpicius.
Alexandre remarks, that Pliny mentions this, not as his own opinion, but that of many persons; for, in chap. , he attempts to prove mathematically, that the moon is situated at an equal distance between the sun and the earth; Lemaire, ii. .

Marcus remarks upon the inconsistency between the account here given of Pythagoras's opinion, and what is generally supposed to have been his theory of the planetary system, according to which the sun, and not the earth, is placed in the centre; Enfield's Philosophy, i. , . Yet we find that Plato, and many others among the ancients, give us the same account of Pythagoras's doctrine of the respective distances of the heavenly bodies; Ajasson, ii. . Plato in his Timæus, . p. –, details the complicated arrangement which he supposes to constitute the proportionate distances of the planetary bodies.

Sulpicius has already been mentioned, in the ninth chapter of this book, as being the first among the Romans who gave a popular explanation of the cause of eclipses.

 
20 HARMONY OF THE STARS M
Pythagoras, employing the terms that are used in music, sometimes names the distance between the Earth and the Moon a tone; from her to Mercury he supposes to be half this space, and about the same from him to Venus. From her to the Sun is a tone and a half; from the Sun to Mars is a tone, the same as from the Earth to the Moon; from him there is half a tone to Jupiter, from Jupiter to Saturn also half a tone, and thence a tone and a half to the zodiac. Hence there are seven tones, which he terms the diapason harmony, meaning the whole compass of the notes. In this, Saturn is said to move in the Doric time, Jupiter in the Phrygian, and so forth of the rest; but this is a refinement rather amusing than useful.
 
21 DIMENSIONS OF THE WORLD M
The stadium is equal to of our Roman paces, or feet. Posidonius supposes that there is a space of not less than stadia around the earth, whence mists, winds and clouds proceed; beyond this he supposes that the air is pure and liquid, consisting of uninterrupted light; from the clouded region to the moon there is a space of ,, of stadia, and thence to the sun of ,,. It is in consequence of this space that the sun, notwithstanding his immense magnitude, does not burn the earth. Many persons have imagined that the clouds rise to the height of stadia. These points are not completely made out, and are difficult to explain; but we have given the best account of them that has been published, and if we may be allowed, in any degree, to pursue these investigations, there is one infallible geometrical principle, which we cannot reject. Not that we can ascertain the exact dimensions (for to profess to do this would be almost the act of a madman), but that the mind may have some estimate to direct its conjectures. Now it is evident that the orbit through which the sun passes consists of nearly degrees, and that the diameter is always the third part and a little less than the seventh of the circumference. Then taking the half of this (for the earth is placed in the centre) it will follow, that nearly one-sixth part of the immense space, which the mind conceives as constituting the orbit of the sun round the earth, will compose his altitude. That of the moon will be one-twelfth part, since her course is so much shorter than that of the sun; she is therefore carried along midway between the sun and the earth. It is astonishing to what an extent the weakness of the mind will proceed, urged on by a little success, as in the abovementioned instance, to give full scope to its impudence! Thus, having ventured to guess at the space between the sun and the earth, we do the same with respect to the heavens, because he is situated midway between them; so that we may come to know the measure of the whole world in inches. For if the diameter consist of seven parts, there will be twenty-two of the same parts in the circumference; as if we could measure the heavens by a plumb-line!
The Egyptian calculation, which was made out by Petosi- ris and Necepsos, supposes that each degree of the lunar orbit (which, as I have said, is the least) consists of little more than stadia; in the very large orbit of Saturn the number is double; in that of the sun, which, as we have said, is in the middle, we have the half of the sum of these numbers. And this is indeed a very modest calculation, since if we add to the orbit of Saturn the distance from him to the zodiac, we shall have an infinite number of degrees.
 
22 STARS WHICH APPEAR SUDDENLY, OR OF COMETS M
A few things still remain to be said concerning the world; for stars are suddenly formed in the heavens themselves; of these there are various kinds.
(.) The Greeks name these stars comets; we name them Crinitæ, as if shaggy with bloody locks, and surrounded with bristles like hair. Those stars, which have a mane hanging down from their lower part, like a long beard, are named Pogoniæ. Those that are named Acontiæ vibrate like a dart with a very quick motion. It was one of this kind which the Emperor Titus described in his very excellent poem, as having been seen in his fifth consulship; and this was the last of these bodies which has been observed. When they are short and pointed they are named Xiphiæ; these are the pale kind; they shine like a sword and are without any rays; while we name those Discei, which, being of an amber colour, in conformity with their name, emit a few rays from their margin only. A kind named Pitheus exhibits the figure of a cask, appearing convex and emitting a smoky light. The kind named Cerastias has the appearance of a horn; it is like the one which was visible when the Greeks fought at Salamis. Lampadias is like a burning torch; Hippias is like a horse's mane; it has a very rapid motion, like a circle revolving on itself. There is also a white comet, with silver hair, so brilliant that it can scarcely be looked at, exhibiting, as it were, the aspect of the Deity in a human form. There are some also that are shaggy, having the appearance of a fleece, surrounded by a kind of crown. There was one, where the appearance of a mane was changed into that of a spear; it happened in the th olympiad, in the th year of the City. The shortest time during which any one of them has been observed to be visible is days, the longest days.
 
23 THEIR NATURE, SITUATION, AND SPECIES M
Some of them move about in the manner of planets, others remain stationary. They are almost all of them seen towards the north, not indeed in any particular portion of it, but generally in that white part of it which has obtained the name of the Milky Way. Aristotle informs us that several of them are to be seen at the same time, but this, as far as I know, has not been observed by any one else; also that they prognosticate high winds and great heat. They are also visible in the winter months, and about the south pole, but they have no rays proceeding from them. There was a dreadful one observed by the Æthiopians and the Egyptians, to which Typhon, a king of that period, gave his own name; it had a fiery appearance, and was twisted like a spiral; its aspect was hideous, nor was it like a star, but rather like a knot of fire. Sometimes there are hairs attached to the planets and the other stars. Comets are never seen in the western part of the heavens. It is generally regarded as a terrific star, and one not easily expiated; as was the case with the civil commotions in the consulship of Octavius, and also in the war of Pompey and Cæsar. And in our own age, about the time when Claudius Cæsar was poisoned and left the Empire to Domitius Nero, and afterwards, while the latter was Emperor, there was one which was almost constantly seen and was very frightful. It is thought important to notice towards what part it darts its beams, or from what star it receives its influence, what it resembles, and in what places it shines. If it resembles a flute, it portends some- thing unfavourable respecting music; if it appears in the parts of the signs referred to the secret members, something respecting lewdness of manners; something respecting wit and learning, if they form a triangular or quadrangular figure with the position of some of the fixed stars; and that some one will be poisoned, if they appear in the head of either the northern or the southern serpent.
Rome is the only place in the whole world where there is a temple dedicated to a comet; it was thought by the late Emperor Augustus to be auspicious to him, from its appearing during the games which he was celebrating in honour of Venus Genetrix, not long after the death of his father Cæsar, in the College which was founded by him. He expressed his joy in these terms: "During the very time of these games of mine, a hairy star was seen during seven days, in the part of the heavens which is under the Great Bear. It rose about the eleventh hour of the day, was very bright, and was conspicuous in all parts of the earth. The common people supposed the star to indicate, that the soul of Cæsar was admitted among the immortal Gods; under which designation it was that the star was placed on the bust which was lately consecrated in the forum." This is what he proclaimed in public, but, in secret, he rejoiced at this auspicious omen, interpreting it as produced for himself; and, to confess the truth, it really proved a salutary omen for the world at large.

Some persons suppose that these stars are permanent, and that they move through their proper orbits, but that they are only visible when they recede from the sun. Others suppose that they are produced by an accidental vapour together with the force of fire, and that, from this circumstance, they are liable to be dissipated.

 
24 DOCTRINE OF HIPPARCHUS ABOUT THE STARS M
This same Hipparchus, who can never be sufficiently commended, as one who more especially proved the relation of the stars to man, and that our souls are a portion of heaven, discovered a new star that was produced in his own age, and, by observing its motions on the day in which it shone, he was led to doubt whether it does not often happen, that those stars have motion which we suppose to be fixed. And the same individual attempted, what might seem presumptuous even in a deity, viz. to number the stars for posterity and to express their relations by appropriate names; having previously devised instruments, by which he might mark the places and the magnitudes of each individual star. In this way it might be easily discovered, not only whether they were destroyed or produced, but whether they changed their relative positions, and likewise, whether they were increased or diminished; the heavens being thus left as an inheritance to any one, who might be found competent to complete his plan.
 
25 EXAMPLES FROM HISTORY OF CELESTIAL PRODIGIES; FACES, LAMPADES, & BOLIDES M
The faces shine brilliantly, but they are never seen excepting when they are falling one of these darted across the heavens, in the sight of all the people, at noon-day, when Germanicus Cæsar was exhibiting a show of gladiators. There are two kinds of them; those which are called lampades and those which are called bolides, one of which latter was seen during the troubles at Mutina. They differ from each other in this respect, that the faces produce a long train of light, the fore-part only being on fire; while the bolides, being entirely in a state of combustion, leave a still longer track behind them.
 
26 TRABES CELESTES; CHASMA CŒLI M
The trabes also, which are named δοκοὶ, shine in the same manner; one of these was seen at the time when the Lacedæmonians, by being conquered at sea, lost their influence in Greece. An opening sometimes takes place in the firmament, which is named chasma.
 
27 COLOURS OF THE SKY AND OF CELESTIAL FLAME M
There is a flame of a bloody appearance (and nothing is more dreaded by mortals) which falls down upon the earth, such as was seen in the third year of the rd olympiad, when King Philip was disturbing Greece. But my opinion is, that these, like everything else, occur at stated, natural periods, and are not produced, as some persons imagine, from a variety of causes, such as their fine genius may suggest. They have indeed been the precursors of great evils, but I conceive that the evils occurred, not because the prodigies took place, but that these took place because the evils were appointed to occur at that period. Their cause is obscure in consequence of their rarity, and therefore we are not as well acquainted with them as we are with the rising of the stars, which I have mentioned, and with eclipses and many other things.
 
28 CELESTIAL CORONÆ M
Stars are occasionally seen along with the sun, for whole days together, and generally round its orb, like wreaths made of the ears of corn, or circles of various colours; such as occurred when Augustus, while a very young man, was entering the city, after the death of his father, in order to take upon himself the great name which he assumed. (.) The same coronæ occur about the moon and also about the principal stars, which are stationary in the heavens.
 
29 SUDDEN CIRCLES M
A bow appeared round the sun in the consulship of L. Opimius and L. Fabius, and a circle in that of C. Porcius and M. Acilius. (.) There was a little circle of a red colour in the consulship of L. Julius and P. Rutilius.
 
30 UNUSUALLY LONG ECLIPSES OF THE SUN M
Eclipses of the sun also take place which are portentous and unusually long, such as occurred when Cæsar the Dictator was slain, and in the war against Antony, the sun remained dim for almost a whole year.
 
31 MANY SUNS M
And again, many suns have been seen at the same time; not above or below the real sun, but in an oblique direction, never near nor opposite to the earth, nor in the night, but either in the east or in the west. They are said to have been seen once at noon in the Bosphorus, and to have continued from morning until sunset. Our ancestors have frequently seen three suns at the same time, as was the case in the consulship of Sp. Postumius and L. Mucius, of L. Marcius and M. Portius, that of M. Antony and Dolabella, and that of M. Lepidus and L. Plancus. And we have ourselves seen one during the reign of the late Emperor Claudius, when he was consul along with Corn. Orfitus. We have no account transmitted to us of more than three having been seen at the same time.
 
32 MANY MOONS M
Three moons have also been seen, as was the case in the consulship of Cn. Domitius and C. Fannius; they have generally been named nocturnal suns.
 
33 DAYLIGHT IN THE NIGHT M
A bright light has been seen proceeding from the heavens in the night time, as was the case in the consulship of C. Cæcilius and Cn. Papirius, and at many other times, so that there has been a kind of daylight in the night.
 
34 BURNING SHIELDS M
A burning shield darted across at sunset, from west to east, throwing out sparks, in the consulship of L. Valerius and C. Marius.
 
35 OMINOUS APPEARANCE IN THE HEAVENS, THAT WAS SEEN ONCE ONLY M
We have an account of a spark falling from a star, and increasing as it approached the earth, until it became of the size of the moon, shining as through a cloud; it afterwards returned into the heavens and was converted into a lampas; this occurred in the consulship of Cn. Octavius and C. Scri- bonius. It was seen by Silanus, the proconsul, and his attendants.
 
36 STARS WHICH MOVE ABOUT IN VARIOUS DIRECTIONS M
Stars are seen to move about in various directions, but never without some cause, nor without violent winds proceeding from the same quarter.
 
37 STARS WHICH ARE NAMED CASTOR AND POLLUX M
These stars occur both at sea and at land. I have seen, during the night-watches of the soldiers, a luminous appearance, like a star, attached to the javelins on the ramparts. They also settle on the yard-arms and other parts of ships while sailing, producing a kind of vocal sound, like that of birds flitting about. When they occur singly they are mischievous, so as even to sink the vessels, and if they strike on the lower part of the keel, setting them on fire. When there are two of them they are considered auspicious, and are thought to predict a prosperous voyage, as it is said that they drive away that dreadful and terrific meteor named Helena. On this account their efficacy is ascribed to Castor and Pollux, and they are invoked as gods. They also occasionally shine round the heads of men in the evening, which is considered as predicting something very important. But there is great uncertainty respecting the cause of all these things, and they are concealed in the majesty of nature.
 
38 AIR AND ON THE CAUSE OF THE SHOWERS OF STONES M
So far I have spoken of the world itself and of the stars. I must now give an account of the other remarkable phænomena of the heavens. For our ancestors have given the name of heavens, or, sometimes, another name, air, to all the seemingly void space, which diffuses around us this vital spirit. It is situated beneath the moon, indeed much lower, as is admitted by every one who has made observations on it, and is composed of a great quantity of air from the upper regions, mixed with a great quantity of terrestrial vapour, the two forming a compound. Hence proceed clouds, thunder and lightning of all kinds; hence also hail, frost, showers, storms and whirlwinds; hence proceed many of the evils incident to mortals, and the mutual contests of the various parts of nature. The force of the stars keeps down all terrestrial things which tend towards the heavens, and the same force attracts to itself those things which do not go there spontaneously. The showers fall, mists rise up, rivers are dried up, hail-storms rush down, the rays of the sun parch the earth, and impel it from all quarters towards the centre. The same rays, still unbroken, dart back again, and carry with them whatever they can take up. Vapour falls from on high and returns again to the same place. Winds arise which contain nothing, but which return loaded with spoils. The breathing of so many animals draws down the spirit from the higher regions; but this tends to go in a contrary direction, and the earth pours out its spirit into the void space of the heavens. Thus nature moving to and fro, as if impelled by some machine, discord is kindled by the rapid motion of the world. Nor is the contest allowed to cease, for she is continually whirled round and lays open the causes of all things, forming an immense globe about the earth, while she again, from time to time, covers this other firma- ment with clouds. This is the region of the winds. Here their nature principally originates, as well as the causes of almost all other things; since most persons ascribe the darting of thunder and lightning to their violence. And to the same cause are assigned the showers of stones, these having been previously taken up by the wind, as well as many other bodies in the same way. On this account we must enter more at large on this subject.
 
39 STATED SEASONS M
It is obvious that there are causes of the seasons and of other things which have been stated, while there are some things which are casual, or of which the reason has not yet been discovered. For who can doubt that summer and winter, and the annual revolution of the seasons are caused by the motion of the stars? As therefore the nature of the sun is understood to influence the temperature of the year, so each of the other stars has its specific power, which produces its appropriate effects. Some abound in a fluid retaining its liquid state, others, in the same fluid concreted into hoar frost, compressed into snow, or frozen into hail; some are prolific in winds, some in heat, some in vapours, some in dew, some in cold. But these bodies must not be supposed to be actually of the size which they appear, since the consideration of their immense height clearly proves, that none of them are less than the moon. Each of them exercises its influence over us by its own motions; this is particularly observable with respect to Saturn, which produces a great quantity of rain in its transits. Nor is this power confined to the stars which change their situations, but is found to exist in many of the fixed stars, whenever they are impelled by the force of any of the planets, or excited by the impulse of their rays; as we find to be the case with respect to the Suculæ, which the Greeks, in reference to their rainy nature, have termed the Hyades. There are also certain events which occur spontaneously, and at stated periods, as the rising of the Kids. The star Arcturus scarcely ever rises without storms of hail occurring.
 
40 RISING OF THE DOG-STAR M
Who is there that does not know that the vapour of the sun is kindled by the rising of the Dog-star? The most powerful effects are felt on the earth from this star. When it rises, the seas are troubled, the wines in our cellars ferment, and stagnant waters are set in motion. There is a wild beast, named by the Egyptians Oryx, which, when the star rises, is said to stand opposite to it, to look steadfastly at it, and then to sneeze, as if it were worshiping it. There is no doubt that dogs, during the whole of this period, are peculiarly disposed to become rabid.
 
41 REGULAR INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFERENT SEASONS M
There is moreover a peculiar influence in the different degrees of certain signs, as in the autumnal equinox, and also in the winter solstice, when we find that a particular star is connected with the state of the weather. It is not so much the recurrence of showers and storms, as of various circumstances, which act both upon animals and vegetables. Some are planet-struck, and others, at stated times, are affected in the bowels, the sinews, the head, or the intellect. The olive, the white poplar, and the willow turn their leaves round at the summer solstice. The herb pulegium, when dried and hanging up in a house, blossoms on the very day of the winter solstice, and bladders burst in consequence of their being distended with air. One might wonder at this, did we not observe every day, that the plant named heliotrope always looks towards the setting sun, and is, at all hours, turned towards him, even when he is obscured by clouds. It is certain that the bodies of oysters and of whelks, and of shell-fish generally, are increased in size and again diminished by the influence of the moon. Certain accurate observers have found out, that the entrails of the field-mouse correspond in number to the moon's age, and that the very small animal, the ant, feels the power of this luminary, always resting from her labours at the change of the moon. And so much the more disgraceful is our ignorance, as every one acknowledges that the diseases in the eyes of certain beasts of burden increase and diminish according to the age of the moon. But the immensity of the heavens, divided as they are into seventy-two constellations, may serve as an excuse. These are the resemblances of certain things, animate and inanimate, into which the learned have divided the heavens. In these they have announced stars, as being remarkable either for their effects or their appearance; for example, in the tail of the Bull there are seven stars, which are named Vergiliæ; in his forehead are the Suculæ; there is also Bootes, which follows the seven northern stars.
 
42 UNCERTAIN STATES OF THE WEATHER M
But I would not deny, that there may exist showers and winds, independent of these causes, since it is certain that an exhalation proceeds from the earth, which is sometimes moist, and at other times, in consequence of the vapours, like dense smoke; and also, that clouds are formed, either from the fluid rising up on high, or from the air being compressed into a fluid. Their density and their substance is very clearly proved from their intercepting the sun's rays, which are visible by divers, even in the deepest waters.
 
43 THUNDER AND LIGHTNING M
It cannot therefore be denied, that fire proceeding from the stars which are above the clouds, may fall on them, as we frequently observe on serene evenings, and that the air is agitated by the impulse, as darts when they are hurled whiz through the air. And when it arrives at the cloud, a discordant kind of vapour is produced, as when hot iron is plunged into water, and a wreath of smoke is evolved. Hence arise squalls. And if wind or vapour be struggling in the cloud, thunder is discharged; if it bursts out with a flame, there is a thunderbolt; if it be long in forcing out its way, it is simply a flash of lightning. By the latter the cloud is simply rent, by the former it is shattered. Thunder is pro- duced by the stroke given to the condensed air, and hence it is that the fire darts from the chinks of the clouds. It is possible also that the vapour, which has risen from the earth, being repelled by the stars, may produce thunder, when it is pent up in a cloud; nature restraining the sound whilst the vapour is struggling to escape, but when it does escape, the sound bursting forth, as is the case with bladders that are distended with air. It is possible also that the spirit, whatever it be, may be kindled by friction, when it is so violently projected. It is possible that, by the dashing of the two clouds, the lightning may flash out, as is the case when two stones are struck against each other. But all these things appear to be casual. Hence there are thunderbolts which produce no effect, and proceed from no immediate actual cause; by these mountains and seas are struck, and no injury is done. Those which prognosticate future events proceed from on high and from stated causes, and they come from their peculiar stars.
 
44 ORIGIN OF WINDS M
In like manner I would not deny that winds, or rather sudden gusts, are produced by the arid and dry vapours of the earth; that air may also be exhaled from water, which can neither be condensed into a mist, nor compressed into a cloud; that it may be also driven forward by the impulse of the sun, since by the term 'wind' we mean nothing more than a current of air, by whatever means it may be produced. For we observe winds to proceed from rivers and bays, and from the sea, even when it is tranquil; while others, which are named Altani, rise up from the earth; when they come back from the sea they are named Tropæi, but if they go straight on, Apogæi.
(.) The windings and the numerous peaks of mountains, their ridges, bent into angles or broken into defiles, with the hollow valleys, by their irregular forms, cleaving the air which rebounds from them (which is also the cause why voices are, in many cases, repeated several times in succession), give rise to winds.

(.) There are certain caves, such as that on the coast of Dalmatia, with a vast perpendicular chasm, into which, if a light weight only be let down, and although the day be calm, a squall issues from it like a whirlwind. The name of the place is Senta. And also, in the province of Cyrenaica, there is a certain rock, said to be sacred to the south wind, which it is profane for a human hand to touch, as the south wind immediately rolls forwards clouds of sand. There are also, in many houses, artificial cavities, formed in the walls, which produce currents of air; none of these are without their appropriate cause.

 
45 VARIOUS OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING WINDS M
But there is a great difference between a gale and a wind. The former are uniform and appear to rush forth; they are felt, not in certain spots only, but over whole countries, not forming breezes or squalls, but violent storms. Whether they be produced by the constant revolution of the world and the opposite motion of the stars, or whether they both of them depend on the generative spirit of the nature of things, wandering, as it were, up and down in her womb, or whether the air be scourged by the irregular strokes of the wandering stars, or the various projections of their rays, or whether they, each of them, proceed from their own stars, among which are those that are nearest to us, or whether they descend from those that are fixed in the heavens, it is manifest that they are all governed by a law of nature, which is not altogether unknown, although it be not completely ascertained.
(.) More than twenty old Greek writers have published their observations upon this subject. And this is the more remarkable, seeing that there is so much discord in the world, and that it is divided into different kingdoms, that is into separate members, that there should have been so many who have paid attention to these subjects, which are so difficult to investigate. Especially when we consider the wars and the treachery which everywhere prevail; while pirates, the enemies of the human race, have possession of all the modes of communication, so that, at this time, a person may acquire more correct information about a country from the writings of those who have never been there, than from the inhabitants themselves. Whereas, at this day, in the blessed peace which we enjoy, under a prince who so greatly encourages the advancement of the arts, no new inquiries are set on foot, nor do we even make ourselves thoroughly masters of the discoveries of the ancients. Not that there were greater rewards held out, from the advantages being distributed to a greater number of persons, but that there were more individuals who diligently scrutinized these matters, with no other prospect but that of benefiting posterity. It is that the manners of men are degenerated, not that the advantages are diminished. All the seas, as many as there are, being laid open, and a hospitable reception being given us at every shore, an immense number of people undertake voyages; but it is for the sake of gain, not of science. Nor does their understanding, which is blinded and bent only on avarice, perceive that this very thing might be more safely done by means of science. Seeing, therefore, that there are so many thousands of persons on the seas, I will treat of the winds with more minuteness than perhaps might otherwise appear suitable to my undertaking.
 
46 DIFFERENT KINDS OF WINDS M
The ancients reckoned only four winds (nor indeed does Homer mention more) corresponding to the four parts of the world; a very poor reason, as we now consider it. The next generation added eight others, but this was too refined and minute a division; the moderns have taken a middle course, and, out of this great number, have added four to the original set. There are, therefore, two in each of the four quarters of the heavens. From the equinoctial rising of the sun proceeds Subsolanus, and, from his brumal rising, Vulturnus; the former is named by the Greeks Apeliotes, the latter Eurus. From the south we have Auster, and from the brumal setting of the sun, Africus; these were named Notos and Libs. From the equinoctial setting proceeds Favonius, and from the solstitial setting, Corus; these were named Zephyrus and Argestes. From the seven stars comes Septemtrio, between which and the solstitial rising we have Aquilo, named Aparctias and Boreas. By a more minute subdivision we interpose four others, Thrascias, between Septemtrio and the solstitial setting; Cæcias, between Aquilo and the equinoctial rising; and Phœnices, between the brumal rising and the south. And also, at an equal distance from the south and the winter setting, between Libs and Notos, and compounded of the two, is Libonotos. Nor is this all. For some persons have added a wind, which they have named Meses, between Boreas and Cæcias, and one between Eurus and Notos, named Euronotus.
There are also certain winds peculiar to certain countries, which do not extend beyond certain districts, as Sciron in Attica, deviating a little from Argestes, and not known in the other parts of Greece. In other places it is a little higher on the card and is named Olympias; but all these have gone by the name of Argestes. In some places Cæcias is named Hellespontia, and the same is done in other cases. In the province of Narbonne the most noted wind is Circius; it is not inferior to any of the winds in violence, frequently driving the waves before it, to Ostia, straight across the Ligurian sea. Yet this same wind is unknown in other parts, not even reaching Vienne, a city in the same province; for meeting with a high ridge of hills, just before it arrives at that district, it is checked, although it be the most violent of all the winds. Fabius also asserts, that the south winds never penetrate into Egypt. Hence this law of nature is obvious, that winds have their stated seasons and limits.
 
47 PERIODS OF THE WINDS M
The spring opens the seas for the navigators. In the beginning of this season the west winds soften, as it were, the winter sky, the sun having now gained the th degree of Aquarius; this is on the sixth day before the Ides of February. This agrees, for the most part, with all the remarks that I shall subsequently make, only anticipating the period by one day in the intercalary year, and again, preserving the same order in the succeeding lustrum. After the eighth day before the Calends of March, Favonius is called by some Chelidonias, from the swallows making their appearance. The wind, which blows for the space of nine days, from the seventy-first day after the winter solstice, is sometimes called Ornithias, from the arrival of the birds. In the contrary direction to Favonius is the wind which we name Subsolanus, and this is connected with the rising of the Vergiliæ, in the th degree of Taurus, six days before the Ides of May, which is the time when south winds prevail: these are opposite to Septemtrio. The dog-star rises in the hottest time of the summer, when the sun is entering the first degree of Leo; this is fifteen days before the Calends of August. The north winds, which are called Prodromi, precede its rising by about eight days. But in two days after its rising, the same north winds, which are named Etesiæ, blow more constantly during this period; the vapour from the sun, being increased twofold by the heat of this star, is supposed to render these winds more mild; nor are there any which are more regular. After these the south winds become more frequent, until the appearance of Arcturus, which rises eleven days before the autumnal equinox. At this time Corus sets in; Corus is an autumnal wind, and is in the opposite direction to Vulturnus. After this, and generally for forty-four days after the equinox, at the setting of the Vergiliæ, the winter commences, which usually happens on the third of the Ides of November. This is the period of the winter north wind, which is very unlike the summer north wind, and which is in the opposite direction to Africus. For seven days before the winter solstice, and for the same length of time after it, the sea becomes calm, in order that the king-fishers may rear their young; from this circumstance they have obtained the name of the halcyon days; the rest of the season is winterly. Yet the severity of the storms does not entirely close up the sea. In former times, pirates were compelled, by the fear of death, to rush into death, and to brave the winter ocean; now we are driven to it by avarice.
 
48 NATURE OF THE WINDS
Those are the coldest winds which are said to blow from the seven stars, and Corus, which is contiguous to them; these also restrain the others and dispel the clouds. The moist winds are Africus, and, still more, the Auster of Italy. It is said that, in Pontus, Cæcias attracts the clouds. The dry winds are Corus and Vulturnus, especially when they are about to cease blowing. The winds that bring snow are Aquilo and Septemtrio; Septemtrio brings hail, and so does Corus; Auster is sultry, Vulturnus and Zephyrus are warm. These winds are more dry than Subsolanus, and generally those which blow from the north and west are more dry than those which blow from the south and east. Aquilo is the most healthy of them all; Auster is unhealthy, and more so when dry; it is colder, perhaps because it is moist. Animals are supposed to have less appetite for food when this wind is blowing. The Etesiæ generally cease during the night, and spring up at the third hour of the day. In Spain and in Asia these winds have an easterly direction, in Pontus a northerly, and in other places a southerly direction. They blow also after the winter solstice, when they are called Ornithiæ, but they are more gentle and continue only for a few days. There are two winds which change their nature with their situation; in Africa Auster is attended with a clear sky, while Aquilo collects the clouds. Almost all winds blow in their turn, so that when one ceases its opposite springs up. When winds which are contiguous succeed each other, they go from left to right, in the direction of the sun. The fourth day of the moon generally determines their direction for the whole of the monthly period. We are able to sail in opposite directions by means of the same wind, if we have the sails properly set; hence it frequently happens that, in the night, vessels going in different directions run against each other. Auster produces higher winds than Aquilo, because the former blows, as it were, from the bottom of the sea, while the latter blows on the surface; it is therefore after south winds that the most mischievous earthquakes have occurred. Auster is more violent during the night, Aquilo during the day; winds from the east continue longer than from the west. The north winds generally cease blowing on the odd days, and we observe the prevalence of the odd numbers in many other parts of nature; the male winds are therefore regulated by the odd numbers. The sun sometimes increases and sometimes restrains winds; when rising and setting it increases them; while, when on the meridian, it restrains them during the summer. They are, therefore, generally lulled during the middle of the day and of the night, because they are abated either by excessive cold or heat; winds are also lulled by showers. We generally expect them to come from that quarter where the clouds open and allow the clear sky to be seen. Eudoxus supposes that the same succession of changes occurs in them after a period of four years, if we observe their minute revolutions; and this applies not only to winds, but to whatever concerns the state of the weather. He begins his lustrum at the rising of the dog-star, in the intercalary year. So far concerning winds in general.
 
