English - Logo Sight New Age English - Logo Sight

1 Ascention 10

2 Tolerance 5

3 Vegeterianism 29
4 Chakras
5 Astrology
6 Science Experiments proving God
7 Heroes of the New Age
8 Enemies of the New Age
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Blue alien
pleiadians
The Pleidians
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Hot Plaidian Brunette

The New Age religion is the new world religion that is taking over the world; kicking the candy ass of all those other pansy ass religions such as Christianity, Muslimism, Buddhism, Jewishism, Atheism, Agnosticism and all those other little religions. The way New Age kicks their ass is simply by taking the best aspects of each religion and throwing away the crud. It's a natural occurance that happens whenever you mix a bunch of different things together. America is the best country in the world because we have all of these different cultures coming together that we take the best from each. For example, where are you going to find the best food for the wide range of tastes for your family? Downtown comopolitan New York or Shanghai? What radio station has the best music between somewhere in Saudi Arabia or America? The answer is America! It's because the product that mixes the most amount of instruments is the one that will please the highest number of people. .

Biologically, if you see brother and sister doing the dance of love over and over again for generations, pretty soon you will see their offspring looking ugly and being stupid. Even mixing groups of extended family members won't provide as good of results as mating with people from outside the clan. It works that way with mixing plants and animals as well; and so there is no exception when it comes to religions. Every religion has a piece of the puzzle.

When it comes to seeking truth it is just like in the story with the five blind men and the elephant. The first man has the tail and he thinks the elephant is a rope, the second has the trunk and he thinks it's a hose, the third has the leg and thinks it's a tree, the fourth has the ear and thinks it's a fan and the fifth has the back and thinks it's a rug. It's just plain stupid to think that your religion has all of the answers and all of the others are completely ignorant and in no touch with the truth, and it's far stupider to apalling to refuse to argue it with those people who you don't agree with; which still happens way too much.

It is understandable that some Christians don't like the New Age religion because they see it as a threat and will usurp Jesus for the false Masaiah of ourselves as God. What Fundamentalists need to understand is that New Age won't replace Christianity in as much as it will add to it to the point that Christianity will be unreckonnizable to what it was before the global awakening to the eternal expansiveness of the universe. I'll talk about that in the Enemies of New Age section below. The shrinking of the large churches and the growth of various small New Age churches is a beautiful thing that is the blossoming of all of the new knowledge that is coming to us. If a large church wants to keep their adherants they should expand what they preach about.

Disclosure
This is far and away the most important issue with New Agers. We know they are here and we know they won't land until we are ready for them to land and ask them to land. We know that once they land we will have their free energy and anti gravity technology which will make it so we won't have to work and will be able to do whatever we want. Effectively bringing Heaven right down here on Earth. With all of this new technology we will be able to live for hundreds of years as well.
God
All New Agers believe in God. Not all New Agers would necesarily admit that though due to the stigma saying that word has on so many people who are angry with how Christians have been using it over the years. But I believe it's the best word to use when refering to the universe as a sentient being.
Tolerance
New Agers are better at Tolerance than anybody else and understand its principles to levels that would make any other religions shake in their boots. There are many different levels to tolerance that we must attain in order to bring the aliens down. We are doing a good job with tolerating different races and religions. Now it is time to tolerate different personalities.
Meditation
Due to the expansive nature of the minds of New Agers, we understand the importance of slowing down in order to not overhead our brains. There are many meditations to do in order to slow down and focus on a particular aspect of our minds and bodies. There are many kinds of meditation. Chakra balancing and activation, mind quieting, and concentration on specific ideas.
Vegetarianism
New Agers understand the importance of a Vegetarian diet in a utopian society. Everything is related. Therefore we are related to the animals who will reincarnate as us one day. Therefore an enlightened society will never kill other animals just to eat them when we could be far healthier living off of plants who willingly give their lives for us. The emotions of the animals are plugged into the same mind matrix that we are and therefore can disrupt that level of energy waves that we use to feel peace and love for one another. When the animals suffer, we suffer.
Ascention

There is an interesting natural phenomena that is related to our society raising up into utopia and it has to do with everything around us vibrating at a faster rate and organizing itself in a more cohesive way, and it has been scientifically measured and has been prophesized by many different people for a very long time.

Spiritualism, Theosophy, New Thought, Transcendentalism, Mesmerism, Swedenborgianism the hermetic arts of astrology, magic, alchemy, and Kabbalah, Christian liberalism, socialism mysticism, Theosophist, Anthroposophical, Neo-Theosophist
Lifestyles
meditation, channeling, crystal healing, astral projection, psychic experience, holistic health, simple living, chiropractic and naturopathy, massage, Meditation, Yoga, Tantra, Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, martial arts, Tai chi chuan, Falun Gong, Qigong, Reflexology, Reiki.
Milestones

- 1968 Linda Goodman's best selling astrology book Sun Signs
- 1978 Linda Goodman's best selling astrology book Love Signs
- 1967 Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical

- 1987 Shirley MacLaine's television mini-series Out on a Limb
- 1987 Harmonic Convergence organized by José Argüelles in Sedona, Arizona.
- 1976 A Course in Miracles by Helen Schucman.
- 1993 The Celestine Prophecy
by James Redfield.
- 1995 Conversations with God by Neale Donald Walsch.
- 2006 The Secret by Rhonda Byrne.

Authors
Jane Roberts, J. Z. Knight, Eckhart Tolle, Barbara Marx Hubbard, Marianne Williamson, Deepak Chopra, John Holland, Gary Zukav, and Wayne Dyer Esther Hicks and Jerry Hicks, J. Gordon Melton, Wouter Hanegraaff, and Paul Heelas have emphasised the mentioned personal aspects; Mark Satin, Theodore Roszak, Marilyn Ferguson, and Corinne McLaughlin have described New Age as a values-based sociopolitical movement, Madame Blavatsky, Edgar Cayce, Rudolf Steiner, Alice Bailey, Walter Russell, Carl Gustav Jung, Deepak Chopra, Fritjof Capra, Fred Alan Wolf, and Gary Zukav.
Music
Oregon, Paul Winter, Brian Eno, Daniel Kobialka, Yanni, Deep Breakfast, Patrick O'hearn, Enya Ray Lynch.

 

1 Pages 7.2
3 Flickr Picture Link
4 Youtube Playlist Link
TheMeltingpot1
Great melting pots are the richest

god_beams
The ancients idea of God
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Smiling Grey alien
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Squinty eyed Grey alien
1 Introduction to Ascension
2 Transhumanism
1 Indigo Children
2 Crystal Children
3 People Claimed by Various Religions to Have Entered Heaven Alive
1 Buddhists Ascenders
2 Christian Ascenders
3 Hellenist (Greek) Ascenders
4 Hindi Ascenders
5 Jewis Ascenders
6 Muslim Ascenders
7 Dome of the Rock
8 Taoist Ascenders
9 Zoroastrian Ascenters
10 New Age Ascenders
11 False New Age Ascenders
4 Prophecy
5 Crossing Galactic Plane
6 Global Warming
7 Economics
8 Coming Together of Parralel Universes
9 Mass Extinction Every 62 Million Years
10 Integration of the Physical World
1 Cymatics
1 History
2 Influences in Art
2 Detection of Emotional Atmosphere
3 Double Slit Experiment
4 Non Locality
5 Miracles
6 Mutations with Light
7 Levitation with Sound
8 Prayer
9 Robot & Chicks
10 Salamander & Frog
11 Shapes in Rotating Water
12 Water Experiments with Doctor Imoto
1 Biography
2 Water Crystal Work & Critizism
3 Water Memory
4 Nature Controversy
5 Subsequent Research
1 Introduction
2 History
3 Environmental
4 Labour Conditions
5 Economics
6 Psychological
7 Cultural
8 Demographics
9 Gender
10 Country Specific Information
11 Semi-Vegetarian Diets
12 Semi-Vegetarian Types
13 Etymology
14 Health Benefits & Concerns
15 Nutrition
16 Protein
17 Iron
18 Vitamin B12
19 Fatty Acids
20 Calcium
21 Vitamin D
22 Longevity
23 Food Safety
24 Medical Use
25 Physiology
26 Animal-to-Human Disease
27 Transmissions
28 Eating Disorders
29 Additional Reasons for a Gegetarian Diet Child IQ & choice
30 Religion
1 Hinduism
2 Jainism
3 Buddhism
4 Sikhism
5 Judaism
6 Classical Greek & Roman Thought
7 Christianity
8 Islam
9 Rastafari
7 Heroes of the New Age
1 Richard Hoagland
2 Nassim Haramein
3 David Wilcock
4 Art Bell
5 Drunvalo Melchizedek
6 David Icke
7 Jose Arguelles
8 Terrence Mckenna
9 Steven Greer
10 Greg Braden
11 Kerry Cassidy & Bill Ryan
1 Ascension
1 Introduction to Ascension
1 Buddhist Ascenders
2 Christian Ascenders
3 Hellenist Ascenders
4 Hindi Ascenders
5 Jewish Ascenders
6 Muslim Ascenders
7 Taoist Ascenders
8 Zoroastrian Ascenders
9 Modern "New Age" Ascenders
10 False Claimants of Ascention
arrow32 TheSolar System Crossing the Galactic plane
Quantum Theory
Is about the compatibility of two apparently irreconcilable opposites
- Being forced to listen without being allowed to reply is a stimulant for radical thought
- It needs imagination
- Philosophy and science were disastrous for each other to explain things like atoms of one element leaving to
become atoms of another element
* The model for the atom came when Rutherford shot positive charged alpha particles into atoms and were deflected
by the nucleus, of positive charge. at -10 degrees instead of negative 1 degree. and the micro and macro worlds
mirrored each other.
The Ultra Violet Catastrophe
The reason we aren't burned to a crisp is because the high frequency light
travels in particles of waves getting smaller as the frequency goes up and verses longer waves. this light is
shot out when the electron shield breaks and light particles shoot out. The difference in the radius of the
atom coincides with the energy states, the smaller, more energy.
- Maximum two electrons per orbit
The concept of humans directly entering heaven without dying (called by various religions ascension, assumption, or translation) is a belief held by multiple religions and traditions, including the three main Abrahamic religionsJudaism, Christianity, Islam. Since death is generally considered the normal end to an individual's life on Earth, entering heaven without dying first is considered exceptional and usually a sign of God's special recognition of the individual's piety.
Many Latter-day Saints believe that there are also other persons who have been taken into heaven alive; there is some LDS scriptural support for this belief.
Prophecy
 
Crossing Galactic Plane
Scientists at the Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology built a computer model of our solar system’s movement and found that it “bounces” up and down through the plane of the galaxy. As we pass through the densest part of the plane, gravitational forces from the surrounding giant gas and dust clouds dislodge comets from their paths. The comets plunge into the solar system, some of them colliding with the earth.

The Cardiff team found that we pass through the galactic plane every 35 to 40 million years, increasing the chances of a comet collision tenfold. Evidence from craters on Earth also suggests we suffer more collisions approximately 36 million years. Professor William Napier, of the Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology, said: “It’s a beautiful match between what we see on the ground and what is expected from the galactic record.”

The periods of comet bombardment also coincide with mass extinctions, such as that of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Our present position in the galaxy suggests we are now very close to another such period.
Global Warming
 

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) between the start and the end of the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century was very likely caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation. The IPCC also concludes that variations in natural phenomena such as solar radiation and volcanic eruptions had a small cooling effect after 1950. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by more than 40 scientific societies and academies of science,[B] including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries.

Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century. The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. Most studies focus on the period up to the year 2100. However, warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if emissions stop, because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.[8] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variations are uncertain.

Political and public debate continues regarding global warming, and what actions (if any) to take in response. The available options are mitigation to reduce further emissions; adaptation to reduce the damage caused by warming; and, more speculatively, geoengineering to reverse global warming. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Temperature changes
Two millennia of mean surface temperatures according to different reconstructions, each smoothed on a decadal scale. The instrumental record and the unsmoothed annual value for 2004 are shown in black.

The most common measure of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. Expressed as a linear trend, this temperature rose by 0.74 ± 0.18 °C over the period 1906–2005. The rate of warming over the last half of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole (0.13 ± 0.03 °C per decade, versus 0.07 °C ± 0.02 °C per decade). The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0.002 °C of warming per decade since 1900.[9] Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0.13 and 0.22 °C (0.22 and 0.4 °F) per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally-varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.

Estimates by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies and the National Climatic Data Center show that 2005 was the warmest year since reliable, widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 1800s, exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree. Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit show 2005 as the second warmest year, behind 1998. Temperatures in 1998 were unusually warm because the strongest El Niño in the past century occurred during that year. Global temperature is subject to short-term fluctuations that overlay long term trends and can temporarily mask them. The relative stability in temperature from 1999 to 2009 is consistent with such an episode.

Temperature changes vary over the globe. Since 1979, land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0.25 °C per decade against 0.13 °C per decade). Ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation. The Northern Hemisphere warms faster than the Southern Hemisphere because it has more land and because it has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea-ice cover subject to ice-albedo feedback. Although more greenhouse gases are emitted in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres.

The thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to changes in forcing. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) would still occur.

External forcings

External forcing refers to processes external to the climate system (though not necessarily external to Earth) that influence climate. Climate responds to several types of external forcing, such as radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric composition (mainly greenhouse gas concentrations), changes in solar luminosity, volcanic eruptions, and variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun. Attribution of recent climate change focuses on the first three types of forcing. Orbital cycles vary slowly over tens of thousands of years and thus are too gradual to have caused the temperature changes observed in the past century.

Greenhouse gases
For more details on this topic, see Atmospheric CO2.
Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).
 
Recent atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increases. Monthly CO2 measurements display seasonal oscillations in overall yearly uptrend; each year's maximum occurs during the Northern Hemisphere's late spring, and declines during its growing season as plants remove some atmospheric CO2.

The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. Existence of the greenhouse effect as such is not disputed, even by those who do not agree that the recent temperature increase is attributable to human activity. The question is instead how the strength of the greenhouse effect changes when human activity increases the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 °C (59 °F).[23][C] The major greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 36–70 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9–26 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9 percent; and ozone (O3), which causes 3–7 percent.[24][25][26] Clouds also affect the radiation balance, but they are composed of liquid water or ice and so are considered separately from water vapor and other gases.

Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 650,000 years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. Less direct geological evidence indicates that CO2 values higher than this were last seen about 20 million years ago. Fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, particularly deforestation.

CO2 concentrations are continuing to rise due to burning of fossil fuels and land-use change. The future rate of rise will depend on uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments. Accordingly, the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios gives a wide range of future CO2 scenarios, ranging from 541 to 970 ppm by the year 2100 (an increase by 90-250% since 1750). Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach these levels and continue emissions past 2100 if coal, tar sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited.

The destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons is sometimes mentioned in relation to global warming. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduction of stratospheric ozone has a cooling influence, but substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s. Ozone in the troposphere (the lowest part of the Earth's atmosphere) does contribute to surface warming.

Aerosols and soot
Ship tracks over the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. The climatic impacts from aerosol forcing could have a large effect on climate through the indirect effect.

Global dimming, a gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface, has partially counteracted global warming from 1960 to the present. The main cause of this dimming is aerosols produced by volcanoes and pollutants. These aerosols exert a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. James E. Hansen and colleagues have proposed that the effects of the products of fossil fuel combustion—CO2 and aerosols—have largely offset one another in recent decades, so that net warming has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases.

In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, aerosols have indirect effects on the radiation budget. Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. These clouds reflect solar radiation more efficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets. This effect also causes droplets to be of more uniform size, which reduces growth of raindrops and makes the cloud more reflective to incoming sunlight.

Soot may cool or warm, depending on whether it is airborne or deposited. Atmospheric soot aerosols directly absorb solar radiation, which heats the atmosphere and cools the surface. Regionally (but not globally), as much as 50% of surface warming due to greenhouse gases may be masked by atmospheric brown clouds. When deposited, especially on glaciers or on ice in arctic regions, the lower surface albedo can also directly heat the surface. The influences of aerosols, including black carbon, are most pronounced in the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly in Asia, while the effects of greenhouse gases are dominant in the extratropics and southern hemisphere.

Solar variation

Variations in solar output have been the cause of past climate changes, but solar forcing is generally thought to be too small to account for a significant part of global warming in recent decades.

Greenhouse gases and solar forcing affect temperatures in different ways. While both increased solar activity and increased greenhouse gases are expected to warm the troposphere, an increase in solar activity should warm the stratosphere while an increase in greenhouse gases should cool the stratosphere. Observations show that temperatures in the stratosphere have been cooling since 1979, when satellite measurements became available. Radiosonde (weather balloon) data from the pre-satellite era show cooling since 1958, though there is greater uncertainty in the early radiosonde record.

A related hypothesis, proposed by Henrik Svensmark, is that magnetic activity of the sun deflects cosmic rays that may influence the generation of cloud condensation nuclei and thereby affect the climate. Other research has found no relation between warming in recent decades and cosmic rays. A recent study concluded that the influence of cosmic rays on cloud cover is about a factor of 100 lower than needed to explain the observed changes in clouds or to be a significant contributor to present-day climate change.

Feedback
Feedback is a process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first. Positive feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative feedback reduces it. Feedback is important in the study of global warming because it may amplify or diminish the effect of a particular process. The main positive feedback in global warming is the tendency of warming to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, which in turn leads to further warming. The main negative feedback is that according to the Stefan–Boltzmann law, the amount of heat radiated from the Earth into space increases with the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. Imperfect understanding of feedbacks is a major cause of uncertainty and concern about global warming.
Climate Models
Calculations of global warming prepared in or before 2001 from a range of climate models under the SRES A2 emissions scenario, which assumes no action is taken to reduce emissions and regionally divided economic development.
 