49 ECNEPHIAS & TYPHON
And now respecting the sudden gusts, which arising from the exhalations of the earth, as has been said above, and falling down again, being in the mean time covered by a thin film of clouds, exist in a variety of forms. By their wandering about, and rushing down like torrents, in the opinion of some persons, they produce thunder and lightning. But if they be urged on with greater force and violence, so as to cause the rupture of a dry cloud, they produce a squall, which is named by the Greeks Ecnephias. But, if these are compressed, and rolled up more closely together, and then break without any discharge of fire, i. e. without thunder, they produce a squall, which is named Typhon, or an Ecnephias in a state of agitation. It carries along a portion of the cloud which it has broken off, rolling it and turning it round, aggravating its own destruction by the weight of it, and whirling it from place to place. This is very much dreaded by sailors, as it not only breaks their sail-yards, but the vessels themselves, bending them about in various ways. This may be in a slight degree counteracted by sprinkling it with vinegar, when it comes near us, this substance being of a very cold nature. This wind, when it rebounds after the stroke, absorbs and carries up whatever it may have seized on.
 
50 TORNADOES; BLASTING WINDS; WHIRLWINDS, & OTHER WONDERFUL KINDS OF TEMPESTS
But if it burst from the cavity of a cloud which is more depressed, but less capacious than what produces a squall, and is accompanied by noise, it is called a whirlwind, and throws down everything which is near it. The same, when it is more burning and rages with greater heat, is called a blasting wind, scorching and, at the same time, throwing down everything with which it comes in contact. (.) Typhon never comes from the north, nor have we Ecnephias when it snows, or when there is snow on the ground. If it breaks the clouds, and, at the same time, catches fire or burns, but not until it has left the cloud, it forms a thunderbolt. It differs from Prester as flame does from fire; the former is diffused in a gust, the latter is condensed with a violent impulse. The whirlwind, when it rebounds, differs from the tornado in the same manner as a loud noise does from a dash.
The squall differs from both of them in its extent, the clouds being more properly rent asunder than broken into pieces. A black cloud is formed, resembling a great animal, an appearance much dreaded by sailors. It is also called a pillar, when the moisture is so condensed and rigid as to be able to support itself. It is a cloud of the same kind, which, when drawn into a tube, sucks up the water.
 
51 THUNDER; IN WHAT COUNTRIES IT DOES NOT FALL, AND FOR WHAT REASON
Thunder is rare both in winter and in summer, but from different causes; the air, which is condensed in the winter, is made still more dense by a thicker covering of clouds, while the exhalations from the earth, being all of them rigid and frozen, extinguish whatever fiery vapour it may receive. It is this cause which exempts Scythia and the cold districts round it from thunder. On the other hand, the excessive heat exempts Egypt; the warm and dry vapours of the earth being very seldom condensed, and that only into light clouds. But, in the spring and autumn, thunder is more frequent, the causes which produce summer and winter being, in each season, less efficient. From this cause thunder is more frequent in Italy, the air being more easily set in motion, in consequence of a milder winter and a showery summer, so that it may be said to be always spring or autumn. Also in those parts of Italy which recede from the north and lie towards the south, as in the district round our city, and in Campania, it lightens equally both in winter and in summer, which is not the case in other situations.
 
52 DIFFERENT KINDS OF LIGHTNING AND THEIR WONDERFUL EFFECTS
We have accounts of many different kinds of thunder-storms. Those which are dry do not burn objects, but dissipate them; while those which are moist do not burn, but blacken them. There is a third kind, which is called bright lightning, of a very wonderful nature, by which casks are emptied, without the vessels themselves being injured, or there being any other trace left of their operation. Gold, copper, and silver are melted, while the bags which contain them are not in the least burned, nor even the wax seal much defaced. Marcia, a lady of high rank at Rome, was struck while pregnant; the fœtus was destroyed, while she herself survived without suffering any injury. Among the prognostics which took place at the time of Catiline's conspiracy, M. Herennius, a magistrate of the borough of Pompeii, was struck by lightning when the sky was without clouds.
 
53 ETRURIAN AND THE ROMAN OBSERVATIONS ON THESE POINTS
The Tuscan books inform us, that there are nine Gods who discharge thunder-storms, that there are eleven different kinds of them, and that three of them are darted out by Jupiter. Of these the Romans retained only two, ascribing the diurnal kind to Jupiter, and the nocturnal to Summanus; this latter kind being more rare, in consequence of the heavens being colder, as was mentioned above. The Etrurians also suppose, that those which are named Infernal burst out of the ground; they are produced in the winter and are particularly fierce and direful, as all things are which proceed from the earth, and are not generated by or proceeding from the stars, but from a cause which is near at hand, and of a more disorderly nature. As a proof of this it is said, that all those which proceed from the higher regions strike obliquely, while those which are termed terrestrial strike in a direct line. And because these fall from matter which is nearer to us, they are supposed to proceed from the earth, since they leave no traces of a rebound; this being the effect of a stroke coming not from below, but from an opposite quarter. Those who have searched into the subject more minutely suppose, that these come from the planet Saturn, as those that are of a burning nature do from Mars. In this way it was that Volsinium, the most opulent town of the Tuscans, was entirely consumed by lightning. The first of these strokes that a man receives, after he has come into possession of any property, is termed Familiar, and is supposed to prognosticate the events of the whole of his life. But it is not generally supposed that they predict events of a private nature for a longer space than ten years, unless they happen at the time of a first marriage or a birth-day; nor that public predictions extend beyond thirty years, unless with respect to the founding of colonies.
 
54 CONJURING UP THUNDER
It is related in our Annals, that by certain sacred rites and imprecations, thunder-storms may be compelled or invoked. There is an old report in Etruria, that thunder was invoked when the city of Volsinium had its territory laid waste by a monster named Volta. Thunder was also in- voked by King Porsenna. And L. Piso, a very respectable author, states in the first book of his Annals, that this had been frequently done before his time by Numa, and that Tullus Hostilius, imitating him, but not having properly performed the ceremonies, was struck with the lightning. We have also groves, and altars, and sacred places, and, among the titles of Jupiter, as Stator, Tonans, and Feretrius, we have a Jupiter Elicius. The opinions entertained on this point are very various, and depend much on the dispositions of different individuals. To believe that we can command nature is the mark of a bold mind, nor is it less the mark of a feeble one to reject her kindness. Our knowledge has been so far useful to us in the interpretation of thunder, that it enables us to predict what is to happen on a certain day, and we learn either that our fortune is to be entirely changed, or it discloses events which are concealed from us; as is proved by an infinite number of examples, public and private. Wherefore let these things remain, according to the order of nature, to some persons certain, to others doubtful, by some approved, by others condemned. I must not, however, omit the other circumstances connected with them which deserve to be related.
 
55 GENERAL LAWS OF LIGHTNING
It is certain that the lightning is seen before the thunder is heard, although they both take place at the same time. Nor is this wonderful, since light has a greater velocity than sound. Nature so regulates it, that the stroke and the sound coincide; the sound is, however, produced by the discharge of the thunder, not by its stroke. But the air is impelled quicker than the lightning, on which account it is that everything is shaken and blown up before it is struck, and that a person is never injured when he has seen the lightning and heard the thunder. Thunder on the left hand is supposed to be lucky, because the east is on the left side of the heavens. We do not regard so much the mode in which it comes to us, as that in which it leaves us, whether the fire rebounds after the stroke, or whether the current of air returns when the operation is concluded and the fire is consumed. In relation to this object the Etrurians have divided the heavens into sixteen parts. The first great division is from north to east; the second to the south; the third to the west, and the fourth occupies what remains from west to north. Each of these has been subdivided into four parts, of which the eight on the east have been called the left, and those on the west the right divisions. Those which extend from the west to the north have been considered the most unpropitious. It becomes therefore very important to ascertain from what quarter the thunder proceeds, and in what direction it falls. It is considered a very favourable omen when it returns into the eastern divisions. But it prognosticates the greatest felicity when the thunder proceeds from the first-mentioned part of the heavens and falls back into it; it was an omen of this kind which, as we have heard, was given to Sylla, the Dictator. The remaining quarters of the heavens are less propitious, and also less to be dreaded. There are some kinds of thunder which it is not thought right to speak of, or even to listen to, unless when they have been disclosed to the master of a family or to a parent. But the futility of this observation was detected when the temple of Juno was struck at Rome, during the consulship of Scaurus, he who was afterwards the Prince of the Senate.
It lightens without thunder more frequently in the night than in the day. Man is the only animal that is not always killed by it, all other animals being killed instantly, nature having granted to him this mark of distinction, while so many other animals excel him in strength. All animals fall down on the opposite side to that which has been struck; man, unless he be thrown down on the parts that are struck, does not expire. Those who are struck directly from above sink down immediately. When a man is struck while he is awake, he is found with his eyes closed; when asleep, with them open. It is not considered proper that a man killed in this way should be burnt on the funeral pile; our religion enjoins us to bury the body in the earth. No animal is consumed by lightning unless after having been previously killed. The parts of the animal that have been wounded by lightning are colder than the rest of the body.
 
56 OBJECTS. WHICH ARE NEVER STRUCK
Among the productions of the earth, thunder never strikes the laurel, nor does it descend more than five feet into the earth. Those, therefore, who are timid consider the deepest caves as the most safe; or tents made of the skins of the animal called the sea-calf, since this is the only marine animal which is never struck; as is the case, among birds, with the eagle; on this account it is represented as the bearer of this weapon. In Italy, between Terracina and the temple of Feronia, the people have left off building towers in time of war, every one of them having been destroyed by thunderbolts.
 
57 SHOWERS OF MILK, BLOOD, FLESH, IRON, WOOL, AND BAKED TILES
Besides these, we learn from certain monuments, that from the lower part of the atmosphere it rained milk and blood, in the consulship of M'Acilius and C. Porcius, and frequently at other times. This was the case with respect to flesh, in the consulship of P. Volumnius and Servius Sulpicius, and it is said, that what was not devoured by the birds did not become putrid. It also rained iron among the Lucanians, the year before Crassus was slain by the Parthians, as well as all the Lucanian soldiers, of whom there was a great number in this army. The substance which fell had very much the appearance of sponge; the augurs warned the people against wounds that might come from above. In the consulship of L. Paulus and C. Marcellus it rained wool, round the castle of Carissanum, near which place, a year after, T. Annius Milo was killed. It is recorded, among the transactions of that year, that when he was pleading his own cause, there was a shower of baked tiles.
 
 
59 STONES FALLEN FROM CLOUDS & OPINION OF ANAXAGORAS RESPECTING THEM
The Greeks boast that Anaxagoras, the Clazomenian, in the second year of the th Olympiad, from his knowledge of what relates to the heavens, had predicted, that at a certain time, a stone would fall from the sun. And the thing accordingly happened, in the daytime, in a part of Thrace, at the river Ægos. The stone is now to be seen, a waggonload in size and of a burnt appearance; there was also a comet shining in the night at that time. But to believe that this had been predicted would be to admit that the divining powers of Anaxagoras were still more wonderful, and that our knowledge of the nature of things, and indeed every thing else, would be thrown into confusion, were we to suppose either that the sun is itself composed of stone, or that there was even a stone in it; yet there can be no doubt that stones have frequently fallen from the atmosphere. There is a stone, a small one indeed, at this time, in the Gymnasium of Abydos, which on this account is held in veneration, and which the same Anaxagoras predicted would fall in the middle of the earth. There is another at Cassandria, formerly called Potidæa, which from this circumstance was built in that place. I have myself seen one in the country of the Vocontii, which had been brought from the fields only a short time before.
 
60 THE RAINBOW
What we name Rainbows frequently occur, and are not considered either wonderful or ominous; for they do not predict, with certainty, either rain or fair weather. It is obvious, that the rays of the sun, being projected upon a hollow cloud, the light is thrown back to the sun and is re- fracted, and that the variety of colours is produced by a mixture of clouds, air, and fire. The rainbow is certainly never produced except in the part opposite to the sun, nor even in any other form except that of a semicircle. Nor are they ever formed at night, although Aristotle asserts that they are sometimes seen at that time; he acknowledges, however, that it can only be on the th day of the moon. They are seen in the winter the most frequently, when the days are shortening, after the autumnal equinox. They are not seen when the days increase again, after the vernal equinox, nor on the longest days, about the summer solstice, but frequently at the winter solstice, when the days are the shortest. When the sun is low they are high, and when the sun is high they are low; they are smaller when in the east or west, but are spread out wider; in the south they are small, but of a greater span. In the summer they are not seen at noon, but after the autumnal equinox at any hour: there are never more than two seen at once,
 
61 NATURE OF HAIL, SNOW, HOAR, MIST, DEW; THE FORMS OF CLOUDS
I do not find that there is any doubt entertained respecting the following points. (.) Hail is produced by frozen rain, and snow by the same fluid less firmly concreted, and hoar by frozen dew. During the winter snow falls, but not hail; hail itself falls more frequently during the day than the night, and is more quickly melted than snow. There are no mists either in the summer or during the greatest cold of winter. There is neither dew nor hoar formed during great heat or winds, nor unless the night be serene. Fluids are diminished in bulk by being frozen, and, when the ice is melted, we do not obtain the same quantity of fluid as at first.
(.) The clouds are varied in their colour and figure according as the fire which they contain is in excess or is absorbed by them.
 
62 PECULIARITIES OF THE WEATHER IN DIFFERENT PLACES
There are, moreover, certain peculiarities in certain places. In Africa dew falls during the night in summer. In Italy, at Locri, and at the Lake Velinum, there is never a day in which a rainbow is not seen. At Rhodes and at Syracuse the sky is never so covered with clouds, but that the sun is visible at one time or another; these things, however, will be better detailed in their proper place. So far respecting the air.
 
63 NATURE OF THE EARTH
Next comes the earth, on which alone of all parts of nature we have bestowed the name that implies maternal veneration. It is appropriated to man as the heavens are to God. She receives us at our birth, nourishes us when born, and ever afterwards supports us; lastly, embracing us in her bosom when we are rejected by the rest of nature, she then covers us with especial tenderness; rendered sacred to us, inasmuch as she renders us sacred, bearing our monuments and titles, continuing our names, and extending our memory, in opposition to the shortness of life. In our anger we imprecate her on those who are now no more, as if we were ignorant that she is the only being who can never be angry with man. The water passes into showers, is concreted into hail, swells into rivers, is precipitated in torrents; the air is condensed into clouds, rages in squalls; but the earth, kind, mild, and indulgent as she is, and always ministering to the wants of mortals, how many things do we compel her to produce spontaneously! What odours and flowers, nutritive juices, forms and colours! With what good faith does she render back all that has been entrusted to her! It is the vital spirit which must bear the blame of producing noxious animals; for the earth is constrained to receive the seeds of them, and to support them when they are produced. The fault lies in the evil nature which generates them. The earth will no longer harbour a serpent after it has attacked any one, and thus she even demands punishment in the name of those who are indifferent about it themselves. She pours forth a profusion of medicinal plants, and is always producing something for the use of man. We may even suppose, that it is out of compassion to us that she has ordained certain substances to be poisonous, in order that when we are weary of life, hunger, a mode of death the most foreign to the kind disposition of the earth, might not consume us by a slow decay, that precipices might not lacerate our mangled bodies, that the unseemly punishment of the halter may not torture us, by stopping the breath of one who seeks his own destruction, or that we may not seek our death in the ocean, and become food for our graves, or that our bodies may not be gashed by steel. On this account it is that nature has produced a substance which is very easily taken, and by which life is extinguished, the body remaining undefiled and retaining all its blood, and only causing a degree of thirst. And when it is destroyed by this means, neither bird nor beast will touch the body, but he who has perished by his own hands is reserved for the earth.
But it must be acknowledged, that everything which the earth has produced, as a remedy for our evils, we have converted into the poison of our lives. For do we not use iron, which we cannot do without, for this purpose? But although this cause of mischief has been produced, we ought not to complain; we ought not to be ungrateful to this one part of nature. How many luxuries and how many insults does she not bear for us! She is cast into the sea, and, in order that we may introduce seas into her bosom, she is washed away by the waves. She is continually tortured for her iron, her timber, stone, fire, corn, and is even much more subservient to our luxuries than to our mere support. What indeed she endures on her surface might be tolerated, but we penetrate also into her bowels, digging out the veins of gold and silver, and the ores of copper and lead; we also search for gems and certain small pebbles, driving our trenches to a great depth. We tear out her entrails in order to extract the gems with which we may load our fingers. How many hands are worn down that one little joint may be ornamented! If the infernal regions really existed, certainly these burrows of avarice and luxury would have penetrated into them. And truly we wonder that this same earth should have produced anything noxious! But, I suppose, the savage beasts protect her and keep off our sacrilegious hands. For do we not dig among serpents and handle poisonous plants along with those veins of gold? But the Goddess shows herself more propitious to us, inasmuch as all this wealth ends in crimes, slaughter, and war, and that, while we drench her with our blood, we cover her with unburied bones; and being covered with these and her anger being thus appeased, she conceals the crimes of mortals. I consider the ignorance of her nature as one of the evil effects of an ungrateful mind.
 
64 FORM OF THE EARTH
Every one agrees that it has the most perfect figure. We always speak of the ball of the earth, and we admit it to be a globe bounded by the poles. It has not indeed the form of an absolute sphere, from the number of lofty mountains and flat plains; but if the termination of the lines be bounded by a curve, this would compose a perfect sphere. And this we learn from arguments drawn from the nature of things, although not from the same considerations which we made use of with respect to the heavens. For in these the hollow convexity everywhere bends on itself, and leans upon the earth as its centre. Whereas the earth rises up solid and dense, like something that swells up and is protruded outwards. The heavens bend towards the centre, while the earth goes from the centre, the continual rolling of the heavens about it forcing its immense globe into the form of a sphere.
 
65 WHETHER THERE BE ANTIPODES?
On this point there is a great contest between the learned and the vulgar. We maintain, that there are men dispersed over every part of the earth, that they stand with their feet turned towards each other, that the vault of the heavens appears alike to all of them, and that they, all of them, appear to tread equally on the middle of the earth. If any one should ask, why those situated opposite to us do not fall, we directly ask in return, whether those on the opposite side do not wonder that we do not fall. But I may make a remark, that will appear plausible even to the most unlearned, that if the earth were of the figure of an unequal globe, like the seed of a pine, still it may be inhabited in every part.
But of how little moment is this, when we have another miracle rising up to our notice! The earth itself is pendent and does not fall with us; it is doubtful whether this be from the force of the spirit which is contained in the universe, or whether it would fall, did not nature resist, by allowing of no place where it might fall. For as the seat of fire is nowhere but in fire, nor of water except in water, nor of air except in air, so there is no situation for the earth except in itself, everything else repelling it. It is indeed wonderful that it should form a globe, when there is so much flat surface of the sea and of the plains. And this was the opinion of Dicæarchus, a peculiarly learned man, who measured the heights of mountains, under the direction of the kings, and estimated Pelion, which was the highest, at paces perpendicular, and considered this as not affecting the round figure of the globe. But this appears to me to be doubtful, as I well know that the summits of some of the Alps rise up by a long space of not less than , paces. But what the vulgar most strenuously contend against is, to be compelled to believe that the water is forced into a rounded figure; yet there is nothing more obvious to the sight among the phænomena of nature. For we see everywhere, that drops, when they hang down, assume the form of small globes, and when they are covered with dust, or have the down of leaves spread over them, they are observed to be completely round; and when a cup is filled, the liquid swells up in the middle. But on account of the subtile nature of the fluid and its inherent softness, the fact is more easily ascertained by our reason than by our sight. And it is even more wonderful, that if a very little fluid only be added to a cup when it is full, the superfluous quantity runs over, whereas the contrary happens if we add a solid body, even as much as would weigh denarii. The reason of this is, that what is dropt in raises up the fluid at the top, while what is poured on it slides off from the projecting surface. It is from the same cause that the land is not visible from the body of a ship when it may be seen from the mast; and that when a vessel is receding, if any bright object be fixed to the mast, it seems gradually to descend and finally to become invisible. And the ocean, which we admit to be without limits, if it had any other figure, could it cohere and exist without falling, there being no external margin to contain it? And the same wonder still recurs, how is it that the extreme parts of the sea, although it be in the form of a globe, do not fall down? In opposition to which doctrine, the Greeks, to their great joy and glory, were the first to teach us, by their subtile geometry, that this could not happen, even if the seas were flat, and of the figure which they appear to be. For since water always runs from a higher to a lower level, and this is admitted to be essential to it, no one ever doubted that the water would accumulate on any shore, as much as its slope would allow it. It is also certain, that the lower anything is, so much the nearer is it to the centre, and that all the lines which are drawn from this point to the water which is the nearest to it, are shorter than those which reach from the beginning of the sea to its extreme parts. Hence it follows, that all the water, from every part, tends towards the centre, and, because it has this tendency, does not fall.
 
66 How WATER IS CONNECTED WITH EARTH. NAVIGATION OF SEA & RIVERS
We must believe, that the great artist, Nature, has so arranged it, that as the arid and dry earth cannot subsist by itself and without moisture, nor, on the other hand, can the water subsist unless it be supported by the earth, they are connected by a mutual union. The earth opens her harbours, while the water pervades the whole earth, within, without, and above; its veins running in all directions, like connecting links, and bursting out on even the highest ridges; where, forced up by the air, and pressed out by the weight of the earth, it shoots forth as from a pipe, and is so far from being in danger of falling, that it bounds up to the highest and most lofty places. Hence the reason is obvious, why the seas are not increased by the daily accession of so many rivers.
(.) The earth has, therefore, the whole of its globe girt, on every side, by the sea flowing round it. And this is not a point to be investigated by arguments, but what has been ascertained by experience.
 
67 WHETHER THE OCEAN SURROUNDS THE EARTH
The whole of the western ocean is now navigated, from Gades and the Pillars of Hercules, round Spain and Gaul. The greater part of the northern ocean has also been navigated, under the auspices of the Emperor Augustus, his fleet having been carried round Germany to the promontory of the Cimbri; from which spot they descried an immense sea, or became acquainted with it by report, which extends to the country of the Scythians, and the districts that are chilled by excessive moisture. On this account it is not at all probable, that the ocean should be deficient in a region where moisture so much abounds. In like manner, towards the east, from the Indian sea, all that part which lies in the same latitude, and which bends round towards the Caspian, has been explored by the Macedonian arms, in the reigns of Seleucus and Antiochus, who wished it to be named after themselves, the Seleucian or Antiochian Sea. About the Caspian, too, many parts of the shores of the ocean have been explored, so that nearly the whole of the north has been sailed over in one direction or another. Nor can our argument be much affected by the point that has been so much discussed, respecting the Palus Mæotis, whether it be a bay of the same ocean, as is, I understand, the opinion of some persons, or whether it be the overflowing of a narrow channel connected with a different ocean. On the other side of Gades, proceeding from the same western point, a great part of the southern ocean, along Mauritania, has now been navigated. Indeed the greater part of this region, as well as of the east, as far as the Arabian Gulf, was surveyed in consequence of Alexander's victories. When Caius Cæsar, the son of Augustus, had the conduct of affairs in that country, it is said that they found the remains of Spanish vessels which had been wrecked there. While the power of Carthage was at its height, Hanno published an account of a voyage which he made from Gades to the extremity of Arabia; Himilco was also sent, about the same time, to explore the remote parts of Europe. Besides, we learn from Corn. Nepos, that one Eudoxus, a contemporary of his, when he was flying from king Lathyrus, set out from the Arabian Gulf, and was carried as far as Gades. And long before him, Cælius Antipater informs us, that he had seen a person who had sailed from Spain to Æthiopia for the purposes of trade. The same Cornelius Nepos, when speaking of the northern circumnavigation, tells us that Q. Metellus Celer, the colleague of L. Afranius in the consulship, but then a proconsul in Gaul, had a present made to him by the king of the Suevi, of certain Indians, who sailing from India for the purpose of commerce, had been driven by tempests into Germany. Thus it appears, that the seas which flow com- pletely round the globe, and divide it, as it were, into two parts, exclude us from one part of it, as there is no way open to it on either side. And as the contemplation of these things is adapted to detect the vanity of mortals, it seems incumbent on me to display, and lay open to our eyes, the whole of it, whatever it be, in which there is nothing which can satisfy the desires of certain individuals.
 
68 WHAT PART OF THE EARTH IS INHABITED
In the first place, then, it appears, that this should be estimated at half the globe, as if no portion of this half was encroached upon by the ocean. But surrounding as it does the whole of the land, pouring out and receiving all the other waters, furnishing whatever goes to the clouds, and feeding the stars themselves, so numerous and of such great size as they are, what a great space must we not suppose it to occupy! This vast mass must fill up and occupy an infinite extent. To this we must add that portion of the remainder which the heavens take from us. For the globe is divided into five parts, termed zones, and all that portion is subject to severe cold and perpetual frost which is under the two extremities, about each of the poles, the nearer of which is called the north, and the opposite the south, pole. In all these regions there is perpetual darkness, and, in consequence of the aspect of the milder stars being turned from them, the light is malignant, and only like the whiteness which is produced by hoar frost. The middle of the earth, over which is the orbit of the sun, is parched and burned by the flame, and is consumed by being so near the heat. There are only two of the zones which are temperate, those which lie between the torrid and the frigid zones, and these are separated from each other, in consequence of the scorching heat of the heavenly bodies. It appears, therefore, that the heavens take from us three parts of the earth; how much the ocean steals is uncertain.
And with respect to the part which is left us, I do not know whether that is not even in greater danger. This same ocean, insinuating itself, as I have described it, into a number of bays, approaches with its roaring so near to the inland seas, that the Arabian Gulf is no more than miles from the Egyptian Sea, and the Caspian only miles from the Euxine. It also insinuates itself into the numerous seas by which it separates Africa, Europe, and Asia; hence how much space must it occupy? We must also take into account the extent of all the rivers and the marshes, and we must add the lakes and the pools. There are also the mountains, raised up to the heavens, with their precipitous fronts; we must also subtract the forests and the craggy valleys, the wildernesses, and the places, which, from various causes, are desert. The vast quantity which remains of the earth, or rather, as many persons have considered it, this speck of a world (for the earth is no more in regard to the universe), this is the object, the seat of our glory—here we bear our honours, here we exercise our power, here we covet wealth, here we mortals create our disturbances, here we continually carry on our wars, aye, civil wars, even, and unpeople the earth by mutual slaughter. And not to dwell on public feuds, entered into by nations against each other, here it is that we drive away our neighbours, and enclose the land thus seized upon within our own fence; and yet the man who has most extended his boundary, and has expelled the inhabitants for ever so great a distance, after all, what mighty portion of the earth is he master of? And even when his avarice has been the most completely satisfied, what part of it can he take with him into the grave?
 
69 THAT THE EARTH IS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE WORLD
It is evident from undoubted arguments, that the earth is in the middle of the universe, but it is the most clearly proved by the equality of the days and the nights at the equinox. It is demonstrated by the quadrant, which affords the most decisive confirmation of the fact, that unless the earth was in the middle, the days and nights could not be equal; for, at the time of the equinox, the rising and setting of the sun are seen on the same line, and the rising of the sun, at the summer solstice, is on the same line with its setting at the winter solstice; but this could not happen if the earth was not situated in the centre
 
70 OBLIQUITY OF THE ZONES
The three circles, which are connected with the abovementioned zones, distinguish the inequalities of the seasons; those are, the solstitial circle, which proceeds from the part of the Zodiac the highest to us and approaching the nearest to the district of the north; on the other side, the brumal, which is towards the south pole; and the equinoctial, which traverses the middle of the Zodiac.
 
71 INEQUALITY OF CLIMATES
The cause of the other things which are worthy of our admiration depends on the figure of the earth itself, which, together with all its waters, is proved, by the same arguments, to be a globe. This certainly is the cause why the stars of the northern portion of the heavens never set to us, and why, on the other hand, those in the south never rise, and again, why the latter can never be seen by the former, the globe of the earth rising up and concealing them. The Northern Wain is never seen in Troglodytice, nor in Egypt, which borders on it; nor can we, in Italy, see the star Canopus, or Berenice's Hair; nor what, under the Emperor Augustus, was named Cæsar's Throne, although they are, there, very brilliant stars. The curved form of the earth is so obvious, rising up like a ridge, that Canopus appears to a spectator at Alexandria to rise above the horizon almost the quarter of a sign; the same star at Rhodes appears, as it were, to graze along the earth, while in Pontus it is not seen at all; where the Northern Wain appears considerably elevated. This same constellation cannot be seen at Rhodes, and still less at Alexandria. In Arabia, in the month of November, it is concealed during the first watch of the night, but may be seen during the second; in Meroë it is seen, for a short time, in the evening, at the solstice, and it is visible at day-break, for a few days before the rising of Arcturus. These facts have been principally ascertained by the expeditions of navigators; the sea appearing more elevated or depressed in certain parts; the stars suddenly coming into view, and, as it were, emerging from the water, after having been concealed by the bulging out of the globe. But the heavens do not, as some suppose, rise higher at one pole, otherwise its stars would be seen from all parts of the world; they indeed are supposed to be higher by those who are nearest to them, but the stars are sunk below the horizon to those who are more remote. As this pole appears to be elevated to those who are beneath it; so, when we have passed along the convexity of the earth, those stars rise up, which appear elevated to the inhabitants of those other districts; all this, however, could not happen unless the earth had the shape of a globe.
 
72 IN WHAT PLACES ECLIPSES ARE INVISIBLE, AND WHY THIS IS THE CASE
Hence it is that the inhabitants of the east do not see those eclipses of the sun or of the moon which occur in the evening, nor the inhabitants of the west those in the morning, while such as take place at noon are more frequently visible. We are told, that at the time of the famous victory of Alexander the Great, at Arbela, the moon was eclipsed at the second hour of the night, while, in Sicily, the moon was rising at the same hour. The eclipse of the sun which occurred the day before the calends of May, in the consulship of Vipstanus and Fonteius, not many years ago, was seen in Campania between the seventh and eighth hour of the day; the general Corbulo informs us, that it was seen in Armenia, between the eleventh and twelfth hour; thus the curve of the globe both reveals and conceals different objects from the inhabitants of its different parts. If the earth had been flat, everything would have been seen at the same time, from every part of it, and the nights would not have been unequal; while the equal intervals of twelve hours, which are now observed only in the middle of the earth, would in that case have been the same everywhere.
 
73 WHAT REGULATES THE DAYLIGHT ON THE EARTH
Hence it is that there is not any one night and day the same, in all parts of the earth, at the same time; the intervention of the globe producing night, and its turning round producing day. This is known by various observations. In Africa and in Spain it is made evident by the Towers of Hannibal, and in Asia by the beacons, which, in consequence of their dread of pirates, the people erected for their protection; for it has been frequently observed, that the signals, which were lighted at the sixth hour of the day, were seen at the third hour of the night by those who were the most remote. Philonides, a courier of the above-mentioned Alexander, went from Sicyon to Elis, a distance of stadia, in nine hours, while he seldom returned until the third hour of the night, although the road was down-hill. The reason is, that, in going, he followed the course of the sun, while on his return, in the opposite direction, he met the sun and left it behind him. For the same reason it is, that those who sail to the west, even on the shortest day, compensate for the difficulty of sailing in the night and go farther, because they sail in the same direction with the sun.
 
74 REMARKS ON DIALS, AS CONNECTED WITH THIS SUBJECT
The same dial-plates cannot be used in all places, the shadow of the sun being sensibly different at distances of , or at most of stadia. Hence the shadow of the dial-pin, which is termed the gnomon, at noon and at the summer solstice, in Egypt, is a little more than half the length of the gnomon itself At the city of Rome it is only / less than the gnomon, at Ancona not more than / less, while in the part of Italy which is called Venetia, at the same hour, the shadow is equal to the length of the gnomon.
 
75 WHEN AND WHERE THERE ARE NO SHADOWS
It is likewise said, that in the town of Syene, which is stadia south of Alexandria, there is no shadow at noon, on the day of the solstice; and that a well, which was sunk for the purpose of the experiment, is illuminated by the sun in every part. Hence it appears that the sun, in this place, is vertical, and Onesicritus informs us that this is the case, about the same time, in India, at the river Hypasis. It is well known, that at Berenice, a city of the Troglodytæ, and stadia beyond that city, in the same country, at the town of Ptolemais, which was built on the Red Sea, when the elephant was first hunted, this same thing takes place for forty-five days before the solstice and for an equal length of time after it, and that during these ninety days the shadows are turned towards the south. Again, at Meroë, an island in the Nile and the metropolis of the Æthiopians, which is stadia from Syene, there are no shadows at two periods of the year, viz. when the sun is in the th degree of Taurus and in the th of Leo. The Oretes, a people of India, have a mountain named Maleus, near which the shadows in sum- mer fall towards the south and in winter towards the north. The seven stars of the Great Bear are visible there for fifteen nights only. In India also, in the celebrated sea-port Patale, the sun rises to the right hand and the shadows fall towards the south. While Alexander was staving there it was observed, that the seven northern stars were seen only during the early part of the night. Onesicritus, one of his generals, informs us in his work, that in those places in India where there are no shadows, the seven stars are not visible; these places, he says, are called "Ascia," and the people there do not reckon the time by hours.
 
76 WHERE THIS TAKES PLACE TWICE IN THE YEAR AND WHERE THE SHADOWS FALL IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS
Eratosthenes informs us, that in the whole of Troglodytice, for twice forty-five days in the year, the shadows fall in the contrary direction.
 
77 WHERE THE DAYS ARE THE LONGEST AND WHERE THE SHORTEST
Hence it follows, that in consequence of the daylight increasing in various degrees, in Meroë the longest day consists of twelve æquinoctial hours and eight parts of an hour, at Alexandria of fourteen hours, in Italy of fifteen, in Britain of seventeen; where the degree of light, which exists in the night, very clearly proves, what the reason of the thing also obliges us to believe, that, during the solstitial period, as the sun approaches to the pole of the world, and his orbit is contracted, the parts of the earth that lie below him have a day of six months long, and a night of equal length when he is removed to the south pole. Pytheas, of Marseilles, informs us, that this is the case in the island of Thule, which is six days' sail from the north of Britain. Some persons also affirm that this is the case in Mona, which is about miles from Camelodunum, a town of Britain.
 
 
 
80 DIFFERENCE OF NATIONS AS DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF THE WORLD
To these circumstances we must add those that are connected with certain celestial causes. There can be no doubt, that the Æthiopians are scorched by their vicinity to the sun's heat, and they are born, like persons who have been burned, with the beard and hair frizzled; while, in the opposite and frozen parts of the earth, there are nations with white skins and long light hair. The latter are savage from the inclemency of the climate, while the former are dull from its variableness. We learn, from the form of the legs, that in the one, the fluids, like vapour, are forced into the upper parts of the body, while in the other, being a gross humour, it is drawn downwards into the lower parts. In the cold regions savage beasts are produced, and in the others, various forms of animals, and many kinds of birds. In both situations the body grows tall, in the one case by the force of fire, and in the other by the nutritive moisture.
In the middle of the earth there is a salutary mixture of the two, a tract fruitful in all things, the habits of the body holding a mean between the two, with a proper tempering of colours; the manners of the people are gentle, the intellect clear, the genius fertile and capable of comprehending every part of nature. They have formed empires, which has never been done by the remote nations; yet these latter have never been subjected by the former, being severed from them and remaining solitary, from the effect produced on them by their savage nature.
 
81 EARTHQUAKES
According to the doctrine of the Babylonians, earthquakes and clefts of the earth, and occurrences of this kind, are supposed to be produced by the influence of the stars, especially of the three to which they ascribe thunder; and to be caused by the stars moving with the sun, or being in conjunction with it, and, more particularly, when they are in the quartile aspect. If we are to credit the report, a most admirable and immortal spirit, as it were of a divine nature, should be ascribed to Anaximander the Milesian, who, they say, warned the Lacedæmonians to beware of their city and their houses. For he predicted that an earthquake was at hand, when both the whole of their city was destroyed and a large portion of Mount Taygetus, which projected in the form of a ship, was broken off, and added farther ruin to the previous destruction. Another prediction is ascribed to Pherecydes, the master of Pythagoras, and this was divine; by a draught of water from a well, he foresaw and predicted that there would be an earthquake in that place. And if these things be true, how nearly do these individuals approach to the Deity, even during their lifetime! But I leave every one to judge of these matters as he pleases. I certainly conceive the winds to be the cause of earthquakes; for the earth never trembles except when the sea is quite calm, and when the heavens are so tranquil that the birds cannot maintain their flight, all the air which should support them being withdrawn; nor does it ever happen until after great winds, the gust being pent up, as it were, in the fissures and concealed hollows. For the trembling of the earth resembles thunder in the clouds; nor does the yawning of the earth differ from the bursting of the lightning; the enclosed air struggling and striving to escape.
 
82 CLEFTS OF THE EARTH
The earth is shaken in various ways, and wonderful effects are produced; in one place the walls of cities being thrown down, and in others swallowed up by a deep cleft; some- times great masses of earth are heaped up, and rivers forced out, sometimes even flame and hot springs, and at others the course of rivers is turned. A terrible noise precedes and accompanies the shock; sometimes a murmuring, like the lowing of cattle, or like human voices, or the clashing of arms. This depends on the substance which receives the sound, and the shape of the caverns or crevices through which it issues; it being more shrill from a narrow opening, more hoarse from one that is curved, producing a loud reverberation from hard bodies, a sound like a boiling fluid from moist substances, fluctuating in stagnant water, and roaring when forced against solid bodies. There is, therefore, often the sound without any motion. Nor is it a simple motion, but one that is tremulous and vibratory. The cleft some- times remains, displaying what it has swallowed up; some- times concealing it, the mouth being closed and the soil being brought over it, so that no vestige is left; the city being, as it were, devoured, and the tract of country engulfed. Maritime districts are more especially subject to shocks. Nor are mountainous tracts exempt from them; I have found, by my inquiries, that the Alps and the Apennines are fre- quently shaken. The shocks happen more frequently in the autumn and in the spring, as is the case also with thunder. There are seldom shocks in Gaul and in Egypt; in the latter it depends on the prevalence of summer, in the former, of winter. They also happen more frequently in the night than in the day. The greatest shocks are in the morning and the evening; but they often take place at day-break, and some- times at noon. They also take place during eclipses of the sun and of the moon, because at that time storms are lulled. They are most frequent when great heat succeeds to showers, or showers succeed to great heat.
 
83 SIGNS OF AN APPROACHING EARTHQUAKE
There is no doubt that earthquakes are felt by persons on shipboard, as they are struck by a sudden motion of the waves, without these being raised by any gust of wind. And things that are in the vessels shake as they do in houses, and give notice by their creaking; also the birds, when they settle upon the vessels, are not without their alarms. There is also a sign in the heavens; for, when a shock is near at hand, either in the daytime or a little after sunset, a cloud is stretched out in the clear sky, like a long thin line. The water in wells is also more turbid than usual, and it emits a disagreeable odour.
 
84 PRESERVATIVES AGAINST FUTURE EARTHQUAKES
These same places, however, afford protection, and this is also the case where there is a number of caverns, for they give vent to the confined vapour; a circumstance which has been remarked in certain towns, which have been less shaken where they have been excavated by many sewers. And, in the same town, those parts that are excavated are safer than the other parts, as is understood to be the case at Naples in Italy, the part of it which is solid being more liable to injury. Arched buildings are also the most safe, also the angles of walls, the shocks counteracting each other; walls made of brick also suffer less from the shocks. There is also a great difference in the nature of the motions, where various motions are experienced. It is the safest when it vibrates and causes a creaking in the building, and where it swells and rises upwards, and settles with an alternate motion. It is also harmless when the buildings coming together butt against each other in opposite directions, for the motions counteract each other. A movement like the rolling of waves is dangerous, or when the motion is impelled in one direction. The tremors cease when the vapour bursts out; but if they do not soon cease, they continue for forty days; generally, indeed, for a longer time: some have lasted even for one or two years.
 
85 PRODIGIES OF THE EARTH WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ONCE ONLY
A great prodigy of the earth, which never happened more than once, I have found mentioned in the books of the Etruscan ceremonies, as having taken place in the district of Mutina, during the consulship of Lucius Martius and Sextus Julius. Two mountains rushed together, falling upon each other with a very loud crash, and then receding; while in the daytime flame and smoke issued from them; a great crowd of Roman knights, and families of people, and travellers on the Æmilian way, being spectators of it. All the farm-houses were thrown down by the shock, and a great number of animals that were in them were killed; it was in the year before the Social war; and I am in doubt whether this event or the civil commotions were more fatal to the territory of Italy. The prodigy which happened in our own age was no less wonderful; in the last year of the emperor Nero, as I have related in my history of his times, when certain fields and olive grounds in the district of Marrucinum, belonging to Vectius Marcellus, a Roman knight, the steward of Nero, changed places with each other, although the public highway was interposed.
 
86 WONDERFUL CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING EARTHQUAKES
Inundations of the sea take place at the same time with earthquakes; the water being impregnated with the same spirit, and received into the bosom of the earth which subsides. The greatest earthquake which has occurred in our memory was in the reign of Tiberius, by which twelve cities of Asia were laid prostrate in one night. They occurred the most frequently during the Punic war, when we had accounts brought to Rome of fifty-seven earthquakes in the space of a single year. It was during this year that the Carthaginians and the Romans, who were fighting at the lake Thrasimenus, were neither of them sensible of a very great shock during the battle. Nor is it an evil merely consisting in the danger which is produced by the motion; it is all equal or a greater evil when it is considered as a prodigy. The city of Rome never experienced a shock, which was not the forerunner of some great calamity.
 
87 IN WHAT PLACES THE SEA HAS RECEDED
The same cause produces an increase of the land; the vapour, when it cannot burst out forcibly lifting up the surface. For the land is not merely produced by what is brought down the rivers, as the islands called Echinades are formed by the river Achelous, and the greater part of Egypt by the Nile, where, according to Homer, it was a day and a night's journey from the main land to the island of Pharos; but, in some cases, by the receding of the sea, as, according to the same author, was the case with the Circæan isles. The same thing also happened in the harbour of Ambracia, for a space of , paces, and was also said to have taken place for at the Piræus of Athens, and likewise at Ephesus, where formerly the sea washed the walls of the temple of Diana. Indeed, if we may believe Herodotus, the sea came beyond Memphis, as far as the mountains of Ethiopia, and also from the plains of Arabia. The sea also surrounded Ilium and the whole of Teuthrania, and covered the plain through which the Mæander flows.
 
88 THE MODE IN WHICH ISLANDS RISE UP
Land is sometimes formed in a different manner, rising suddenly out of the sea, as if nature was compensating the earth for its losses, restoring in one place what she had swallowed up in another.
 
89 WHAT ISLANDS HAVE BEEN FORMED, AND AT WHAT PERIODS
Delos and Rhodes, islands which have now been long famous, are recorded to have risen up in this way. More lately there have been some smaller islands formed; Anapha, which is beyond Melos; Nea, between Lemnos and the Hellespont; Halone, between Lebedos and Teos; Thera and Therasia, among the Cyclades, in the fourth year of the th Olympiad. And among the same islands, years afterwards, Hiera, also called Automate, made its appearance; also Thia, at the distance of two stadia from the former, years afterwards, in our own times, when M. Junius Silanus and L. Balbus were consuls, on the th of the ides of July.
(.) Opposite to us, and near to Italy, among the Æolian isles, an island emerged from the sea; and likewise one near Crete, paces in extent, and with warm springs in it; another made its appearance in the third year of the rd Olympiad, in the Tuscan gulf, burning with a violent explosion. There is a tradition too that a great number of fishes were floating about the spot, and that those who employed them for food immediately expired. It is said that the Pithecusan isles rose up, in the same way, in the bay of Campania, and that, shortly afterwards, the mountain Epopos, from which flame had suddenly burst forth, was reduced to the level of the neighbouring plain. In the same island, it is said, that a town was sunk in the sea; that in consequence of another shock, a lake burst out, and that, by a third, Prochytas was formed into an island, the neighbouring mountains being rolled away from it.
 
90 LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SEPARATED BY THE SEA
In the ordinary course of things islands are also formed by this means. The sea has torn Sicily from Italy, Cyprus from Syria, Eubœa from Bœotia, Atalante and Macris from Eubœa, Besbycus from Bithynia, and Leucosia from the promontory of the Sirens.
 
91 ISLANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN UNITED TO THE MAIN LAND
Again, islands are taken from the sea and added to the main land; Antissa to Lesbos, Zephyrium to Halicarnassus, Æthusa to Myndus, Dromiscus and Perne to Miletus, Narthecusa to the promontory of Parthenium. Hybanda, which was formerly an island of Ionia, is now stadia distant from the sea. Syries is now become a part of Ephesus, and, in the same neighbourhood, Derasidas and Sophonia form part of Magnesia; while Epidaurus and Oricum are no longer islands.
 
92 LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN TOTALLY CHANGED INTO SEAS
The sea has totally carried off certain lands, and first of all, if we are to believe Plato, for an immense space where the Atlantic ocean is now extended. More lately we see what has been produced by our inland sea; Acarnania has been overwhelmed by the Ambracian gulf, Achaia by the Corinthian, Europe and Asia by the Propontis and Pontus. And besides these, the sea has rent asunder Leucas, Antirrhium, the Hellespont, and the two Bosphori.
 
93 LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SWALLOWED UP
And not to speak of bays and gulfs, the earth feeds on itself; it has devoured the very high mountain of Cybotus, with the town of Curites; also Sipylus in Magnesia, and formerly, in the same place, a very celebrated city, which was called Tantalis; also the land belonging to the cities Galanis and Gamales in Phœnicia, together with the cities themselves; also Phegium, the most lofty ridge in Æthiopia. Nor are the shores of the sea more to be depended upon.
 
94 CITIES WHICH HAVE BEEN ABSORBED BY THE SEA
The sea near the Palus Mæotis has carried away Pyrrha and Antissa, also Elice and Bura in the gulf of Corinth, traces of which places are visible in the ocean. From the island Cea it has seized on , paces, which were suddenly torn off, with many persons on them. In Sicily also the half of the city of Tyndaris, and all the part of Italy which is wanting; in like manner it carried off Eleusina in Bœotia.
 
95 VENTS IN THE EARTH
But let us say no more of earthquakes and of whatever may be regarded as the sepulchres of cities; let us rather speak of the wonders of the earth than of the crimes of nature. But, by Hercules! the history of the heavens themselves would not be more difficult to relate:—the abundance of metals, so various, so rich, so prolific, rising up during so many ages; when, throughout all the world, so much is, every day, destroyed by fire, by waste, by shipwreck, by wars, and by frauds; and while so much is consumed by luxury and by such a number of people:—the figures on gems, so multiplied in their forms; the variously-coloured spots on certain stones, and the whiteness of others, excluding everything except light:-the virtues of medicinal springs, and the perpetual fires bursting out in so many places, for so many ages:-the exhalation of deadly vapours, either emitted from caverns, or from certain unhealthy districts; some of them fatal to birds alone, as at Soracte, a district near the city; others to all animals, except to man, while others are so to man also, as in the country of Sinuessa and Puteoli. They are generally called vents, and, by some persons, Charon's sewers, from their exhaling a deadly vapour. Also at Amsanctum, in the country of the Hirpini, at the temple of Mephitis, there is a place which kills all those who enter it. And the same takes place at Hierapolis in Asia, where no one can enter with safety, except the priest of the great Mother of the Gods. In other places there are prophetic caves, where those who are intoxicated with the vapour which rises from them predict future events, as at the most noble of all oracles, Delphi. In which cases, what mortal is there who can assign any other cause, than the divine power of nature, which is everywhere diffused, and thus bursts forth in various places?
 
96 CERTAIN LANDS WHICH ARE ALWAYS SHAKING, AND OF FLOATING ISLANDS
There are certain lands which shake when any one passes over them; as in the territory of the Gabii, not far from the city of Rome, there are about acres which shake when cavalry passes over it: the same thing takes place at Reate.
(.) There are certain islands which are always floating, as in the territory of the Cæcubum, and of the above-mentioned Reate, of Mutina, and of Statonia. In the lake of Vadimonis and the waters of Cutiliæ there is a dark wood, which is never seen in the same place for a day and a night together. In Lydia, the islands named Calaminæ are not only driven about by the wind, but may be even pushed at pleasure from place to place, by poles: many citizens saved themselves by this means in the Mithridatic war. There are some small islands in the Nymphæus, called the Dancers, because, when choruses are sung, they are moved by the motions of those who beat time. In the great Italian lake of Tarquinii, there are two islands with groves on them, which are driven about by the wind, so as at one time to exhibit the figure of a triangle and at another of a circle; but they never form a square.
 
97 PLACES IN WHICH IT NEVER RAINS
There is at Paphos a celebrated temple of Venus, in a certain court of which it never rains; also at Nea, a town of Troas, in the spot which surrounds the statue of Minerva: in this place also the remains of animals that are sacrificed never putrefy.
 
98 WONDERS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES COLLECTED TOGETHER
Near Harpasa, a town of Asia, there stands a terrific rock, which may be moved by a single finger; but if it be pushed by the force of the whole body, it resists. In the Tauric peninsula, in the state of the Parasini, there is a kind of earth which cures all wounds. About Assos, in Troas, a stone is found, by which all bodies are consumed; it is called Sarcophagus. There are two mountains near the river Indus; the nature of one is to attract iron, of the other to repel it: hence, if there be nails in the shoes, the feet cannot be drawn off the one, or set down on the other. It has been noticed, that at Locris and Crotona, there has never been a pestilence, nor have they ever suffered from an earthquake; in Lycia there are always forty calm days before an earthquake. In the territory of Argyripa the corn which is sown never springs up. At the altars of Mucius, in the country of the Veii, and about Tusculum, and in the Cimmerian Forest, there are places in which things that are pushed into the ground cannot be pulled out again. The hay which is grown in Crustuminium is noxious on the spot, but elsewhere it is wholesome.
 
99 CONCERNING THE CAUSE OF THE FLOWING AND EBBING OF THE SEA
Much has been said about the nature of waters; but the most wonderful circumstance is the alternate flowing and ebbing of the tides, which exists, indeed, under various forms, but is caused by the sun and the moon. The tide flows twice and ebbs twice between each two risings of the moon, always in the space of twenty-four hours. First, the moon rising with the stars swells out the tide, and after some time, having gained the summit of the heavens, she declines from the meridian and sets, and the tide subsides. Again, after she has set, and moves in the heavens under the earth, as she approaches the meridian on the opposite side, the tide flows in; after which it recedes until she again rises to us. But the tide of the next day is never at the same time with that of the preceding; as if the planet was in attendance, greedily drinking up the sea, and continually rising in a different place from what she did the day before. The intervals are, however, equal, being always of six hours; not indeed in respect of any particular day or night or place, but equinoctial hours, and therefore they are unequal as estimated by the length of common hours, since a greater number of them fall on some certain days or nights, and they are never equal everywhere except at the equinox. This is a great, most clear, and even divine proof of the dullness of those, who deny that the stars go below the earth and rise up again, and that nature presents the same face in the same states of their rising and setting; for the course of the stars is equally obvious in the one case as in the other, producing the same effect as when it is manifest to the sight.
There is a difference in the tides, depending on the moon, of a complicated nature, and, first, as to the period of seven days. For the tides are of moderate height from the new moon to the first quarter; from this time they increase, and are the highest at the full: they then decrease. On the seventh day they are equal to what they were at the first quarter, and they again increase from the time that she is at first quarter on the other side. At her conjunction with the sun they are equally high as at the full. When the moon is in the northern hemisphere, and recedes further from the earth, the tides are lower than when, going towards the south, she exercises her influence at a less distance. After an interval of eight years, and the hundredth revolution of the moon, the periods and the heights of the tides return into the same order as at first, this planet always acting upon them; and all these effects are likewise increased by the annual changes of the sun, the tides rising up higher at the equinoxes, and more so at the autumnal than at the vernal; while they are lower about the winter solstice, and still more so at the summer solstice; not indeed precisely at the points of time which I have mentioned, but a few days after; for example, not exactly at the full nor at the new moon, but after them; and not immediately when the moon becomes visible or invisible, or has advanced to the middle of her course, but generally about two hours later than the equinoctial hours; the effect of what is going on in the heavens being felt after a short interval; as we observe with respect to lightning, thunder, and thunderbolts.

But the tides of the ocean cover greater spaces and produce greater inundations than the tides of the other seas; whether it be that the whole of the universe taken together is more full of life than its individual parts, or that the large open space feels more sensibly the power of the planet, as it moves freely about, than when restrained within narrow bounds. On which account neither lakes nor rivers are moved in the same manner. Pytheas of Massilia informs us, that in Britain the tide rises cubits. Inland seas are enclosed as in a harbour, but, in some parts of them, there is a more free space which obeys the influence. Among many other examples, the force of the tide will carry us in three days from Italy to Utica, when the sea is tranquil and there is no impulse from the sails. But these motions are more felt about the shores than in the deep parts of the seas, as in the body the extremities of the veins feel the pulse, which is the vital spirit, more than the other parts. And in most estuaries, on account of the unequal rising of the stars in each tract, the tides differ from each other, but this respects the period, not the nature of them; as is the case in the Syrtes.

 
100 WHERE THE TIDES RISE AND FALL IN AN UNUSUAL MANNER
There are, however, some tides which are of a peculiar nature, as in the Tauromenian Euripus, where the ebb and flow is more frequent than in other places, and in Eubœa, where it takes place seven times during the day and the night. The tides intermit three times during each month, being the th, th and th day of the moon. At Gades, which is very near the temple of Hercules, there is a spring enclosed like a well, which sometimes rises and falls with the ocean, and, at other times, in both respects contrary to it. In the same place there is another well, which always agrees with the ocean. On the shores of the Bætis, there is a town where the wells become lower when the tide rises, and fill again when it ebbs; while at other times they remain stationary. The same thing occurs in one well in the town of Hispalis, while there is nothing peculiar in the other wells. The Euxine always flows into the Propontis, the water never flowing back into the Euxine.
 
101 WONDERS OF THE SEA
All seas are purified at the full moon; some also at stated periods. At Messina and Mylæ refuse matter, like dung, is cast up on the shore, whence originated the story of the oxen of the Sun having had their stable at that place. To what has been said above (not to omit anything with which I am acquainted) Aristotle adds, that no animal dies except when the tide is ebbing. The observation has been often made on the ocean of Gaul; but it has only been found true with respect to man.
 
102 POWER OF THE MOON OVER THE LAND AND THE SEA
Hence we may certainly conjecture, that the moon is not unjustly regarded as the star of our life. This it is that replenishes the earth; when she approaches it, she fills all bodies, while, when she recedes, she empties them. From this cause it is that shell-fish grow with her increase, and that those animals which are without blood more particularly experience her influence; also, that the blood of man is increased or diminished in proportion to the quantity of her light; also that the leaves and vegetables generally, as I shall describe in the proper place, feel her influence, her power penetrating all things.
 
 
104 WHY THE SEA IS SALT
Hence it is that the widely-diffused sea is impregnated with the flavour of salt, in consequence of what is sweet and mild being evaporated from it, which the force of fire easily accomplishes; while all the more acrid and thick matter is left behind; on which account the water of the sea is less salt at some depth than at the surface. And this is a more true cause of the acrid flavour, than that the sea is the continued perspiration of the land, or that the greater part of the dry vapour is mixed with it, or that the nature of the earth is such that it impregnates the waters, and, as it were, medicates them. Among the prodigies which have occurred, there is one which happened when Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, was expelled from his kingdom; that, for the space of one day, the water in the harbour became sweet.
(.) The moon, on the contrary, is said to be a feminine and delicate planet, and also nocturnal; also that it resolves humours and draws them out, but does not carry them off. It is manifest that the carcases of wild beasts are rendered putrid by its beams, that, during sleep, it draws up the accumulated torpor into the head, that it melts ice, and relaxes all things by its moistening spirit. Thus the changes of nature compensate each other, and are always adequate to their destined purpose; some of them congealing the elements of the stars and others dissolving them. The moon is said to be fed by fresh, and the sun by salt water.
 
 
106 WONDERS OF FOUNTAINS AND RIVERS
It is very remarkable that fresh water should burst out close to the sea, as from pipes. But there is no end to the wonders that are connected with the nature of waters. Fresh water floats on sea water, no doubt from its being lighter; and therefore sea water, which is of a heavier nature, supports better what floats upon it. And, in some places, different kinds of fresh water float upon each other; as that of the river which falls into the Fucinus; that of the Addua into the Larius; of the Ticinus into the Verbanus; of the Mincius into the Benacus; of the Ollius into the Sevinus; and of the Rhone into the Leman lake (this last being beyond the Alps, the others in Italy): all which rivers passing through the lakes for many miles, generally carry off no more water than they bring with them. The same thing is said to occur in the Orontes, a river of Syria, and in many others
Some rivers, from a real hatred of the sea, pass under it, as does Arethusa, a fountain of Syracuse, in which the substances are found that are thrown into the Alpheus; which, after flowing by Olympia, is discharged into the sea, on the shore of the Peloponnesus. The Lycus in Asia, the Era- sinus in Argolis, and the Tigris in Mesopotamia, sink into the earth and burst out again. Substances which are thrown into the fountain of Æsculapius at Athens are cast up at the fountain of Phalerum. The river which sinks into the ground in the plain of Atinum comes up again at the distance of twenty miles, and the Timavus does the same in Aquileia.

In the lake Asphaltites, in Judæa, which produces bitumen, no substance will sink, nor in the lake Arethusa, in the Greater Armenia: in this lake, although it contains nitre, fish are found. In the country of the Salentini, near the town of Manduria, there is a lake full to the brim, the waters of which are never diminished by what is taken out of it, nor increased by what is added. Wood, which is thrown into the river of the Cicones, or into the lake Velinus in Picenum, becomes coated with a stony crust, while in the Surius, a river of Colchis, the whole substance becomes as hard as stone. In the same manner, in the Silarus, beyond Surrentum, not only twigs which are immersed in it, but likewise leaves are petrified; the water at the same time being proper for drinking. In the stream which runs from the marsh of Reate there is a rock, which continues to increase in size, and in the Red Sea olive-trees and green shrubs are produced.

There are many springs which are remarkable for their warmth. This is the case even among the ridges of the Alps, and in the sea itself, between Italy and Ænaria, as in the bay of Baiæ, and in the Liris and many other rivers. There are many places in which fresh water may be procured from the sea, as at the Chelidonian Isles, and at Arados, and in the ocean at Gades. Green plants are produced in the warm springs of Padua, frogs in those of Pisa, and fish in those of Vetulonia in Etruria, which is not far from the sea. In Casinas there is a cold river called Scatebra, which in summer is more full of water. In this, as in the river Stymphalis, in Arcadia, small water-mice are produced. The fountain of Jupiter in Dodona, although it is as cold as ice, and extinguishes torches that are plunged into it, yet, if they be brought near it, it kindles them again. This spring always becomes dry at noon, from which circumstance it is called αναπαυόμενον it then increases and becomes full at midnight, after which it again visibly decreases. In Illyricum there is a cold spring, over which if garments are spread they take fire. The pool of Jupiter Ammon, which is cold during the day, is warm during the night. In the country of the Troglodytæ, what they call the Fountain of the Sun, about noon is fresh and very cold; it then gradually grows warm, and, at midnight, becomes hot and saline.