The geographic distribution of surface warming during the 21st century calculated by the HadCM3 climate model if a business as usual scenario is assumed for economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In this figure, the globally averaged warming corresponds to 3.0 °C (5.4 °F).

The main tools for projecting future climate changes are mathematical models based on physical principles including fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer. Although they attempt to include as many processes as possible, simplifications of the actual climate system are inevitable because of the constraints of available computer power and limitations in knowledge of the climate system. All modern climate models are in fact combinations of models for different parts of the Earth. These include an atmospheric model for air movement, temperature, clouds, and other atmospheric properties; an ocean model that predicts temperature, salt content, and circulation of ocean waters; models for ice cover on land and sea; and a model of heat and moisture transfer from soil and vegetation to the atmosphere. Some models also include treatments of chemical and biological processes.[53] Warming due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases is not an assumption of the models; rather, it is an end result from the interaction of greenhouse gases with radiative transfer and other physical processes in the models.[54] Although much of the variation in model outcomes depends on the greenhouse gas emissions used as inputs, the temperature effect of a specific greenhouse gas concentration (climate sensitivity) varies depending on the model used. The representation of clouds is one of the main sources of uncertainty in present-generation models.

Global climate model projections of future climate most often have used estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). In addition to human-caused emissions, some models also include a simulation of the carbon cycle; this generally shows a positive feedback, though this response is uncertain. Some observational studies also show a positive feedback. Including uncertainties in future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate sensitivity, the IPCC anticipates a warming of 1.1 °C to 6.4 °C (2.0 °F to 11.5 °F) by the end of the 21st century, relative to 1980–1999.

Models are also used to help investigate the causes of recent climate change by comparing the observed changes to those that the models project from various natural and human-derived causes. Although these models do not unambiguously attribute the warming that occurred from approximately 1910 to 1945 to either natural variation or human effects, they do indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions.

The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate current or past climates. Current climate models produce a good match to observations of global temperature changes over the last century, but do not simulate all aspects of climate. Not all effects of global warming are accurately predicted by the climate models used by the IPCC. For example, observed Arctic shrinkage has been faster than that predicted.

Attributed and expected effects
Environmental
Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance, reported to the WGMS and the NSIDC.

It is usually impossible to connect specific weather events to global warming. Instead, global warming is expected to cause changes in the overall distribution and intensity of events, such as changes to the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation. Broader effects are expected to include glacial retreat, Arctic shrinkage including long-term shrinkage of Greenland ice sheet[61], and worldwide sea level rise. Some effects on both the natural environment and human life are, at least in part, already being attributed to global warming. A 2001 report by the IPCC suggests that glacier retreat, ice shelf disruption such as that of the Larsen Ice Shelf, sea level rise, changes in rainfall patterns, and increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are attributable in part to global warming. Other expected effects include water scarcity in some regions and increased precipitation in others, changes in mountain snowpack, and some adverse health effects from warmer temperatures.

Social and economic effects of global warming may be exacerbated by growing population densities in affected areas. Temperate regions are projected to experience some benefits, such as fewer cold-related deaths. A summary of probable effects and recent understanding can be found in the report made for the IPCC Third Assessment Report by Working Group II. The newer IPCC Fourth Assessment Report summary reports that there is observational evidence for an increase in intense tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic Ocean since about 1970, in correlation with the increase in sea surface temperature (see Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation), but that the detection of long-term trends is complicated by the quality of records prior to routine satellite observations. The summary also states that there is no clear trend in the annual worldwide number of tropical cyclones.

Additional anticipated effects include sea level rise of 0.18 to 0.59 meters (0.59 to 1.9 ft) in 2090–2100 relative to 1980–1999, new trade routes resulting from arctic shrinkage, possible thermohaline circulation slowing, increasingly intense, in some locations, (but less frequent) hurricanes and extreme weather events, reductions in the ozone layer, changes in agriculture yields, changes in the range of climate-dependent disease vectors, which have been linked to increases in the prevalence of malaria and dengue fever, and ocean oxygen depletion. Increased atmospheric CO2 increases the amount of CO2 dissolved in the oceans. CO2 dissolved in the ocean reacts with water to form carbonic acid, resulting in ocean acidification. Ocean surface pH is estimated to have decreased from 8.25 near the beginning of the industrial era to 8.14 by 2004, and is projected to decrease by a further 0.14 to 0.5 units by 2100 as the ocean absorbs more CO2. Heat and carbon dioxide trapped in the oceans may still take hundreds of years to be re-emitted, even after greenhouse gas emissions are eventually reduced. Since organisms and ecosystems are adapted to a narrow range of pH, this raises extinction concerns and disruptions in food webs. One study predicts 18% to 35% of a sample of 1,103 animal and plant species would be extinct by 2050, based on future climate projections. However, few mechanistic studies have documented extinctions due to recent climate change, and one study suggests that projected rates of extinction are uncertain.

Economic
Projected temperature increase for a range of stabilization scenarios (the colored bands). The black line in middle of the shaded area indicates 'best estimates'; the red and the blue lines the likely limits. From IPCC AR4.

In a literature review, Smith and others concluded, with medium confidence,[D] that: climate change would increase income inequalities between and within countries, a small increase in global mean temperature (up to 2 °C by 2100, measured against 1990 levels) would result in net negative market sector impacts in many developing countries and net positive market sector impacts in many developed countries. With high confidence, a medium (2-3 °C) to high (above 3 °C) level of warming would result in negative impacts would be worsened, and the net positive impacts would begin to decline and eventually become negative.

Depending on underlying assumptions, studies of the economic impacts of a doubling in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from pre-industrial levels conclude that this would have a slightly negative to moderately positive aggregate effect (i.e., total impacts across all regions) on the agricultural sector. This aggregate effect hides substantial regional differences, with benefits mostly predicted in the developed world and strongly negative impacts for populations poorly connected to regional and global trading systems.

A number of other sectors will be affected by climate change, including the livestock, forestry, and fisheries industries. Other sectors sensitive to climate change include the energy, construction, insurance, tourism and recreation industries. The aggregate impact of climate change on most of these sectors is highly uncertain.

With medium confidence, Smith and others concluded that the aggregate market sector impact of climate change would amount to plus or minus a few percent of world GDP. Stern in 2007 assessed climate change impacts using the basic economics of risk premiums. He found that unmitigated climate change could result in a reduction in welfare equivalent to a persistent average fall in global per-capita consumption of at least 5%. The study by Stern has received both criticism and support from other economists (see Stern Review). The IPCC in 2007 concluded that "Aggregate estimates of costs mask significant differences in impacts across sectors, regions and populations and very likely underestimate damage costs because they cannot include many non-quantifiable impacts."

Responses to global warming
The broad agreement among climate scientists that global temperatures will continue to increase has led some nations, states, corporations and individuals to implement responses. These responses to global warming can be divided into mitigation of the causes and effects of global warming, adaptation to the changing global environment, and geoengineering to reverse global warming.
Mitigation
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigation. Emissions may be sequestered from fossil fuel power plants, or removed during processing in hydrogen production. When used on plants, it is known as bio-energy with carbon capture and storage.

The IPCC's Working Group III is responsible for crafting reports on mitigation of global warming and the costs and benefits of different approaches. The 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report concludes that no one technology or sector can be completely responsible for mitigating future warming. They find there are key practices and technologies in various sectors, such as energy supply, transportation, industry, and agriculture that should be implemented to reduced global emissions. They estimate that stabilization of carbon dioxide equivalent between 445 and 710 ppm by 2030 will result in between a 0.6 percent increase and three percent decrease in global gross domestic product.

Mitigation of global warming is accomplished through reductions in the rate of anthropogenic greenhouse gas release. The world's primary international agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the Kyoto Protocol, now covers more than 160 countries and over 55 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. As of February 2010, only the United States, historically the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has refused to ratify the treaty. The treaty expires in 2012. International talks began in May 2007 on a future treaty to succeed the current one. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference met in Copenhagen in December 2009 to agree on a framework for climate change mitigation. No binding agreement was made.

There has also been business action on climate change, including efforts to improve energy efficiency and limited moves towards use of alternative fuels. In January 2005 the European Union introduced its European Union Emission Trading Scheme, through which companies in conjunction with government agree to cap their emissions or to purchase credits from those below their allowances. Australia announced its Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme in 2008. United States President Barack Obama has announced plans to introduce an economy-wide cap and trade scheme.

Adaptation
A wide variety of measures have been suggested for adaptation to global warming, from the installation of air-conditioning equipment, to major infrastructure projects, such as abandoning settlements threatened by sea level rise.

Measures including water conservation, water rationing, adaptive agricultural practices, construction of flood defenses, changes to medical care, and interventions to protect threatened species[ have all been suggested. A wide-ranging study of the possible opportunities for adaptation of infrastructure has been published by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers.

Geoengineering
Geoengineering is the concept of planetary engineering applied to Earth: The deliberate modification of Earth's natural environment on a large scale to suit human needs. An example is greenhouse gas remediation, which removes greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, usually through carbon sequestration techniques such as carbon dioxide air capture. Solar radiation management reduces absorbed solar radiation, such as by the addition of stratospheric sulfur aerosols or cool roof techniques. No geoengineering projects of significant scale have been implemented, and detailed study has largely been the work of small numbers of scientists; but various significant institutions such as the Royal Society and IMechE have recently suggested that further study is warranted. Their various externalities and other costs are seen as major issues, and the idea or concern that one country could act unilaterally has also been raised.
Debate and Skepticism

Increased publicity of the scientific findings surrounding global warming has resulted in political and economic debate. Poor regions, particularly Africa, appear at greatest risk from the projected effects of global warming, while their emissions have been small compared to the developed world. The exemption of developing countries from Kyoto Protocol restrictions has been used to justify non-ratification by the U.S. and a previous Australian Government. (Australia has since ratified the Kyoto protocol.) Another point of contention is the degree to which emerging economies such as India and China should be expected to constrain their emissions. The U.S. contends that if it must bear the cost of reducing emissions, then China should do the same since China's gross national CO2 emissions now exceed those of the U.S. China has contended that it is less obligated to reduce emissions since its per capita responsibility and per capita emissions are less that of the U.S. India, also exempt, has made similar contentions.

In 2007–2008 Gallup Polls surveyed 127 countries. Over a third of the world's population was unaware of global warming, with developing countries less aware than developed, and Africa the least aware. Of those aware, Latin America leads in belief that temperature changes are a result of human activities while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, and a few countries from the Former Soviet Union lead in the opposite belief. In the Western world, opinions over the concept and the appropriate responses are divided. Nick Pidgeon of Cardiff University finds that "results show the different stages of engagement about global warming on each side of the Atlantic"; where Europe debates the appropriate responses while the United States debates whether climate change is happening.

Debates weigh the benefits of limiting industrial emissions of greenhouse gases against the costs that such changes would entail. Using economic incentives, alternative and renewable energy have been promoted to reduce emissions while building infrastructure. Business-centered organizations such as the Competitive Enterprise Institute, conservative commentators, and companies such as ExxonMobil have downplayed IPCC climate change scenarios, funded scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus, and provided their own projections of the economic cost of stricter controls. Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the current climate and the risks they entail, while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions. Some fossil fuel companies have scaled back their efforts in recent years, or called for policies to reduce global warming. Many studies link population growth with emissions and the effect of climate change.

Some global warming skeptics in the science or political communities dispute all or some of the global warming scientific consensus, questioning whether global warming is actually occurring, whether human activity has contributed significantly to the warming, and the magnitude of the threat posed by global warming.

Coming Together of Parralel Universes
 
Stopping of Time
 
Mass Extinction Every 62 Million Years

With surprising and mysterious regularity, life on Earth has flourished and vanished in cycles of mass extinction every 62 million years, say two UC Berkeley scientists who discovered the pattern after a painstaking computer study of fossil records going back for more than 500 million years.

Their findings are certain to generate a renewed burst of speculation among scientists who study the history and evolution of life. Each period of abundant life and each mass extinction has itself covered at least a few million years -- and the trend of biodiversity has been rising steadily ever since the last mass extinction, when dinosaurs and millions of other life forms went extinct about 65 million years ago.

The Berkeley researchers are physicists, not biologists or geologists or paleontologists, but they have analyzed the most exhaustive compendium of fossil records that exists -- data that cover the first and last known appearances of no fewer than 36,380 separate marine genera, including millions of species that once thrived in the world's seas, later virtually disappeared, and in many cases returned.

Richard Muller and his graduate student, Robert Rohde, are publishing a report on their exhaustive study in the journal Nature today, and in interviews this week, the two men said they have been working on the surprising evidence for about four years.

"We've tried everything we can think of to find an explanation for these weird cycles of biodiversity and extinction," Muller said, "and so far, we've failed."

But the cycles are so clear that the evidence "simply jumps out of the data," said James Kirchner, a professor of earth and planetary sciences on the Berkeley campus who was not involved in the research but who has written a commentary on the report that is also appearing in Nature today.

"Their discovery is exciting, it's unexpected and it's unexplained," Kirchner said. And it is certain, he added, to send other scientists in many disciplines seeking explanations for the strange cycles. "Everyone and his brother will be proposing an explanation -- and eventually, at least one or two will turn out to be right while all the others will be wrong."

Muller and Rohde conceded that they have puzzled through every conceivable phenomenon in nature in search of an explanation: "We've had to think about solar system dynamics, about the causes of comet showers, about how the galaxy works, and how volcanoes work, but nothing explains what we've discovered," Muller said.

Interesting Facts about Ascension
The Solar System crosses the Galactic Plane every 26 million years, which is the interval of major earth Extinctions and new life forms.

Aquarius

When the moon is in the Seventh House
and Jupiter aligns with Mars
Then peace will guide the planets
And love will steer the stars

This is the dawning of the age of Aquarius
The age of Aquarius
Aquarius! Aquarius!

Harmony and understanding
Sympathy and trust abounding
No more falsehoods or derisions
Golden living dreams of visions
Mystic crystal revelation
And the mind's true liberation
Aquarius! Aquarius!

When the moon is in the Seventh House
and Jupiter aligns with Mars
Then peace will guide the planets
And love will steer the stars

This is the dawning of the age of Aquarius
The age of Aquarius
Aquarius! Aquarius!

As our hearts go beating through the night
We dance unto the dawn of day
To be the bearers of the water
Our light will lead the way

We are the spirit of the age of Aquarius
The age of Aquarius
Aquarius! Aquarius!

Harmony and understanding
Sympathy and trust abounding
Angelic illumination
Rising fiery constellation
Travelling our starry courses
Guided by the cosmic forces
Oh, care for us; Aquarius

1 Transhumanism - Transalchemy
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Indigo Children

Indigo children are an alleged group of children who possess special, unusual and/or supernatural traits or abilities. The concept is based on New Age ideas developed in the 1970s by Nancy Ann Tappe. Indigo children gained popular interest with the publication of a series of books in the late 1990s and the release of several films in the following decade. A variety of books, conferences and related materials have been created surrounding the idea of indigo children. Beliefs about indigo children range from their being the next stage in human evolution, possessing paranormal abilities such as telepathy, and lacking communication skills to the belief that they are simply more empathetic and creative than their peers.

Although there are no scientific studies to give credibility to the existence or traits of indigo children, the phenomenon may appeal both to parents whose children have been diagnosed with ADHD and parents preferring to believe that their children are special. This might be viewed by skeptics as a way for parents to avoid pediatric pharmaceutical treatment or a psychiatric diagnosis which implies damage or imperfection. The list of traits used to describe the children has also been criticized for being vague enough to be applied to almost anyone, a form of the Forer effect. The phenomenon has been criticized as a means of making money from credulous parents through the sales of related products and services.

Origins

The term "indigo children" originates with parapsychologist and self-described synesthete and psychic, Nancy Ann Tappe who developed the concept in the 1970's. Tappe published the book Understanding Your Life Through Color in 1982 describing the concept, stating that during the mid 1960s she began noticing that many children were being born with "indigo" auras (in other publications Tappe has said the color indigo came from the "life colors" of the children which she acquired through her synesthesia). The idea was later popularized by the 1998 book The Indigo Children: The New Kids Have Arrived, written by husband and wife self-help lecturers Lee Carroll and Jan Tober.[4] The promotion of the concept by Tober and Carroll brought greater attention and exposure to the topic, and their book became the authoritative source on indigo children. They describe the goal of indigo children to be a remaking of the world into one lacking war, trash and processed food.

In 2002, an international conference on indigo children was held in Hawaii, drawing 600 attendees, with subsequent conferences the following years in Florida and Oregon. The concept was popularized and spread further by a feature film and documentary released in 2005, both directed by James Twyman, a New Age writer.

Characteristics

Descriptions of indigo children include the belief that they are empathetic, curious, possess a clear sense of self-definition and purpose, strong-willed, independent, often perceived by friends or family as being weird, and also exhibit a strong inclination towards spiritual matters from early childhood. Indigo children have also been described as having a strong feeling of entitlement, or "deserving to be here." Other alleged traits include a high intelligence quotient, an inherent intuitive ability, and resistance to authority. According to Tober and Carroll, indigo children function poorly in conventional schools due to their rejection of authority, being smarter than their teachers and a lack of response to guilt-, fear- or manipulation-based discipline.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Many children labelled indigo by their parents are diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[6] and Tober and Carroll's book The Indigo Children linked the concept with diagnosis of ADHD. Their book makes the case that the children are a new stage of evolution rather than children with a medical diagnosis, and that they require special treatment rather than medications.[4] Robert Todd Carroll points out that labeling a child an indigo is an alternative to a diagnosis that implies imperfection, damage or mental illness, which may appeal to many parents, a belief echoed by many academic psychologists.[6] He also points out that many of the commentators on the indigo phenomenon are of varying qualifications and expertise. Linking the concept of indigo children with the distaste for the use of Ritalin to control ADHD, Carroll states "The hype and near-hysteria surrounding the use of Ritalin has contributed to an atmosphere that makes it possible for a book like Indigo Children to be taken seriously. Given the choice, who wouldn't rather believe their children are special and chosen for some high mission rather than that they have a brain disorder?"

Stephen Hinshaw, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, states that concerns regarding the overmedicalization of children are legitimate but even gifted children with ADHD learn better with more structure rather than less, even if the structure initially causes difficulties. Many indigo children are or have been home schooled.

Criticism

According to research psychologist Russell Barkley, the New Age movement has yet to produce empirical evidence of the existence of indigo children and the 17 traits most commonly attributed to them were akin to the Forer effect; so vague they could describe nearly anyone. Many critics see the concept of indigo children as made up of extremely general traits, a sham diagnosis that is an alternative to a medical diagnosis, with a complete lack of science or studies to support it. The lack of science is acknowledged by some believers, including Doreen Virtue, author of The Care and Feeding of Indigos, and James Twyman, who produced two films on Indigo Children and offers materials and courses related to the phenomenon. Virtue has been criticized for claiming to have a Ph.D when it was provided by an unaccredited diploma mill.

Advocates of pharmaceutical psychiatric treatment are concerned that labelling a disruptive child an "Indigo" may delay proper diagnosis and treatment that may help the child. Others have stated that many of the traits of indigo children could be more prosaically interpreted as simple arrogance and selfish individualism, and view the concept as hypocritical since many parents with certain New Age beliefs do not view these traits to be progressive.

In a Dallas Observer article discussing indigo children, a reporter recorded the following interaction between a man who worked with Indigo children, and a purported Indigo child:

"Are you an indigo?" he asked Dusk. The boy looked at him shyly and nodded. "I'm an avatar," Dusk said. "I can recognize the four elements of earth, wind, water and fire. The next avatar won't come for 100 years." The man seemed impressed.

Readers of the Dallas Observer later wrote in to inform the newspaper that the child's response appeared to be taken from the storyline of Avatar: The Last Airbender; a children's cartoon showing on Nickelodeon at the time of the interview. The editor of the Dallas Observer later admitted they were not aware of the possible connection until readers brought it to their attention.

Nick Colangelo, a University of Iowa professor specializing in the education of gifted children, stated that the first indigo book should not have been published, and that "...[t]he Indigo Children movement is not about children, and it is not about the color indigo. It is about adults who style themselves as experts and who are making money on books, presentations and videos."

Commercialization

According to Lorie Anderson's article at Skepticreport.com, belief in indigo children has significant commercial value due to sales of book, video, and one-on-one counseling session for children, as well as in donations and speaking engagements. There are now a wide variety of books, films, summer camps and conferences that are aimed at parents who believe their children are indigos. The two films produced on the subject were both by James Twyman, who sells a variety of indigo-themed courses, clothing, books, CDs and movies.

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Crystal Children
What do we know about the children of the Crystal vibration? Unlike their more "in your face" brother and sister Indigos, the Crystal children have not stirred things up - yet. September 11, 2001 was a turning point, a signal, and a gateway for this next wave of children. The Crystal children's time has come!

Steve Rother and the Group call these kids The Peacemakers, while the Indigos have been called The Systems Busters. The Indigo kids were so named because of their distinctive indigo aura life color, indigo being the color of the third eye or the brow chakra. As such, they are very intuitive, mental, quick and easily bored. The Crystal children are so-called, not because of their aura color, but because of their high vibration. Perhaps it will be noted in time that Crystals are more dominant in the crown chakra, the violet color spectrum, even the white and clear aura.

When did the Crystal children begin to arrive? There have always been a few according to the Group. These few were acting as scouts, testing the waters, but humanity did not treat them very well. Like the one known as Jesus the Christ, most often these scouts were killed, but they served the purpose of planting the seeds. It has often been noted that "Crystal and Christ" are very similar words and in this respect offer a similar definition.

With the arrival of the Indigo children, we saw a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed as hyperactive or with ADD by the medical community. Much has already been written of this phenomenon, so I shall leave that for the experts. However, I wondered how the Crystals would be labeled, so I began to observe. What I began to hear was the word "autistic." I am now quite convinced that we will see a dramatic increase in the number of autistic children. These are really the Crystal children who are so sensitive, so vulnerable to the world around them, that they go inward, disconnect as best they can from even humans and do their best to survive in a world where they really don't yet fit.

Back to the question of how long the Crystal children have been here: In the last four decades or so, a few more than usual began to incarnate to anchor the energy. From my observation, it was one of the hardest jobs on the planet, but somebody had to do it, so a few "Great Ones" took on the task.

How do we recognize these new children or some of the few adult Crystals who, as forerunners, anchored the necessary energies? They are not out and about raising havoc, they are quietly living in relative obscurity. I have had the pleasure and the honor, as well as the frustration, of raising one of these early Crystal pioneers who is now 28 years old. My personal experience, my intuition, and hints provided by Steve Rother and the Group are what I have used to compile a list of attributes of the children of the Crystal vibration. Please keep in mind that these attributes are not all inclusive, nor does every Crystal child necessarily exhibit every quality.
Attributes of the Crystal Children
Extremely sensitive to everything in their environment -sound, colors, negative emotions in others, smells, food, chemicals, pollutants, the "feel" of clothing, violence, and pain of others, group consciousness, electromagnetic frequencies, solar flares.
- So sensitive that they are deeply vulnerable, as well as very powerful because of their intense vulnerability.
- They must have alone time. They do not live well in groups as few others understand their need for solitude, balance, rejuvenation, and deep quiet.
- They must have daily communion with nature and elements. The Spirit of Nature will help them balance and clear all of the disharmonious energies that affect them so strongly.
- They just plain do not understand "Man's inhumanity to Man," war, greed, etc., and thus can easily feel totally overwhelmed by it all.
- If life should become too intense, or if they are traumatized or see and feel others being traumatized they will withdraw and disconnect from society in order to protect themselves.
- Despite being quiet and self-effacing, others admire and are drawn to them like a magnet. They will have deep and lasting connections with humans who offer the unconditional love that the Crystal knows is the only true Love.
- When a Crystal looks at you, you feel as if they have penetrated your very soul.
- They really need very little traditional parenting as they are gentle, wise, and will be able to tell you what they need, as well as what is good or not good for them. When my son was very young, he said one day, "I can never drink alcohol or take any drugs at all!" And he hasn't!
- They will often avoid crowds or malls, as there are too many different energies at such places for them to cope with.
- They have a deep love for children and animals, and a remarkable way of connecting with all creatures.
- Water is very beneficial in clearing and soothing them. They love baths, showers, waterfalls, fountains, playing in water and sand.
- They require comfortable clothing of their choice of natural fibers and colors.
- They require lots of pure water and often prefer fresh organic food.
- It is not uncommon for these children to 'tell' their parents their name before they are born, and engage in other direct communication.
- Miracles and magic happen around them - money appears, animals seek them out, babies smile at them, healings occur naturally and spontaneously.
- They are extremely empathic to the point of knowing what a complete stranger in the street is feeling.
- They have a fear of intimacy because they so easily feel invaded, not respected. They would rather be alone than have their "personal body space" disregarded. They may also avoid romantic relationships for fear of hurting another if the relationship ends.
- There is an innocence, a guilelessness, a purity about Crystals; this is due to the absence of ego.
- They may need help in learning to ground their energy with physical activity, nature, sports, martial arts, yoga or dance.
- They may disrupt electrical appliances, radios, TVs, computers.
- They often refrain from showing emotion for fear of its amplification and losing control. This can make them appear to be flat or passionless.
- They can feel responsible for someone dying or getting hurt or even fighting.
- They can have periods of deep depression.
- They respond well to body work, massage, and energy work by someone who is themselves balanced. Massage and cranio-sacral therapy may be crucial to keeping their bodies healthy and pain-free.
- They will often have a high metabolism and be natural vegetarians.
- They are bright, "big-picture" individuals with an instinctual understanding of the spiritual laws, and of how it all works.
- They have a clear connection to their higher self, naturally accessing their highest guidance. It is precisely because of this connection that they know the truth of spiritual Oneness.
- They are natural healers and peacemakers.
- They are multi-talented.
- They are capable of regeneration of bone and tissue. Where most of us are gradually being upgraded - ascending to the Crystal energy, it is already in their DNA.
- They may be individuals of a few words, but everyone listens when they quietly express their wisdom with humility. However, they will not give advice without being asked and will never interfere.
- Keeping all this in mind, it is possible to get a good picture or feeling of what the Crystal children are like and what they are here for. If you use your intuitive abilities to tune into the energy of these children, and create Oneness with them, the result on the planet will be astounding.
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People claimed by various religions to
have entered heaven alive
Buddhist Ascenders
It is believed by some Buddhists and Daoists that the deity Kwan Yin was originally a woman named Miao Shan who after many ordeals finally ascended into Heaven.
Christian Ascenders

Since the adoption of the Nicene Creed in 325, the Ascension of Jesus Christ into heaven, as related in the New Testament has been a doctrine of all orthodox Christian churches and is celebrated on Ascension Thursday. In Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church the Ascension of the Lord is a Holy Day of Obligation. In the Eastern Orthodox Church the Ascension is one of twelve Great Feasts. Unlike the other people mentioned here, Jesus did initially die, returned to life, and bodily entered heaven.

In the Reformed churches' tradition of Calvinism, belief in the ascension of Christ is included in the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Heidelberg Catechism and the Second Helvetic Confession (for more information, see Ascension)."

The Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church distinguish between "The Ascension", in which Christ rose to heaven by his own power, and "The Assumption" in which Mary, mother of Jesus, was raised to heaven by God's power. (Enoch and Elijah are said to have been "assumed" [experienced assumption] into heaven.) However, in the Anglican Church, the matter of Mary's assumption is considered pious, and is an optional feast day.

On November 1, 1950, Pope Pius XII, acting ex cathedra, issued Munificentissimus Deus, an authoritative statement of official doctrine of Roman Catholicism. In Section 44 the pope stated:

By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory.

The doctrine is based on Sacred Tradition that Mary, mother of Jesus, was bodily assumed into heaven (for more information, see Assumption of Mary). For centuries before that, the assumption was celebrated in art (see Assumption of the Virgin Mary). The proclamation leaves open whether or not Mary died and was then resurrected before assumption into heaven.

The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that three other persons were taken bodily into heaven: Enoch, Elias and the Theotokos (Virgin Mary). Similar to the Western "Assumption" of Mary, the Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos on August 15. Unlike Western uncertainty about Mary's physical death, the Orthodox teach that Mary died a natural death like any other human being, that she was buried by the Apostles (except for Thomas, who was late), and three days later (after Thomas had arrived) was found to be missing from her tomb. The church teaches that the Apostles received a revelation during which the Theotokos appeared to them and told them she had been resurrected by Jesus and taken body and soul into heaven. The Orthodox teach that Mary already enjoys the fullness of heavenly bliss that the other saints will experience only after the Last Judgment.

There is a teaching among the Orthodox that the "Two Witnesses" referred to in the Book of Revelation 11:3-13 are Enoch and Elias, who will be sent back to earth to preach the Gospel in the time of apostacy, and will be the last Christian martyrs before the Second Coming. According to Revelation, they will be resurrected and ascend again to heaven.

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) believe that Jesus Christ died, was resurrected, and ascended into heaven as a resurrected being. They also believe that a select number of individuals have ascended into heaven "without having tasted death". Often, these persons are referred to as translated beings; they are said to be "changed so that they do not experience pain or death until their resurrection to immortality." These individuals may be admitted into heaven to await their formal resurrection or they may be permitted to remain upon the earth until that time. The following are a list of persons that Latter-day Saints believe were translated; the individuals in bold script are the ones that have presumably been admitted into heaven as a translated being:

Hellenist (Greek) Ascenders

Hellenism is a name used by historian Arnold Toynbee to include both the Ancient Greek religion and the Ancient Roman religion.
In the Hellenic religion, the color amaranth represented immortality because the amaranth flower was abundant around Mount Olympus.
- Hercules it was believed, following the completion of his twelve labors, was raised into Elysium and made a god by Zeus.
- Apollonius of Tyana
was said to have been assumed into Elysium by Philostratus.

Hindi Ascenders
Yudhishthira of the Mahabharata is believed to be the only human to cross the plane between mortals and heaven in his mortal body.
Jewish Ascenders
According to the Jewish Midrash, eight people went to heaven (also referred to as the Garden of Eden and Paradise) alive. While modern Jewish tradition (including extra-scriptural texts, such as midrash and talmud) contends that a handful of people have ascended into heaven without experiencing death, true Judaism, that is, strict adherence to the Torah (5 books of Moses plus the tanach) and the commandments contained within accepts only one human to ever accomplish such a feat, Elijah. Even though the text in the book of Genesis does indicate something extraordinary happened to Enoch, the wording is sufficiently vague enough for Jewish and Christian scholars alike to dismiss it as a post-death ascension. Although if the currently existing copies of the extra-canonical book of Enoch can be trusted, (they are at least partially verified by fragments found at Qumran) Enoch is indeed the second and final person to ascend to heaven without death and will return alive with Elijah in the end times.
- Elijah the Prophet "went up by a whirlwind or in a fiery chariot into heaven" (Kings II Chapter 2, Verse 11)
- Serach, the daughter of Asher - one of the sons of Jacob (Midrash Yalkut Shimoni (Yechezkel 367))
- Enoch went to heaven alive (Genesis 5:22-24)[2]
- Eliezer, the servant of Abraham
- Hiram, king of Tyre
- Ebed Melech, the Ethiopian
- Jaabez, the son of Rabbi
- Yehudah ha-Nagid Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh
Muslim Ascenders
 
The Dome of the Rock

Muhammad is believed by all Muslims to have ascended into heaven alive at the site of the Dome of the Rock. However, this ascent was temporary and he came back to Earth. (See Kitab al-Miraj). Some Muslims interpret Muhammed's visit to Heaven as taking place within his mind and do not believe that his body actually ascended to heaven, while the majority ascribe to the exact descriptions presented in both the Quran and the Hadith.

Most Muslims believe that Jesus is alive in heaven, but that view is not universal. Tariq Hashmiwrites in the Islamic journal, Renaissance: "[W]e see that the Holy Qur’an clearly negates that Jesus (sws) was raised to heavens alive (3:55)." Yet Dr. Ahmad Shafaat writes elsewhere that the Qur'an in fact states that "God raised him to himself".

Some Muslims believe the Mahdi was taken into heaven and will return as a Messianic figure.

Taoist Ascenders
In the Daoist religion, there are eight human beings who, it is believed, eventually attained immortality and thus became the Eight Immortals. It is believed they ascended to Penglai Mountain, a heavenly realm located off of the province of Shandong, China above the Bohai Sea. Many Taoists, including some Chinese emperors have attempted to find magical potions, spells, or perform yoga exercises like Qi Gong that would enable them to become immortal like the Eight Immortals. In the Taoist religion, the peach fruit and the color peach both represent immortality because the Peach Tree of Immortality was believed to be somewhere in Eastern China.
- Immortal Woman He (He Xiangu)
- Royal Uncle Cao (Cao Guojiu)
- Iron-crutch Li (Li Tieguai),
- Lan Caihe Lü Dongbin Philosopher
-
Han Xiang
(Han Xiang Zi)
- Elder Zhang Guo (Zhang Guo Lao)
- Zhongli Quan
Zoroastrian Ascenders
It is believed in Zoroastrianism that the Peshotanu was taken up into Heaven alive and will someday return as the Zoroastrian messiah.
New Age Ascenders
Francis Bacon is believed to have undergone a physical "Ascension" (without experiencing death) (he then became the deity St. Germain) by members of various Ascended Master Activities, a group of New Age religions based on Theosophy. They also believe numerous others have undergone "Ascension"; they are called the Ascended Masters and are worshipped by this group of religions. The leaders of these religions claim to be able to receive dictations from the Ascended Masters, which they then relay to their followers.
False New Age Ascenders
Simon Magus

Simon Magus, a Gnostic who claimed to be an incarnation of God (as conceived by the Gnostics) reportedly had the ability to levitate, along with many other magical powers. As a dissenter from the orthodox Christianity of the time, this was branded by Christians as evil magic and attributed to demonic powers. He is said to have attempted to levitate to Heaven from the Roman Forum, but fell back to earth and injured himself.

Guy Ballard

Guy Ballard, who founded I AM, the first Ascended Master Teachings religion, claimed he could teach people how to ascend to heaven without having to die. He accumulated over 1,000,000 followers in the 1930s. However, he died a normal death in 1939. The I AM movement and people adherent to later Ascended Master Teachings religions such as Elizabeth Clare Prophet then redefined ascension as dying normally, but certain special people, such as Elizabeth Clare Prophet's husband Mark Prophet, were able to ascend to a higher heaven after they died than the average person and become an “ascended master” and receive worship.

Mirra Alfassa

The Mother (Mirra Alafassa), the foremost disciple of the Hindu philosopher and guru Sri Aurobindo, attempted the physical transformation of her body in order to become what she felt was the first of a new type of human individual by opening to the Supramental Truth Consciousness, a new power of spirit that Sri Aurobindo had allegedly discovered. She believed that she could create for herself a new kind of “light body”. However, she died and was cremated.

Anna Lee Skarin

Annalee Skarin was a woman who had been raised in the LDS Church (Mormon Church) who claimed to have invented a meditation technique by which anyone could translate themselves directly into Heaven. She wrote a book about it called Ye Are Gods. Many proponents of New Age thought believed that Annalee Skarin, along with her husband Reason Skarin, that he and she indeed achieved physical immortality (been translated) after her clothes were found in her room in 1952 and she totally disappeared and he disappeared soon after. However, it was later shown that she had faked her "translation" and gone into hiding in order to increase sales of her books. She hid out, living away from the Mormon Belt by going to southern Oregon and later living in the far north of California. It was later proven that she physically died of natural causes.