In the middle of the day, during summer, the source of the Po, as if reposing itself, is always dry. In the island of Tenedos there is a spring, which, after the summer solstice, is full of water, from the third hour of the night to the sixth. The fountain Inopus, in the island of Delos, decreases and increases in the same manner as the Nile, and also at the same periods. There is a small island in the sea, opposite to the river Timavus, containing warm springs, which increase and decrease at the same time with the tides of the sea. In the territory of Pitinum, on the other side of the Apennines, the river Novanus, which during the solstice is quite a torrent, is dry in the winter.

In Faliscum, all the water which the oxen drink turns them white; in Bœotia, the river Melas turns the sheep black; the Cephissus, which flows out of a lake of the same name, turns them white; again, the Peneus turns them black, and the Xanthus, near Ilium, makes them red, whence the river derives its name. In Pontus, the river Astaces waters certain plains, where the mares give black milk, which the people use in diet. In Reate there is a spring called Neminia, which rises up sometimes in one place and sometimes in another, and in this way indicates a change in the produce of the earth. There is a spring in the harbour of Brundisium that yields water which never becomes putrid at sea. The water of the Lyncestis, which is said to be acidulous, intoxicates like wine; this is the case also in Paphlagonia and in the territory of Calenum. In the island of Andros, at the temple of Father Bacchus, we are assured by Mucianus, who was thrice consul, that there is a spring, which, on the nones of January, always has the flavour of wine; it is called διὸς θεοδοσία. Near Nonacris, in Arcadia, the Styx, which is not unlike it either in odour or in colour, instantly destroys those who drink it. Also in Librosus, a hill in the country of the Tauri, there are three springs which inevitably produce death, but without pain. In the territory of the Carrinenses in Spain, two springs burst out close together, the one of which absorbs everything, the other throws them out. In the same country there is another spring, which gives to all the fish the appearance of gold, although, when out of the water, they do not differ in any respect from other fish. In the territory of Como, near the Larian lake, there is a copious spring, which always swells up and subsides again every hour. In the island of Cydonea, before Lesbos, there is a warm fountain, which flows only during the spring season. The lake Sinnaus, in Asia, is impregnated with wormwood, which grows about it. At Colophon, in the cave of the Clarian Apollo, there is a pool, by the drinking of which a power is acquired of uttering wonderful oracles; but the lives of those who drink of it are shortened. In our own times, during the last years of Nero's life, we have seen rivers flowing backwards, as I have stated in my history of his times.

And indeed who can be mistaken as to the fact, that all springs are colder in summer than in winter, as well as these other wonderful operations of nature; that copper and lead sink when in a mass, but float when spread out; and of things that are equally heavy, some will sink to the bottom, while others will remain on the surface; that heavy bodies are more easily moved in water; that a stone from Scyros, although very large, will float, while the same, when broken into small pieces, sinks; that the body of an animal, newly deprived of life, sinks, but that, when it is swelled out, it floats; that empty vessels are drawn out of the water with no more ease than those that are full; that rain-water is more useful for salt-pits than other kinds of water; that salt cannot be made, unless it is mixed with fresh water; that salt water freezes with more difficulty, and is more readily heated; that the sea is warmer in winter and more salt in the autumn; that everything is soothed by oil, and that this is the reason why divers send out small quantities of it from their mouths, because it smoothes any part which is rough and transmits the light to them; that snow never falls in the deep part of the sea; that although water generally has a tendency downwards, fountains rise up, and that this is the case even at the foot of Ætna, burning as it does, so as to force out the sand like a ball of flame to the distance of miles?

 
107 WONDERS OF FIRE AND WATER UNITED
And now I must give an account of some of the wonders of fire, which is the fourth element of nature; but first those produced by means of water.
 
 
 
110 PLACES WHICH ARE ALWAYS BURNING M
Among the wonders of mountains there is Ætna, which always burns in the night, and for so long a period has always had materials for combustion, being in the winter buried in snow, and having the ashes which it has ejected covered with frost. Nor is it in this mountain alone that nature rages, threatening to consume the earth; in Pha- selis, the mountain Chimæra burns, and indeed with a continual flame, day and night. Ctesias of Cnidos informs us, that this fire is kindled by water, while it is extinguished by earth and by hay. In the same country of Lycia, the mountains of Hephæstius, when touched with a flaming torch, burn so violently, that even the stones in the river and the sand burn, while actually in the water: this fire is also increased by rain. If a person makes furrows in the ground with a stick which has been kindled at this fire, it is said that a stream of flame will follow it. The summit of Cophantus, in Bactria, burns during the night; and this is the case in Media and at Sittacene, on the borders of Persia; likewise in Susa, at the White Tower, from fifteen apertures, the greatest of which also burns in the daytime. The plain of Babylon throws up flame from a place like a fishpond, an acre in extent. Near Hesperium, a mountain of the Æthiopians, the fields shine in the night-time like stars; the same thing takes place in the territory of the Megalopo- litani. This fire, however, is internal, mild, and not burning the foliage of a dense wood which is over it. There is also the crater of Nymphæum, which is always burning, in the neighbourhood of a cold fountain, and which, according to Theopompus, presages direful calamities to the inhabitants of Apollonia. It is increased by rain, and it throws out bitumen, which, becoming mixed with the fountain, renders it unfit to be tasted; it is, at other times, the weakest of all the bitumens. But what are these compared to other wonders? Hiera, one of the Æolian isles, in the middle of the sea, near Italy, together with the sea itself, during the Social war, burned for several days, until expiation was made, by a deputation from the senate. There is a hill in Æthiopia called θεῶν ὄχημα, which burns with the greatest violence, throwing out flame that consumes everything, like the sun. In so many places, and with so many fires, does nature burn the earth!
 
111 WONDERS OF FIRE ALONE M
But since this one element is of so prolific a nature as to produce itself, and to increase from the smallest spark, what must we suppose will be the effect of all those funeral piles of the earth ? What must be the nature of that thing, which, in all parts of the world, supplies this most greedy voracity without destroying itself? To these fires must be added those innumerable stars and the great sun itself. There are also the fires made by men, those which are innate in certain kinds of stones, those produced by the friction of wood, and those in the clouds, which give rise to lightning. It really exceeds all other wonders, that one single day should pass in which everything is not consumed, especially when we reflect, that concave mirrors placed opposite to the sun's rays produce flame more readily than any other kind of fire; and that numerous small but natural fires abound everywhere. In Nymphæum there issues from a rock a fire which is kindled by rain; it also issues from the waters of the Scantia. This indeed is a feeble flame, since it passes off, remaining only a short time on any body to which it is applied: an ash tree, which overshadows this fiery spring, remains always green. In the territory of Mutina fire issues from the ground on the days that are consecrated to Vulcan. It is stated by some authors, that if a burning body falls on the fields below Aricia, the ground is set on fire; and that the stones in the territory of the Sabines and of the Sidicini, if they be oiled, burn with flame. In Egnatia, a town of Salentinum, there is a sacred stone, upon which, when wood is placed, flame immediately bursts forth. In the altar of Juno Lacinia, which is in the open air, the ashes remain unmoved, although the winds may be blowing from all quarters.
It appears also that there are sudden fires both in waters and even in the human body; that the whole of Lake Thrasymenus was on fire; that when Servius Tullius, while a child, was sleeping, flame darted out from his head; and Valerius Antias informs us, that the same flame appeared about L. Marcius, when he was pronouncing the funeral oration over the Scipios, who were killed in Spain; and exhorting the soldiers to avenge their death. I shall presently mention more facts of this nature, and in a more distinct manner; in this place these wonders are mixed up with other subjects. But my mind, having carried me beyond the mere interpretation of nature, is anxious to lead, as it were by the hand, the thoughts of my readers over the whole globe.
 
112 DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH M
Our part of the earth, of which I propose to give an account, floating as it were in the ocean which surrounds it (as I have mentioned above), stretches out to the greatest extent from east to west, viz. from India to the Pillars consecrated to Hercules at Gades, being a distance of miles, according to the statement of Artemidorus, or ac- cording to that of Isidorus, miles. Artemidorus adds to this miles, from Gades, going round by the Sacred Promontory, to the promontory of Artabrum, which is the most projecting part of Spain.
This measurement may be taken in two directions. From the Ganges, at its mouth, where it discharges itself into the Eastern ocean, passing through India and Parthyene, to Myriandrus, a city of Syria, in the bay of Issus, is a distance of miles. Thence, going directly by sea, by the island of Cyprus, Patara in Lycia, Rhodes, and Astypalæa, islands in the Carpathian sea, by Tænarum in Laconia, Lilybæum in Sicily and Calaris in Sardinia, is miles. Thence to Gades is miles, making the whole distance from the Eastern ocean miles.

The other way, which is more certain, is chiefly by land. From the Ganges to the Euphrates is miles; thence to Mazaca, a town in Cappadocia, is miles; thence, through Phrygia and Caria, to Ephesus is miles; from Ephesus, across the Ægean sea to Delos, is miles; to the Isthmus is / miles; thence, first by land and afterwards by the sea of Lechæum and the gulf of Corinth, to Patræ in Peloponnesus, miles; to the promontory of Leucate / miles; as much more to Corcyra; to the Acroceraunian mountains /, to Brundisium /, and to Rome miles. To the Alps, at the village of Scingomagum, is miles; through Gaul to Illiberis at the Pyrenees, ; to the ocean and the coast of Spain, miles; across the passage of Gades / miles; which distances, according to the estimate of Artemidorus, make altogether miles.

The breadth of the earth, from south to north, is commonly supposed to be about one-half only of its length, viz. miles; hence it is evident how much the heat has stolen from it on one side and the cold on the other: for I do not suppose that the land is actually wanting, or that the earth has not the form of a globe; but that, on each side, the uninhabitable parts have not been discovered. This measure then extends from the coast of the Æthiopian ocean, the most distant part which is habitable, to Meroë, miles; thence to Alexandria ; to Rhodes ; to Cnidos /; to Cos ; to Samos ; to Chios ; to Mitylene ; to Tenedos ; to the promontory of Sigæum /; to the entrance of the Euxine /; to the promontory of Carambis ; to the entrance of the Palus Mæotis /; and to the mouth of the Tanais miles, which distance, if we went by sea, might be shortened miles. Beyond the Tanais the most diligent authors have not been able to obtain any accurate measurement. Artemidorus supposes that everything beyond is undiscovered, since he confesses that, about the Tanais, the tribes of the Sarmatæ dwell, who extend towards the north pole. Isidorus adds miles, as the distance to Thule; but this is mere conjecture. For my part, I believe that the boundaries of Sarmatia really extend to as great a distance as that mentioned above: for if it were not very extensive, how could it contain the innumerable tribes that are always changing their residence ? And indeed I consider the uninhabitable portion of the world to be still greater; for it is well known that there are innu- merable islands lying off the coast of Germany, which have been only lately discovered.

The above is all that I consider worth relating about the length and the breadth of the earth. But Eratosthenes, a man who was peculiarly well skilled in all the more subtle parts of learning, and in this above everything else, and a person whom I perceive to be approved by every one, has stated the whole of this circuit to be , stadia, which, according to the Roman estimate, makes , miles. The attempt is presumptuous, but it is supported by such subtle arguments that we cannot refuse our assent. Hipparchus, whom we must admire, both for the ability with which he controverts Eratosthenes, as well as for his diligence in everything else, has added to the above number not much less than , stadia.

(.) Dionysodorus is certainly less worthy of confidence; but I cannot omit this most remarkable instance of Grecian vanity. He was a native of Melos, and was celebrated for his knowledge of geometry; he died of old age in his native country. His female relations, who inherited his property, attended his funeral, and when they had for several successive days performed the usual rites, they are said to have found in his tomb an epistle written in his own name to those left above; it stated that he had descended from his tomb to the lowest part of the earth, and that it was a distance of , stadia. There were not wanting certain geometricians, who interpreted this epistle as if it had been sent from the middle of the globe, the point which is at the greatest distance from the surface, and which must necessarily be the centre of the sphere. Hence the estimate has been made that it is , stadia in circumference.

 
113 HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE
That harmonical proportion, which compels nature to be always consistent with itself, obliges us to add to the above measure, , stadia; and this makes the earth one ninety-sixth part of the whole universe.
Summary.—The facts, statements, and observations contained in this Book amount in number to .

Roman Authors Quoted.—M. Varro, Sulpicius Gallus, Titus Cæsar the Emperor, Q. Tubero, Tullius Tiro, L. Piso, T. Livius, Cornelius Nepos, Sebosus, Cælius Antipater, Fabianus, Antias, Mucianus, Cæcina, who wrote on the Etruscan discipline, Tarquitius, who did the same, Julius Aquila, who also did the same, and Sergius.

Foreign Authors Quoted.—Plato, Hipparchus, Timæus, Sosigenes, Petosiris, Necepsos, the Pythago- rean Philosophers, Posidonius, Anaximander, Epigenes the philosopher who wrote on Gnomonics, Euclid, Coeranus the philosopher, Eudoxus, Democritus, Critodemus, Thrasyllus, Serapion, Dicæarchus, Archimedes, Onesi- critus, Eratosthenes, Pytheas, Herodotus, Aristotle, Ctesias, Artemidorus of Ephesus, Isidorus of Charax, and Theopompus.

 

3 COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES
WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED
M

INTRODUCTION M
Thus far have I treated of the position and the wonders of the earth, of the waters, the stars, and the proportion of the universe and its dimensions. I shall now proceed to describe its individual parts; although indeed we may with reason look upon the task as of an infinite nature, and one not to be rashly commenced upon without incurring censure. And yet, on the other hand, there is nothing which ought less to require an apology, if it is only considered how far from surprising it is that a mere mortal cannot be acquainted with everything. I shall therefore not follow any single author, but shall employ, in relation to each subject, such writers as I shall look upon as most worthy of credit. For, indeed, it is the characteristic of nearly all of them, that they display the greatest care and accuracy in the description of the countries in which they respectively flourished; so that by doing this, I shall neither have to blame nor contradict any one.
The names of the different places will here be simply given, and as briefly as possible; the account of their celebrity, and the events which have given rise thereto, being deferred to a more appropriate occasion; for it must be remembered that I am here speaking of the earth as a whole, and I wish to be understood as using the names without any reference whatever to their celebrity, and as though the places themselves were in their infancy, and had not as yet acquired any fame through great events. The name is men- tioned, it is true, but only as forming a part of the world and the system of the universe.

The whole globe is divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Our description commences where the sun sets and at the Straits of Gades, where the Atlantic ocean, bursting in, is poured forth into the inland seas. As it makes its entrance from that side, Africa is on the right hand and Europe on the left; Asia lies between them; the boundaries being the rivers Tanais and Nile. The Straits of the ocean, of which I have just spoken, extend fifteen miles in length and five in breadth, measured from the village of Mellaria in Spain to the Album Promontorium or White Promontory in Africa, as we learn from Turranius Gracilis, who was born in that vicinity. Titus Livius and Cornelius Nepos however have stated the breadth, where it is least, to be seven miles, and where greatest, ten; from so small a mouth as this does so immense an expanse of water open upon us! Nor is our astonishment diminished by the fact of its being of great depth; for, instead of that, there are numerous breakers and shoals, white with foam, to strike the mariner with alarm. From this circumstance it is, that many have called this spot the threshold of The Inland Sea.

At the narrowest part of the Straits, there are mountains placed to form barriers to the entrance on either side, Abyla in Africa, and Calpe in Europe, the boundaries formerly of the labours of Hercules. Hence it is that the inhabitants have called them the Columns of that god; they also believe that they were dug through by him; upon which the sea, which was before excluded, gained admission, and so changed the face of nature.

 
1 BOUNDARIES AND GULFS OF EUROPE FIRST SET FORTH IN A GENERAL WAY M
I shall first then speak of Europe, the foster-mother of that people which has conquered all other nations, and itself by far the most beauteous portion of the earth. Indeed, many persons have, not without reason, considered it, not as a third part only of the earth, but as equal to all the rest, looking upon the whole of our globe as divided into two parts only, by a line drawn from the river Tanais to the Straits of Gades. The ocean, after pouring the waters of the Atlantic through the inlet which I have here described, and, in its eager progress, overwhelming all the lands which have had to dread its approach, skirts with its winding course the shores of those parts which offer a more effectual resistance, hollowing out the coast of Europe especially into numerous bays, among which there are four Gulfs that are more particularly remarkable. The first of these begins at Calpe, which I have previously mentioned, the most distant mountain of Spain; and bends, describing an immense curve, as far as Locri and the Promontory of Bruttium.
 
2 SPAIN GENERALLY M
The first land situate upon this Gulf is that which is called the Farther Spain or Bætica; next to which, beginning at the frontier town of Urgi, is the Nearer, or Tarraconensian Spain, extending as far as the chain of the Pyrenees. The Farther Spain is divided lengthwise into two provinces, Lusitania and Bætica, the former stretching along the northern side of the latter, and being divided from it by the river Ana. The source of this river is in the district of Laminium, in the Nearer Spain. It first spreads out into a number of small lakes, and then again contracts itself into a narrow channel, or entirely disappears under ground, and after frequently disappearing and again coming to light, finally dis- charges itself into the Atlantic Ocean. Tarraconensian Spain lies on one side, contiguous to the Pyrenees, running down- wards along the sides of that chain, and, stretching across from the Iberian Sea to the Gallic ocean, is separated from Bætica and Lusitania by Mount Solorius, the chains of the Oretani and the Carpetani, and that of the Astures.
 
3 BÆTICA M
Bætica, so called from the river which divides it in the middle, excels all the other provinces in the richness of its cultivation and the peculiar fertility and beauty of its vegetation.
It consists of four jurisdictions, those of Gades, of Corduba, of Astigi, and of Hispali. The total number of its towns is ; of these nine are colonies, and eight muni- cipal towns; twenty-nine have been long since presented with the old Latin rights; six are free towns, three federate, and tributary.

In this district, the things that more especially deserve notice, or are more easily explained in the Latin tongue, are the following, beginning at the river Ana, along the line of the seashore; the town of Onoba, surnamed Æstuaria; the rivers Luxia and Urium, flowing through this territory between the Ana and the Bætis; the Marian Mountains; the river Bætis; the coast of Corum, with its winding bay; opposite to which is Gades, of which we shall have occasion to speak among the islands. Next comes the Promontory of Juno, and the port of Bæsippo; the towns of Bœlo and Mellaria, at which latter begin the Straits of the Atlantic; Carteia, called by the Greeks Tartessos; and the mountain of Calpe.

Along the coast of the inland sea is the town of Barbesula with its river; also Salduba; the town of Suel; and then Malaca, with its river, one of the federate towns. Next to this comes Mænoba, with its river; then Sexifirmum, surnamed Julium; Selambina; Abdera; and Murci, which is at the boundary of Bætica. M. Agrippa supposed that all this coast was peopled by colonists of Punic origin. Beyond the Anas, and facing the Atlantic, is the country of the Bastuli and the Turditani. M. Varro informs us, that the Iberians, the Persians, the Phœnicians, the Celts, and the Carthaginians spread themselves over the whole of Spain; that the name "Lusitania" is derived from the games (lusus) of Father Bacchus, or the fury (lyssa) of his frantic attendants, and that Pan was the governor of the whole of it. But the traditions respecting Hercules and Pyrene, as well as Saturn, I conceive to be fabulous in the highest degree.

The Bætis does not rise, as some writers have asserted, near the town of Mentisa, in the province of Tarraco, but in the Tugiensian Forest; and near it rises the river Tader, which waters the territory of Carthage. At Ilorcum it turns away from the Funeral Pile of Scipio; then taking a sweep to the left, it falls into the Atlantic Ocean, giving its name to this province: at its source it is but small, though during its course it receives many other streams, which it deprives as well of their waters as their renown. It first enters Bætica in Ossigita-nia, and glides gently, with a smooth current, past many towns situate on either side of its banks.

Between this river and the sea-shore the most celebrated places inland are Segida, also surnamed Augurina; Julia, called Fidentia; Urgao or Alba, Ebora or Cerealis, Iliberri or Liberini, Ilipula or Laus, Artigi or Julienses, Vesci or Faventia, Singili, Attegua, Arialdunum, Agla Minor, Bæbro, Castra Vinaria, Cisimbrium, Hippo Nova or New Hippo, Ilurco, Osca, Escua, Sucubo, Nuditanum, Old Tuati; all which towns are in that part of Bastitania which extends towards the sea, but in the jurisdiction of Corduba. In the neighbourhood of the river itself is Ossigi, also surnamed Laconicum, Iliturgi or Forum Julium, Ipasturgi or Triumphale, Setia, and, fourteen miles inland, Obulco, which is also called Pontificense.

Next to these comes Epora, a federate town, Sacili Martialium, and Onoba. On the right bank is Corduba, a Roman colony, surnamed Patricia; here the Bætis first becomes navigable. There are also the towns of Carbula and Detunda, and the river Singulis, which falls into the Bætis on the same side.

The towns in the jurisdiction of Hispalis are the following: Celti, Arua, Canama, Evia, Ilipa, surnamed Illa, and Italica. On the left of the river is the colony of Hispalis named Romuliensis, and, on the opposite side, the town of Osset, surnamed Julia Constantia, Vergentum, or Juli Genius, Orippo, Caura, Siarum, and the river Menoba, which enters the Bætis on its right bank. Between the æstuaries of the Bætis lie the towns of Nebrissa, surnamed Veneria, and of Colobona. The colonies are, Asta, which is also called Regia, and, more inland, that of Asido, surnamed Cæsariana.

The river Singulis, discharging itself into the Bætis at the place already mentioned, washes the colony of Astigi, sur- named Augusta Firma, at which place it becomes navigable. The other colonies in this jurisdiction which are exempt from tribute are Tucci, surnamed Augusta Gemella, Itucci called Virtus Julia, Attubi or Claritas Julia, Urso or Genua Urbanorum; and among them in former times Munda, which was taken with the son of Pompey. The free towns are Old Astigi and Ostippo; the tributary towns are Callet, Callecula, Castra Gemina, the Lesser Ilipula, Merucra, Sacrana, Obulcula, and Oningis. As you move away from the sea-coast, near where the river Menoba is navigable, you find, at no great distance, the Alontigiceli and the Alostigi.

The country which extends from the Bætis to the river Anas, beyond the districts already described, is called Bæturia, and is divided into two parts and the same number of nations; the Celtici, who border upon Lusitania, in the ju- risdiction of Hispalis, and the Turduli, who dwell on the verge of Lusitania and Tarraconensis, and are under the protection of the laws of Corduba. It is evident that the Celtici have sprung from the Celtiberi, and have come from Lusitania, from their religious rites, their language, and the names of their towns, which in Bætica are distinguished by the following epithets, which have been given to them. Seria has received the surname of Fama Julia, Nertobriga that of Concordia Julia, Segida that of Restituta Julia, and Contributa that of Julia. What is now Curiga was formerly Ucultuniacum, Constantia Julia was Laconimurgis, the present Fortunales were the Tereses, and the Emanici were the Callenses. Besides these, there are in Celtica the towns of Acinippo, Arunda, Aruci, Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Sæpone, and Serippo.

The other Bæturia, which we have mentioned, is inhabited by the Turduli, and, in the jurisdiction of Corduba, has some towns which are by no means inconsiderable; Arsa, Mellaria, Mirobriga, and Sisapo, in the district of Osintias.

To the jurisdiction of Gades belongs Regina, with Roman citizens; and Læpia, Ulia, Carisa surnamed Aurelia, Urgia or Castrum Julium, likewise called Cæsaris Salutariensis, all of which enjoy the Latian rights. The tributary towns are Besaro, Belippo, Barbesula, Lacippo, Bæsippo, Callet, Cappacum, Oleastro, Ituci, Brana, Lacibi, Saguntia, and Audorisæ.

M. Agrippa has also stated the whole length of this province to be miles, and its breadth ; but this was at a time when its boundaries extended to Carthage, a circumstance which has often caused great errors in calculations; which are generally the result either of changes effected in the limits of provinces, or of the fact that in the reckoning of distances the length of the miles has been arbitrarily increased or diminished. In some parts too the sea has been long making encroachments upon the land, and in others again the shores have advanced; while the course of rivers in this place has become more serpentine, in that more direct. And then, besides, some writers begin their measurements at one place, and some at another, and so proceed in different directions; and hence the result is, that no two accounts agree.

(.) At the present day the length of Bætica, from the town of Castulo, on its frontier, to Gades is miles, and from Murci, which lies on the sea-coast, twenty-five miles more. The breadth, measured from the coast of Carteia, is miles. Who is there that can entertain the belief that Agrippa, a man of such extraordinary diligence, and one who bestowed so much care on his subject, when he proposed to place before the eyes of the world a survey of that world, could be guilty of such a mistake as this, and that too when seconded by the late emperor the divine Augustus ? For it was that emperor who completed the Portico which had been begun by his sister, and in which the survey was to be kept, in conformity with the plan and descriptions of M. Agrippa.

 
4 NEARER SPAIN M
The ancient form of the Nearer Spain, like that of many other provinces, is somewhat changed, since the time when Pompey the Great, upon the trophies which he erected in the Pyrenees, testified that towns, from the Alps to the borders of the Farther Spain, had been reduced to subjection by him. The whole province is now divided into seven jurisdictions, those of Carthage, of Tarraco, of Cæsar Augusta, of Clunia, of Asturica, of Lucus, and of the Bracari. To these are to be added the islands, which will be described on another occasion, as also states which are dependent on others; besides which the province contains towns. Of these, twelve are colonies, thirteen, towns with the rights of Roman citizens, eighteen with the old Latian rights, one confederate, and tributary.
The first people that we come to on the coast are the Bastuli; after whom, proceeding according to the order which I shall follow, as we go inland, there are the Mentesani, the Oretani, and the Carpetani on the Tagus, and next to them the Vaccæi, the Vectones, and the Celtiberian Arevaci. The towns nearest to the coast are Urci, and Barea included in Bætica, the district of Mavitania, next to it Deitania, and then Contestania, and the colony of Carthago Nova; from the Promontory of which, known as the Promontorium Saturni, to the city of Cæsarea in Mauritania, the passage is a distance of miles. The remaining objects worthy of mention on the coast are the river Tader, and the free colony of Ilici, whence the Ilicitanian Gulf derives its name; to this colony the Icositani are subordinate.

We next have Lucentum, holding Latian rights; Dianium, a tributary town; the river Sucro, and in former times a town of the same name, forming the frontier of Contestania. Next is the district of Edetania, with the delightful expanse of a lake before it, and extending backward to Celtiberia. Valentia, a colony, is situate three miles from the sea, after which comes the river Turium, and Saguntum at the same distance, a town of Roman citizens famous for its fidelity, the river Uduba, and the district of the Ilergaones. The Iberus, a river enriched by its commerce, takes its rise in the country of the Cantabri, not far from the town of Juliobriga, and flows a distance of miles; of which, from the town of Varia namely, it is available for the purposes of navigation. From this river the name of Iberia has been given by the Greeks to the whole of Spain.

Next comes the district of Cossetania, the river Subi, and the colony of Tarraco, which was built by the Scipios as Carthage was by the Carthaginians. Then the district of the Ilergetes, the town of Subur, and the river Rubricatum, beyond which begin the Laletani and the Indigetes. Behind these, in the order in which they will be mentioned, going back from the foot of the Pyrenees, are the Ausetani, the Lacetani, and along the Pyrenees, the Cerretani, next to whom are the Vascones. On the coast is the colony of Barcino, surnamed Faventia; Bætulo and Iluro, towns with Roman citizens; the river Larnum, Blandæ, the river Alba; Emporiæ, a city consisting of two parts, one peopled by the original inhabitants, the other by the Greek descendants of the Phocæans; and the river Ticher. From this to the Venus Pyrenæa, on the other side of the Promontory, is a distance of forty miles.

I shall now proceed to give an account of the more remarkable things in these several jurisdictions, in addition to those which have been already mentioned. Forty-three different peoples are subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Tarraco: of these the most famous are—holding the rights of Roman citizens, the Dertusani and the Bisgargitani; enjoying Latian rights, the Ausetani, and the Cerretani, both Julian and Augustan, the Edetani, the Gerundenses, the Gessorienses, and the Teari, also called Julienses. Among the tributaries are the Aquicaldenses, the Onenses, and the Bæculonenses.

Cæsar Augusta, a free colony, watered by the river Iberus, on the site of the town formerly called Salduba, is situate in the district of Edetania, and is the resort of fifty-five nations. Of these there are, with the rights of Roman citizens, the Bellitani, the Celsenses, a former colony, the Calagurritani, surnamed the Nassici, the Ilerdenses, of the nation of the Surdaones, near whom is the river Sicoris, the Oscenses in the district of Vescitania, and the Turiasonenses. Of those enjoying the rights of the ancient Latins, there are the Cascantenses the Ergavicenses, the Graccuritani, the Leo- nicenses, and the Osicerdenses; of federate states, there are the Tarragenses; and of tributaries, the Arcobrigenses, the Andologenses, the Aracelitani, the Bursaonenses, the Calagurritani, who are also surnamed the Fibularenses, the Complutenses, the Carenses, the Cincenses, the Cortonenses, the Damanitani, the Larnenses, the Lursenses, the Lumberitani, the Lacetani, the Lubienses, the Pompelonenses, and the Segienses.