Scientific Ascension in the future
It is believed by transhumanists such as Ray Kurzweil that by 2045 supercomputers will be advanced enough so that the majority of the human race will be able to upload themselves into a planetwide supercomputer and attain immortality in virtual reality. Kurzweil calls this the Singularity.
Fictional portrayals Film
- In the movie Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Obi-Wan Kenobi ascended into another plain of existence by the power of The Force.
- In the series Stargate SG-1, Daniel Jackson and the Ancients ascended to another plain of existence and were granted with supernatural powers and the knowledge of the universe.
Literature
- In C. S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength, those who ascended to heaven alive included Melchizedek, Frederick Barbarossa, King Arthur and Elwin Ransom.
Art
- The Apotheosis of Washington, a fresco in the dome of the United States Capitol Building, depicts the ascension to heaven of George Washington.
Ascended Christians
- Enoch People of Enoch's
- City of Zion

- Moses

- Elijah

-
John the Apostle
- Three Unnamed Nephites
-
Alma,
- Son of Alma
freespeechzone
tolerance
Toleration and tolerance are terms used in social, cultural and religious contexts to describe attitudes which are "tolerant" (or moderately respectful) of practices or group memberships that may be disapproved of by those in the majority. In practice, "tolerance" indicates support for practices that prohibit ethnic and religious discrimination. Conversely, 'intolerance' may be used to refer to the discriminatory practices sought to be prohibited. Though developed to refer to the religious toleration of minority religious sects following the Protestant Reformation, these terms are increasingly used to refer to a wider range of tolerated practices and groups, or of political parties or ideas widely considered objectionable.
 
History
 
 

allowance: a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits As a practical matter, governments have always had to consider the question of which groups and practices to tolerate and which to persecute. The Edicts of Ashoka issued by Ashoka the Great in the Maurya Empire declared ethnic and religious tolerance. The later expanding Roman Empire faced the question of whether or to what extent practices or beliefs could be tolerated or vigorously persecuted. Likewise, during the Middle Ages, the rulers of Christian Europe or the Muslim Middle East sometimes extended toleration to minority religious groups, and sometimes did not. Jews in particular suffered under anti-Semitic persecutions in medieval Europe. A notable exception was Poland, which served as a haven for European Jewry because of its relative tolerance - by the mid-sixteenth century, 80 percent of the world’s Jews lived in Poland.

An early champion of toleration in Europe was Pawel Wlodkowic, who at the Council of Constance advocated the pagan nations' rights. However, the development of a body of theory on the subject of toleration didn't begin until the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Wars of Religion and persecutions that followed the breaks with the Catholic Church instigated by Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli and others. In response to the theory of persecution that was used to justify wars of religion and the execution of persons convicted of heresy and witchcraft, writers such as Sebastian Castellio and Michel de Montaigne questioned the morality of religious persecution, and offered arguments for toleration. By contrast, Poland, which had been uniquely tolerant and ethnically as well as religiously diverse, officially confirmed its status as "a place of shelter for heretics" in the Confederation of Warsaw of 1573, the first toleration act in Europe.

A detailed and influential body of writing on the question of toleration was produced in Britain in the seventeenth century, during and after the destructive English Civil Wars. John Milton and radical Parliamentarians such as Gerrard Winstanley argued that Christian and Jewish worship should be protected, and it was during the period that Oliver Cromwell allowed the return of Jews to England. These early theories of toleration were limited however, and did not extend toleration to Roman Catholics (who were perceived as disloyal to their country) or atheists (who were held to lack any moral basis for action). John Locke, in his Letter Concerning Toleration and Two Treatises of Government proposed a more detailed and systematic theory of toleration, which included a principle of Separation of Church and State that formed the basis for future constitutional democracies, but also did not extend toleration to Roman Catholics or atheists. The British Toleration Act of 1689 was the political result of seventeenth century theorists and political exigency, which despite the limited scope of the toleration it granted was nevertheless a key development in the history of toleration, which helped produce greater political stability in the British Isles.

The philosophers and writers of the Enlightenment, especially Voltaire and Lessing, promoted and further developed the notion of religious tolerance, which however was not sufficient to prevent the atrocities of the Reign of Terror. The incorporation by Thomas Jefferson and others of Locke's theories of toleration into the Constitution of the United States of America was arguably more successful.

Discussions of toleration therefore often divided between those who view the term as a minimal and perhaps even historical virtue (perhaps today to be replaced by a more positive and robust appreciation of pluralism or diversity), and those who view it as a concept with an important continuing vitality, and who are more likely to use the term in considering contemporary issues regarding discrimination on the basis of race, nationality, gender, sexuality, disability, and other reasons.

There are also debates with regard to the historical factors that produced the principle of toleration, as well as to the proper reasons toleration should be exercised, with some arguing that the growth of skepticism was an important or necessary factor in the development of toleration, and others arguing that religious belief or an evolving notion of respect for individual persons was or is the basis on which toleration was or should be practiced.

 
 
Tolerance and monotheism
 
 

One theory of the origins of religious intolerance, propounded by Sigmund Freud in Moses and Monotheism, links intolerance to monotheism. More recently, Bernard Lewis and Mark Cohen have argued that the modern understanding of tolerance, involving concepts of national identity and equal citizenship for persons of different religions, was not considered a value by pre-modern Muslims or Christians, due to the implications of monotheism.[8] The historian G.R. Elton explains that in pre-modern times, monotheists viewed such toleration as a sign of weakness or even wickedness towards God. The usual definition of tolerance in pre-modern times as Bernard Lewis puts it was that:

I am in charge. I will allow you some though not all of the rights and privileges that I enjoy, provided that you behave yourself according to rules that I will lay down and enforce."

Mark Cohen states that it seems that all the monotheistic religions in power throughout the history have felt it proper, if not obligatory, to persecute nonconforming religions. Therefore, Cohen concludes, Medieval Islam and Medieval Christianity in power should have persecuted non-believers in their lands and "Judaism, briefly in power during the Hasmonean period (second century BCE) should have persecuted pagan Idumeans". Cohen continues: "When all is said and done, however, the historical evidence indicates that the Jews of Islam, especially during the formative and classical centuries (up to thirteenth century), experienced much less persecution than did the Jews of Christendom. This begs a more thorough and nuanced explanation than has hitherto been given."

 
 
Tolerating the intolerant
 
 

Philosopher Karl Popper asserted, in The Open Society and Its Enemies Vol. 1, that we are warranted in refusing to tolerate intolerance; illustrating that there are limits to tolerance.

Philosopher John Rawls devotes a section of his influential and controversial book A Theory of Justice to this problem; whether a just society should or should not tolerate the intolerant. He also addresses the related issue of whether or not the intolerant have any right to complain when they are not tolerated, within their society.

Rawls concludes that a just society must be tolerant; therefore, the intolerant must be tolerated, for otherwise, the society would then itself be intolerant, and thus unjust. However, Rawls qualifies this conclusion by insisting, like Popper, that society and its social institutions have a reasonable right of self-preservation that supersedes the principle of tolerance. Hence, the intolerant must be tolerated but only insofar as they do not endanger the tolerant society and its institutions.[citation needed]

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi used tolerance to force the British out of India. He pioneered the use of tolerance which was used by many i.e. Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela.

 
 
Tolerance as a spiritual virtue
 
 

Swami Tripurari states that the practice of tolerance leads to the ability to distinguish the jiva (soul) from the mind and body.

In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna says "... the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception ... and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed. the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation."

 
no beef
Fuck "Where's the beef. How about 'fuck the beef'".
zenith_vegetarian_333333303334_79_image
That salad looks like my body will like it.vegetarianism;ll;
Asparagus and tomatoes are healthier than dead cow ass and intestines.image_2_3694
Veg
Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs. A vegetarian does not eat meat, game, poultry, fish, crustacea, shellfish, or products of animal slaughter such as animal-derived gelatin and rennet. There are a number of vegetarian diets. A lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but excludes eggs, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including dairy products, eggs, and honey. Vegetarianism may be adopted for ethical, health, environmental, religious, political, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or other reasons.
Varieties of vegetarianism
- Lacto-ovo vegetarianism is a vegetarian diet that permits consumption of animal products such eggs, milk, and honey.
- Lacto vegetarianism permits milk but abstains from eggs.
- Ovo vegetarianism permits eggs but abstains from milk.
- Veganism abstains from all animal flesh and animal products, including milk, honey, and eggs.
-
Raw veganism is a diet of fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables.
- Fruitarianism
is a diet of only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant.
- Su vegetarianism (such as in Buddhism), excludes all animal products as well as vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, or shallots.
* Strict vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing e.g. cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (from animal skin, bones, and connective tissue), some sugars that are whitened with bone char (e.g. cane sugar, but not beet sugar) and alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon.
veg-pyramid
Semi-vegetarian diets

Semi-vegetarian diets primarily consist of vegetarian foods, though occasional exceptions are made for some non-vegetarian foods, including fish, poultry and red meat. These diets may be followed by those who choose to reduce the amount of animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a vegetarian diet or for health, environmental, or other reasons. The term "semi-vegetarian" is contested by most vegetarian groups, who believe that vegetarianism must exclude all animal flesh. Many individuals describe themselves as "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet.

Semi-Vegetarian Types
- Flexitarianism A diet that consists primarily of vegetarian food, but includes occasional exceptions such as red meat.
- Pescetarianism A diet that is mainly vegetarian but also includes fish and sometimes other seafood.
- Pollotarianism A diet that is mainly vegetarian but also includes poultry.
- Macrobiotic diet A diet of mostly whole grains and beans. Not all macrobiotics are vegetarians, as some consume fish.
Etymology

The Vegetarian Society, founded in 1847, claims to have "created the word vegetarian from the Latin 'vegetus' meaning 'lively' (which is how these early vegetarians claimed their diet made them feel) ..." However, the Oxford English Dictionary and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian".

The Oxford English Dictionary also gives evidence that the word was already in use before the foundation of the Vegetarian Society:

  • 1839 - "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251)
  • 1842 - "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34)

but notes that "The general use of the word appears to have been largely due to the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847."

History

The earliest records of (lacto) vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people come from ancient India. Vegetarianism was also practiced by the ancient Greek civilisation in Southern Italy and in Greece in the 6th century BCE. In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.

Following the Christianisation of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe. Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. Saint Genevieve, the Patron Saint of Paris, is mentioned as having observed a vegetarian diet — but as an act of physical austerity, rather than out of concern for animals.

Vegetarianism re-emerged somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance. It became a more widespread practice in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in England; Germany, the Netherlands and other countries followed. The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns.

Health benefits and concerns

Vegetarianism is considered a healthy, viable diet. The American Dietetic Association and the Dietitians of Canada have found a properly planned vegetarian diet to satisfy the nutritional needs for all stages of life, and large-scale studies have shown that "Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians" Necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids for the body's sustenance can be found in vegetables, grains, nuts, soymilk, eggs and dairy.

Vegetarian diets can aid in keeping body weight under control and substantially reduce risks of heart disease and osteoporosis. Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated with dramatically increased risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, colon, and the lungs. Other studies, in contrast, have shown no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer, although the sample of vegetarians was small and included ex-smokers who had switched their diet within the last five years.

The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada have stated: "Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals." Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease and other disorders

Nutrition
Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). High levels of dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet.
Protein
Protein intake in vegetarian diets is only slightly lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and bodybuilders. Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, have confirmed that vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed. Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesised by the human body. While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for lacto-ovo vegetarians, the only vegetable sources with significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids are lupin, soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa. It is not necessary, however, to obtain protein from these sources—the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). A varied intake of such sources can be adequate, a 1994 study found.
Iron
Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread. The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron. Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians and iron deficiency is thus more common in vegetarian and vegan women and children (adult males are rarely iron deficient), however, iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.
Vitamin B12

Plants are not generally significant sources of Vitamin B12. However, lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Since the human body preserves B12 and reuses it without destroying the substance, clinical evidence of B12 deficiency is uncommon. The body can preserve stores of the vitamin for up to 30 years without needing its supplies to be replenished.

The only reliable vegan sources of B12 are foods fortified with B12 (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and B12 supplements. The research on vitamin B12 sources has increased in the latest years.

Fatty acids
Fish is a non-vegetarian source of Omega 3 fatty acids. Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources exist such as soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil and especially hempseed, chia seed, flaxseed, and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid but not the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are found in low levels in eggs and dairy products. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Similar supplements providing both DHA and EPA have also begun to appear. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).
Calcium
Calcium intake in vegetarians is similar to non-vegetarians. Some impaired bone mineralisation has been found among vegans who do not consume enough leafy greens, which are sources of abundant calcium. However, this is not found in lacto-ovo vegetarians. Some sources of calcium include broccoli, cauliflower, beet greens, bok choy, collard greens, kale, watercress, and soy beans. Watercress, and kale are especially high in calcium. Collard greens are high in calcium, but the calcium is bound to oxalate and therefore it is poorly absorbed.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D levels do not appear to be lower in vegetarians (although studies have shown that much of the general population is deficient). Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible UV sun exposure. Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a good source of Vitamin D and mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested; for those who do not get adequate sun exposure and/or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.
Longevity

A 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be .82, vegetarians to be .84, occasional meat eaters to be .84. Regular meat eaters and vegans shared the highest mortality ratio of 1.00. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: "vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than nonvegetarians, but no associations of a vegetarian diet with other major causes of death were established."

In "Mortality in British vegetarians", a similar conclusion is drawn: "British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish."

The Adventist Health Study is an ongoing study of life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. This is the only study among others with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years. Among the lifestyle choices investigated, a vegetarian diet was estimated to confer an extra 1–1/2 to 2 years of life. The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at 78.5 years for men and 82.3 years for women. The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was 83.3 years for men and 85.7 years for women.

The Adventist health study is again incorporated into a metastudy titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?" published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which concluded that low meat eating (less than once per week) and other lifestyle choices significantly increase life expectancy, relative to a group with high meat intake. The study concluded that "The findings from one cohort of healthy adults raises the possibility that long-term (≥ 2 decades) adherence to a vegetarian diet can further produce a significant 3.6-y increase in life expectancy." However, the study also concluded that "Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians." It further states that "This raises the possibility that a low-meat, high plant-food dietary pattern may be the true causal protective factor rather than simply elimination of meat from the diet." In a recent review of studies relating low-meat diet patterns to all-cause mortality, Singh noted that "5 out of 5 studies indicated that adults who followed a low meat, high plant-food diet pattern experienced significant or marginally significant decreases in mortality risk relative to other patterns of intake."

Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where a diet with high meat content is more common.

A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians (lacto-ovo) and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region. The study found that this group of vegetarians (lacto-ovo) have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) compared to this group of omnivores.[69] Carboxymethyllysine is a glycation product which represents "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes." "Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure."

Food Safety

Libby Sande argued in a blog for USA Today that Vegetarianism reduces E. coli infections, and in a piece for The New York Times linked E. coli contamination in food to industrial scale meat and dairy farms. E. coli infections in the US during 2006 were traced to spinach and onions.

Transmission of pathogenic E. coli often occurs via fecal-oral transmission. Common routes of transmission include unhygienic food preparation and farm contamination. Dairy and beef cattle are primary reservoirs of the E. coli strain O157:H7, and they can carry it asymptomatically and shed it in their feces. Food products associated with E. coli outbreaks include raw ground beef, raw seed sprouts or spinach, raw milk, unpasteurized juice, and foods contaminated by infected food workers via fecal-oral route. In 2005, some people who had consumed triple-washed, pre-packaged lettuce were infected with E. coli. In 2007, packaged lettuce salads were recalled after they were found to be contaminated with E. coli. E. coli outbreaks have been traced to unpasteurised apples, orange juice, milk, alfalfa sprouts, and water.

Salmonella outbreaks have been traced to peanut butter, frozen pot pies & puffed vegetable snacks. BSE, also known as mad cow disease, is linked by the World Health Organization to Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans.

There have been reports of fears of foot-and-mouth disease in sheep, PCBs in farmed salmon, mercury in fish, dioxin concentrations in animal products, artificial growth hormones, antibiotics, lead and mercury, pesticide contamination of vegetables and fruits, banned chemicals being used to ripen fruits. In 2005, fears that "bird flu" could be caused by eating chicken were featured in a PETA call for vegetarian diets.

Medical use
In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised to adhere to a vegetarian diet. Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure.
Physiology
The Vegetarian Resource Group, among others, has concluded that humans are naturally omnivores based on the human ability to digest meat, as well as plant foods, with the correspondent metabolic tendency to an adaptation that makes them need both animal and vegetable nourishment. Other arguments hold that humans are more anatomically similar to herbivores, with long intestinal tracts and blunt teeth, unlike omnivores and carnivores. Nutritional experts believe that early hominids evolved into eating meat as a result of huge climatic changes that took place three to four million years ago, when forests and jungles dried up and became open grasslands and opened hunting and scavenging opportunities.
Animal-to-human disease transmissions

The consumption of meat can cause a transmission of a number of diseases from animals to humans. The connection between infected animal and human illness is well established in the case of salmonella; an estimated one-third to one-half of all chicken meat marketed in the United States is contaminated with salmonella. Only recently, however, have scientists begun to suspect that there is a similar connection between animal meat and human cancer, birth defects, mutations, and many other diseases in humans. In 1975, one study found 75 percent of supermarket samples of cow's milk, and 75 percent of egg samples to contain the leukemia (cancer) virus. By 1985, nearly 100 percent of the eggs tested, or the hens they came from, had the cancer virus. The rate of disease among chickens is so high that the Department of Labor has ranked the poultry industry as one of the most hazardous occupations. 20 percent of all cows are afflicted with a variety of cancer known as bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Studies have increasingly linked BLV with HTLV-1, the first human retrovirus discovered to cause cancer. Scientists have found that a bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), the equivalent of the AIDS virus in cows, can also infect human cells. It is supposed that BIV may have a role in the development of a number of malignant or slow viruses in humans.