Sixty-five different nations resort to Carthage, besides the inhabitants of the islands. Of the Accitanian colony, there are the Gemellenses, and the town of Libisosona, surnamed Foroaugustana, to both of which have been granted Italian rights. Of the colony of Salaria, there are the people of the following towns, enjoying the rights of ancient Latium: the Castulonenses, also called the Cæsari Venales, the Sætabitani or Augustani, and the Valerienses. The best known among the tributaries are the Alabanenses, the Bastitani, the Consaburrenses, the Dianenses, the Egelestani, the Ilorcitani, the Laminitani, the Mentesani, both those called Oritani and those called Bastuli, and the Oretani who are surnamed Germani, the people of Segobriga the capital of Celtiberia, those of Toletum the capital of Carpetania, situate on the river Tagus, and after them the Viatienses and the Virgilienses.

To the jurisdiction of Clunia the Varduli contribute fourteen nations, of whom we need only particularize the Albanenses, the Turmodigi, consisting of four tribes, among which are the Segisamonenses and the Segisamaiulienses. To the same jurisdiction belong the Carietes and the Vennenses with five states, among which are the Velienses. Thither too resort the Pelendones of the Celtiberians, in four different nations, among whom the Numantini were especially famous. Also, among the eighteen states of the Vaccæi, there are the Intercatienses, the Pallantini, the Lacobrigenses, and the Caucenses. But among the seven peoples belonging to the Cantabri, Juliobriga is the only place worthy of mention; and of the ten states of the Autrigones, Tritium and Virovesca. The river Areva gives its name to the Arevaci; of whom there are six towns, Segontia and Uxama, names which are frequently given to other places, as also Segovia and Nova Augusta, Termes, and Clunia itself, the frontier of Celtiberia. The remaining portion turns off towards the ocean, being occupied by the Varduli, already mentioned, and the Cantabri.

Next upon these touch the twenty-two nations of the Astures, who are divided into the Augustani and the Transmontani, with the magnificent city of Asturica. Among these we have the Cigurri, the Pæsici, the Lancienses, and the Zoëlæ. The total number of the free population amounts to , persons.

The jurisdiction of Lucus embraces, besides the Celtici and the Lebuni, sixteen different nations, but little known and with barbarous names. The number however of the free population amounts to nearly ,.

In a similar manner the twenty-four states of the jurisdiction of the Bracari contain a population of ,, among whom, besides the Bracari themselves, we may mention, without wearying the reader, the Bibali, the Cœlerni, the Gallæci, the Hequæsi, the Limici, and the Querquerni.

The length of the Nearer Spain, from the Pyrenees to the frontier of Castulo, is miles, and a little more if we follow the line of the coast; while its breadth, from Tarraco to the shore of Olarson, is miles. From the foot of the Pyrenees, where it is wedged in by the near approach of the two seas, it gradually expands until it touches the Farther Spain, and thereby acquires a width more than double.

Nearly the whole of Spain abounds in mines of lead, iron, copper, silver, and gold; in the Nearer Spain there is also found lapis specularis; in Bætica there is cinnabar. There are also quarries of marble. The Emperor Vespasianus Augustus, while still harassed by the storms that agitated the Roman state, conferred the Latian rights on the whole of Spain. The Pyrenean mountains divide Spain from Gaul, their extremities projecting into the two seas on either side.

 
5 PROVINCE OF GALLIA NARBONENSIS M
That part of the Gallias which is washed by the inland sea is called the province of [Gallia] Narbonensis, having formerly borne the name of Braccata. It is divided from Italy by the river Varus, and by the range of the Alps, the great safeguards of the Roman Empire. From the remainder of Gaul, on the north, it is separated by the mountains Cebenna and Jura. In the cultivation of the soil, the manners and civilization of the inhabitants, and the extent of its wealth, it is surpassed by none of the provinces, and, in short, might be more truthfully described as a part of Italy than as a province. On the coast we have the district of the Sordones, and more inland that of the Consuarani. The rivers are the Tecum and the Vernodubrum. The towns are Illiberis, the scanty remains of what was formerly a great city, and Ruscino, a town with Latian rights. We then come to the river Atax, which flows from the Pyrenees, and passes through the Rubrensian Lake, the town of Narbo Martius, a colony of the tenth legion, twelve miles distant from the sea, and the rivers Arauris and Liria. The towns are otherwise but few in number, in consequence of the numerous lakes which skirt the sea-shore. We have Agatha, formerly belonging to the Massilians, and the district of the Volcæ Tectosages; and there is the spot where Rhoda, a Rhodian colony, formerly stood, from which the river takes its name of Rhodanus; a stream by far the most fertilizing of any in either of the Gallias. Descending from the Alps and rushing through lake Lemanus, it carries along with it the sluggish Arar, as well as the torrents of the Isara and the Druentia, no less rapid than itself. Its two smaller mouths are called Libica, one being the Spanish, and the other the Metapinian mouth; the third and largest is called the Massiliotic. There are some authors who state that there was formerly a town called Heraclea at the mouth of the Rhodanus or Rhone.
Beyond this are the Canals leading out of the Rhone, a famous work of Caius Marius, and still distinguished by his name; the Lake of Mastramela, the town of Maritima of the Avatici, and, above this, the Stony Plains, memorable for the battles of Hercules; the district of the Anatilii, and more inland, that of the Desuviates and the Cavari. Again, close upon the sea, there is that of the Tricorii, and inland, there are the Tricolli, the Vocontii, and the Segovellauni, and, after them, the Allobroges.

On the coast is Massilia, a colony of Phocæan Greeks, and a federate city; we then have the Promontory of Zao, the port of Citharista, and the district of the Camatullici; then the Suelteri, and above them the Verrucini. Again, on the coast, we find Athenopolis, belonging to the Massilians, Forum Julii Octavanorum, a colony, which is also called Pacensis and Classica, the river Argenteus, which flows through it, the district of the Oxubii and that of the Ligauni; above whom are the Suetri, the Quariates and the Adunicates. On the coast we have Antipolis, a town with Latian rights, the district of the Deciates, and the river Varus, which proceeds from Mount Cema, one of the Alps.

The colonies in the interior are Arelate Sextanorum, Beterræ Septimanorum, and Arausio Secundanorum; Valentia in the territory of the Cavari, and Vienna in that of the Allobroges. The towns that enjoy Latian rights are Aquæ Sextiæ in the territory of the Saluvii, Avenio in that of the Cavari, Apta Julia in that of the Volgientes, Alebece in that of the Reii Apollinares, Alba in that of the Helvi, and Augusta in that of the Tricastini, Anatilia, Aeria, the Bormanni, the Comaci, Cabellio, Carcasum in the territory of the Volcæ Tectosages, Cessero, Carpentoracte in the territory of the Memini, the Cenicenses, the Cambolectri, surnamed the Atlantici, Forum Voconi, Glanum Livi, the Lutevani, also called the Foroneronienses, Nemausum in the territory of the Arecomici, Piscenæ, the Ruteni, the Sanagenses, the Tolosani in the territory of the Tectosages on the confines of Aquitania, the Tasconi, the Tarusconienses, the Umbranici, Vasio and Lucus Augusti, the two capitals of the federate state of the Vocontii. There are also nineteen towns of less note, as well as twenty-four belonging to the people of Nemausum. To this list the Emperor Galba added two tribes dwelling among the Alps, the Avantici and the Bodiontici, to whom belongs the town of Dinia. According to Agrippa the length of the province of Gallia Narbonensis is miles, and its breadth .

 
6 ITALY M
Next comes Italy, and we begin with the Ligures, after whom we have Etruria, Umbria, Latium, where the mouths of the Tiber are situate, and Rome, the Capital of the world, sixteen miles distant from the sea. We then come to the coasts of the Volsci and of Campania, and the districts of Picenum, of Lucania, and of Bruttium, where Italy extends the farthest in a southerly direction, and projects into the [two] seas with the chain of the Alps, which there forms pretty nearly the shape of a crescent. Leaving Bruttium we come to the coast of [Magna] Græcia, then the Salentini, the Pediculi, the Apuli, the Peligni, the Frentani, the Marrucini, the Vestini, the Sabini, the Picentes, the Galli, the Umbri, the Tusci, the Veneti, the Carni, the Iapydes, the Histri, and the Liburni.
I am by no means unaware that I might be justly accused of ingratitude and indolence, were I to describe thus briefly and in so cursory a manner the land which is at once the foster-child and the parent of all lands; chosen by the providence of the Gods to render even heaven itself more glorious, to unite the scattered empires of the earth, to bestow a polish upon men's manners, to unite the discordant and uncouth dialects of so many different nations by the powerful ties of one common language, to confer the enjoyments of discourse and of civilization upon mankind, to become, in short, the mother-country of all nations of the Earth.

But how shall I commence this undertaking? So vast is the number of celebrated places (what man living could enumerate them all?), and so great the renown attached to each individual nation and subject, that I feel myself quite at a loss. The city of Rome alone, which forms a portion of it, a face well worthy of shoulders so beauteous, how large a work would it require for an appropriate description! And then too the coast of Campania, taken singly by itself! so blest with natural beauties and opulence, that it is evident that when nature formed it she took a delight in accumulating all her blessings in a single spot—how am I to do justice to it? And then the climate, with its eternal freshness and so replete with health and vitality, the sereneness of the weather so enchanting, the fields so fertile, the hill sides so sunny, the thickets so free from every danger, the groves so cool and shady, the forests with a vegetation so varying and so luxuriant, the breezes descending from so many a mountain, the fruitfulness of its grain, its vines, and its olives so transcendent; its flocks with fleeces so noble, its bulls with necks so sinewy, its lakes recurring in never-ending succession, its numerous rivers and springs which refresh it with their waters on every side, its seas so many in number, its havens and the bosom of its lands opening everywhere to the commerce of all the world, and as it were eagerly stretching forth into the very midst of the waves, for the purpose of aiding as it were the endeavours of mortals!

For the present I forbear to speak of its genius, its manners, its men, and the nations whom it has conquered by eloquence and force of arms. The very Greeks themselves, a race fond in the extreme of expatiating on their own praises, have amply given judgment in its favour, when they named but a small part of it 'Magna Græcia.' But we must be content to do on this occasion as we have done in our description of the heavens; we must only touch upon some of these points, and take notice of but a few of its stars. I only beg my readers to bear in mind that I am thus hasten- ing on for the purpose of giving a general description of everything that is known to exist throughout the whole earth.

I may premise by observing that this land very much resembles in shape an oak leaf, being much longer than it is broad; towards the top it inclines to the left, while it terminates in the form of an Amazonian buckler, in which the spot at the central projection is the place called Cocinthos, while it sends forth two horns at the end of its crescent-shaped bays, Leucopetra on the right and Lacinium on the left. It extends in length miles, if we measure from the foot of the Alps at Prætoria Augusta, through the city of Rome and Capua to the town of Rhegium, which is situate on the shoulder of the Peninsula, just at the bend of the neck as it were. The distance would be much greater if measured to Lacinium, but in that case the line, being drawn obliquely, would incline too much to one side. Its breadth is variable; being miles between the two seas, the Lower and the Upper, and the rivers Varus and Arsia: at about the middle, and in the vicinity of the city of Rome, from the spot where the river Aternus flows into the Adriatic sea, to the mouth of the Tiber, the distance is miles, and a little less from Castrum-novum on the Adriatic sea to Alsium on the Tuscan; but in no place does it exceed miles in breadth. The circuit of the whole, from the Varus to the Arsia, is miles.

As to its distance from the countries that surround it- Istria and Liburnia are, in some places, miles from it, and Epirus and Illyricum ; Africa is less than , as we are informed by M. Varro; Sardinia is , Sicily /, Corsica less than , and Issa . It extends into the two seas towards the southern parts of the heavens, or, to speak with more minute exactness, between the sixth hour and the first hour of the winter solstice.

We will now describe its extent and its different cities; in doing which, it is necessary to premise, that we shall follow the arrangement of the late Emperor Augustus, and adopt the division which he made of the whole of Italy into eleven districts; taking them, however, according to their order on the sea-line, as in so hurried a detail it would not be possible otherwise to describe each city in juxtaposition with the others in its vicinity. And for the same reason, in describing the interior, I shall follow the alphabetical order which has been adopted by that Emperor, pointing out the colonies of which he has made mention in his enumeration. Nor is it a very easy task to trace their situation and origin; for, not to speak of others, the Ingaunian Ligurians have had lands granted to them as many as thirty different times.

 
7 NINTH REGION OF ITALY M
To begin then with the river Varus; we have the town of Nicæa, founded by the Massilians, the river Paulo, the Alps and the Alpine tribes, distinguished by various names, but more especially the Capillati, Cemenelio, a town of the state of the Vediantii, the port of Hercules Monæcus, and the Ligurian coast. The more celebrated of the Ligurian tribes beyond the Alps are the Salluvii, the Deciates, and the Oxubii; on this side of the Alps, the Veneni, and the Vagienni, who are derived from the Caturiges, the Statielli, the Bimbelli, the Magelli, the Euburiates, the Casmonates, the Veleiates, and the peoples whose towns we shall describe as lying near the adjoining coast. The river Rutuba, the town of Albium Intemelium, the river Merula, the town of Albium Ingaunum, the port of Vadum Sabatiorum, the river Porcifera, the town of Genua, the river Feritor, the Portus Delphini, Tigullia, Tegesta of the Tigullii, and the river Macra, which is the boundary of Liguria.
Extending behind all the before-mentioned places are the Apennines, the most considerable of all the mountains of Italy, the chain of which extends unbroken from the Alps to the Sicilian sea. On the other side of the Apennines, towards the Padus, the richest river of Italy, the whole country is adorned with noble towns; Libarna, the colony of Dertona, Iria, Barderate, Industria, Pollentia, Carrea surnamed Potentia, Foro Fulvî or Valentinum, Augusta of the Vagienni, Alba Pompeia, Asta, and Aquæ Statiellorum. This is the ninth region, according to the arrangement of Augustus. The coast of Liguria extends miles, between the rivers Varus and Macra.
 
8 SEVENTH REGION OF ITALY M
Next to this comes the seventh region, in which is Etruria, a district which begins at the river Macra, and has often changed its name. At an early period the Umbri were expelled from it by the Pelasgi; and these again by the Lydians, who from a king of theirs were named Tyrrheni, but afterwards, from the rites observed in their sacrifices, were called, in the Greek language, Tusci. The first town in Etruria is Luna, with a noble harbour, then the colony of Luca, at some distance from the sea, and nearer to it again the colony of Pisæ, between the rivers Auser and Arnus, which owes its origin to Pelops and the Pisans, or else to the Teutani, a people of Greece. Next is Vada Volaterrana, then the river Cecinna, and Populonium formerly belonging to the Etrurians, the only town they had on this coast. Next to these is the river Prile, then the Umbro, which is navigable, and where the district of Umbria begins, the port of Telamon, Cosa of the Volcientes, founded by the Roman people, Graviscæ, Castrum novum, Pyrgi, the river Cæretanus, and Cære itself, four miles inland, called Agylla by the Pelasgi who founded it, Alsium, Fregenæ, and the river Tiber, miles from the Macra.
In the interior we have the colonies of Falisci, founded by the Argives, according to the account of Cato, and surnamed Falisci Etruscorum, Lucus Feroniæ, Rusellana, the Senienses, and Sutrina. The remaining peoples are the Arretini Veteres, the Arretini Fidentes, the Arretini Julienses, the Amitinenses, the Aquenses, surnamed Taurini, the Blerani, the Cortonenses, the Capenates, the Clusini Novi, the Clusini Veteres, the Florentini, situate on the stream of the Arnus, Fæsulæ, Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, Herbanum, Nepeta, Novem Pagi, the Claudian præfecture of Foroclodium, Pistorium, Perusia, the Suanenses, the Saturnini, formerly called the Aurinini, the Subertani, the Statones, the Tarquinienses, the Tuscanienses, the Vetulonienses, the Veietani, the Vesentini, the Volaterrani, the Voleentini, surnamed Etrusci, and the Volsinienses. In the same district the territories of Crustumerium and Caletra retain the names of the ancient towns.
 
9 FIRST REGION OF ITALY; THE TIBER; ROME M
The Tiber or Tiberis, formerly called Thybris, and previously Albula, flows down from nearly the central part of the chain of the Apennines, in the territory of the Arretini. It is at first small, and only navigable by means of sluices, in which the water is dammed up and then discharged, in the same manner as the Timia and the Glanis, which flow into it; for which purpose it is found necessary to collect the water for nine days, unless there should happen to be a fall of rain. And even then, the Tiber, by reason of its rugged and uneven channel, is really more suitable for navigation by rafts than by vessels, for any great distance. It winds along for a course of miles, passing not far from Tifernum, Perusia, and Ocriculum, and dividing Etruria from the Umbri and the Sabini, and then, at a distance of less than sixteen miles from the city, separating the territory of Veii from that of Crustuminum, and afterwards that of the Fidenates and of Latium from Vaticanum.
Below its union with the Glanis from Arretinum the Tiber is swollen by two and forty streams, particularly the Nar and the Anio, which last is also navigable and shuts in Latium at the back; it is also increased by the numerous aqueducts and springs which are conveyed to the City. Here it becomes navigable by vessels of any burden which may come up from the Italian sea; a most tranquil dispenser of the produce of all parts of the earth, and peopled and embellished along its banks with more villas than nearly all the other rivers of the world taken together. And yet there is no river more circumscribed than it, so close are its banks shut in on either side; but still, no resistance does it offer, although its waters frequently rise with great suddenness, and no part is more liable to be swollen than that which runs through the City itself. In such case, however, the Tiber is rather to be looked upon as pregnant with prophetic warnings to us, and in its increase to be considered more as a promoter of religion than a source of devastation.

Latium has preserved its original limits, from the Tiber to Circeii, a distance of fifty miles: so slender at the beginning were the roots from which this our Empire sprang. Its inhabitants have been often changed, and different nations have peopled it at different times, the Aborigines, the Pelasgi, the Arcades, the Seculi, the Aurunci, the Rutuli, and, beyond Circeii, the Volsci, the Osci, and the Ausones whence the name of Latium came to be extended as far as the river Liris.

We will begin with Ostia, a colony founded by a king of Rome, the town of Laurentum, the grove of Jupiter Indiges, the river Numicius, and Ardea, founded by Danaë, the mother of Perseus. Next come the former site of Aphrodisium, the colony of Antium, the river and island called Astura, the river Nymphæus, the Clostra Romana, and Circeii, formerly an island, and, if we are to believe Homer, surrounded by the open sea, though now by an extensive plain. The circumstances which we are enabled to publish on this subject for the information of the world are very remarkable. Theophrastus, the first foreigner who treated of the affairs of Rome with any degree of accuracy (for Theopompus, before whose time no Greek writer had made mention of us, only stated the fact that the city had been taken by the Gauls, and Clitarchus, the next after him, only spoke of the embassy that was sent by the Romans to Alexander)—Theophrastus, I say, following something more than mere rumour, has given the circuit of the island of Circeii as being eighty stadia, in the volume which he wrote during the archonship of Nicodorus at Athens, being the th year of our city. Whatever land therefore has been annexed to that island beyond the circumference of about ten miles, has been added to Italy since the year previously mentioned.

Another wonderful circumstance too.—Near Circeii are the Pomptine Marshes, formerly the site, according to Mucianus, who was thrice consul, of four-and-twenty cities. Next to this comes the river Ufens, upon which is the town of Terracina, called, in the language of the Volsci, Anxur; the spot too where Amyclæ stood, a town destroyed by serpents. Next is the site of the Grotto, Lake Fundanus, the port of Caieta, and then the town of Formiæ, formerly called Hormiæ, the ancient seat of the Læstrygones, it is supposed. Beyond this, formerly stood the town of Pyræ; and we then come to the colony of Minturnæ, which still exists, and is divided by the river Liris, also called the Glanis. The town of Sinuessa is the last in the portion which has been added to Latium; it is said by some that it used to be called Sinope.

At this spot begins that blessed country Campania, and in this vale first take their rise those hills clad with vines, the juice of whose grape is extolled by Fame all over the world; the happy spot where, as the ancients used to say, father Liber and Ceres are ever striving for the mastery. Hence the fields of Setia and of Cæcubum extend afar. and, next to them those of Falernum and of Calinum. As soon as we have passed these, the hills of Massica, of Gaurus, and of Surrentum rise to our view. Next, the level plains of Laborium are spread out far and wide, where every care is bestowed on cultivating crops of spelt, from which the most delicate fermenty is made. These shores are watered by warm springs, while the seas are distinguished beyond all others for the superlative excellence of their shell and other fish. In no country too has the oil of the olive a more exquisite flavour. This territory, a battle-ground as it were for the gratification of every luxurious pleasure of man, has been held successively by the Osci, the Greeks, the Umbri, the Tusci, and the Campani.

On the coast we first meet with the river Savo, the town of Volturnum with a river of the same name, the town of Liternum, Cumæ, a Chalcidian colony, Misenum, the port of Baiæ, Bauli, the Lucrine Lake, and Lake Avernus, near which there stood formerly a town of the Cimmerians. We then come to Puteoli, formerly called the colony of Dicæ- archia, then the Phlegræn Plains, and the Marsh of Acherusia in the vicinity of Cumæ.

Again, on the coast we have Neapolis, also a colony of the Chalcidians, and called Parthenope from the tomb there of one of the Sirens, Herculaneum, Pompeii, from which Mount Vesuvius may be seen at no great distance, and which is watered by the river Sarnus; the territory of Nuceria, and, at the distance of nine miles from the sea, the town of that name, and then Surrentum, with the Promontory of Minerva, formerly the abode of the Sirens. The distance thence by sea to Circeii is seventy-eight miles This region, beginning at the Tiber, is looked upon as the first of Italy according to the division of Augustus.

Inland there are the following colonies:—Capua, so called from its champaign country, Aquinum, Suessa, Venafrum, Sora, Teanum surnamed Sidicinum, Nola; and the towns of Abella, Aricia, Alba Longa, the Acer- rani, the Allifani, the Atinates, the Aletrinates, the Anagnini, the Atellani, the Affilani, the Arpinates, the Auximates, the Abellani, the Alfaterni (both those who take their names from the Latin, the Hernican and the Labicanian territory), Bovillæ, Calatia, Casi- num, Calenum, Capitulum of the Hernici, the Cereatini, surnamed Mariani, the Corani, descended from the Trojan Dardanus, the Cubulterini, the Castrimœnienses, the Cingulani, the Fabienses on the Alban Mount, the Foropopulienses of the Falernian district, the Frusinates, the Ferentinates, the Freginates, the old Frabaterni, the new Frabaterni, the Ficolenses, the Fre- gellani, Forum Appî, the Forentani, the Gabini, the Interamnates Succasini, also surnamed Lirinates, the Ilionenses Lavinii, the Norbani, the Nomentani, the Prænestini (whose city was formerly called Stephané), the Privernates, the Setini, the Signini, the Suessulani, the Telesini, the Trebulani, surnamed Balinienses, the Trebani, the Tusculani, the Verulani, the Veliterni, the Ulubrenses, the Urbinates, and, last and greater than all, Rome herself, whose other name the hallowed mysteries of the sacred rites forbid us to mention without being guilty of the greatest impiety. After it had been long kept buried in secresy with the strictest fidelity and in respectful and salutary silence, Valerius Soranus dared to divulge it, but soon did he pay the penalty of his rashness.

It will not perhaps be altogether foreign to the purpose, if I here make mention of one peculiar institution of our forefathers which bears especial reference to the inculcation of silence on religious matters. The goddess Angerona, to whom sacrifice is offered on the twelfth day before the calends of January [st December], is represented in her statue as having her mouth bound with a sealed fillet.

Romulus left the city of Rome, if we are to believe those who state the very greatest number, having three gates and no more. When the Vespasians were emperors and censors, in the year from its building , the circumference of the walls which surrounded it was thirteen miles and two-fifths. Surrounding as it does the Seven Hills, the city is divided into fourteen districts, with cross-roads under the guardianship of the Lares. If a straight line is drawn from the mile-column placed at the entrance of the Forum, to each of the gates, which are at present thirty-seven in number (taking care to count only once the twelve double gates, and to omit the seven old ones, which no longer exist), the result will be [taking them altogether], a straight line of twenty miles and paces. But if we draw a straight line from the same mile-column to the very last of the houses, including therein the Prætorian encampment, and follow throughout the line of all the streets, the result will then be something more than seventy miles. Add to these calculations the height of the houses, and then a person may form a fair idea of this city, and will certainly be obliged to admit that there is not a place throughout the whole world that for size can be compared to it. On the eastern side it is bounded by the agger of Tarquinius Superbus, a work of surpassing grandeur; for he raised it so high as to be on a level with the walls on the side on which the city lay most exposed to attack from the neighbouring plains. On all the other sides it has been fortified either with lofty walls or steep and precipitous hills, but so it is, that its buildings, increasing and extending beyond all bounds, have now united many other cities to it.

Besides those previously mentioned, there were formerly in the first region the following famous towns of Latium: Satricum, Pometia, Scaptia, Politorium, Tellene, Tifata, Cænina, Ficana, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullum, Corniculum, Saturnia, on the site of the present city of Rome, Antipolis, now Janiculum, forming part of Rome, Antemnæ, Carnerium, Collatia, Amitinum, Norbe, Sulmo, and, with these, those Alban nations who used to take part in the sacrifices upon the Alban Mount, the Albani, the Æsulani, the Accienses, the Abolani, the Bube- tani, the Bolani, the Cusuetani, the Coriolani, the Fidenates, the Foretii, the Hortenses, the Latinienses, the Longulani, the Manates, the Macrales, the Mutucumenses, the Munienses, the Numinienses, the Olliculani, the Octulani, the Pedani, the Polluscini, the Querquetulani, the Sicani, the Sisolenses, the Tolerienses, the Tutienses, the Vimitellarii, the Velienses, the Venetulani, and the Vitellenses. Thus we see, fifty-three peoples of ancient Latium have passed away without leaving any traces of their existence.

In the Campanian territory there was also the town of Stabiæ, until the consulship of Cneius Pompeius and L. Cato, when, on the day before the calends of May [th of April], it was destroyed in the Social War by L. Sulla the legatus, and all that now stands on its site is a single farmhouse. Here also Taurania has ceased to exist, and the remains of Casilinum are fast going to ruin. Besides these, we learn from Antias that king L. Tarquinius took Apiolæ, a town of the Latins, and with its spoils laid the first foundations of the Capitol. From Surrentum to the river Silarus, the former territory of Picentia extends for a distance of thirty miles. This belonged to the Etruscans, and was remarkable for the temple of the Argive Juno, founded by Jason. In it was Picentia, a town of the territory of Salernum.

 
10 THIRD REGION OF ITALY M
At the Silarus begins the third region of Italy, consisting of the territory of Lucania and Bruttium; here too there have been no few changes of the population. These districts have been possessed by the Pelasgi, the Œnotrii, the Itali, the Morgetes, the Siculi, and more especially by people who emigrated from Greece, and, last of all, by the Leucani, a people sprung from the Samnites, who took possession under the command of Lucius. We find here the town of Pæstum, which received from the Greeks the name of Posidonia, the Gulf of Pæstum, the town of Elea, now known as Velia, and the Promontory of Palinurum, a point at which the land falls inwards and forms a bay, the distance across which to the pillar of Rhegium is miles. Next after Palinurum comes the river Melpes, then the town of Buxentum, called in [Magna] Græcia Pyxus, and the river Laus; there was formerly a town also of the same name.
At this spot begins the coast of Bruttium, and we come to the town of Blanda, the river Batum, Parthenius, a port of the Phocians, the bay of Vibo, the place where Clampetia formerly stood, the town of Temsa, called Temese by the Greeks, and Terina founded by the people of Crotona, with the extensive Gulf of Terina; more inland, the town of Consentia. Situate upon a peninsula is the river Acheron, from which the people of Acherontia derive the name of their town; then Hippo, now called Vibo Valentia, the Port of Hercules, the river Metaurus, the town of Tauroentum, the Port of Orestes, and Medma. Next, the town of Scyllæum, the river Cratæis, the mother of Scylla it is said; then the Pillar of Rhegium, the Straits of Sicily, and the two promontories which face each other, Cænys on the Italian, and Pelorus on the Sicilian side, the distance between them being twelve stadia. At a distance thence of twelve miles and a half, we come to Rhegium, after which begins Sila, a forest of the Apennines, and then the pro- montory of Leucopetra, at a distance of fifteen miles; after which come the Locri, who take their surname from the promontory of Zephyrium, being distant from the river Silarus miles.

At this spot ends the first great Gulf of Europe; the seas in which bear the following names:—That from which it takes its rise is called the Atlantic, by some the Great Atlantic, the entrance of which is, by the Greeks, called Porthmos, by us the Straits of Gades. After its entrance, as far as it washes the coasts of Spain, it is called the Hispanian Sea, though some give it the name of the Iberian or Balearic Sea. Where it faces the province of Gallia Narbonensis it has the name of the Gallic, and after that, of the Ligurian, Sea. From Liguria to the island of Sicily, it is called the Tuscan Sea, the same which is called by some of the Greeks the Notian, by others the Tyrrhenian, while many of our people call it the Lower Sea. Beyond Sicily, as far as the country of the Salentini, it is styled by Polybius the Ausonian Sea. Eratosthenes however gives to the whole expanse that lies between the inlet of the ocean and the island of Sardinia, the name of the Sardoan Sea; thence to Sicily, the Tyrrhenian; thence to Crete, the Sicilian; and beyond that island, the Cretan Sea.