The proximity of animals in industrial-scale animal farming leads to an increased rate of disease transmission. Transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has been documented, but illness from such cases is rare compared to that caused by the now common human-adapted older influenza viruses, transferred from animals to humans in the more distant past. The first documented case was in 1959, and in 1998, 18 new human cases of H5N1 influenza were diagnosed, in which six people died. In 1997 more cases of H5N1 avian influenza were found in chickens in Hong Kong.

Whether tuberculosis originated in cattle and was then transferred to humans, or diverged from a common ancestor infecting a different species, is currently unclear. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin.

According to the 'Hunter Theory', the "simplest and most plausible explanation for the cross-species transmission" the AIDS virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.

Historian Norman Cantor suggests the Black Death might have been a combination of pandemics including a form of anthrax, a cattle murrain. He cites many forms of evidence including the fact that meat from infected cattle was known to have been sold in many rural English areas prior to the onset of the plague.

Eating disorders
The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder." Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.
Additional reasons for a vegetarian diet Childhood IQ and diet choice
A study published in the British Medical Journal in 2007 compared children's IQ at age 10 with their having a vegetarian diet at age 30. The report did not provide information on whether or not the children were already vegetarian at the time when their IQ measurement was taken. It also noted that there was no difference in IQ among vegetarians who ate only plants, and people who ate chicken and fish. The BBC summarised part of the results of the study, stating "Men who were vegetarian had an IQ score of 106, compared with 101 for non-vegetarians; while female vegetarians averaged 104, compared with 99 for non-vegetarians." The report concluded that “Higher scores for IQ in childhood are associated with an increased likelihood of being a vegetarian as an adult.” Lead researcher Catharine Gale noted that this link may not be causal, but “may be merely an example of many other lifestyle preferences that might be expected to vary with intelligence.”
Religion
Indian cuisine offers a wide range of vegetarian delicacies because Hinduism, practiced by majority of India's populace, encourages vegetarian diet. Shown here is a vegetarian thali.

Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism teach vegetarianism as moral conduct. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Other denominations that advocate a fully vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.

Hinduism
Indian Vegetable Salad containing Lemon, Tomato, Radish, Beetroot, Cucumber and Green Chillies

Most major paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. There are three main reasons for this: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals; the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad; and the conviction that non-vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development. Hindu vegetarians usually eschew eggs but consume milk and dairy products, so they are lacto-vegetarians.

However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community and according to regional traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat.

Jainism
Followers of Jainism believe that everything from animals to inanimate objects have life in different degree and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to it. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devote Jains do not eat root vegetables because this would involve the killing of plants. Instead they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of plants. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed. Jains hold self termination from starvation as the ideal state and some dedicated monks do perform this act of self annihilation. This is for them an indispensable condition for spiritual progress. Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians. Honey is forbidden, because its collection is seen as violence against the bees. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.
Buddhism

Theravadins in general eat meat. If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense. However, this does not include eating meat which was given in alm or commercially purchased. In Theravada cannon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them to eat meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant, horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh) but he specifically refuse to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion has been made.

In Mahayana Buddhism, there are several Sanskrit texts where the Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow and some branches of Mahayana Buddhists including majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists do eat meat while most of Chinese Buddhists do not eat meat.

Sikhism

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, but rather leave the decision of diet to the individual. The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct) from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet.

"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (eg Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari, Rarionwalay, etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter, and cheese). This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts. In response, to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life. Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance.

"Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?"

The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.

Judaism

A number of medieval scholars of Jewish religion (e.g. Joseph Albo) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal, not just because of a concern for the welfare of animals, but because the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits. Therefore, their concern was with regard to possible harmful effects upon human character rather than with animal welfare. Indeed, Rabbi Joseph Albo maintains that renunciation of the consumption of meat for reasons of concern for animal welfare is not only morally erroneous but even repugnant.

One modern-day scholar who is often cited as in favour of vegetarianism is the late Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, the Chief Rabbi of Pre-State Israel. It is indeed the case that in his writings, Rabbi Kook speaks of vegetarianism as an ideal, and points to the fact that Adam did not partake of the flesh of animals. In context, however, Rabbi Kook makes those comments in his portrayal of the eschatological (messianic) era.

According to some Kabbalists, only a mystic, who is able to sense and elevate the reincarnated human souls and "divine sparks", is permitted to consume meat, though eating the flesh of an animal might still cause spiritual damage to the soul. A number of Orthodox Jewish vegetarian groups and activists promote such ideas and believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet.

Having ties with both ancient Judaism and Christianity, members of the ancient Essene religious group practiced strict vegetarianism sharing a similar belief with the Hindus'/Jains' idea of Ahimsa or "harmlessness".

Translation of the Torah's Ten Commandments state "thou shalt not murder." Some people argue that this can also be taken as meaning not to kill at all, animals nor humans, or at least "that one shall not kill unnecessarily," in the same manner that onerous restrictions on slavery in the Bible have been interpreted by modern theologians as to suggest banning the practice. Although it should be noted that the very same Torah also commands people to ritually slaughter animals when killing them, and goes into precise detail on the rituals of animal sacrifices.

While it is neither required nor prohibited for Jews to eat meat, the choice must be made in regard to the ethics and ideals of Judaism"The Vegetarian Mitzvah". http://www.brook.com/jveg. 

Classical Greek and Roman Thought

Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian (and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community), as his followers were expected to be. Socrates was reportedly vegetarian, and in his dialogue of what people, or at least Philosopher-rulers, in an ideal republic should eat, he described only vegetarian food. He specified that if meat-eating was allowed, then society would require more doctors.

Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses, in part, with the impassioned argument (uttered by the character of Pythagoras) that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose, into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies. He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human.

Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies...Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message! Abstain! Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood!

Christianity

Jesus ordered his apostles to catch and prepare meals with fish and he famously fed 5000 people with five loaves of bread and two fish. Since no other kind of meat is mentioned, and since some of the apostles (and possibly Jesus) may have taken the Nazarite vow, it is surmised that Jesus was a pescetarian.

While vegetarianism is not a common practice in current Christian culture, except by traditional monastics and by other Orthodox at least during 'fast' times, the concept and practice have scriptural and historical support. According to the Bible, in the beginning, humans and animals were vegetarian.(Genesis 1:29–30) Immediately after the Flood, God permitted the eating of meat. (Genesis 9:3)

There is also a strong association between the Quaker tradition within Christianity and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends."

Islam

Followers of Islam, or Muslims, have the freedom of choice to be vegetarian for medical reasons or if they do not personally like the taste of meat. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing.

Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Iraqi theologian, female mystic and poet Râbi‘ah al-‘Adawîyah of Basrah, who died in the year 801, and the Sri Lankan sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia.

In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.

Many omnivore Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.

Rastafari
Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafarian and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only Ital or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long and skillfully laid down tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari.[161] Most Rastafarians are vegetarian. Utensils made from natural material such as stone or earthenware are preferred.
Environmental

Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contributes on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."

In July 2009 Nike and Timberland stopped buying leather from deforested Amazon Rainforest a few weeks after Greenpeace report demonstrated the destruction caused by Amazon cattle ranchers. According to Arnold Newman every hamburger sold results in destruction of 6.25m2 of rain forest.

In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases and is responsible for 18 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all of the world's transportation (including all cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships, and planes) emits 13.5 percent of the CO2. Animal farming produces 65 percent of human-related nitrous oxide and 37 percent of all human-induced methane. Methane has about 21 times more Global Warming Potential (GWP) than carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide has 296 times the GWP of CO2.

Animals fed on grain, and those that rely on grazing, need far more water than grain crops. According to the USDA, growing the crops necessary to feed farmed animals requires nearly half of the United States' water supply and 80 percent of its agricultural land. Additionally, animals raised for food in the U.S. consume 90 percent of the soy crop, 80 percent of the corn crop, and a total of 70 percent of its grain.

When tracking food animal production from the feed trough to consumption, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from 4:1 up to 54:1 energy input to protein output ratio. This firstly because the feed first needs to be grown before it is eaten by the cattle, and secondly because warm-blooded vertebrates need to use a lot of calories just to stay warm (unlike plants or insects). An index which can be used as a measure is the efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance, which indicates, for example, that only 10% is converted to body substance by beef cattle, versus 19–31% by silkworms and 44% by German cockroaches. Ecology professor David Pimentel has claimed, "If all the grain currently fed to livestock in the United States were consumed directly by people, the number of people who could be fed would be nearly 800 million." To produce animal based food seems to be, according to these studies, typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits. However, this would not apply to animals that are grazed rather than fed, especially those grazed on land that could not be used for other purposes. Nor would it apply to cultivation of insects for food, which may be more environmentally sustainable than eating food coming from cattle farming.[168] Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be also more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.

According to the theory of trophic dynamics, it requires 10 times as many crops to feed animals being bred for meat production as it would to feed the same number of people on a vegetarian diet. Currently, 70 percent of all the wheat, corn, and other grain produced is fed to farmed animals. This has led many proponents of vegetarianism to believe that it is ecologically irresponsible to consume meat. Rearing a relatively small number grazing animals is often beneficial, as observed by the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University, which reports, "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment".

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated that direct emissions from meat production account for about 18% of the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. So I want to highlight the fact that among options for mitigating climate change, changing diets is something one should consider.
 

In May 2009, Ghent was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.

Labour conditions
Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing. However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors. Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality. In fact, according to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world.
Economical
Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the WorldWatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."
Psychological

The "Appeal to nature" logical fallacy invites one to believe that something is good or right because it is natural.

A metaphor has been presented by Douglas Dunn: that if one gives a young child an apple and a live chicken, the child would instinctively play with the chicken and eat the apple, whereas if a cat were presented with the same choices, its natural impulse would be the opposite. Omnivorous and comparatively human-like species such as chimpanzees' offspring may not instinctively kill a prey animal, such as a Senegal Bushbaby, when presented with one and a piece of fruit either. In a similar assertion, vegetarian Scott Adams wrote humorously: "...a live cow makes a lion salivate, whereas a human just wants to say 'moo' and see if the cow responds."

This same non-predatory inter-species interaction can be seen in adult chimpanzees, which have been seen toying with other animals without regarding them as prey and even occasionally socialising with other species.

Cultural

People may choose vegetarianism because they were raised in a vegetarian household or because of a vegetarian partner, family member, or friend.

Limited vegetarianism has appeal for some young people in Western societies. A 2007 University of Michigan Medical School experiment on the diffusion of memes included an attempt to encourage limited vegetarianism.

Demographics
Gender

A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation claimed that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68 percent are female while only 32 percent are male."

At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls." Catherine Collins of the British Dietetic Association has dismissed this as a "statistical fluke".

There is speculation that diets high in soy, due to high isoflavone content, can have a feminising effect on human infants due to their action as phytoestrogens. Proponents of this theory claim that diets high in isoflavones promote earlier onset of female puberty and delayed male puberty. However, a 2001 study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania found no significant differences in the later onset of puberty between infants raised on soy-based formula and cow milk formula.

Country-specific information

Vegetarianism is viewed in different ways around the world. In some areas there is cultural and even legal support, but in others the diet is poorly understood or even frowned upon. In many countries food labelling is in place that makes it easier for vegetarians to identify foods compatible with their diets.

In India, which has more vegetarians than the rest of the world combined (399 million as of 2006), not only is there food labelling, but many restaurants are marketed and signed as being either "Vegetarian" or "Non-Vegetarian". People who are vegetarian in India are usually Lacto-vegetarians, and therefore, to cater for this market, the majority of vegetarian restaurants in India do serve dairy products while eschewing egg products. Most Western vegetarian restaurants, in comparison, do serve eggs and egg-based products.

ChakraDiag.jpg

Ankh model of chakras system (step2)
chakras1
inca03
Incan God
Chakra (derived from the Sanskrit cakraṃ चक्रं; Pali: ॰हक्क chakka, Chinese: 轮, Tibetan: འཁོར་ལོ་; khorlo) is a Sanskrit word that translates as "wheel" or "turning".

Chakra is a concept referring to wheel-like vortices which, according to traditional Indian medicine, are believed to exist in the surface of the etheric double of man. The Chakras are said to be "force centres" or whorls of energy permeating, from a point on the physical body, the layers of the subtle bodies in an ever-increasing fan-shaped formation (the fans make the shape of a love heart). Rotating vortices of subtle matter, they are considered the focal points for the reception and transmission of energies. Seven major chakras or energy centres (also understood as wheels of light) are generally believed to exist, located within the subtle body.

Chakras, as described above, are energy centres along the spine located at major branchings of the human nervous system, beginning at the base of the spinal column and moving upward to the top of the skull. Chakras are considered to be a point or nexus of biophysical energy or prana of the human body. Shumsky states that "prana is the basic component of your subtle body, your energy field, and the entire chakra system...the key to life and source of energy in the universe."

It is typical for chakras to be depicted in either of two ways:

  • Flower-like
  • Wheel-like
In the former, a specific number of petals are shown around the perimeter of a circle. In the latter, a certain number of spokes divide the circle into segments that make the chakra resemble a wheel or chakra. Each chakra possesses a specific number of segments or petals.

Much of the original information on chakras comes from the Upanishads, which are difficult to date because they are believed to have been passed down orally for approximately a thousand years before being written down for the first time between 1200–900 BCE.

In Buddhist literature the Sanskrit term cakra (Pali cakka) is used in a different sense of "circle", referring to a Buddhist conception of the 4 circles or states of existence in which gods or men may find themselves.

Models
The study of the Chakras is central to many different therapies and disciplines. Subtle energy is explored through practices such as aromatherapy, mantras, Reiki, hands-on healing, flower essences, radionics, sound therapy, colour/light therapy, and crystal/gem therapy, to name a few. Acupuncture, shiatsu, tai chi and chi kung focus on balancing the energetic meridians that are an integral part of the chakra system, according to Vajrayana and Tantric Shakta theories. Several models will be explored in the following sub-headings.
Hindu
Thousand Petalled Crown Chakra, Two Petalled Brow Chakra, Sixteen Petalled Throat Chakra (Nepal, 17th Century)

In Hinduism, the concept of chakras is part of a complex of ideas related to esoteric anatomy. These ideas occur most often in the class of texts that are called Āgamas or Tantras. This is a large body of scripture, most of which is rejected by the traditionalists.

There are many variations on these concepts in the Sanskrit source texts. In earlier texts there are various systems of chakras and nadis, with varying connections between them. Various traditional sources list 5, 6, 7, 8 or even 12 chakras. Over time, one system of 6 or 7 chakras along the body's axis became the dominant model, adopted by most schools of yoga. This particular system may have originated in about the 11th century AD, and rapidly became widely popular.[8] It is in this model where Kundalini is said to "rise" upward, piercing the various centres until reaching the crown of the head, resulting in union with the Divine.

Nabhi

in atarva veda first time the word nabhi has been used and described that all the nadies of body is binded here . and it is termed as nabhi chakra here , and apart from this mooladhar chakra this word is also first time described in atharvaveda [the veda from where Ayurveda is originated] in upnishad the description of chakras are in more details , in brahmopnishad the nabhi chakra is described as the abode of agni and surya [sun] in yograj upnishad there is description of nine chakras which are as under brahma ,svadhisthan,nabhi, hridhya ,kanth ,taluka ,bhroo, brahma randha, vyom chakra in yoga choodamaniupnishad there is description of shad chakra , in patanjali yoga darshan vibhutipaad there is description of shad chakra , and when illustrating it in first sutra description of 12chakra is found

in sharda tilkam shad chakra is described in shiva and shakti form simmilarly in goraksh nsamhita and kaula tantrik grantha chakra had been described and method to awaken kundalini [serpant power] is given

Tantric
The chakras are described in the tantric texts the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana, and the Padaka-Pancaka,[9] in which they are described as emanations of consciousness from Brahman, an energy emanating from the spiritual which gradually turns concrete, creating these distinct levels of chakras, and which eventually finds its rest in the Muladhara chakra. They are therefore part of an emanationist theory, like that of the kabbalah in the west, lataif-e-sitta in Sufism or neo-platonism. The energy that was unleashed in creation, called the Kundalini, lies coiled and sleeping at the base of the spine. It is the purpose of the tantric or kundalini forms of yoga to arouse this energy, and cause it to rise back up through the increasingly subtle chakras, until union with God is achieved in the Sahasrara chakra at the crown of the head.
Vajrayana and Tantric Buddhist

According to contemporary Buddhist teacher Tarthang Tulku, the heart chakra is very important for the feeling of existential fulfilment.[citation needed]

A result of energetic imbalance between chakras is an almost continuous feeling of dissatisfaction. When the heart chakra is agitated, people lose touch with feelings and sensations, and that breeds the sense of dissatisfaction. That leads to looking outside for fulfilment.

When people live in their heads, feelings are secondary, they are interpretations of mental images that are fed back to the individual. When awareness is focused on memories of past experiences and mental verbalisations, the energy flow to the head chakra increases and the energy flow to the heart chakra lessens. Without nurturing feelings of the heart a subtle form of anxiety arises which results in the self reaching out for experience.

When the throat chakra settles and energy is distributed evenly between the head and the heart chakras, one is able to truly contact one's senses and touch real feelings.

Chögyal Namkai Norbu Rinpoche teaches a version of the Six Lokas sadhana which works with the chakra system.[citation needed]

The kye-rim (Tibetan) and dzog-rim (Tibetan) stages work with the 'chakra' (Tibetan: khorlo).

Bön

Chakras, as pranic centres of the body, according to the Himalayan Bönpo tradition, influence the quality of experience, because movement of prana can not be separated from experience. Each of six major chakras are linked to experiential qualities of one of the six realms of existence.

A modern teacher, Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche uses a computer analogy: main chakras are like hard drives. Each hard drive has many files. One of the files is always open in each of the chakras, no matter how "closed" that particular chakra may be. What is displayed by the file shapes experience.

The tsa lung practices such as those embodied in Trul Khor lineages open channels so lung (Lung is a Tibetan term cognate with prana or qi) may move without obstruction. Yoga opens chakras and evokes positive qualities associated with a particular chakra. In the hard drive analogy, the screen is cleared and a file is called up that contains positive, supportive qualities. A seed syllable (Sanskrit bija) is used both as a password that evokes the positive quality and the armour that sustains the quality.

Tantric practice eventually transforms all experience into bliss. The practice liberates from negative conditioning and leads to control over perception and cognition.

Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche teaches a version of the Six Lokas sadhana which works with the chakra system.

Qigong

Qigong also relies on a similar model of the human body as an energy system, except that it involves the circulation of qi (ki, chi) energy.

In the circuit of qi, called the Microcosmic orbit, energy also comes back down the front torso channel (equivalent to the nadis of Hatha yoga), and enters the dan tian: when it returns to the heart (and cycles down and reascends to the head) further meditation/contemplation or union with Dao. In Macrocosmic orbit the qi is also guided through the main channels in the limbs.

The concept of meridians and qi are superficially reminiscent of that of the chakras and the prana respectively, and it was sometimes suggested that they were inspired by the Indian concepts. However, the Chinese model includes 12 meridians and at least 365 acupuncture points distributed on various organs rather than just 6 chakras all located alongside the spine.

In Japan, the word qi is written ki, and is related to the practice of Reiki.

Western complementary and alternative medicine
In the Western hemisphere, a concept similar to that of prana can be traced back as far as the 18th century's Franz Anton Mesmer that used 'animal magnetism' to cure disease. However, the concept of chakras was only introduced in 1927 by the clergyman and theosophical author Charles Webster Leadbeater in his book 'The Chakras'. Due to the similarities between the Chinese and Indian philosophies, the notion of chakras was quickly amalgamated to Chinese practices such as acupuncture and belief in ki. The confluence of these two divergent healing traditions and the common practitioners' own inventiveness have lead to an ever-changing and expanding array of concepts in the Western world.
Contemporary Models

The chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. In New Age practices, each chakra is often associated with a certain colour. In various traditions chakras are associated with multiple physiological functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics. They are visualized as lotuses/flowers with a different number of petals in every chakra.

The chakras are thought to vitalise the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are considered loci of life energy or prana, also called shakti, qi (Chinese; ki in Japanese), koach-ha-guf (Hebrew), bios (Greek) & aether (Greek, English), which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadis. The function of the chakras is to spin and draw in this energy to keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance.

The New Age movement has led to an increased interest in the West regarding chakras. These ideas first appear in the writings of theosophical authors like C. W. Leadbeater, who wrote a book on the Chakras. Many of Leadbeater's views that directed his understanding of chakras were influenced by previous theosophist authors and in particular Johann Georg Gichtel, a disciple of Jakob Böhme, and his book Theosophia Practica (1696) in which Gitchtel directly refer to inner force centres, a concept reminiscent of that of chakras.

The seven principal chakras are said by some to reflect how the unified consciousness of humanity (the immortal human being or the soul), is divided to manage different aspects of earthly life (body/instinct/vital energy/deeper emotions/communication/having an overview of life/contact to God). The chakras are placed at differing levels of spiritual subtlety, with Sahasrara at the top being concerned with pure consciousness, and Muladhara at the bottom being concerned with matter, which is seen simply as crudified consciousness.

Western derivative models and interpretations

It is the shakta theory of 7 main chakras that become most popular in the Western hemisphere, largely through the translation of two Indian texts, the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana, and the Padaka-Pancaka, by Sir John Woodroffe, alias Arthur Avalon, in a book titled The Serpent Power. This book is extremely detailed and complex, and later the ideas were developed into what is predominant Western view of the Chakras by the Theosophists, and largely the controversial (in theosophical circles) C. W. Leadbeater in his book The Chakras, which are in large part his own meditations and insights on the matter.

Rudolf Steiner (one-time Theosophist, and founder of Anthroposophy) says much about the Chakras that is unusual, especially that the chakra system is dynamic and evolving and is very different for modern people than it was in ancient times, and will in turn be radically different in future times. In contrast to the traditional eastern teachings, Steiner describes a sequence of development from the top down rather than the bottom up. This is the so called 'Christos Path' which has not always been available to humanity. He also seems to ignore the Thousand Petalled at the crown of the head and mentions cryptically an Eight Petalled chakra located between the Ten Petalled and the Six Petalled. In his book How to Know Higher Worlds Steiner gives clear instructions on how to develop the chakras safely into maturity. These are more like life disciplines than exercises and can take considerable time. He warns that while quicker methods exist, they can be dangerous to one's health, character, or sanity.

New Age writers, such as Anodea Judith in her book Wheels of Life, have written about the chakras in great detail, including the reasons for their appearance and functions.

Another unique interpretation of the seven chakras is presented by writer and artist Zachary Selig. In the book Kundalini Awakening, a Gentle Guide to Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth, he presents a unique codex titled "Relaxatia", a solar Kundalini paradigm that is a codex of the human chakra system and the solar light spectrum, designed to activate Kundalini through his colour-coded chakra paintings.

Additionally, some chakra system models describe one or more Transpersonal chakras above the crown chakra, and an Earth star chakra below the feet. There are also held to be many minor chakras, for example between the major chakras. Chakras are also used in neurolinguistic programming to connect NLP logical levels, with spiritual goals on the crown, intellectual on the forehead and so on.

Unique interpretation of the chakras system model is presented in the form of Sacred geometry or spiritual symbols of ancient India and Egypt. It’s Ankh model of chakras system.

Some elements are made from metals: aluminum, copper, brass, iron, zinc, and cupronickel. Elements in the shape of spheres are established from color glass, stone, ceramics, amber, turquoise, corals and different crystal: amethyst, azurite and nephrite.

Such known elements as ida, pingala, sushumna and chakras are presented in model (step 1). Additionally elements are established on the model (step 2), in the form of a layer of spheres from amber, corals, turquoise, quartz, color glass, pearls, ceramics, onyx, malachite, nephrite, amethyst, and azurite.

Endocrine system
The primary importance and level of existence of chakras is posited to be in the psyche. However, there are those who believe that chakras have a physical manifestation as well. The author Philip Gardiner, for instance, has described the chakras as metaphysical counterparts to the endocrine glands, while Anodea Judith noted a marked similarity between the positions of the two and the roles described for each. ] Stephen Sturgess also links the lower six chakras to specific nerve plexuses along the spinal cord as well as glands. C.W. Leadbeater associated the Anja chakra with the pineal gland, which is a part of the endocrine system.
The Spectrum of Light

A recent development in Western practices dating back to the 1940s is to associate each one of the seven chakras to a given colour and a corresponding crystal. For example, the chakra in the forehead is associated with the colour purple, so to cure a headache you would apply a purple stone to the forehead. This idea has proven highly popular and has been integrated by all but a few practitioners.

Mercier introduces the relation of colour energy to the science of the light spectrum;

"As humans, we exist within the 49th Octave of Vibration of the electromagnetic light spectrum. Below this range are barely visible radiant heat, then invisible infrared, television and radiowaves, sound and brain waves; above it is barely visible ultraviolet, then the invisible frequencies of chemicals and perfumes, followed by x-rays, gamma rays, radium rays and unknown cosmic rays.

Understanding existence and physical form as an interpretation of light energy through the physical eyes will open up greater potential to explore the energetic boundaries of color, form and light that are perceived as immediate reality. Indian Yogic teachings assign to the seven major chakras specific qualities, such as color of influence (from the 7 rays of spectrum light), elements (such as earth, air, water & ether), body sense (such as touch, taste, and smell), and relation to an endocrine gland.

The seven major chakras
- Ajna Brow, Third Eye, pineal gland
- Sahasrara Crown
- Vishuddha Throat
- Anahata Heart
- Manipura Solar Plexus,
navel area
- Svadhisthana Sacral, ovaries/prostate
- Muladhara Base, Root, last bone in spinal cord *coccyx*
Head Chakras
- sahasrara (and sri inside it.)
- soma
- manas
- talata/lalata
- ajna
- talu/talana/lalana
- golata
Sanskrit Meanings of Chakra
- "Circle", used in a variety of senses, symbolizing endless rotation of shakti.
- A circle of people. In rituals there are different cakra-sādhanā in which adherents assemble and perform rites.
- According to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types.
- The term chakra also is used to denote yantras or mystic diagrams, variously known as trikoṇa-cakra, aṣṭakoṇa-cakra, etc.
- Different "nerve plexus within the body".
Charkas are...
"powerhouse in the way it generates and stores energy, with the energy from cosmos pulled in more strongly at these points. The main nadis, Ida, Pingala and Shushumna (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and central nervous system) run along the spinal column in a curved path and cross one another several times. At the points of intersection they form strong energy centres known as chakras. In the human body there are three types of energy centres. The lower or animal chakras are located in the region between the toes and the pelvic region indicating our evolutionary origins in the animal kingdom. The human chakras lie along the spinal column. Finally, the higher or divine Chakras are found between the top of the spine and the crown of the head." - Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda
A chakra is believed to be a center of activity that receives, assimilates, and expresses life force energy. The word chakra literally translates as wheel or disk and refers to a spinning sphere of bioenergetic activity emanating from the major nerve ganglia branching forward from the spinal column. Generally, six of these wheels are described, stacked in a column of energy that spans from the base of the spine to the middle of the forehead. And the seventh which is beyond the physical region. It is the six major chakras that correlate with basic states of consciousness... - Anodea Judith
Each chakra in your spinal column is believed to influence or even govern bodily functions near its region of the spine. Because autopsies do not reveal chakras, most people think they are a fancy of fertile imagination. Yet their existence is well documented in the traditions of the far east... - Susan Shumsky

llustration of a yogi showing the seven chakras, Kangra school. Late 18th century A.D.
Aura-total

Energy body
chakra_man
Energy bodies
abraham
Abraham
jesus-thumps-up1
Jesus Christ
727LRG
Incan God

Chakra01.gif  
Muladhara or root chakra is related to instinct, security, survival and also to basic human potentiality. This centre is located in the region between the genitals and the anus. Although no endocrine organ is placed here, it is said to relate to the gonads and the adrenal medulla, responsible for the fight-or-flight response when survival is under threat. There is a muscle located in this region that controls ejaculation in the sexual act of the human male. A parallel is charted between the sperm cell and the ovum where the genetic code lies coiled and the kundalini. Muladhara is symbolized by a lotus with four petals and the colour red. Key issues involve sexuality, lust and obsession. Physically, Muladhara governs sexuality, mentally it governs stability, emotionally it governs sensuality, and spiritually it governs a sense of security.

Woodroffe also describes 7 head chakras (including Ajna and Sahasrara) in his other Indian text sources. Lowest to highest they are: Talu/Talana/Lalana, Ajna, Manas, Soma, Brahmarandra, Sri (inside Sahasrara), Sahasrara.
Chakra02.gif
 
Swadhisthana, Svadisthana or adhishthana is located in the sacrum (hence the name) and is considered to correspond to the testes or the ovaries that produce the various sex hormones involved in the reproductive cycle. Svadisthana is also considered to be related to, more generally, the genitourinary system and the adrenals. The Sacral Chakra is symbolized by a lotus with six petals, and corresponds to the colour orange. The key issues involving Svadisthana are relationships, violence, addictions, basic emotional needs, and pleasure. Physically, Svadisthana governs reproduction, mentally it governs creativity, emotionally it governs joy, and spiritually it governs enthusiasm.
 
Chakra03.gif  

Manipura or manipuraka is related to the metabolic and digestive systems. Manipura is believed to correspond to Islets of Langerhans, which are groups of cells in the pancreas, as well as the outer adrenal glands and the adrenal cortex. These play a valuable role in digestion, the conversion of food matter into energy for the body. Symbolised by a lotus with ten petals. The colour that corresponds to Manipura is yellow. Key issues governed by Manipura are issues of personal power, fear, anxiety, opinion-formation, introversion, and transition from simple or base emotions to complex. Physically, Manipura governs digestion, mentally it governs personal power, emotionally it governs expansiveness, and spiritually, all matters of growth.

Chakra04.gif  

Anahata, or Anahata-puri, or padma-sundara is related to the thymus, located in the chest. The thymus is an element of the immune system as well as being part of the endocrine system. It is the site of maturation of the T cells responsible for fending off disease and may be adversely affected by stress. Anahata is symbolised by a lotus flower with twelve petals. (See also heartmind). Anahata is related to the colours green or pink. Key issues involving Anahata involve complex emotions, compassion, tenderness, unconditional love, equilibrium, rejection and well-being. Physically Anahata governs circulation, emotionally it governs unconditional love for the self and others, mentally it governs passion, and spiritually it governs devotion.

Chakra05.gif  

Vishuddha (also Vishuddhi) may be understood as relating to communication and growth through expression. This chakra is paralleled to the thyroid, a gland that is also in the throat and which produces thyroid hormone, responsible for growth and maturation. Symbolised by a lotus with sixteen petals. Vishudda is characterized by the colour light or pale blue, or turquoise. It governs such issues as self-expression and communication, as discussed above. Physically, Vishuddha governs communication, emotionally it governs independence, mentally it governs fluent thought, and spiritually, it governs a sense of security.

Chakra06.gif  

Ajna (along with Bindu, is also known as the third eye chakra) is linked to the pineal gland which may inform a model of its envisioning. The pineal gland is a light sensitive gland that produces the hormone melatonin which regulates sleep and waking up. Ajna is symbolised by a lotus with two petals, and corresponds to the colour white, indigo or deep blue. Ajna's key issues involve balancing the higher & lower selves and trusting inner guidance. Ajna's inner aspect relates to the access of intuition. Mentally, Ajna deals with visual consciousness. Emotionally, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level.
(Note: some opine that the pineal and pituitary glands should be exchanged in their relationship to the Crown and Brow chakras, based on the description in Arthur Avalon's book on kundalini called Serpent Power or empirical research.)

 

Chakra07.gif  

Sahasrara is generally considered to be the chakra of pure consciousness. Its role may be envisioned somewhat similarly to that of the pituitary gland, which secretes emanuel hormones to communicate to the rest of the endocrine system and also connects to the central nervous system via the hypothalamus. The thalamus is thought to have a key role in the physical basis of consciousness. Symbolized by a lotus with one thousand petals, it is located at the crown of the head. Sahasrara is represented by the colour violet and it involves such issues as inner wisdom and the death of the body. Sahasrara's inner aspect deals with the release of karma, physical action with meditation, mental action with universal consciousness and unity, and emotional action with "beingness".

5 Astrology

Taurus astrology sign on the ceiling of the main concourse of Grand Central Terminal in New York City.

Introduction
Astrology is a group of systems, traditions, and beliefs which hold that the relative positions of celestial bodies and related details can provide information about personality, human affairs, and other terrestrial matters. A practitioner of astrology is called an astrologer.

Astrologers believe that the movements and positions of celestial bodies either directly influence life on Earth or correspond to events experienced on a human scale. Modern astrologers define astrology as a symbolic language, an art form, or a form of divination. Despite differences in definitions, a common assumption of astrologers is that celestial placements can aid in the interpretation of past and present events, and in the prediction of the future. Scientists consider astrology a pseudoscience or superstition.

Numerous traditions and applications employing astrological concepts have arisen since its earliest recorded beginnings in the 3rd millennium BC. Astrology has played an important role in the shaping of culture, early astronomy, the Vedas, and various disciplines throughout history. In fact, astrology and astronomy were often indistinguishable before the modern era, with the desire for predictive and divinatory knowledge one of the motivating factors for astronomical observation. Astronomy began to diverge from astrology after a period of gradual separation from the Renaissance up until the 18th century. Eventually, astronomy distinguished itself as the empirical study of astronomical objects and phenomena, without regard to the terrestrial implications of astrology.

The word "astrology" comes from the Latin term astrologia ("astronomy"), which in turn derives from the Greek noun αστρολογία: ἄστρον, astron ("constellation" or "star") and -λογία, -logia ("the study of").

Core beliefs

The core beliefs of astrology were prevalent in parts of the ancient world and are epitomized in the Hermetic maxim, "as above, so below". Tycho Brahe used a similar phrase to summarize his studies in astrology: suspiciendo despicio, "by looking up I see downward". Although the principle that events in the heavens are mirrored by those on Earth was once generally held in most traditions of astrology around the world, in the West there has historically been a debate among astrologers over the nature of the mechanism behind astrology. The debate also covers whether or not celestial bodies are only signs or portents of events, or if they are actual causes of events through some sort of force or mechanism.

Although the connection between celestial mechanics and terrestrial dynamics was explored first by Isaac Newton with his development of a universal theory of gravitation, claims that the gravitational effects of the celestial bodies are what accounts for astrological generalizations are not substantiated by scientific research, nor are they advocated by most astrologers.

Most astrological traditions are based on the relative positions and movements of various real or construed celestial bodies and on the construction of implied or calculated celestial patterns as seen at the time and place of the event being studied. These are chiefly the astrological planets, dwarf planets, the asteroids, the stars, the lunar nodes, Arabic parts and hypothetical planets. The frame of reference for such apparent positions is defined by the tropical or sidereal zodiac of twelve signs on one hand, and by the local horizon (ascendant-descendant axis) and midheaven-imum coeli axis on the other. This latter (local) frame is typically further divided into the twelve astrological houses. Furthermore, the astrological aspects are used to determine the geometric/angular relationship(s) between the various celestial bodies and angles in the horoscope.