 
11 SIXTY-FOUR ISLANDS, AMONG WHICH ARE THE BALEARES M
The first islands that we meet with in all these seas are the two to which the Greeks have given the name of Pityussæ, from the pine-tree, which they produce. These islands now bear the name of Ebusus, and form a federate state. They are separated by a narrow strait of the sea, and are forty-six miles in extent. They are distant from Dianium stadia, Dianium being by land the same distance from New Carthage. At the same distance from the Pityussæ, lie, in the open sea, the two Baleares, and, over against the river Sucro, Colubraria. The Baleares, so formidable in war with their slingers, have received from the Greeks the name of Gymnasiæ.
The larger island is miles in length, and in circumference. It has the following towns; Palma and Pollentia, enjoying the rights of Roman citizens, Cinium and Tucis, with Latin rights: Bocchorum, a federate town, is no longer in existence. At thirty miles' distance is the smaller island, miles in length, and in circumference; it contains the states of Jamnon, Sanisera, and Magon.

In the open sea, at twelve miles' distance from the larger island, is Capraria with its treacherous coast, so notorious for its numerous shipwrecks; and, opposite to the city of Palma, are the islands known as the Mænariæ, Tiquadra, and Little Hannibalis.

The earth of Ebusus has the effect of driving away serpents, while that of Colubraria produces them; hence the latter spot is dangerous to all persons who have not brought with them some of the earth of Ebusus. The Greeks have given it the name of Ophiusa. Ebusus too produces no rabbits to destroy the harvests of the Baleares. There are also about twenty other small islands in this sea, which is full of shoals. Off the coast of Gaul, at the mouth of the Rhodanus, there is Metina, and near it the island which is known as Blascon, with the three Stœchades, so called by their neighbours the Massilians, on account of the regular order in which they are placed; their respective names are Prote, Mese, also called Pomponiana, and Hypæa. After these come Sturium, Phœnice, Phila, Lero, and, opposite to Antipolis, Lerina, where there is a remembrance of a town called Vergoanum having once existed.

 
12 CORSICA M
In the Ligurian Sea, but close to the Tuscan, is Corsica, by the Greeks called Cyrnos, extending, from north to south miles, and for the most part miles in breadth, its circumference being . It is miles distant from the Vada Volaterrana. It contains thirty-two states, and two colonies, that of Mariana, founded by C. Marius, and that of Aleria, founded by the Dictator Sylla. On this side of it is Oglasa, and, at a distance of less than sixty miles from Corsica, Planaria, so called from its appearance, being nearly level with the sea, and consequently treacherous to mariners.
We next have Urgo, a larger island, and Capraria, which the Greeks have called Ægilion; then Igilium and Dianium, which they have also called Artemisia, both of them opposite the coast of Cosa; also Barpana, Mænaria, Co- lumbaria, and Venaria. We then come to Ilva with its iron mines, an island miles in circumference, miles distant from Populonium, and called Æthalia by the Greeks: from it the island of Planasia is distant miles. After these, beyond the mouths of the Tiber, and off the coast of Antium, we come to Astura, then Palmaria and Sinonia, and, opposite to Formiæ, Pontiæ. In the Gulf of Puteoli are Pandateria, and Prochyta, so called, not from the nurse of Æneas, but because it has been poured forth or detached from Ænaria, an island which received its name from having been the anchorage of the fleet of Æneas, though called by Homer Inarime; it is also called Pithecusa, not, as many have fancied, on account of the multitudes of apes found there, but from its extensive manufactories of pottery. Between Pausilipum and Neapolis lies the island of Megaris, and then, at a distance of eight miles from Surrentum, Capreæ, famous for the castle of the emperor Tiberius: it is eleven miles in circumference.
 
13 SARDINIA M
Leucothea comes next, and after it, but out of sight, as it lies upon the verge of the African Sea, Sardinia. It is situate somewhat less than eight miles from the nearest point of Corsica, and the Straits between them are even still more reduced by the small islands there situate, called the Cuniculariæ, as also those of Phintonis and Fossæ, from which last the Straits themselves have obtained the name of Taphros.
(.) Sardinia extends, upon the east side, a distance of miles, on the west , on the south , and on the north , being miles in circumference. Its promontory of Caralis is distant from Africa , and from Gades miles. Off the promontory of Gordis it has two islands called the Isles of Hercules, off that of Sulcis, the island of Enosis, and off that of Caralis, Ficaria. Some writers place Beleris not far from it, as also Callodis, and the island known as Heras Lutra.

The most celebrated peoples of this island are the Ilienses, the Balari, and the Corsi; and among its eighteen towns, there are those of the Sulcitani, the Valentini, the Neapoli- tani, the Bosenses, the Caralitani, who enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, and the Norenses. There is also one colony which is called Ad Turrim Libysonis. Timæus has called this island Sandaliotis, on account of the similarity of its shape to the sole of a shoe, while Myrtilus has given it the name of Ichnusa, from its resemblance to the print of a footstep. Opposite to the Gulf of Pæstum is Leucasia, so called from a Siren who is buried there; opposite to Velia are Poiitia and Isacia, both known by one name, that of Œnotrides, a proof that Italy was formerly possessed by the Œnotrians. Opposite to Vibo are the little islands called Ithacesiæ from the watch-tower of Ulysses situate there.

 
14 SICILY M
But more celebrated than all is Sicily, called Sicania by Thucydides, and by many writers Trinacria or Trinacia, from its triangular appearance. According to Agrippa it is miles in circumference. In former times it was a continuation of the territory of Bruttium, but, in consequence of the overflowing of the sea, became severed from it; thus forming a strait of miles in length, and a mile and a half in width in the vicinity of the Pillar of Rhegium. It was from this circumstance of the land being severed asunder that the Greeks gave the name of Rhegium to the town situate on the Italian shore.
In these Straits is the rock of Scylla, as also Charybdis, a whirlpool of the sea, both of them noted for their perils. Of this triangle, the promontory, which, as we have already mentioned, is called Pelorus, faces Scylla and juts out towards Italy, while Pachynum extends in the direction of Greece, Peloponnesus being at a distance from it of miles, and Lilybæum, towards Africa, being distant miles from the promontory of Mercury, and from that of Caralis in Sardinia . These promontories and sides are situate at the following distances from each other: by land it is miles from Pelorus to Pachynum, from Pachynum to Lilybæum , and from Lilybæum to Pelorus .

In this island there are five colonies and sixty-three cities or states. Leaving Pelorus and facing the Ionian Sea, we have the town of Messana, whose inhabitants are also called Mamertini and enjoy the rights of Roman citizens; the promontory of Drepanum, the colony of Tauromenium, formerly called Naxos, the river Asines, and Mount Ætna, wondrous for the flames which it emits by night. Its crater is twenty stadia in circumference, and from it red-hot cinders are thrown as far as Tauromenium and Catina, the noise being heard even at Maroneum and the Gemellian Hills. We then come to the three rocks of the Cyclopes, the Port of Ulysses, the colony of Catina, and the rivers Symæthus and Terias; while more inland lie the Læstrygonian Plains.

To these rivers succeed the towns of Leontinum and Megaris, the river Pantagies, the colony of Syracuse, with the fountain of Arethusa, (the people in the Syracusan ter- ritory drink too of the fountains of Temenitis, Archidemia, Magæa, Cyane, and Milichie,) the port of Naustathmus, the river Elorus, and the promontory of Pachynum. This side of Sicily begins with the river Hirminius, then follow the town of Camarina, the river Gelas, and the town of Agragas, which our people have named Agrigentum. We next come to the colony of Thermæ, the rivers Achates, Mazara, and Hypsa; the town of Selinus, and then the Promontory of Lilybæum, which is succeeded by Drepana, Mount Eryx, the towns of Panhormus, Solus and Himera, with a river of the same name, Cephalœdis, Aluntium, Agathyrnum, the colony of Tyndaris, the town of Mylæ, and then Pelorus, the spot at which we began.

In the interior there are the following towns enjoying Latin privileges, those of the Centuripini, the Netini, and the Segestani; tributary towns are those of the Assorini, the Ætnenses, the Agyrini, the Acestæi, the Acrenses, the Bidini, the Cetarini, the Cacyrini, the Drepanitani, the Ergetini, the Echetlienses, the Erycini, the Entellini, the Enini, the Enguini, the Gelani, the Gala- tini, the Halesini, the Hennenses, the Hyblenses, the Herbitenses, the Herbessenses, the Herbulenses, the Halicyenses, the Hadranitani, the Imacarenses, the Ipanenses, the Ietenses, the Mytistratini, the Magellini, the Murgentini, the Mutycenses, the Menanini, the Naxii, the Noæi, the Petrini, the Paropini, the Phthinthienses, the Semellitani, the Scherini, the Selinuntii, the Symæthii, the Talarienses, the Tissinenses, the Triocalini, the Tyraci- nenses, and the Zanclæi, a Messenian colony on the Straits of Sicily. Towards Africa, its islands are Gaulos, Melita, miles from Camerina, and from Lilybæum, Cosyra, Hieronnesos, Cæne, Galata, Lopadusa, Æthusa, written by some Ægusa, Bucinna, Osteodes, distant from Soluntum miles, and, opposite to Paropus, Ustica.

On this side of Sicily, facing the river Metaurus, at a di- stance of nearly miles from Italy, are the seven islands called the Æolian, as also the Liparæan islands; by the Greeks they are called the Hephæstiades, and by our writers the Vulcanian Isles; they are called "Æolian" because in the Trojan times Æolus was king there.

(.) Lipara, with a town whose inhabitants enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, is so called from Liparus, a former king who succeeded Æolus, it having been previously called Melogonis or Meligunis. It is miles distant from Italy, and in circumference a little less. Between this island and Sicily we find another, the name of which was formerly Therasia, but now called Hiera, because it is sacred to Vulcan: it contains a hill which at night vomits forth flames. The third island is Strongyle, lying one mile to the east of Lipara, over which Æolus reigned as well; it differs only from Lipara in the superior brilliancy of its flames. From the smoke of this volcano it is said that some of the inhabitants are able to predict three days beforehand what winds are about to blow; hence arose the notion that the winds are governed by Æolus. The fourth of these islands is Didyme, smaller than Lipara, the fifth Ericusa, the sixth Phœnicusa, left to be a pasture-ground for the cattle of the neighbouring islands, and the last and smallest Euonymos. Thus much as to the first great Gulf of Europe.

 
15 MAGNA GRÆCIA, BEGINNING AT LOCRI M
At Locri begins the fore-part of Italy, called Magna Græcia, whose coast falls back in three bays formed by the Ausonian sea, so called from the Ausones, who were the first inhabitants of the country. According to Varro it is miles in extent; but most writers have made it only . Along this coast there are rivers innumerable, but we shall mention those only that are worthy of remark. After leaving Locri we come to the Sagra, and the ruins of the town of Caulon, Mystiæ, Consilinum Castrum, Cocinthum, in the opinion of some, the longest headland of Italy, and then the Gulf of Scylacium, and Scylacium itself, which was called by the Athenians, when they founded it, Scylletium. This part of Italy is nearly a peninsula, in consequence of the Gulf of Terinæum running up into it on the other side; in it there is a harbour called Castra Hannibalis: in no part is Italy narrower than here, it being but twenty miles across. For this reason the Elder Dionysius entertained the idea of severing this portion from the main-land of Italy at this spot, and adding it to Sicily. The navigable rivers in this district are the Carcines, the Crotalus, the Semirus, the Arocas, and the Targines. In the interior is the town of Petilia, and there are besides, Mount Clibanus, the promontory of Lacinium, in front of which lies the island of Dioscoron, ten miles from the main-land, and another called the Isle of Calypso, which Homer is supposed to refer to under the name of Ogygia; as also the islands of Tiris, Eranusa, and Meloessa. According to Agrippa, the promontory of Lacinium is seventy miles from Caulon.
(.) At the promontory of Lacinium begins the second Gulf of Europe, the bend of which forms an are of great depth, and terminates at Acroceraunium, a promontory of Epirus, from which it is distant seventy-five miles. We first come to the town of Croton, and then the river Neæthus, and the town of Thurii, situate between the two rivers Crathis and Sybaris, upon the latter of which there was once a city of the same name. In a similar manner Heraclia, sometimes called Siris, lies between the river of that name and the Aciris. We next come to the rivers Acalandrus and Casuentum, and the town of Metapontum, with which the third region of Italy terminates. In the interior of Bruttium, the Aprustani are the only people; but in Lucania we find the Atinates, the Bantini, the Eburini, the Grumentini, the Potentini, the Sontini, the Sirini, the Tergilani, the Ursentini, and the Volcentani, whom the Numestrani join. Besides these, we learn from Cato that Thebes in Lucania has disappeared, and Theopompus informs us that there was formerly a city of the Lucani called Pandosia, at which Alexander, the king of Epirus, died.
 
16 SECOND REGION OF ITALY M
Adjoining to this district is the second region of Italy, which embraces the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the Salentini, extending a distance of miles along the Gulf of Tarentum, which receives its name from a town of the Laconians so called, situate at the bottom of the Gulf; to which was annexed the maritime colony which had previously settled there. Tarentum is distant from the promontory of Lacinium miles, and throws out the territory of Calabria opposite to it in the form of a peninsula. The Greeks called this territory Messapia, from their leader; before which it was called Peucetia, from Peucetius, the brother of Œnotrius, and was comprised in the territory of Salentinum. Between the two promontories there is a distance of miles. The breadth across the peninsula from Tarentum to Brundusium by land is miles, considerably less if measured from the port of Sasina. The towns inland from Tarentum are Varia surnamed Apulia, Messapia, and Aletium; on the coast, Senum, and Callipolis, now known as Anxa, miles from Tarentum. Thence, at a distance of miles, is the Pro- montory of Acra Iapygia, at which point Italy projects the greatest distance into the sea. At a distance of miles from this point is the town of Basta, and then Hydruntum, the spot at which the Ionian is separated from the Adriatic sea, and from which the distance across to Greece is the shortest. The town of the Apolloniates lies opposite to it, and the breadth of the arm of the sea which runs between is not more than fifty miles. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was the first who entertained the notion of uniting these two points and making a passage on foot, by throwing a bridge across, and after him M. Varro, when commanding the fleet of Pompey in the war against the Pirates. Other cares however prevented either of them from accomplishing this design. Passing Hydruntum, we come to the deserted site of Soletum, then Fratuertium, the Portus Tarentinus, the haven of Miltopa, Lupia, Balesium, Cælia, and then Brundusium, fifty miles from Hydruntum. This last place is one of the most famous .ports of Italy, and, although more distant, affords by far the safest passage across to Greece, the place of disembarkation being Dyrrachium, a city of Illyria; the distance across is miles.
Adjoining Brundusium is the territory of the Pediculi; nine youths and as many maidens, natives of Illyria, became the parents of sixteen nations. The towns of the Pediculi are Rudiæ, Egnatia, and Barium; their rivers are the Iapyx (so called from the son of Dædalus, who was king there, and who gave it the name of Iapygia), the Pactius, and the Aufidus, which rises in the Hirpinian mountains and flows past Canusium.

At this point begins Apulia, surnamed the Daunian, from the Daunii, who take their name from a former chief, the father-in-law of Diomedes. In this territory are the towns of Salapia, famous for Hannibal's amour with a courtezan, Sipontum, Uria, the river Cerbalus, forming the boundary of the Daunii, the port of Agasus, and the Promontory of Mount Garganus, distant from the Promontory of Salentinum or Iapygia miles. Making the circuit of Garganus, we come to the port of Garna, the Lake Pantanus, the river Frento, the mouth of which forms a harbour, Teanum of the Apuli, and Larinum, Cliternia, and the river Tifernus, at which the district of the Frentani begins. Thus there were three different nations of the Apulians, [the Daunii,] the Teani, so called from their leader, and who sprang from the Greeks, and the Lucani, who were subdued by Calchas, and whose country is now possessed by the Atinates. Besides those already mentioned, there are, of the Daunii, the colonies of Luceria and Venusia, the towns of Canusium and Arpi, formerly called Argos Hippium and founded by Diomedes, afterwards called Argyrippa. Here too Diomedes destroyed the nations of the Monadi and the Dardi, and the two cities of Apina and Trica, whose names have passed into a by-word and a proverb.

Besides the above, there is in the interior of the second region one colony of the Hirpini, Beneventum, so called by an exchange of a more auspicious name for its old one of Maleventum; also the Æculani, the Aquilonii, the Abellinates surnamed Protropi, the Compsani, the Caudini, the Ligures, both those called the Corneliani and Bebiani, the Vescellani, the Æclani, the Aletrini, the Abellinates surnamed Marsi, the Atrani, the Æcani, the Alfellani, the Atinates, the Arpani, the Borcani, the Collatni, the Cori- nenses, the Cannenses, rendered famous by the defeat of the Romans, the Dirini, the Forentani, the Genusini, the Herdo- nienses, the Hyrini, the Larinates surnamed Frentani, the Merinates of Garganus, the Mateolani, the Netini, the Ru- bustini, the Silvini, the Strapellini, the Turmentini, the Vibinates, the Venusini, and the Ulurtini. In the interior of Calabria there are the Ægetini, the Apamestini, the Argentini, the Butuntinenses, the Deciani, the Grumbestini, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses, the Sturnini, and the Tutini: there are also the following Salentine nations; the Aletini, the Basterbini, the Neretini, the Uxentini, and the Veretini.

 
17 FOURTH REGION OF ITALY M
We now come to the fourth region, which includes the most valiant probably of all the nations of Italy. Upon the coast, in the territory of the Frentani, after the river Tifernus, we find the river Trinium, with a good harbour at its mouth, the towns of Histonium, Buca, and Ortona, and the river Aternus. In the interior are the Anxani surnamed Frentani, the Higher and Lower Carentini, and the Lanuenses; in the territory of the Marrucini, the Teatini; in that of the Peligni, the Corfinienses, the Superæquani, and the Sulmonenses; in that of the Marsi, the Anxantini, the Atinates, the Fucentes, the Lucenses, and the Marruvini; in that of the Albenses, the town of Alba on Lake Fucinus; in that of the Æquiculani, the Cliternini, and the Carseolani; in that of the Vestini, the Angulani, the Pinnenses, and the Peltuinates, adjoining to whom are the Aufinates Cismontani; in that of the Samnites, who have been called Sabelli, and whom the Greeks have called Saunitæ, the colony of old Bovianum, and that of the Undecumani, the Aufidenates, the Esernini, the Fagifulani, the Ficolenses, the Sæpinates, and the Tereventinates; in that of the Sabini, the Amiternini, the Curenses, Forum Decî, Forum Novum, the Fidenates, the Interamnates, the Nursini, the Nomentani, the Reatini, the Trebulani, both those called Mutusci and those called Suffenates, the Tiburtes, and the Tarinates.
In these districts, the Comini, the Tadiates, the Cædici, and the Alfaterni, tribes of the Æquiculi, have disappeared. From Gellianus we learn that Archippe, a town of the Marsi, built by Marsyas, a chieftain of the Lydians, has been swallowed up by Lake Fucinus, and Valerianus informs us that the town of the Viticini in Picenum was destroyed by the Romans. The Sabini (called, according to some writers, from their attention to religious observances and the worship of the gods, Sevini) dwell on the dew-clad hills in the vicinity of the Lakes of the Velinus. The Nar, with its sulphureous waters, exhausts these lakes, and, descending from Mount Fiscellus, unites with them near the groves of Vacuna and Reate, and then directs its course towards the Tiber, into which it discharges itself. Again, in another direction, the Anio, taking its rise in the mountain of the Trebani, carries into the Tiber the waters of three lakes remarkable for their picturesque beauty, and to which Subla- queum is indebted for its name. In the territory of Reate is the Lake of Cutiliæ, in which there is a floating island, and which, according to M. Varro, is the navel or central point of Italy. Below the Sabine territory lies that of La- tium, on one side Picenum, and behind it Umbria, while the range of the Apennines flanks it on either side.
 
18 FIFTH REGION OF ITALY M
The fifth region is that of Picenum, once remarkable for the denseness of its population; , Picentines took the oaths of fidelity to the Roman people. They are descended from the Sabines, who had made a vow to celebrate a holy spring. Their territory commenced at the river Aternus, where the present district and colony of Adria is, at a distance of six miles from the sea. Here we find the river Vomanus, the territories of Prætutia and Palma, Castrum Novum, the river Batinus; Truentum, with its river of the same name, which place is the only remnant of the Liburni in Italy; the river Albula; Tervium, at which the Prætutian district ends, and that of Picenum begins; the town of Cupra, Castellum Firmanorum, and above it the colony of Asculum, the most illustrious in Picenum; in the interior there is the town of Novana. Upon the coast we have Cluana, Potentia, Numana, founded by the Siculi, and Ancona, a colony founded by the same people on the Promontory of Cumerus, forming an elbow of the coast, where it begins to bend in- wards, and distant from Garganus miles. In the interior are the Auximates, the Beregrani, the Cingulani, the Cuprenses surnamed Montani, the Falarienses, the Pausulani, the Planinenses, the Ricinenses, the Septempedani, the Tollentinates, the Treienses, and the Pollentini of Urbs Salvia.
 
19 SIXTH REGION OF ITALY M
Adjoining to this is the sixth region, which includes Umbria and the Gallic territory in the vicinity of Ariminum. At Ancona begins the coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata. The Siculi and the Liburni possessed the greater part of this district, and more particularly the territories of Palma, of Prætutia, and of Adria. These were expelled by the Umbri, these again by the Etrurians, and these in their turn by the Gauls. The Umbri are thought to have been the most ancient race in Italy, it being supposed that they were called "Ombrii" by the Greeks, from the fact of their having survived the rains which had inundated the earth. We read that of their towns were conquered by the Tusci; at the present day we find on their coast the river Æsis, Senogallia, the river Metaurus, the colonies of Fanum Fortunæ and Pisaurum, with a river of the same name; and, in the interior, those of Hispellum and Tuder.
Besides the above, there are the Amerini, the Attidiates, the Asisinates, the Arnates, the Æsinates, the Camertes, the Casuentillani, the Carsulani, the Dolates surnamed Salentini, the Fulginiates, the Foroflaminienses, the Forojulienses surnamed Concupienses, the Forobrentani, the Forosempronienses, the Iguvini, the Interamnates surnamed Nartes, the Mevanates, the Mevanionenses, the Matilicates, the Narnienses, whose town used formerly to be called Nequinum; the Nucerini, both those surnamed Favonienses and those called Camellani; the Ocriculani, the Ostrani, the Pitulani, both those surnamed Pisuertes and the others called Mergentini; the Plestini, the Sentinates, the Sarsi- nates, the Spoletini, the Suasini, the Sestinates, the Suillates, the Tadinates, the Trebiates, the Tuficani, the Tifernates surnamed Tiberini, and the others called Metaurenses, the Vesinicates, the Urbinates, both those surnamed Metaurenses and the others called Hortenses, the Vettonenses, the Vindinates, and the Viventani. In this district there exist no longer the Feliginates who possessed Clusiolum above Interamna, and the Sarranates, with their towns of Acerræ, surnamed Vafriæ, and Turocelum, also called Vettiolum; as also the Solinates, the Curiates, the Fallienates, and the Apiennates. The Arienates also have disappeared with the town of Crinovolum, as well as the Usidicani, the Plangenses, the Pæsinates, and the Cælestini. Cato writes that Ameria above-mentioned was founded years before the war with Perseus.
 
20 EIGHTH REGION OF ITALY; THE PADUS M
The eighth region is bounded by Ariminum, the Padus, and the Apennines. Upon the coast we have the river Crustumium, and the colony of Ariminum, with the rivers Ariminus and Aprusa. Next comes the river Rubico, once the boundary of Italy, and after it the Sapis, the Vitis, and the Anemo, and then, Ravenna, a town of the Sabines, with the river Bedesis, miles from Ancona; and, not far from the sea, Butrium, a town of the Umbri. In the interior there are the colonies of Bononia, formerly called Felsina, when it was the chief place of Etruria, Brixillum, Mutina, Parma, and Placentia. There are also the towns of Cæsena, Claterna, Forum Clodî, Forum Livî, Forum Popilî, Forum Truentinorum, Forum Cornelî, Forum Licinî, the Faventini, the Fidentini, the Otesini, the Padinates, the Regi- enses, who take their name from Lepidus, the Solonates, the Saltus Galliani, surnamed Aquinates, the Tannetani, the Veliates, who were anciently surnamed Regiates, and the Urbanates. In this district the Boii have disappeared, of whom there were tribes according to Cato; as also the Senones, who captured Rome.
(.) The Padus descends from the bosom of Mount Vesulus, one of the most elevated points of the chain of the Alps, in the territories of the Ligurian Vagienni, and rises at its source in a manner that well merits an inspection by the curious; after which it hides itself in a subterranean channel until it rises again in the country of the Forovibienses. It is inferior in fame to none whatever among the rivers, being known to the Greeks as the Eridanus and famous as the scene of the punishment of Phaëton. At the rising of the Dog-star it is swollen by the melted snows; but, though it proves more furious in its course to the adjoining fields than to the vessels that are upon it, still it takes care to carry away no portion of its banks, and when it recedes, renders them additionally fertile. Its length from its source is miles, to which we must add eighty-eight for its sinuosities; and it receives from the Apennines and Alps not only several navigable rivers, but immense lakes as well, which discharge themselves into its waters, thus conveying altogether as many as thirty streams into the Adriatic Sea.

Of these the best known are the following—flowing from the range of the Apennines, the Jactus, the Tanarus, the Trebia which passes Placentia, the Tarus, the Incia, the Gabellus, the Scultenna, and the Rhenus: from the chain of the Alps, the Stura, the Orgus, the two Duriæ, the Sessites, the Ticinus, the Lambrus, the Addua, the Ollius, and the Mincius. There is no river known to receive a larger increase than this in so short a space; so much so indeed that it is impelled onwards by this vast body of water, and, invading the land, forms deep channels in its course: hence it is that, although a portion of its stream is drawn off by rivers and canals between Ravenna and Altinum, for a space of miles, still, at the spot where it discharges the vast body of its waters, it is said to form seven seas.

By the Augustan Canal the Padus is carried to Ravenna, at which place it is called the Padusa, having formerly borne the name of Messanicus. The nearest mouth to this spot forms the extensive port known as that of Vatrenus, where Claudius Cæsar, on his triumph over the Britons, entered the Adriatic in a vessel that deserved rather the name of a vast palace than a ship. This mouth, which was formerly called by some the Eridanian, has been by others styled the Spinetic mouth, from the city of Spina, a very powerful place which formerly stood in the vicinity, if we may form a conclusion from the amount of its treasure deposited at Delphi; it was founded by Diomedes. At this spot the river Vatrenus, which flows from the territory of Forum Corneli, swells the waters of the Padus.

The next mouth to this is that of Caprasia, then that of Sagis, and then Volane, formerly called Olane; all of which are situate upon the Flavian Canal, which the Tuscans formerly made from Sagis, thus drawing the impetuous stream of the river across into the marshes of the Atriani, which they call the Seven Seas; and upon which is the noble port of Atria, a city of the Tuscans, from which place the sea was formerly called the Atriatic, though now the Adriatic.

We next come to the overflowing mouths of Carbonaria, and the Fosses of Philistina, by some called Tarta- rus, all of which originate in the overflow of the waters in the Philistinian Canal, swollen by the streams of the Atesis, descending from the Tridentine Alps, and of the Togisonus, flowing from the territory of the Patavini. A portion of them also forms the adjoining port of Brundulum, in the same manner as Edron is formed by the two rivers Meduacus and the Clodian Canal. With the waters of these streams the Padus unites, and with them discharges itself into the sea, forming, according to most writers, between the Alps and the sea-shore a triangular figure, stadia in circumference, not unlike the Delta formed by the Nile in Egypt. I feel somewhat ashamed to have to borrow from the Greeks any statement in reference to Italy; Metrodorus of Scepsos, however, informs us that this river has obtained its name of Padus from the fact, that about its source there are great numbers of pine-trees, which in the Gallic language are called "padi." In the tongue of the Ligurians this river is called "Bodincus," which signifies "the bottomless." This derivation is in some measure supported by the fact that near this river there is the town of Industria, of which the ancient name was Bodincomagum, and where the river begins to be of greater depth than in other parts.

 
21 ELEVENTH REGION OF ITALY; ITALIA TRANSPAIDANA M
From the river Padus the eleventh region receives its name of Transpadana; to which, situate as it is wholly in the interior, the river, by its bounteous channel, conveys the gifts of all the seas. The towns are Vibî Forum and Segusio; and, at the foot of the Alps, the colony of Augusta Taurinorum, at which place the Padus becomes navigable, and which was founded by the ancient race of the Ligurians, and of Augusta Prætoria of the Salassi, near the two passes of the Alps, the Grecian and the Penine (by the latter it is said that the Carthaginians passed into Italy, by the Grecian, Hercules)—the town of Eporedia, the foundation of which by the Roman people was enjoined by the Sibylline books; the Gauls call tamers of horses by the name of "Epore- diæ"—Vercellæ, the town of the Libici, derived its origin from the Salluvii, and Novaria, founded by the Vertacoma- cori, is at the present day a district of the Vocontii, and not, as Cato supposes, of the Ligurians; of whom two nations, called the Lævi and the Marici, founded Ticinum, not far from the Padus, as the Boii, descended from the Transalpine nations, have founded Laus Pompeia and the Insubres Me- diolanum.
From Cato we also learn that Comum, Bergomum, and Licinîforum, and some other peoples in the vicinity, originated with the Orobii, but he admits that he is ignorant as to the origin of that nation. Cornelius Alexander however informs us that they came from Greece, interpreting their name as meaning "those who live upon the mountains." In this district, Parra has disappeared, a town of the Orobii, from whom, according to Cato, the people of Bergomum are descended; its site even yet shows that it was situate in a position more elevated than fruitful. The Caturiges have also perished, an exiled race of the Insubres, as also Spina previously mentioned; Melpum too, a place distinguished for its opulence, which, as we are informed by Cornelius Nepos, was destroyed by the Insubres, the Boii, and the Senones, on the very day on which Camillus took Veii.
 
22 TENTH REGION OF ITALY M
We now come to the tenth region of Italy, situate on the Adriatic Sea. In this district are Venetia, the river Silis, rising in the Tarvisanian mountains, the town of Alti- num, the river Liquentia rising in the mountains of Opitergium, and a port with the same name, the colony of Concordia; the rivers and harbours of Romatinum, the greater and less Tiliaventum, the Anaxum, into which the Varamus flows, the Alsa, and the Natiso with the Turrus, which flow past the colony of Aquileia at a distance of fifteen miles from the sea. This is the country of the Carni, and adjoining to it is that of the lapydes, the river Timavus, the fortress of Pucinum, famous for its wines, the Gulf of Tergeste, and the colony of that name, thirty-three miles from Aquileia. Six miles beyond this place lies the river Formio, miles distant from Ravenna, the ancient boundary of enlarged Italy, and now the frontier of Istria. That this region takes its name from the river Ister which flows from the Danube, also called the Ister, into the Adriatic opposite the mouth of the Padus, and that the sea which lies between them is rendered fresh by their waters running from opposite directions, has been erroneously asserted by many, and among them by Nepos even, who dwelt upon the banks of the Padus. For it is the fact that no river which runs from the Danube discharges itself into the Adriatic. They have been misled, I think, by the circumstance that the ship Argo came down some river into the Adriatic sea, not far from Tergeste; but what river that was is now unknown. The most careful writers say that the ship was carried across the Alps on men's shoulders, having passed along the Ister, then along the Savus, and so from Nauportus, which place, lying between Æmona and the Alps, from that circumstance derives its name.
 
23 ISTRIA, ITS PEOPLE AND LOCALITY M
Istria projects in the form of a peninsula. Some writers have stated its length to be forty miles, and its circumference ; and the same as to Liburnia which adjoins it, and the Flanatic Gulf, while others make it ; others again make the circumference of Liburnia miles. Some persons too extend Iapydia, at the back of Istria, as far as the Flanatic Gulf, a distance of miles, thus making Liburnia but miles. Tuditanus, who subdued the Istri, had this inscription on his statue which was erected there: "From Aquileia to the river Titus is a distance of stadia."
The towns of Istria with the rights of Roman citizens are Ægida, Parentium, and the colony of Pola, now Pietas Julia, formerly founded by the Colchians, and distant from Tergeste miles: after which we come to the town of Nesactium, and the river Arsia, now the boundary of Italy. The distance across from Ancona to Pola is miles. In the interior of the tenth region are the colonies of Cremona, Brixia in the territory of the Cenomanni, Ateste belonging to the Veneti, and the towns of Acelum, Patavium, Opitergium, Belunum, and Vicetia; with Mantua, the only city of the Tuscans now left beyond the Padus. Cato informs us that the Veneti are descendants of the Trojans, and that the Cenomanni dwelt among the Volcæ in the vicinity of Massilia. There are also the towns of the Fertini, the Tridentini, and the Beruenses, belonging to the Rhæti, Verona, belonging to the Rhæti and the Euganei, and Ju- lienses to the Carni. We then have the following peoples, whom there is no necessity to particularize with any degree of exactness, the Alutrenses, the Asseriates, the Flamonienses with those surnamed Vanienses, and the others called Culici, the Forojulienses surnamed Transpadani, the Foretani, the Nedinates, the Quarqueni, the Taurisani, the Togienses, and the Varvari. In this district there have disappeared—upon the coast—Iramene, Pellaon, and Palsatium, Atina and Cælina belonging to the Veneti, Segeste and Ocra to the Carni, and Noreia to the Taurisci. L. Piso also informs us that although the senate disapproved of his so doing, M. Claudius Marcellus razed to the ground a tower situate at the twelfth mile-stone from Aquileia.

In this region also and the eleventh there are some celebrated lakes, and several rivers that either take their rise in them or else are fed by their waters, in those cases in which they again emerge from them. These are the Addua, fed by the Lake Larius, the Ticinus by Lake Verbannus, the Mincius by Lake Benacus, the Ollius by Lake Sebinnus, and the Lambrus by Lake Eupilis—all of them flowing into the Padus.

Cælius states that the length of the Alps from the Upper Sea to the Lower is miles, a distance which Timagenes shortens by twenty-two. Cornelius Nepos assigns to them a breadth of miles, and T. Livius of stadia; but then in different places. For in some localities they exceed miles; where they divide Germany, for instance, from Italy; while in other parts they do not reach seventy, being thus narrowed by the providential dispensation of nature as it were. The breadth of Italy, taken from the river Var at the foot of these mountains, and passing along by the Vada Sabatia, the Taurini, Comum, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia, Tergeste, Pola, and Arsia, is miles.

 
24 ALPS, AND THE ALPINE NATIONS M
Many nations dwell among the Alps; but the more remarkable, between Pola and the district of Tergeste, are the Secusses, the Subocrini, the Catali, the Menocaleni, and near the Carni the people formerly called the Taurisci, but now the Norici. Adjoining to these are the Rhæti and the Vindelici, who are all divided into a multitude of states. It is supposed that the Rhæti are the descendants of the Tuscans, who were expelled by the Gauls and migrated hither under the command of their chief, whose name was Rhætus. Turning then to the side of the Alps which fronts Italy, we have the Euganean nations enjoying Latin rights, and of whom Cato enumerates thirty-four towns. Among these are the Triumpilini, a people who were sold with their territory; and then the Camuni, and several similar tribes, each of them in the jurisdiction of its neighbouring municipal town. The same author also considers the Lepontii and the Salassi to be of Tauriscan origin, but most other writers, giving a Greek interpretation to their name, consider the Lepontii to have been those of the followers of Hercules who were left behind in consequence of their limbs being frozen by the snow of the Alps. They are also of opinion that the inhabitants of the Grecian Alps are descended from a portion of the Greeks of his army, and that the Euganeans, being sprung from an origin so illustrious, thence took their name. The head of these are the Stœni. The Vennonenses and the Sarunetes, peoples of the Rhæti, dwell about the sources of the river Rhenus, while the tribe of the Lepontii, known as the Uberi, dwell in the vicinity of the sources of the lhodanus, in the same district of the Alps. There are also other native tribes here, who have received Latin rights, such as the Octodurenses, and their neighbours the Centrones, the Cottian states, the Ligurian Vagienni, descended from the Caturiges, as also those called Montani; besides numerous nations of the Capillati, on the confines of the Ligurian Sea.
It may not be inappropriate in this place to subjoin the inscription now to be seen upon the trophy erected on the Alps, which is to the following effect:—"To the Emperor Cæsar—The son of Cæsar now deified, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, and emperor fourteen years, in the seventeenth year of his holding the tribuni- tial authority, the Senate and the Roman people, in remembrance that under his command and auspices all the Alpine nations which extended from the upper sea to the lower were reduced to subjection by the Roman people—The Alpine nations so sub- dued were: the Triumpilini, the Camuni, the Ve- nostes, the Vennonenses, the Isarci, the Breuni, the Genaunes, the Focunates, four nations of the Vindelici, the Consuanetes, the Rucinates, the Licates, the Catenates, the Ambisontes, the Ru- gusci, the Suanetes, the Calucones, the Brixentes, the Lepontii, the Uberi, the Nantuates, the Seduni, the Varagri, the Salassi, the Acitavones, the Medulli, the Uceni, the Caturiges, the Bri- giani, the Sogiontii, the Brodiontii, the Nemaloni, the Edenates, the Esubiani, the Veamini, the Gal- litæ, the Triulatti, the Ecdini, the Vergunni, the Eguituri, the Nementuri, the Oratelli, the Nerusi, the Velauni, and the Suetri."

The twelve states of the Cottiani were not included in the list, as they had shown no hostility, nor yet those which had been placed by the Pompeian law under the jurisdiction of the municipal towns.

Such then is Italy, sacred to the gods, such are the nations, such the cities of her peoples; to which we may add, that this is that same Italy, which, when L. Æmilius Paulus and C. Attilius Regulus were Consuls, on hearing of the rising in Gaul, unaided, and without any foreign assistance whatever, without the help even of that portion which lies beyond the Padus, armed , horse and , foot. In abundance of metals of every kind. Italy yields to no land whatever; but all search for them has been prohibited by an ancient decree of the Senate, who gave orders thereby that Italy shall be exempted from such treatment.

 
25 LIBURNIA AND ILLYRICUM M
The nation of the Liburni adjoins the river Arsia, and extends as far as the river Titus. The Mentores, the Hymani, the Encheleæ, the Buni, and the people whom Callimachus calls the Peucetiæ, formerly formed part of it; but now the whole in general are comprised under the one name of Illyricum. But few of the names of these nations are worthy of mention, or indeed very easy of pronunciation. To the jurisdiction of Scardona resort the Iapydes and fourteen cities of the Liburni, of which it may not prove tedious if I mention the Lacinienses, the Stlupini, the Burnistæ, and the Olbonenses. Belonging to the same jurisdiction there are, in the enjoyment of Italian rights, the Alutæ, the Flanates, from whom the Gulf takes its name, the Lopsi, and the Varvarini; the Assesiates, who are exempt from tribute; and upon the islands, the Fertinates and the Curicttæ.
Besides these, there are on the coast, after leaving Nesactium, Alvona, Flanona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium, Argyruntum, Corinium, Ænona, the city of Pasinum, and the river Tedanius, at which Iapydia terminates. The islands of this Gulf, with their towns, besides those above mentioned, are Absyrtium, Arba, Crexa, Gissa, and Portunata. Again, on the mainland there is the colony of Iadera, distant from Pola miles; then, at a distance of thirty miles, the island of Colentum, and of eighteen, the mouth of the river Titus.
 
26 DALMATIA M
Scardona, situate upon the river, at a distance of twelve miles from the sea, forms the boundary of Liburnia and the beginning of Dalmatia. Next to this place comes the ancient country of the Autariatares and the fortress of Tariona, the Promontory of Diomedes, or, as others call it, the peninsula of Hyllis, miles in circuit. Then comes Tragurium, a place with the rights of Roman citizens, and celebrated for its marble, Sicum, a place to which Claudius, the emperor lately deified, sent a colony of his veterans, and Salona, a colony, situate miles from ladera. To this place resort for legal purposes, having the laws dispensed according to their divisions into decuries or tithings, the Dahmatæ, forming decuries, the Deurici , the Ditiones , the Mazæi , and the Sardiates . In this region are Burnum, Andetrium, and Tribulium, fortresses ennobled by the battles of the Roman people. To the same jurisdiction also belong the Issæi, the Colentini, the Separi, and the Epetini, nations inhabiting the islands. After these come the fortresses of Peguntium and of Rataneum, with the colony of Narona, the seat of the third jurisdiction, distant from Salona eighty-two miles, and situate upon a river of the same name, at a distance of twenty miles from the sea. M. Varro states that eighty-nine states used to resort thither, but now nearly the only ones that are known are the Cerauni with decuries, the Daorizi with , the Dæsitiates with , the Docleatæ with , the Deretini with , the Deremistæ with , the Dindari with , the Glinditiones with , the Melcomani with , the Naresii with , the Scirtarii with , the Siculotæ with , and the Vardæi, once the scourges of Italy, with no more than decuries. In addition to these, this district was possessed by the Ozuæi, the Partheni, the Hemasini, the Arthitæ, and the Armistæ. The colony of Epidaurum is distant from the river Naron miles. After Epidaurum come the following towns, with the rights of Roman citizens:—Rhizinium, Acruvium, Butua, Olcinium, formerly called Colchinium, having been founded by the Colchians; the river Drilo, and, upon it, Scodra, a town with the rights of Roman citizens, situate at a distance of eighteen miles from the sea; besides in former times many Greek towns and once powerful states, of which all remem- brance is fast fading away. For in this region there were formerly the Labeatæ, the Enderini, the Sasæi, the Grabæi, properly called Illyrii, the Taulantii, and the Pyrei. The Promontory of Nymphæum on the sea-coast still retains its name; and there is Lissum, a town enjoying the rights of Roman citizens, at a distance from Epidaurum of miles.
(.) At Lissum begins the province of Macedonia, the nations of the Parthini, and behind them the Dassaretæ. The mountains of Candavia are seventy-eight miles from Dyrrhachium. On the coast lies Denda, a town with the rights of Roman citizens, the colony of Epidamnum, which, on account of its inauspicious name, was by the Romans called Dyrrhachium, the river Aöus, by' some called Æas, and Apollonia, formerly a colony of the Corinthians, at a distance of four miles from the sea, in the vicinity of which the celebrated Nymphæum is inhabited by the barbarous Amantes and Buliones. Upon the coast too is the town of Oricum, founded by the Colchians. At this spot begins Epirus, with the Acroceraunian mountains, by which we have previously mentioned this Gulf of Europe as bounded. Oricum is distant from the Promontory of Salentinum in Italy eighty miles.
 
27 NORICI M
In the rear of the Carni and the Iapydes, along the course of the great river Ister, the Rhæti touch upon the Norici: their towns are Virunum, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum, Vianiomina, Claudia, and Flavium Solvense. Adjoining to the Norici is Lake Peiso, and the deserts of the Boii; they are however now inhabited by the people of Sabaria, a colony of the now deified emperor Claudius, and the town of Scarabantia Julia.
 
28 PANNONIA M
Next to them comes acorn-bearing Pannonia, along which the chain of the Alps, gradually lessening as it runs through the middle of Illyricum from north to south, forms a gentle slope on the right hand and the left. The portion which looks towards the Adriatic Sea is called Dalmatia and Illyricum, above mentioned, while Pannonia stretches away towards the north, and has the Danube for its extreme boundary. In it are the colonies of Æmona and Siscia. The following rivers, both known to fame and adapted for commerce, flow into the Danube; the Draus, which rushes from Noricum with great impetuosity, and the Savus, which flows with a more gentle current from the Carnic Alps, there being a space between them of miles. The Draus runs through the Serretes, the Serrapilli, the Iasi, and the Andizetes; the Savus through the Colapiani and the Breuci; these are the principal peoples. Besides them there are the Arivates, the Azali, the Amantini, the Belgites, the Catari, the Cornacates, the Eravisci, the Hercuniates, the Latovici, the Oseriates, the Varciani, and, in front of Mount Claudius, the Scordisci, behind it the Taurisci. In the Savus there is the island of Metubarris, the greatest of all the islands formed by rivers. Besides the above, there are these other rivers worthy of mention:—the Colapis, which flows into the Savus near Siscia, where, dividing its channel, it forms the island which is called Segestica a; and the river Bacuntius, which flows into the Savus at the town of Sirmium, where we find the state of the Sirmienses and the Amantini. Forty-five miles thence is Taurunum, where the Savus flows into the Danube; above which spot the Valdanus and the Urpanus, themselves far from ignoble rivers, join that stream.
 
29 MŒSIA M
Joining up to Pannonia is the province called Mœsia, which runs, with the course of the Danube, as far as the Euxine. It commences at the confluence previously mentioned. In it are the Dardani, the Celegeri, the Triballi, the Timachi, the Mœsi, the Thracians, and the Scythians who border on the Euxine. The more famous among its rivers are the Margis, which rises in the territory of the Dardani, the Pingus, the Timachus, the Œscus which rises in Mount Rhodope, and, rising in Mount Hæmus, the Utus, the Asamus, and the Ieterus.
The breadth of Illyricum at its widest part is miles, and its length from the river Arsia to the river Drinius ; from the Drinius to the Promontory of Acroceraunia Agrippa states to be miles, and he says that the entire circuit of the Italian and Illyrian Gulf is miles. In this Gulf, according to the limits which we have drawn, are two seas, the Ionian in the first part, and the Adriatic, which runs more inland and is called the Upper Sea.
 
30 ISLANDS OF THE IONIAN SEA AND THE ADRIATIC M
In the Ausonian Sea there are no islands worthy of notice beyond those which we have already mentioned, and only a few in the Ionian; those, for instance, upon the Calabrian coast, opposite Brundusium, by the projection of which a harbour is formed; and, over against the Apulian coast, Diomedia, remarkable for the monument of Diomedes, and another island called by the same name, but by some Teutria.
The coast of Illyricum is clustered with more than islands, the sea being of a shoaly nature, and numerous creeks and æstuaries running with their narrow channels between portions of the land. The more famous are those before the mouths of the Timavus, with warm springs that rise with the tides of the sea, the island of Cissa near the territory of the Istri, and the Pullaria and Absyrtides, so called by the Greeks from the circumstance of Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, having been slain there. Some islands near them have been called the Electrides, upon which amber, which they call "electrum," was said to be found; a most assured instance however of that untruthfulness which is generally ascribed to the Greeks, seeing that it has never vet been ascertained which of the islands were meant by them under that name. Opposite to the Iader is Lissa, and other islands whose names have been already mentioned. Opposite to the Liburni are some islands called the Crateæ, and no smaller number styled Liburniecæ and Celadussæ. Opposite to Surium is Bavo, and Brattia, famous for its goats, Issa with the rights of Roman citizens, and Pharia with a town. At a distance of twenty-five miles from Issa is Corcyra, surnamed Melæna, with a town founded by the Cnidians; between which and Illyricum is Melite, from which, as we learn from Callimachus, a certain kind of little dogs were called Melitæi; fifteen miles from it we find the seven Elaphites. In the Ionian Sea, at a distance of twelve miles from Oricum, is Sasonis, notorious from having been a harbour of pirates.

Summary.—The towns and nations mentioned are in number****. The rivers of note are in number****. The mountains of note are in number****. The islands are in number****. The towns or nations which have disappeared are in number****. The facts, statements, and observations are in number .

Roman Authors quoted.—Turannius Gracilis, Cornelius Nepos, T. Livius, Cato the Censor, M. Agrip- pa, M. Varro, the Emperor Augustus now deified, Varro Atacinus, Antias, Hyginus, L. Vetus, Pomponius Mela, Curio the Elder, Cælius, Arruntius, Sebosus, Licinius Mucianus, Fabricius Tuscus, L. Ateius, Capito, Verrius Flaccus, L. Piso, Gellianus, and Valerianus.

Foreign Authors quoted.—Artemidorus, Alexander Polyhistor, Thucydides, Theophrastus, Isidorus, Theopompus, Metrodorus of Scepsis, Callicrates, Xenophon of Lampsacus, Diodorus of Syracuse, Nymphodorus, Calliphanes, and Timagenes.

 

4 COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, & PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED M

1 EPIRUS M
The third great Gulf of Europe begins at the mountains of Acroceraunia, and ends at the Hellespont, embracing an extent of miles, exclusive of the sea-line of nineteen smaller gulfs. Upon it are Epirus, Acarnania, Ætolia, Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, Bœotia; and again, upon the other sea, the same Phocis and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Macedonia and Thracia. All the fabulous lore of Greece, as well as the effulgence of her literature, first shone forth upon the banks of this Gulf. We shall therefore dwell a little the longer upon it.
Epirus, generally so called, begins at the mountains of Acroceraunia. The first people that we meet are the Chaones, from whom Chaonia receives its name, then the Thesproti, and then the Antigonenses. We then come to the place where Aornos stood, with its exhalations so deadly to the feathered race, the Cestrinis, the Perrhæbi, in whose coun- try Mount Pindus is situate, the Cassiopæi, the Dryopes, the Sellæ, the Hellopes, the Molossi, in whose territory is the temple of the Dodonæan Jupiter, so famous for its oracle; and Mount Tomarus, so highly praised by Theopompus, with its hundred springs gushing from its foot.

(.) Epirus, properly so called, advances towards Magnesia and Macedonia, having at its back the Dassaretæ, previously mentioned, a free nation, and after them the Dardani, a savage race. On the left hand, before the Dardani are extended the Triballi and the nations of Mœsia, while in front of them the Medi and the Denselatæ join, and next to them the Thracians, who stretch away as far as the Euxine: in such a manner is a rampart raised around the lofty heights of Rhodope, and then of Hæmus.

On the coast of Epirus is the fortress of Chimær, situate upon the Acroceraunian range, and below it the spring known as the Royal Waters; then the towns of Mæandria, and Cestria, the Thyamis, a river of Thesprotia, the colony of Buthrotum, and the Ambracian Gulf, so famed in history; which, with an inlet only half a mile in width, receives a vast body of water from the sea, being thirty-seven miles in length, and fifteen in width. The river Acheron, which runs through Acherusia, a lake of Thesprotia, flows into it after a course of thirty-six miles; it is considered wonderful for its bridge, feet in length, by a people who look upon everything as wonderful that belongs to themselves. Upon this Gulf is also situate the town of Ambracia. There are also the Aphas and the Arachthus, rivers of the Molossi; the city of Anactoria, and the place where Pandosia stood.

 
2 ACARNANIA M
The towns of Acarnania, the ancient name of which was Curetis, are Heraclia, Echinus, and, on the coast, Actium, a colony founded by Augustus, with its famous temple of Apollo and the free city of Nicopolis. Passing out of the Ambracian Gulf into the Ionian Sea, we come to the coast of Leucadia, with the Promontory of Leucate, and then the Gulf and the peninsula of Leucadia, which last was formerly called Neritis. By the exertions of the inhabitants it was once cut off from the mainland, but was again joined to it by the vast bodies of sand accumulated through the action of the winds. This spot is called Dioryctos, and is three stadia in length: on the peninsula is the town of Leucas, formerly called Neritus. We next come to Alyzia, Stratos, and Argos, surnamed Amphilochian, cities of the Acarnanians: the river Acheloüs flows from the heights of Pindus, and, after separating Acarnania from Ætolia, is fast adding the island of Artemita to the mainland by the continual deposits of earth which it brings down its stream.
 
3 ÆTOLIA M
The peoples of Ætolia are the Athamanes, the Tymphæi, the Ephyri, the Ænienses, the Perrhæbi, the Dolopes, the Maraces, and the Atraces, in whose territory rises the river Atrax, which flows into the Ionian Sea. Calydon is a city of Ætolia, situate at a distance of seven miles from the sea, and near the banks of the river Evenus. We then come to Macynia, and Molycria, behind which lie Mounts Chalcis and Taphiassus. On the coast again, there is the promontory of Antirrhium, off which is the mouth of the Corinthian Gulf, which flows in and separates Ætolia from the Peloponnesus, being less than one mile in width. The promontory which faces it on the opposite side is called Rhion. The towns of Ætolia, however, on the Corinthian Gulf are Naupactus and Pylene; and, more inland, Pleuron and Hali- cyrna. The most famous mountains are Tomarus, in the district of Dodona, Crania in Ambracia, Aracynthus in Acarnania, and Acanthon, Panætolium, and Macynium, in Ætolia.
 
4 LOCRIS AND PHOCIS M
Next to Ætolia are the Locri, surnamed Ozolæ; a people exempt from tribute. Here is the town of Œanthe, the port of Apollo Phæstius, and the Gulf of Crissa. In the interior are the towns of Argyna, Eupalia, Phæstum, and Calamisus. Beyond are the Cirrhaean plains of Phocis, the town of Cirrha, and the port of Chalæon, seven miles from which, in the interior, is situate the free town of Delphi, at the foot of Mount Parnassus, and having the most celebrated oracle of Apollo throughout the whole world. There is the Fountain too of Castalia, and the river Cephisus which flows past Delphi, rising in the former city of Lilæa. Besides these, there is the town of Crissa and that of Anticyra, with the Bulenses; as also Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa, exempt from all tribute, Tithrone, Tritea, Ambrysus, and Drymæa, which district has also the name of Daulis. The extremity of the gulf washes one corner of Bœotia, with its towns of Siphæ and Thebes, surnamed the Corsian, in the vicinity of Helicon. The third town of Bœotia on this sea is that of Pagæ, from which point the Isthmus of the Peloponnesus projects in the form of a neck.
 
5 PELOPONNESUS M
The Peloponnesus, which was formerly called Apia and Pelasgia, is a peninsula, inferior in fame to no land upon the face of the earth. Situate between the two seas, the Ægæan and the Ionian, it is in shape like the leaf of a plane-tree, in consequence of the angular indentations made in its shores. According to Isidorus, it is miles in circumference; and nearly as much again, allowing for the sea-line on the margin of its gulfs. The narrow pass at which it commences is know by the name of the Isthmus. At this spot the two seas, which we have previously mentioned, running from the north and the east, invade the land from opposite sides, and swallow up its entire breadth, the result being that through these inroads in opposite directions of such vast bodies of water, the sides of the land are eaten away to such an extent, that Hellas only holds on to the Peloponnesus by the narrow neck, five miles in width, which intervenes. The Gulfs thus formed, the one on this side, the other on that, are known as the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulfs. The ports of Lecheæ, on the one side, and of Cenchreæ on the other, form the frontiers of this narrow passage, which thus compels to a tedious and perilous circumnavigation such vessels as from their magnitude cannot be carried across by land on vehicles. For this reason it is that both King Demetrius, Cæsar the Dictator, the prince Caius, and Domitius Nero, have at different times made the attempt to cut through this neck by forming a navigable canal; a profane design, as may be clearly seen by the result in every one of these instances.
Upon the middle of this intervening neck which we have called the Isthmus, stands the colony of Corinth, formerly known by the name of Ephyre, situate upon the brow of a hill, at a distance of sixty stadia from the shore of either sea. From the heights of its citadel, which is called Acrocorinthos, or the "Heights of Corinth," and in which is the Fountain of Pirene, it looks down upon the two seas which lie in the opposite directions. From Leucas to Patræ upon the Corinthian gulf is a distance of eighty-eight miles. The colony of Patræ is founded upon the most extensive promontory of the Peloponnesus, facing Ætolia and the river Evenus, the Corinthian Gulf being, as we have previously stated, less than a mile in width at the entrance there, though extending in length as far as the isthmus, a distance of eighty-five miles.
 
6 ACHAIA M
The province called Achaia begins at the Isthmus; from the circumstance of its cities being ranged in regular succession on its coast, it formerly had the name of Ægialos. The first place there is Lecheæ, already mentioned, a port of the Corinthians; next to which is Olyros, a fortress of the people of Pellene; then the former towns of Helice and Bura, and the places in which their inhabitants took refuge after their towns had been swallowed up by the sea, Sicyon namely, Ægira, Ægium, and Erineos. In the interior are Cleonæ and Hysiæ; then come the port of Panormus, and Rhium already mentioned; from which promontory, Patræ, of which we have previously spoken, is distant five miles; and then the place where Pheræ stood. Of the nine mountains of Achaia, Scioessa is the most famous; there is also the Fountain of Cymothoë. Beyond Patræ we find the town of Olenum, the colony of Dyme, the places where Bupra- sium and Hyrmine once stood, the Promontory of Araxus, the Bay of Cyllene, and the Promontory of Chelonates, at five miles' distance from Cyllene. There is also the fortress of Phlius; the district around which was called by Homer Aræthyrea, and, after his time, Asopis.
The territory of the Eleans then begins, who were formerly called Epei, with the city of Elis in the interior, and, at a distance of twelve miles from Phlius, being also in the interior, the temple of Olympian Jupiter, which by the universal celebrity of its games, gives to Greece its mode of reckoning. Here too once stood the town of Pisa, the river Alpheus flowing past it. On the coast there is the Promontory of Ichthys. The river Alpheus is navigable six miles, nearly as far as the towns of Aulon and Leprion. We next come to the Promontory of Platanodes. All these localities lie to the west.
 
7 MESSENIA M
Further south is the Gulf of Cyparissus, with the city of Cyparissa on its shores, the line of which is seventy-two miles in length. Then, the towns of Pylos and Methone, the place where Helos stood, the Promontory of Acritas, the Asinæan Gulf, which takes its name from the town of Asine, and the Coronean, so called from Corone; which gulfs terminate at the Promontory of Tanarum. These are all in the country of Messenia, which has eighteen mountains, and the river Pamisus also. In the interior are Messene, Ithome, Œchalia, Arene, Pteleon, Thryon, Dorion, and Zancle, all of them known to fame at different periods. The margin of this gulf measures eighty miles, the distance across being thirty.
 
8 LACONIA M
At Tænarum begins the territory of Laconia, inhabited by a free nation, and situate on a gulf miles in circuit, and across. The towns are, Tænarum, Amyclæ, Pheræ, and Leuctra; and, in the interior, Sparta, Theramne, and the spots where Cardamyle, Pitane, and Anthea formerly stood; the former site of Thyrea, and Gerania. Here is also Mount Taygetus, the river Eurotas, the Gulf of Egilodes, the town of Psamathus, the Gulf of Gytheum, so called from the town of that name, from which place the passage is the safest across to the island of Crete. All these places are bounded by the Promontory of Malea.
 
9 ARGOLIS M
The next gulf, which extends as far as Scyllæum, is called the Argolic Gulf, being fifty miles across, and in circuit. The towns upon it are, Bœa, Epidaurus, surnamed Limera, Zarax, and the port of Cyphanta. The rivers are the Inachus and the Erasinus, between which lies Argos, surnamed Hippium, situate beyond the place called Lerna, and at a distance of two miles from the sea. Nine miles farther is Mycenæ, and the place where, it is said, Tiryns stood; the site, too, of Mantinea. The mountains are, Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and some others, eleven in number. The fountains are those of Niobe, Amymone, and Psamathe.
From Scyllæum to the Isthmus of Corinth is a distance of miles. We find here the towns of Hermione, Trœzen, Coryphasium, and Argos, sometimes called "Ina- chian," sometimes "Dipsian" Argos. Then comes the port of Schœnites, and the Saronic Gulf, which was formerly encircled with a grove of oaks, from which it derives its present name, oaks in ancient Greece having been so called. Upon this gulf is the town of Epidaurus, famous for its temple of Æsculapius, the Promontory of Spiræum, the port of Anthedus, Bucephalus, and then Cenchreæ, previously mentioned, on this side of the Isthmus, with its temple of Neptune, famous for the games celebrated there every five years. So many are the gulfs which penetrate the shores of the Peloponnesus, so many the seas which howl around it. Invaded by the Ionian on the north, it is beaten by the Sicilian on the west, buffeted by the Cretan on the south, by the Ægean on the S.E., and by the Myrtoan on the N.E.; which last sea begins at the Gulf of Megara, and washes all the coast of Attica.
 