Predictive astrology, in the Western tradition, employs two main methods: astrological transits and astrological progressions. In astrological transits the ongoing movements of the planets are interpreted for their significance as they transit through space and the horoscope. In astrological progressions the horoscope is progressed forward in time according to set methods. In Vedic astrology, the focus is on planetary periods to infer the trend, while transits are used to time significant events. Most Western astrologers no longer try to forecast actual events, but focus instead on general trends and developments. By comparison, Vedic astrologers predict both trends and events. Skeptics respond that this practice of western astrologers allows them to avoid making verifiable predictions, and gives them the ability to attach significance to arbitrary and unrelated events, in a way that suits their purpose.

In the past, astrologers often relied on close observation of celestial objects and the charting of their movements. Modern astrologers use data provided by astronomers which are transformed to a set of astrological tables called ephemerides, showing the changing zodiacal positions of the heavenly bodies through time.

Traditions
There are many traditions of astrology, some of which share similar features due to the transmission of astrological doctrines between cultures. Other traditions developed in isolation and hold different doctrines, though they too share some features due to drawing on similar astronomical sources.
Current traditions

The main traditions used by modern astrologers are Hindu Astrology (Jyotiṣa), Western astrology, and Chinese astrology.

Vedic and Western astrology share a common ancestry as horoscopic systems of astrology, in that both traditions focus on the casting of an astrological chart or horoscope, a representation of celestial entities, for an event based on the position of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the moment of the event. However, Vedic astrology uses the sidereal or fixed or constellational zodiac, linking the signs of the zodiac to their original constellations, while Western astrology uses the tropical or seasonal zodiac. Because of the precession of the equinoxes whose cycle is ~25,686 years long, during which the extensions of the polar axes describe circles, over the centuries the twelve zodiacal signs in Western astrology no longer correspond to the same part of the sky as their original constellations. In effect, in Western astrology the link between sign and constellation has been broken in approximately 222 AD, whereas in Vedic astrology the constellations remain of paramount importance. Other differences between the two traditions include the use of 27 (or 28) nakshatras or lunar mansions, each 13 and 1/3 degrees wide, which have been used in India since Vedic times, and the systems of planetary periods known as dashas.

In Chinese astrology, a quite different tradition has evolved. By contrast to Western and Indian astrology, the twelve signs of the zodiac do not divide the sky, but rather the celestial equator. The Chinese evolved a system in which each sign corresponds to one of twelve 'double-hours' that govern the day, and to one of the twelve months. Each sign of the zodiac governs a different year, and combines with a system based on the five elements of Chinese cosmology to give a 60 (12 x 5) year cycle. The term Chinese astrology is used here for convenience, but it must be recognised that versions of the same tradition exist in Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Thailand and other Asian countries. It appears that this is a remnant of a more ancient system of Jupiterian astrology, an astrological system primarily based on the motion of Jupiter, which circuits the Sun every 11.89 years.

Western astrology has been the result of the knowledge of the earlier Indian/Vedic and Egyptian schools (each developed in their own right, and neither shows traces of the later Babylonian influences) being diluted and simplified in passing through first Persia/Babylon, and then through Greece, and later Europe. In modern times, these traditions have come into closer contact with each other, notably with Indian and Chinese astrology having spread in more direct form to the West, while awareness of the modern notions of Western astrology is still fairly limited in Asia, and is not considered useful. Astrology in the Western world has diversified among some in modern times. New movements have appeared that have jettisoned much of more recent traditional astrology to concentrate on different approaches, such as a greater emphasis on midpoints, or a more psychological approach. Some recent Western developments include modern tropical and sidereal horoscopic astrology, including constellational and star or point-based astrology (including aspects to the fundamental planetary dynamics, such as perihelions and aphelions, and nodal points resulting from the inclinations of the planets' revolutionary planes to the Earth's ecliptic plane); heliocentric astrology, cosmobiology; psychological astrology; sun sign astrology; the Hamburg School of Astrology; and Uranian astrology, a subset of the Hamburg School.

Historical traditions
Throughout its long history, astrology has come to prominence in many regions and undergone developments and change. There are many astrological traditions that are historically important, but which have largely fallen out of use. Astrologers still retain an interest in them and regard them as an important resource. Historically significant traditions of astrology include Arab and Persian astrology (Medieval, Near East); Babylonian astrology (Ancient, Near East); Egyptian astrology; Hellenistic astrology (Classical antiquity); and Mayan astrology.
Esoteric traditions

Many mystic or esoteric traditions have links to astrology. In some cases, such as Kabbalah, this involves participants incorporating elements of astrology into their own traditions. In other cases, many astrologers have incorporated other traditions into their own practice of astrology, and astrology has been incorporated into those traditions. Esoteric traditions include, but are not limited to, alchemy, chiromancy, Kabbalistic astrology, medical astrology, numerology, Rosicrucian or "Rose Cross", and Tarot divination.

Historically, alchemy in the Western World was particularly allied and intertwined with traditional Babylonian-Greek style astrology; in numerous ways they were built to complement each other in the search for occult or hidden knowledge. Astrology has used the concept of the four classical elements of alchemy from antiquity up until the present day. Traditionally, each of the seven planets in the solar system known to the ancients was associated with, held dominion over, and "ruled" a certain metal.

Horoscopic astrology
Horoscopic astrology is a system that some claim to have developed in the Mediterranean region and specifically Hellenistic Egypt around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE. However, horoscopic astrology has been practiced in India since ancient times, and vedic astrology is the oldest surviving form of horoscopic astrology in the world. The tradition deals with two-dimensional diagrams of the heavens, or horoscopes, created for specific moments in time. The diagram is then used to interpret the inherent meaning underlying the alignment of celestial bodies at that moment based on a specific set of rules and guidelines. A horoscope was calculated normally for the moment of an individual's birth, or at the beginning of an enterprise or event, because the alignments of the heavens at that moment were thought to determine the nature of the subject in question. One of the defining characteristics of this form of astrology that makes it distinct from other traditions is the computation of the degree of the Eastern horizon rising against the backdrop of the ecliptic at the specific moment under examination, otherwise known as the ascendant. Horoscopic astrology is the most influential and widespread form of astrology in Africa, India, Europe and the Middle East. Medieval and most modern Western traditions of astrology have Hellenistic origins.
The horoscope
18th century Icelandic manuscript showing astrological houses and glyphs for planets and signs.

Central to horoscopic astrology and its branches is the calculation of the horoscope or astrological chart. This two-dimensional diagrammatic representation shows the celestial bodies' apparent positions in the heavens from the vantage of a location on Earth at a given time and place. The horoscope is also divided into twelve different celestial houses which govern different areas of life. Calculations performed in casting a horoscope involve arithmetic and simple geometry which serve to locate the apparent position of heavenly bodies on desired dates and times based on astronomical tables. In ancient Hellenistic astrology the ascendant demarcated the first celestial house of a horoscope. The word for the ascendant in Greek was horoskopos from which horoscope derives. In modern times, the word has come to refer to the astrological chart as a whole.

Branches of horoscopic astrology

Traditions of horoscopic astrology can be divided into four branches that are each directed towards specific subjects or purposes. Often these branches use a unique set of techniques, or a different application of the core principles of the system to a different area. Many other subsets and applications of astrology are derived from these four fundamental branches.

Natal astrology is the study of a person's natal chart to gain information about the individual and their life experience. Katarchic astrology includes both electional and event astrology. The former uses astrology to determine the most auspicious moment to begin an enterprise or undertaking, and the latter to understand everything about an event from the time at which it took place. Horary astrology is used to answer a specific question by studying the chart of the moment the question is posed to an astrologer. Mundane or world astrology is the application of astrology to world events, including weather, earthquakes, and the rise and fall of empires or religions. This includes the Astrological Ages, such as the Age of Aquarius, Age of Pisces, and so on. Each age is about 2,150 years in length, and many people use these massive ages to characterise and describe major historical ages, as well as current developments in the world.

History
15th century image from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry showing projected correlations between areas of the body and the zodiacal signs.

Many believe that the origins of much of the astrological doctrine and method that would later develop in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East are found among the ancient Babylonians and their system of celestial omens that began to be compiled around the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE. They believe this system of celestial omens later spread, either directly or indirectly through the Babylonians and Assyrians, to other areas such as India, Middle East, and Greece, where it merged with pre-existing indigenous forms of astrology. Thus, Babylonian astrology migrated to Greece, initially as early as the middle of the 4th century BCE, and then around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE, after the Alexandrian conquests, this Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of decanic astrology to create horoscopic astrology. This new form of astrology, which appears to have originated in Alexandrian Egypt, spread across the ancient world into Europe, the Middle East, and India.

Before the modern era

The differentiation between astronomy and astrology varied from place to place; they were strongly linked in ancient India, ancient Babylonia and medieval Europe, but separated to an extent in the Hellenistic world. The first semantic distinction between astrology and astronomy was given in the 11th century by the Persian astronomer, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (see astrology and astronomy).

The pattern of astronomical knowledge gained from astrological endeavours has been historically repeated across numerous cultures, from ancient India through the classical Maya civilization to medieval Europe. Given this historical contribution, astrology has been called a protoscience along with disciplines such as alchemy.

Astrology was not without criticism before the modern era; it was often challenged by Hellenistic skeptics, church authorities, and medieval Muslim astronomers, such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Avicenna and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were often due to both scientific (the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical) and religious (conflicts with orthodox Islamic scholars) reasons.[23] Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350), in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute astrology and divination.

Many prominent thinkers, philosophers and scientists, such as Galen, Paracelsus, Girolamo Cardan, Nicolaus Copernicus, Taqi al-Din, Tycho Brahe, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Carl Jung and others, practiced or significantly contributed to astrology.

Modern approaches
Western
During the middle of the 20th century, Alfred Witte and, following him, Reinhold Ebertin pioneered the use of midpoints (see midpoint (astrology)) in horoscopic analysis. From the 1930s to the 1980s, astrologers including Dane Rudhyar, Liz Greene and Stephen Arroyo pioneered the use of astrology for psychological analysis, with some following the lead of psychologists like Carl Jung. In the 1930s, Don Neroman developed and popularised in Europe a form of Locational Astrology under the name of "Astrogeography." In the 1970s, American astrologer Jim Lewis developed and popularized a different approach under the name of Astrocartography. Both methods purport to identify varying life conditions through differences in location.
Vedic (Hindu)
Indian astrology uses a different zodiac than Western astrology and is a branch of Vedic science.[27][28] In India, there is a long-established widespread belief in astrology, and it is commonly used for daily life, foremost with regard to marriages, and secondarily with regard to career and electional and karmic astrology. In the 1960s, H.R. Seshadri Iyer, introduced a system including the concepts of yogi and avayogi. It generated interest with research oriented astrologers in the West. From the early 1990s, Indian vedic astrologer and author, V.K. Choudhry has created and developed the Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes, a simplified system of Jyotish (predictive astrology) The system, also known as "SA", helps those who are trying to learn Jyotisha. The late K. S. Krishnamurti developed the Krishnamurti Paddhati system based on the analysis of the stars (nakshatras), by sub-dividing the stars in the ratio of the dasha of the concerned planets. The system is also known as "KP" and "sub theory". In 2001, Indian scientists and politicians debated and critiqued a proposal to use state money to fund research into Vedic astrology.
Effects on world culture

Astrology has had a profound influence over the past few thousand years on Western and Eastern cultures. In the Middle Ages, when te educated of the time believed in astrology, the system of heavenly spheres and bodies was believed to reflect on the system of knowledge and the world itself below. Belief in astrology holds firm today in many parts of the world: in one poll, 31% of Americans expressed a belief in astrology and, according to another study, 39% considered it scientific.

Astrology has had an influence on both language and literature. For example, influenza, from medieval Latin influentia meaning influence, was so named because doctors once believed epidemics to be caused by unfavorable planetary and stellar influences. The word "disaster" comes from the Italian disastro, derived from the negative prefix dis- and from Latin aster "star", thus meaning "ill-starred" Adjectives "lunatic" (Luna/Moon), "mercurial" (Mercury), "venereal" (Venus), "martial" (Mars), "jovial" (Jupiter/Jove), and "saturnine" (Saturn) are all old words used to describe personal qualities said to resemble or be highly influenced by the astrological characteristics of the planet, some of which are derived from the attributes of the ancient Roman gods they are named after. In literature, many writers, notably Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare,[ used astrological symbolism to add subtlety and nuance to the description of their characters' motivation(s). More recently, Michael Ward has proposed that C.S. Lewis imbued his Chronicles of Narnia with the characteristics and symbols of the seven heavens. Often, an understanding of astrological symbolism is needed to fully appreciate such literature.

Some modern thinkers, notably Carl Jung, believe in astrology's descriptive powers regarding the mind without necessarily subscribing to its predictive claims. In education astrology is reflected in the university education of medieval Europe, which was divided into seven distinct areas, each represented by a particular planet and known as the seven liberal arts. Dante Alighieri speculated that these arts, which grew into the sciences we know today, fitted the same structure as the planets. In music the best known example of astrology's influence is in the orchestral suite called "The Planets" by the British composer Gustav Holst, the framework of which is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets.

Astrology and science

By the time of Francis Bacon and the scientific revolution, newly emerging scientific disciplines acquired a method of systematic empirical induction based upon experimental observations. At this point, astrology and astronomy began to diverge; astronomy became one of the central sciences while astrology was increasingly viewed as an occult science or superstition by natural scientists. For example, Christiaan Huygens wrote in his Cosmotheoros: "And as for the Judicial Astrology, that pretends to foretel what is to come, it is such a ridiculous, and oftentimes mischievous Folly, that I do not think it fit to be so much as named." This separation accelerated through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Contemporary scientists such as Richard Dawkins and Stephen Hawking regard astrology as unscientific, and those such as Andrew Fraknoi of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific have labeled it a pseudoscience. In 1975, the American Humanist Association characterized those who have faith in astrology as doing so "in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary". Astronomer Carl Sagan was unwilling to sign the statement, not because he felt astrology was valid, but because he found the statement's tone authoritarian. Sagan stated that he would instead have been willing to sign a statement describing and refuting the principal tenets of astrological belief, which he believed would have been more persuasive and would have produced less controversy than the circulated statement.

Although astrology has not been considered a science for some time, it has been the subject of considerable research by astrologers since the beginning of the twentieth century. In their study of twentieth-century research into natal astrology, former astrologer turned astrology critic Geoffrey Dean, and coauthors, documented this burgeoning research activity performed primarily within the astrological community.

Research
The Mars effect: relative frequency of the diurnal position of Mars in the birth chart of eminent athletes.

Studies have repeatedly failed to demonstrate statistically significant relationships between astrological predictions and operationally-defined outcomes. Effect size tests of astrology-based hypotheses conclude that the mean accuracy of astrological predictions is no greater than what is expected by chance. For example, when testing for cognitive, behavioral, physical and other variables, one study of 2000 astrological "time twins" born within minutes of each other did not show a celestial influence on human characteristics. It has been suggested that other statistical research is often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology due to uncontrolled artifacts.

Experimental psychologists have suggested that several different effects can contribute to perception of astrological accuracy. One observed tendency is known as the confirmation bias, whereby people who are given a set of multiple predictions tend to remember more of the accurate predictions ("hits") than the inaccurate ones ("misses"). Consequently, people tend to recall the set of predictions as being more accurate than it actually was. A second psychological phenomenon is known as the Forer effect, which refers to a tendency for individuals to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that are presented to them as tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. When astrological predictions turn out to correspond with some phenomena but not with others, the recollected integrity of these predictions may stem in part from confirmation bias. When predictions use vague language, their individualized appearance may be partially attributable to the Forer effect.

The French psychologist and statistician who devoted his life to the attempt to demonstrate the validity of certain fundamentals of astrology, Michel Gauquelin, wrote that he had found correlations between some planetary positions and certain human traits such as vocations. Gauquelin's most widely known concept is the Mars effect, which denotes a correlation between the planet Mars occupying certain positions in the sky more often at the birth of eminent sports champions than at the birth of ordinary people. A similar idea is explored by Richard Tarnas in his work Cosmos and Psyche, in which he examines correspondences between planetary alignments and historically significant events and individuals. Since its original publication in 1955, the Mars effect has been the subject of critical studies and skeptical publications which aim to refute it, and of studies in fringe journals used to support or expand the original ideas. Gauquelin's research has not received mainstream scientific notice.

Obstacles to research

Astrologers have argued that there are significant obstacles in carrying out scientific research into astrology today, including lack of funding, lack of background in science and statistics by astrologers, and insufficient expertise in astrology by research scientists and skeptics. Some astrologers have argued that few practitioners today pursue scientific testing of astrology because they feel that working with clients on a daily basis provides personal validation for their clients.

Another argument made by astrologers is that most studies of astrology do not reflect the nature of astrological practice and that the scientific method does not apply to astrology. Some astrology proponents argue that the prevailing attitudes and motives of many opponents of astrology introduce conscious or unconscious bias in the formulation of hypotheses to be tested, the conduct of the tests, and the reporting of results.

Early science, particularly geometry and astronomy/astrology, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation, as many believed that there was something intrinsically divine or perfect that could be found in circles.
Mechanism
Astrologers have not presented consistent explanations of physical mechanisms underlying astrological beliefs, and few modern astrologers believe in a direct causal relationship between heavenly bodies and earthly events. An editorial published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific reports no evidence for a scientifically defined mechanism by which celestial objects can influence terrestrial affairs. Researchers have posited acausal, purely correlative, relationships between astrological observations and events, such as the theory of synchronicity proposed by Carl Jung. Others have posited a basis in divination. Others have argued that empirical correlations stand on their own epistemologically, and do not need the support of any theory or mechanism. To some observers, these non-mechanistic concepts raise serious questions about the feasibility of validating astrology through scientific testing, and some have gone so far as to reject the applicability of the scientific method to astrology entirely. Some astrologers, on the other hand, believe that astrology is amenable to the scientific method, given sufficiently sophisticated analytical methods, and they cite pilot studies to support this view. Consequently, several astrologers have called for or advocated continuing studies of astrology based on statistical validation.
Astrologyproject.svg

The houses of heaven


Ptolemaic system

God the Geometer
 
Aries (meaning "ram") is the first astrological sign in the Zodiac, named for the constellation of Aries, called "The Ram" in the Greek tradition, after the golden ram that rescued Phrixos, taking him to the land of Colchis.