10 ARCADIA M
Its interior is occupied for the greater part by Arcadia, which, remote from the sea on every side, was ori- ginally called Drymodes, and at a later period Pelasgis. The cities of Arcadia are, Psophis, Mantinea, Stymphalus, Tegea, Antigonea, Orchomenus, Pheneum, Palantium (from which the Palatium at Rome derives its name), Megalopolis, Gortyna, Bucolium, Carnion, Parrhasia, Thelpusa, Melænæ, Heræa, Pylæ, Pallene, Agræ, Epium, Cynæthæ, Lepreon of Arcadia, Parthe- nium, Alea, Methydrium, Enispe, Macistum, Lampia, Clitorium, and Cleonæ; between which two last towns is the district of Nemea, commonly known as Bembinadia.
The mountains of Arcadia are, Pholöe, with a town of the same name, Cyllene, Lycæus, upon which is the temple of Lycæan Jupiter; Mænalus, Artemisius, Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris, besides eight others of no note. The rivers are the Ladon, which rises in the marshes of Pheneus, and the Erymanthus, which springs from a mountain of the same name, and flows into the Alpheus.

The other cities of Achaia worthy of mention are those of the Aliphiræi, the Abeatæ, the Pyrgenses, the Paro- reatæ, the Paragenitæ, the Tortuni, the Typanei, the Thriasii, and the Tritienses. Domitius Nero [the emperor] granted liberty to the whole of Achaia. The Peloponnesus, from the Promontory of Malea to the town of Ægium on the Corinthian Gulf, is miles in length, and miles across from Elis to Epidaurus; the distance being, from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia, sixty-eight miles. The distance from Olympia to Phlius has been already mentioned. Throughout the whole of this region, as though nature had been desirous to compensate for the inroads of the sea, seventy-six mountains raise their lofty heads.

 
11 ATTICA M
At the narrow neck of the Isthmus, Hellas begins, by our people known as Græcia. The first state that presents itself is Attica, anciently called Acte. It touches the Isthmus in that part of it which is called Megaris, from the colony of Megara, lying on the opposite side to Pagæ.
These two towns are situate at the spot where the Peloponnesus projects to the greatest distance; being placed, one on each side, upon the very shoulders of Hellas as it were. The Pagæans, as well as the people of Ægosthena, belong to the jurisdiction of Megara. On the coast there is the port of Schœnos, the towns of Sidus and Cremmyon, the Scironian Rocks, six miles in length, Geranea, Megara, and Eleusis. Œnoë and Probalinthos also formerly existed here; the ports of Piræus and Phalerum are distant from the Isthmus fifty-five miles, being united to Athens, which lies in the interior, by a wall five miles in length. Athens is a free city, and needs not a word more from us in its commendation; of fame it enjoys even more than enough. In Attica there are the Fountains of Cephisia, Larine, Callirrhoë Enneacrunos, and the mountains of Brilessus, Ægialeus, Icarius, Hymettus, Lycabettus, and the place where Ilissus stood. At the distance of forty-five miles from the Piræus is the Promontory of Sunium. There is also the Promontory of Thoricos; Potamos, Steria, and Brauron, once towns, the borough of Rhamus, the place where Marathon stood, the Thriasian plain, the town of Melite, and Oropus upon the confines of Bœotia.
 
12 BŒOTIA M
In this country are Anthedon, Onchestus, the free town of Thespiæ, Lebadea, and then Thebes, surnamed Bœotian, which does not yield the palm to Athens even in celebrity; the native land, according to the common notion, of the two Divinities Liber and Hercules. The birth-place of the Muses too is pointed out in the grove of Helicon. To this same Thebes also belong the forest of Cithæron, and the river Ismenus. Besides these, there are in Bœotia the Fountains of Œdipodia, Psamathe, Dirce, Epicrane, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and Gargaphie; and, besides the mountains already mentioned, Mycalesos, Hadylius, and Acontius. The remaining towns between Megara and Thebes are Eleutheræ, Haliartus, Platææ, Pheræ, Aspledon, Hyle, Thisbe, Erythræ, Glissas, and Copæ; near the river Cephisus, Larymna and Anchoa; as also Medeon, Phlygone, Acræphia, Coronea, and Chæronea. Again, on the coast and below Thebes, are Ocalea, Heleon, Scolos, Schœnos, Peteon, Hyriæ, Mycalesos, Iresion, Pteleon, Olyros, and Tanagra, the people of which are free; and, situate upon the very mouth of the Euripus, a strait formed by the opposite island of Eubœa, Aulis, so famous for its capacious harbour. The Bœotians formerly had the name of Hyantes.
After them come the Locrians, surnamed Epicnemidii, formerly called Leleges, through whose country the river Cephisus passes, in its course to the sea. Their towns are Opus; from which the Opuntian Gulf takes its name, and Cynos. Daphnus is the only town of Phocis situate on the coast. In the interior of Locris is Elatea, and on the banks of the Cephisus, as we have previously stated, Lilæa, and, facing Delphi, Cnemis and Hyampolis. Again, upon the coast of the Locrians, are Larymna, and Thronium, near which last the river Boagrius enters the sea. Also, the towns of Narycion, Alope, and Scarphia; and then the gulf which receives the name of the Maliac from the people who dwell there, and upon which are the towns of Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara.
 
13 DORIS M
Doris comes next, in which are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, and Cytinum. Behind Doris lies Mount Œta.
 
14 PHTHIOTIS M
Hæmonia follows, a country which has often changed its name, having been successively called Pelasgic Argos, Hellas, Thessaly, and Dryopis, always taking its surname from its kings. In this country was born the king whose name was Græcus; and from whom Græcia was so called; and here too was born Hellen, from whom the Hellenes derive their name. The same people Homer has called by three different names, Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achæi.
That portion of these people which inhabit the country adjacent to Doris are called Phthiotæ. Their towns are Echinus, at the mouth of the river Sperchius, and, at four miles from the narrow pass of Thermopylæ, Heraclea, which from it takes its surname of Trachin. Here too is Mount Callidromus, and the celebrated towns of Hellas, Halos, Lamia, Phthia, and Arne.
 
15 THESSALY PROPER M
In Thessaly is Orchomenus, formerly called the Minyan, and the towns of Almon, by some called Salmon, Atrax, and Pelinna; the Fountain of Hyperia; the towns also of Pheræ, at the back of which is Pieria, extending to Macedonia, Larisa, Gomphi, Thebes of Thessaly, the grove of Pteleon, the Gulf of Pagasa, the town of Pagasa, which was afterwards called Demetrias, the Plains of Pharsalia, with a free city of similar name, Crannon, and Iletia. The mountains of Phthiotis are Nymphæus, once so beautiful for its garden scenery, the work of nature; Busygæus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphusa, Chimerion, Athamas, and Stephane. In Thessaly there are thirty-four, of which the most famous are Cercetii, Olympus, Pierus, and Ossa, opposite to which last are Pindus and Othrys, the abodes of the Lapithæ. These mountains look towards the west, Pelion towards the east, all of them forming a curve like an amphitheatre, in the interior of which, lying before them, are no less than seventy-five cities. The rivers of Thessaly are the Apidanus, the Phœnix, the Enipeus, the Onochonus, and the Pamisus. There is also the Fountain of Messeis, and the lake Bœbeis. The river Peneus too, superior to all others in celebrity, takes its rise near Gomphi, and flows down a well-wooded valley between Ossa and Olympus, a distance of five hundred stadia, being navigable half that distance. The vale, for a distance of five miles through which this river runs, is called by the name of Tempe; being a jugerum and a half nearly in breadth, while on the right and left, the mountain chain slopes away with a gentle elevation, beyond the range of human vision, the foliage imparting its colour to the light within. Along this vale glides the Peneus, reflecting the green tints as it rolls along its pebbly bed, its banks covered with tufts of verdant herbage, and enlivened by the melodious warblings of the birds. The Peneus receives the river Orcus, or rather, I should say, does not receive it, but merely carries its waters, which swim on its surface like oil, as Homer says; and then, after a short time, rejects them, refusing to allow the waters of a river devoted to penal sufferings and engendered for the Furies to mingle with his silvery streams.
 
16 MAGNESIA M
To Thessaly Magnesia joins, in which is the fountain of Libethra. Its towns are Iolcos, Hormenium, Pyrrha, Methone, and Olizon. The Promontory of Sepias is here situate. We then come to the towns of Casthanea and Spa- lathra, the Promontory of Æantium, the towns of Melibœa, Rhizus, and Erymnæ; the mouth of the Peneus, the towns of Homolium, Orthe, Thespiæ, Phalanna, Thaumacie, Gyrton, Crannon, Acharne, Dotion, Melitæa, Phylace, and Potniæ. The length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessaly is said altogether to amount to miles, the breadth to .
 
17 MACEDONIA M
Macedonia comes next, including nations, and renowned for its two kings and its former empire over the world; it was formerly known by the name of Emathia. Stretching away towards the nations of Epirus on the west it lies at the back of Magnesia and Thessaly, being itself exposed to the attacks of the Dardani. Pæonia and Pelagonia protect its northern parts from the Triballi. Its towns are Ægiæ, at which place its kings were usually buried, Beræa, and, in the country called Pieria from the grove of that name, Æginium. Upon the coast are Heraclea, the river Apilas, the towns of Pydna and Aloros, and the river Haliacmon. In the interior are the Aloritæ, the Vallæi, the Phlylacæi, the Cyrrhestæ, the Tyrissæi, the colony of Pella, and Stobi, a town with the rights of Roman citizens. Next comes Antigonea, Europus upon the river Axius, and another place of the same name by which the Rhœmdias flows, Scydra, Eordæa, Mieza, and Gordyniæ. Then, upon the coast, Ichne, and the river Axius: along this frontier the Dardani, the Treres, and the Pieres, border on Macedonia. Leaving this river, there are the nations of Pæonia, the Paroræi, the Eordenses, the Almopii, the Pelagones, and the Mygdones.
Next come the mountains of Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus; and, lying along the extent of country in front of these mountains, the Arethusii, the Antiochienses, the Idomenenses, the Doberi, the Æstræenses, the Allantenses, the Audaristenses, the Morylli, the Garesci, the Lyncestæ, the Othryonei, and the Amantini and Orestæ, both of them free peoples; the colonies of Bullis and Dium, the Xylopolitæ, the Scotussæi, a free people, Heraclea Sintica, the Tymphæi, and the Toronæi.

Upon the coast of the Macedonian Gulf there are the town of Chalastra, and, more inland, Piloros; also Lete, and at the extreme bend of the Gulf, Thessalonica, a free city; (from this place to Dyrrhachium it is miles,) and then Thermæ. Upon the Gulf of Thermæ are the towns of Dicæa, Pydna, Derra, Scione, the Promontory of Canastræum, and the towns of Pallene and Phlegra. In this region also are the mountains Hypsizorus, Epitus, Halcyone, and Leoomne; the towns of Nyssos, Phryxelon, Mendæ, and what was formerly Potidæa on the isthmus of Pallene, but now the Colony of Cassandria; Anthemus, Olophyxus, and the Gulf of Mecyberna; the towns of Miscella, Ampelos, Torone, Singos, and the canal, a mile and a half in length, by means of which Xerxes, king of the Persians, cut off Mount Athos from the main land. This mountain projects from the level plain of the adjacent country into the sea, a distance of seventy-five miles; its circumference at its base being miles in extent. There was formerly upon its summit the town of Acroathon: the present towns are Uranopolis, Palæorium, Thyssus, Cleonæ, and Apollonia, the inhabitants of which have the surname of Macrobii. The town also of Cassera, and then the other side of the Isthmus, after which come Acanthus, Stagira, Sithone, Heraclea, and the country of Mygdonia that lies below, in which are situate, at some distance from the sea, Apollonia and Arethusa. Again, upon the coast we have Posidium, and the bay with the town of Cermorus, Amphipolis, a free town, and the nation of the Bisaltæ. We then come to the river Strymon which takes its rise in Mount Hæmus and forms the boundary of Macedonia: it is worthy of remark that it first discharges itself into seven lakes before it proceeds onward in its course.

Such is Macedonia, which was once the mistress of the world, which once extended her career over Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappadocia, Syria, Egypt, Taurus, and Caucasus, which reduced the whole of the East under her power, and triumphed over the Bactri, the Medes, and the Persians. She too it was who proved the conqueror of India, thus treading in the footsteps of Father Liber and of Hercules; and this is that same Macedonia, of which our own general Paulus Æmilius sold to pillage seventy-two cities in one day. So great the difference in her lot resulting from the actions of two individuals!

 
18 THRACE; THE ÆGEAN SEA M
Thrace now follows, divided into fifty strategies, and to be reckoned among the most powerful nations of Europe. Among its peoples whom we ought not to omit to name are the Denseletæ and the Medi, dwelling upon the right bank of the Strymon, and joining up to the Bisaltæ above mentioned; on the left there are the Digerri and a number of tribes of the Bessi, with various names, as far as the river Mestus, which winds around the foot of Mount Pan- gæum, passing among the Elethi, the Diobessi, the Carbilesi; and then the Brysæ, the Sapæi, and the Odomanti. The territory of the Odrysæ gives birth to the Hebrus, its banks being inhabited by the Cabyleti, the Pyrogeri, the Drugeri, the Cænici, the Hypsalti, the Beni, the Corpili, the Bottiæi, and the Edoni. In the same district are also the Selletæ, the Priantæ, the Doloncæ, the Thyni, and the Greater Cœletæ, below Mount Hæmus, the Lesser at the foot of Rhodope. Between these tribes runs the river Hebrus. We then come to a town at the foot of Rhodope, first called Poneropolis, afterwards Philippopolis from the name of its founder, and now, from the peculiarity of its situation, Trimontium. To reach the summit of Hæmus you have to travel six miles. The sides of it that look in the opposite direction and slope towards the Ister are inhabited by the Mœsi, the Getæ, the Aorsi, the Gaudæ, and the Clariæ; below them, are the Arræi Sarmatæ, also called Arreatæ, the Scythians, and, about the shores of the Euxine, the Moriseni and the Sithonii, the forefathers of the poet Orpheus, dwell.
Thus is Thrace bounded by the Ister on the north, by the Euxine, and the Propontis on the east, and by the Ægean Sea on the south; on the coast of which, after leaving the Strymon, we come in turn to Apollonia, Œsyma, Neapolis and Datos. In the interior is the colony of Philippi, distant from Dyrrhachium miles; also Scotussa, the city of Topiris, the mouth of the river Mestus, Mount Pangæus, Heraclea, Olynthos, Abdera, a free city, the people of the Bistones and their Lake. Here was formerly the city of Tirida, which struck such terror with its stables of the horses of Diomedes. At the present day we find here Dicæa, Ismaron, the place where Parthenion stood, Phalesina, and Maronea, formerly called Orthagorea. We then come to Mount Serrium and Zone, and then the place called Doriscus, capable of containing ten thousand men, for it was in bodies of ten thousand that Xerxes here numbered his army. We then come to the mouth of the Hebrus, the Port of Stentor, and the free town of Ænos, with the tomb there of Polydorus, the region formerly of the Cicones.

From Doriscus there is a winding coast as far as Macron Tichos, or the "Long Wall," a distance of miles; round Doriscus flows the river Melas, from which the Gulf of Melas receives its name. The towns are, Cypsela, Bisanthe, and Macron Tichos, already mentioned, so called because a wall extends from that spot between the two seas,—that is to say, from the Propontis to the Gulf of Melas, thus excluding the Chersonesus, which projects beyond it.

The other side of Thrace now begins, on the coast of the Euxine, where the river Ister discharges itself; and it is in this quarter perhaps that Thrace possesses the finest cities, Histropolis, namely, founded by the Milesians, Tomi, and Callatis, formerly called Acervetis. It also had the cities of Heraclea and Bizone, which latter was swallowed up by an earthquake; it now has Dionysopolis, formerly called Cruni, which is washed by the river Zyras. All this country was formerly possessed by the Scythians, surnamed Aroteres; their towns were, Aphrodisias, Libistos, Zygere, Rocobe, Eumenia, Parthenopolis, and Gerania, where a nation of Pigmies is said to have dwelt; the barbarians used to call them Cattuzi, and entertain a belief that they were put to flight by cranes. Upon the coast, proceeding from Dionysopolis, is Odessus, a city of the Milesians, the river Panysus, and the town of Tetranaulo- chus. Mount Hæmus, which, with its vast chain, overhangs the Euxine, had in former times upon its summit the town of Aristæum. At the present day there are upon the coast Mesembria, and Anchialum, where Messa formerly stood. The region of Astice formerly had a town called Anthium; at the present day Apollonia occupies its site. The rivers here are the Panisos, the Riras, the Tearus, and the Orosines; there are also the towns of Thynias, Halmydessos, Develton, with its lake, now known as Deultum, a colony of veterans, and Phinopolis, near which last is the Bosporus. From the mouth of the Ister to the entrance of the Euxine, some writers have made to be a distance of miles; Agrippa, however, increases the length by sixty miles. The distance thence to Macron Tichos, or the Long Wall, previously mentioned, is miles; and, from it to the extremity of the Chersonesus, .

On leaving the Bosporus we come to the Gulf of Casthenes, and two harbours, the one called the Old Men's Haven, and the other the Women's Haven. Next comes the promontory of Chrysoceras, upon which is the town of Byzantium, a free state, formerly called Lygos, distant from Dyrrhachium miles,—so great being the space of land that intervenes between the Adriatic Sea and the Propontis. We next come to the rivers Bathynias and Pydaras, or Athyras, and the towns of Selymbria and Perinthus, which join the mainland by a neck only feet in width. In the interior are Bizya, a citadel of the kings of Thrace, and hated by the swallows, in consequence of the sacrilegious crime of Tereus; the district called Cænica, and the colony of Flaviopolis, where formerly stood a town called Cæla. Then, at a distance of fifty miles from Bizya, we come to the colony of Apros, distant from Philippi miles. Upon the coast is the river Erginus; here formerly stood the town of Ganos; and Lysimachia in the Chersonesus is being now gradually deserted.

At this spot there is another isthmus, similar in name to the other, and of about equal width; and, in a manner by no means dissimilar, two cities formerly stood on the shore, one on either side, Pactye on the side of the Propontis, and Cardia on that of the Gulf of Melas, the latter deriving its name from the shape which the land assumes. These, however, were afterwards united with Lysimachia, which stands at a distance of five miles from Macron Tichos. The Chersonesus formerly had, on the side of the Propontis, the towns of Tiristasis, Crithotes, and Cissa, on the banks of the river Ægos; it now has, at a distance of twenty-two miles from the colony of Apros, Resistos, which stands opposite to the colony of Parium. The Hellespont also, which separates, as we have already stated, Europe from Asia, by a channel seven stadia in width, has four cities facing each other, Callipolis and Sestos in Europe, and Lampsacus and Abydos in Asia. On the Chersonesus, there is the promontory of Mastusia, lying opposite to Sigeum; upon one side of it stands the Cynossema (for so the tomb of Hecuba is called), the naval station of the Achæans, and a tower; and near it the shrine of Protesilaüs. On the ex- treme front of the Chersonesus, which is called Æolium, there is the city of Elæs. Advancing thence towards the Gulf of Melas, we have the port of Cœlos, Panormus, and then Cardia, previously mentioned.

In this manner is the third great Gulf of Europe bounded. The mountains of Thrace, besides those already mentioned, are Edonus, Gigemoros, Meritus, and Melamphyllos; the rivers are the Bargus and the Syrmus, which fall into the Hebrus. The length of Macedonia, Thrace, and the Hellespont has been already mentioned; some writers, however, make it miles, the breadth being .

What may be called a rock rather than an island, lying between Tenos and Chios, has given its name to the Ægean Sea; it has the name of Æx from its strong resemblance to a goat, which is so called in Greek, and shoots precipitately from out of the middle of the sea. Those who are sailing towards the isle of Andros from Achaia, see this rock on the left, boding no good, and warning them of its dangers. Part of the Ægean Sea bears the name of Myrtoan, being so called from the small island [of Myrtos] which is seen as you sail towards Macedonia from Geræstus, not far from Carystus in Eubœa. The Romans include all these seas under two names,—the Macedonian, in those parts where it touches the coasts of Macedonia or Thrace, and the Grecian where it washes the shores of Greece The Greeks, however, divide the Ionian Sea into the Sicilian and the Cretan Seas, after the name of those islands; and they give the name of Icarian to that part which lies between Samos and Myconos. The gulfs which we have already mentioned, have given to these seas the rest of their names. Such, then, are the seas and the various nations which are comprehended in the third great Gulf of Europe.

 
19 ISLANDS WHICH LIE BEFORE THE LANDS ALREADY MENTIONED M
Lying opposite to Thesprotia, at a distance of twelve miles from Buthrotus, and of fifty from Acroceraunia, is the island of Corcyra, with a city of the same name, the citizens of which are free; also a town called Cassiope, and a temple dedicated to Jupiter Cassius. This island is ninety-seven miles in length, and in Homer has the names of Scheria and Phæacia; while Callimachus calls it Drepane. There are some other islands around it, such as Thoronos, lying in the direction of Italy, and the two islands of Paxos in that of Leucadia, both of them five miles distant from Corcyra. Not far from these, and in front of Corcyra, are Ericusa, Marathe, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachie, Pythionia, Ptychia, Tarachie, and, off Phalacrum, a promontory of Corcyra, the rock into which (according to the story, which arises no doubt from the similarity of appearance) the ship of Ulysses was changed.
Before Leucimna we find the islands of Sybota, and between Leucadia and Achaia a great number of islands, among which are those called Teleboïdes, as also Taphiæ; by the natives, those which lie before Leucadia are called by the names of Taphias, Oxiæ, and Prinoessa; while those that are in front of Ætolia are the Echinades, consisting of Ægialia, Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, Pinara, and Mystus.

In front of these, and lying out at sea, are Cephallenia and Zacynthus, both of them free, Ithaca, Dulichium, Same, and Crocyle. Cephallenia, formerly known as Melæna, lies at a distance of eleven miles from Paxos, and is ninety-three miles in circumference: its city of Same has been levelled to the ground by the Romans; but it still possesses three others. Between this island and Achaia lies the island of Zacynthus, remarkable for its city of the same name, and for its singular fertility. It formerly had the name of Hyrie, and lies to the south of Cephallenia, at a distance of twenty-five miles; in it there is the famous mountain of Elatus. This island is thirty-six miles in circumference. At a distance of fifteen miles from Zacynthus is Ithaca, in which is Mount Neritus; its circumference in all is twenty-five miles. Twelve miles distant from this island is Araxus, a promontory of the Peloponnesus. Before Ithaca, lying out in the main sea, are Asteris and Prote; and before Zacynthus, at a distance of thirty-five miles in the direction of the south-east wind, are the two Strophades, by some known as the Plotæ. Before Cephallenia lies Letoia, before Pylos the three Sphagiæ, and before Messene the Œnussæ, as many in number.

In the Asinæan Gulf there are the three Thyrides, and in that of Laconia Theganusa, Cothon, and Cythera, with the town of that name, the former name of which island was Porphyris. It is situate five miles from the promontory of Malea, thus forming a strait very dangerous to navigation. In the Gulf of Argolis are Pityusa, Irine, and Ephyre; opposite the territory of Hermione, Tiparenus, Aperopia, Colonis, and Aristera; and, opposite that of Trœzen, Calauria, at a distance of half a mile, Plateis, Belbina, Lasia, and Baucidias. Opposite Epidaurus is Cecryphalos, and Pityonesos, six miles distant from the mainland; and, at a distance of fifteen miles from this last, Ægina, a free island, the length of which, as you sail past it, is eighteen miles. This island is twenty miles distant from Piræus, the port of Athens: it used formerly to be called Œnone. Opposite the promontory of Spiræum, lie Eleusa, Adendros, the two islands called Craugiæ, the two Cæciæ, Selachusa Cenehreis, and Aspis; as also, in the Gulf of Megara, the four Methurides. Ægila lies at a distance of fifteen miles from Cythera, and of twenty-five from Phalasarna, a city of Crete.

 
20 CRETE M
Crete itself lies from east to west, the one side facing the south, the other the north, and is known to fame by the renown of its hundred cities. Dosiades says, that it took its name from the nymph Crete, the daughter of Hesperides; Anaximander, from a king of the Curetes, Philistides of Mallus * * * * *; while Crates says that it was at first called Aëria, and after that Curetis; and some have been of opinion that it had the name of Macaron from the serenity of its climate. In breadth it nowhere exceeds fifty miles, being widest about the middle. In length, however, it is full miles, and in circumference, forming a bend towards the Cretan Sea, which takes its name from it. At its eastern extremity is the Promontory of Sammonium, facing Rhodes, while towards the west it throws out that of Criumetopon, in the direction of Cyrene.
The more remarkable cities of Crete are, Phalasarna, Etæa, Cisamon, Pergamum, Cydonia, Minoium, Apteron, Pantomatrium, Amphimalla, Rhithymna, Panormus, Cytæum, Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hierapytna, Lebena, and Hierapolis; and, in the interior, Gortyna, Phæstum, Cnossus, Polyrrenium, Myrina, Lycastus, Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium, Asus, Pyloros, Rhytion, Elatos, Pharæ, Holopyxos, Lasos, Eleuthernæ, Therapnæ, Marathusa, and Tylisos; besides some sixty others, of which the memory only exists. The mountains are those of Cadistus, Ida, Dictynnæus, and Corycus. This island is distant, at its promontory of Criumetopon, according to Agrippa, from Phycus, the promontory of Cyrene, miles; and at Cadistus, from Malea in the Peloponnesus, eighty. From the island of Carpathos, at its promontory of Sammonium it lies in a westerly direction, at a distance of sixty miles; this last-named island is situate between it and Rhodes.

The other islands in its vicinity, and lying in front of the Peloponnesus, are the two isles known as Corycæ, and the two called Mylæ. On the north side, having Crete on the right, and opposite to Cydonia, is Leuce, and the two islands known as Budroæ. Opposite to Matium lies Dia; opposite to the promontory of Itanum, Onisia and Leuce; and over against Hierapytna, Chrysa and Gaudos. In the same neighbourhood, also, are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Aradus; and, after doubling Criumetopon, we come to the three islands known as Musagorus. Before the promontory of Sammonium lie the islands of Phocœ, the Platiæ, the Sirnides, Naulochos, Armedon, and Zephyre.

Belonging to Hellas, but still in the Ægean Sea, we have the Lichades, consisting of Scarphia, Coresa, Phocaria, and many others which face Attica, but have no towns upon them, and are consequently of little note. Opposite Eleusis, however, is the far-famed Salamis; before it, Psyttalia; and, at a distance of five miles from Sunium, the island of Helene. At the same distance from this last is Ceos, which some of our countrymen have called Cea, and the Greeks Hydrussa, an island which has been torn away from Eubœa. It was formerly stadia in length; but more recently four-fifths of it, in the direction of Bœotia, have been swallowed up by the sea. The only towns it now has left are Iulis and Carthæa; Coresus and Pœëessa have perished. Varro informs us, that from this place there used to come a cloth of very fine texture, used for women's dresses.

 
21 EUBŒA M
Eubœa itself has also been rent away from Bœotia; the channel of the Euripus, which flows between them, being so narrow as to admit of the opposite shores being united by a bridge. At the south, this island is remarkable for its two promontories, that of Geræstus, which looks towards Attica, and that of Caphareus, which faces the Hellespont; on the north it has that of Cenæum. In no part does this island extend to a greater breadth than forty miles, while it never contracts to less than two. In length it runs along the whole coast of Bœotia, extending from Attica as far as Thessaly, a distance of miles. In circumference it measures , and is distant from the Hellespont, on the side of Caphareus, miles. The cities for which it was formerly famous were, Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerinthos, Oreum, Dium, Ædepsos, Ocha, and Œchalia; at present it is ennobled by those of Chalcis (opposite which, on the mainland, is Aulis), Geræstus, Eretria, Carystus, Oritanum, and Artemisium. Here are also the Fountain of Arethusa, the river Lelantus, and the warm springs known as Ellopiæ; it is still better known, however, for the marble of Carystus. This island used formerly to be called Chalcodontis and Macris, as we learn from Dionysius and Ephorus; according to Aristides, Macra; also, as Callidemus says, Chalcis, because copper was first discovered here. Menæchmus says that it was called Abantias, and the poets generally give it the name of Asopis.
 
22 CYCLADES M
Beyond Eubœa, and out in the Myrtoan Sea, are numerous other islands; but those more especially famous are, Glau- connesos and the Ægila. Off the promontory, too, of Geræstus are the Cyclades, lying in a circle around Delos, from which circumstance they derive their name. The first of them is the one called Andros with a city of the same name, distant from Geræstus ten miles, and from Ceos thirty-nine. Myrsilus tells us that this island was at first called Cauros, and after that Antandros; Callimachus calls it Lasia, and others again Nonagria, Hydrussa, and Epagris. It is ninety-three miles in circumference. At a distance of one mile from Andros and of fifteen from Delos, is Tenos, with a city of the same name; this island is fifteen miles in length. Aristotle says that it was formerly called Hydrussa, from the abundance of water found here,