In tropical astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in Aries roughly from March 21 to April 19, by definition beginning at vernal equinox. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from April 15 to May 15.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered "Aries individuals" or "Arians". In Western astrology, Aries is considered a "masculine", positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered a fire sign, and is one of four cardinal signs. Aries is ruled by the planet Mars. Being the first sign in the zodiac, Aries is associated with the astrological first house. The Sanskrit name of Aries in Hindu astrology is Meṣa.

Mythology
Aries, "The Ram", is the first astrological sign of the zodiac and its origins are from the Aries constellation.
Compatibilities

Generally, Aries is considered compatible with same element signs, Sagittarius, Leo and Aries itself. These signs share a fiery demeanor and are believed to relate with each other on that merit.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc, within a sign. The signs listed as compatible with Aries do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Ram
Duration (Tropical, Western) 20 March – 20 April (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu)[1] 14 April – 7 May (2010, UTC)
Constellation Aries
Zodiac Element Fire
Zodiac Quality Cardinal
Domicile Mars
Detriment Venus
Exaltation Sun
Fall Saturn
arieshoroscop
Taurus is the second astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Taurus. In western astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Taurus is considered a "feminine", negative (introvert) sign. It is also considered an earth sign and one of the four fixed signs. Taurus is ruled by the planet Venus (which also rules Libra). Being the second sign of the zodiac, Taurus has been associated with the astrological second house.

Individuals born within the period when the Sun was in this sign are considered Taurus individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in Taurus roughly from April 19 to May 20. The Sanskrit name of Taurus in Hindu astrology is Vṛṣabha

Compatibilities

Generally, Taurus is considered compatible with Virgo, Capricorn, Libra and Taurus itself [mainly virgos]. These signs share an earthy demeanor and are believed to relate on that merit.

There are many variables in the astrology chart that determine compatibility of individuals. The position of the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the aspects they form with each other are assessed by astrologers before judgment on compatibility is made. The signs listed as compatible with Taurus do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Bull
Duration (Tropical, Western) 20 April – 21 May (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu)[1] 14 May – 7 June (2010, UTC)
Constellation Taurus
Zodiac Element Earth
Zodiac Quality Fixed
Domicile Venus
Detriment Mars/Pluto
Exaltation Moon
Fall Uranus
AquaTaurus

Gemini
An animation of the constellation Gemini (center), "the twins", shows two parallel stick figures. Gemini is associated with the myth of Castor and Polydeuces (also known as Pollux), collectively known as the Dioscuri.

Gemini is the third astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Gemini. In western astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Gemini is considered a "masculine", positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered an air sign, and is one of four mutable signs. Gemini has been closely associated with the planet Mercury and is considered to be ruled by it. Being the third sign of the zodiac, Gemini has been associated with the astrological third house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Gemini individuals. Under the tropical (western) zodiac, the Sun is in the sign of Gemini roughly from May 21 to June 22, ending at the moment of summer solstice by definition. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from June 15 to July 15. The Sanskrit name of Gemini in Hindu astrology is Mithuna.

Compatibilities

Generally, Gemini is considered compatible with Libra, Aquarius, Leo, Aries, and Gemini itself. Gemini's opposite sign is Sagittarius. These signs share an "airy" demeanor and are believed to relate on that merit.

There are many variables in the astrology chart that determine compatibility of individuals. The position of the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the aspects they form with each other are assessed by astrologers before judgment on compatibility is made. The signs listed as compatible with Gemini do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Twins
Duration (Tropical, Western) 21 May – 21 June (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 14 June – 7 July (2010, UTC)
Constellation Gemini
Zodiac Element Air
Zodiac Quality Mutable
Domicile Mercury
Detriment Jupiter
Exaltation North Node
Fall South Node
gemini
Gemini

Cancer
Cancer is the fourth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Cancer. In western astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Cancer is considered a "feminine", negative (introvert) sign. It is also considered a water sign and is one of four cardinal signs. Cancer is ruled by the Moon. Being the fourth sign in the zodiac, Cancer has been associated with the astrological fourth house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Cancer individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun enters Cancer on the moment of summer solstice by definition, or roughly on June 22, leaving it around July 23. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently roughly from July 16 to August 15. The Sanskrit name of Cancer in Hindu astrology is Karka.

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Cancer is considered compatible with Scorpio, Pisces and Cancer itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, personalities, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Cancer do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch in astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Crab
Duration (Tropical, Western) 21 June – 22 July (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu)[1] 14 July – 6 August (2010, UTC)
Constellation Cancer
Zodiac Element Water
Zodiac Quality Cardinal
Domicile Moon
Detriment Saturn
Exaltation Jupiter
Fall Mars
Pisces is the twelfth astrological sign in the Zodiac, which originates from the Pisces constellation. In western astrology this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation because of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Pisces is considered a "feminine", negative (introvert) sign. It is also considered a water sign and one of the four mutable signs. Pisces has been traditionally ruled by the planet Jupiter, but since its discovery, Neptune has been considered a modern ruler of this sign. Being the twelfth sign, Pisces is associated with the astrological twelfth house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Pisces individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in Pisces roughly from February 20 to March 20, ending on the moment of vernal equinox by definition. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from March 15 to April 13. The Sanskrit name of Pisces in Hindu astrology is Mīna

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Pisces is considered to be compatible with Scorpio, Cancer, and Pisces itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Pisces do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Fish
Duration (Tropical, Western) 18 February – 20 March (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 15 March – 8 April (2010, UTC)
Constellation Pisces
Zodiac Element Water
Zodiac Quality Mutable
Domicile Neptune , Jupiter
Detriment Mercury
Exaltation Venus
Fall Mercury
Leo is the 5th astrological sign of the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo. In astrology, Leo is considered to be a "masculine", positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered a fire sign and is one of four fixed signs. Leo is ruled by the Sun. Being the fifth sign of the zodiac, Leo has been associated with the astrological fifth house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Leo individuals. The Sun is in Leo roughly from July 23 to August 22. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from August 10 to September 15. The Sanskrit name of Leo in Hindu astrology is Siṃha.

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Leo is considered compatible with Aries, Sagittarius, Aquarius, Gemini and Leo itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars. The signs listed as compatible with Leo do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Lion
Duration (Tropical, Western) 22 July – 23 August (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 14 August – 7 September (2010, UTC)
Constellation Leo
Zodiac Element Fire
Zodiac Quality Fixed
Domicile Sun
Detriment Uranus and Saturn
Exaltation None traditionally
Fall None traditionally
 

Virgo is the sixth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Virgo. In western astrology, the sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Virgo is considered a "feminine", negative (introvert) sign. It is also considered an earth sign and is one of four mutable signs. Virgo is traditionally ruled by the planet Mercury, but Ceres and several other planets have been suggested as the ruler of Virgo by some modern astrologers. Being the sixth sign of the zodiac, Virgo has been associated with the astrological sixth house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Virgo individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in Virgo roughly from August 23 to September 22, leaving it at the moment of autumnal equinox, by definition. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from September 17 to October 17. The Sanskrit name of Virgo in Hindu astrology is Kanyā (Girl).

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Virgo is considered compatible with Taurus, Capricorn, Pisces, and Virgo itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Virgo do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with non-interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Virgin Lady
Duration (Tropical, Western) 23 August – 23 September (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 13 September – 6 October (2010, UTC)
Constellation Virgo
Zodiac Element Earth
Zodiac Quality Mutable
Domicile Mercury
Detriment {{{Detriment}}}
Exaltation Mercury
Fall Venus

Libra
Libra is the seventh astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Libra. In western astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Libra is considered a "masculine", positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered an air sign and is one of four cardinal signs. Libra is ruled by the planet Venus (which also rules Taurus). Being the seventh sign of the zodiac, Libra has been associated with the astrological seventh house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Libra individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun enters Libra on the moment of autumnal equinox by definition on September 23, leaving it on October 22. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly around October 18 and November 16. The Sanskrit name of Libra in Hindu astrology is Tula.

Libra, also known as "The Scales" or "Balance", is the only symbol of the zodiac that is represented by an inanimate object, rather than an animal or human.

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Libra is considered compatible with Aquarius, Gemini, and Libra itself. These signs share an airy demeanor and are believed to relate on that merit.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Libra do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol The Scales
Duration (Tropical, Western) 23 September – 23 October (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 13 October – 7 November (2010, UTC)
Constellation Libra
Zodiac Element Air
Zodiac Quality Cardinal
Domicile Venus
Detriment Mars
Exaltation Saturn
Fall Sun

Scorpio
zodiac-sign-cancer-2236
Scorpio is the eighth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Scorpius. Scorpio is considered a "feminine", negative (introverted) sign by most modern astrologers. It is also considered a water sign and one of the four fixed signs. Traditionally, the planet Mars has been considered to be the ruler of Scorpio. Also, since its discovery, Pluto has been considered a modern ruler of this sign (however pluto is no longer considered a planet.) As the eighth sign in the zodiac, Scorpio is associated with the astrological eighth house.

Individuals born when the Sun is in this sign are considered Scorpio individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun enters Scorpio on October 23 and exits on November 21. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from November 16 through December 15. The Sanskrit name of Scorpio in Hindu astrology is Vṛścika.

Astrologically, Scorpio is sometimes represented by an eagle, though this depiction is rare.

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Scorpio is considered compatible with Cancer, Pisces (which are also water signs) and Scorpio itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Scorpio do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology. They instead reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Scorpion
Duration (Tropical, Western) 23 October – 22 November (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 13 November – 6 December (2010, UTC)
Constellation Scorpius
Zodiac Element Water
Zodiac Quality Fixed
Domicile Pluto , Mars
Detriment Venus
Exaltation Uranus
Fall Moon

Sagitarious
Sagittarius is the ninth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Sagittarius. In western astrology, the sign is now no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. Sagittarius is considered a "masculine," positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered a fire sign and one of the four mutable signs. Sagittarius is ruled by the planet Jupiter. Being the ninth sign of the zodiac, Sagittarius has been associated with having the astrological ninth house.

Individuals born when the sun was in this sign are considered Sagittarius individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun enters Sagittarius on November 22 and exits by definition at the moment of winter solstice on December 21. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from December 16 to January 14. The Sanskrit name of Sagittarius in Hindu astrology is Dhanu.

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Sagittarius is considered compatible with the other fire signs of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Sagittarius do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with non-interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Mythology
In Greek mythology, Sagittarius is identified as a centaur: half human, half horse. The Babylonians identified Sagittarius as the god Pabilsag, who had wings and a lion's head.
Zodiac Symbol The Archer
Duration (Tropical, Western) 22 November – 22 December (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 13 December – 6 January (2010, UTC)
Constellation Sagittarius
Zodiac Element Fire
Zodiac Quality Mutable
Domicile Jupiter
Detriment Mercury
Exaltation South Node
Fall North Node

Capricorn
Capricorn is the tenth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Capricornus. In western astrology, this sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Capricorn is considered a "feminine", negative (introvert) sign. It is also considered an earth sign and one of the four cardinal signs. Capricorn is ruled by the planet Saturn. Being the tenth sign of the zodiac, Capricorn has been associated with the astrological tenth house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Capricorn individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun enters Capricorn by definition at the moment of winter solstice, or roughly at December 22, and leaves it around January 19. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from January 15 to February 15. The Sanskrit name of Capricorn in Hindu astrology is Makara.

Capricorn is sometimes depicted as a sea-goat, and sometimes as a terrestrial goat. The reasons for this are unknown, but the image of a sea-goat goes back at least to Babylonian times.

"The symbol of the goat rising from the body of a fish represents with greatest propriety the mountainous buildings of Babylon rising out of its low and marshy situation; the two horns of the goat being emblematic of the two towns, Nineveh and Babylon, the former built on the Tigris, the latter on the Euphrates; but both subjected to one sovereignity."

Zodiac Symbol Seagoat
Duration (Tropical, Western) 22 December – 20 January (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 13 January – 8 February (2010, UTC)
Constellation Capricornus
Zodiac Element Earth
Zodiac Quality Cardinal
Domicile Saturn
Detriment Moon
Exaltation Mars
Fall Jupiter & Neptune
 
Aquarius is the eleventh astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation Aquarius. In western astrology, the sign is no longer aligned with the constellation as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. In astrology, Aquarius is considered a "masculine", positive (extrovert) sign. It is also considered an air sign and is one of four fixed signs. Aquarius has been traditionally ruled by the planet Saturn, and, since its discovery, Uranus has been considered a modern ruler of this sign. Being the eleventh sign of the zodiac, Aquarius is associated with the astrological eleventh house.

Individuals born when the Sun was in this sign are considered Aquarius individuals. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in Aquarius roughly from January 20 to about February 19. Under the sidereal zodiac, it is currently there roughly from February 13 to March 14. The Sanskrit name of Aquarius in Hindu astrology is Kuṃbha "pitcher

Compatibilities

Based on Elements within the Zodiac, Aquarius is considered compatible with the other members of the airy triplicity: Libra, Gemini, Leo, and Aquarius itself.

There are many variables that determine compatibility in astrology, such as birth dates, birth months, birth years, position of a sign within the Sun, the Moon, Stars, etc. The signs listed as compatible with Aquarius do not reflect an individual profile or individual reading as interpreted within astrology, but rather reflect a general guideline and reference to compatibility as dictated by variables such as Qualities and Elements within the Zodiac. The branch of astrology dealing with interpersonal compatibilities is called Synastry.

Zodiac Symbol Water Bearer
Duration (Tropical, Western) 20 January – 18 February (2010, UTC)
Duration (Sidereal, Hindu) 12 February – 7 March (2010, UTC)
Constellation Aquarius
Zodiac Element Air
Zodiac Quality Fixed
Domicile Uranus , Saturn
Detriment Sun
Exaltation None traditionally
Fall None traditionally
6 Scientific Experiments Proving God
 
Cymatics

Cymatics (from Greek: κῦμα "wave"), also known as modal phenomena, is the study of visible sound and vibration, typically on the surface of a plate, diaphragm, or membrane. Directly visualizing vibrations involves using sound to excite media often in the form of particles, pastes, and liquids.

The apparatus employed can be simple, such as a Chladni Plate or advanced such as the CymaScope, a laboratory instrument that makes visible the inherent geometries within sound and music.

Etymology
The generic term for this field of science is the study of modal phenomena, retitled Cymatics by Hans Jenny, a Swiss medical doctor and a pioneer in this field. The word Cymatics derives from the Greek 'kuma' meaning 'billow' or 'wave,' to describe the periodic effects that sound and vibration has on matter.
History

The study of the patterns produced by vibrating bodies has a venerable history. One of the earliest to notice that an oscillating body displayed regular patterns was Galileo Galilei. In Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), he wrote:

As I was scraping a brass plate with a sharp iron chisel in order to remove some spots from it and was running the chisel rather rapidly over it, I once or twice, during many strokes, heard the plate emit a rather strong and clear whistling sound: on looking at the plate more carefully, I noticed a long row of fine streaks parallel and equidistant from one another. Scraping with the chisel over and over again, I noticed that it was only when the plate emitted this hissing noise that any marks were left upon it; when the scraping was not accompanied by this sibilant note there was not the least trace of such marks.

On July 8, 1680, Robert Hooke was able to see the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates. Hooke ran a bow along the edge of a glass plate covered with flour, and saw the nodal patterns emerge.

In 1787, Ernst Chladni repeated the work of Robert Hooke and published "Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges" ("Discoveries in the Theory of Sound"). In this book, Chladni describes the patterns seen by placing sand on metal plates which are made to vibrate by stroking the edge of the plate with a bow.

Cymatics was explored by Hans Jenny in his 1967 book, Kymatik (translated Cymatics). Inspired by systems theory and the work of Ernst Chladni, Jenny began an investigation of periodic phenomena but especially the visual display of sound. He used standing waves, piezoelectric amplifiers, and other methods and materials.

Influences in art

Hans Jenny's book influenced Alvin Lucier and, along with Chladni, helped lead to Lucier's composition Queen of the South. Jenny's work was also followed up by Center for Advanced Visual Studies (CAVS) founder Gyorgy Kepes at MIT. [7] His work in this area included an acoustically vibrated piece of sheet metal in which small holes had been drilled in a grid. Small flames of gas burned through these holes and thermodynamic patterns were made visible by this setup.

Based on work done in this field, photographer Alexander Lauterwasser captures imagery of water surfaces set into motion by sound sources ranging from pure sine waves, to music by Ludwig van Beethoven, Karlheinz Stockhausen, electroacoustic group Kymatik(who often record in surround sound ambisonics), and overtone singing.

 

Detection of the Emotional Atmosphere
The Double slit experiment and the Uncertainty Principle
Non Locality
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Miracles
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Mutations with light
Levitation with sound
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Prayer
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Robot & Chicks
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Salamander & Frog
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Shapes in Rotating Water
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Water Experiments with Doctor Imoto

Masaru Emoto (江本勝, Emoto Masaru?, born July 22, 1943) is a Japanese author known for his claim that if human speech or thoughts are directed at water droplets before they are frozen, images of the resulting water crystals will be beautiful or ugly depending upon whether the words or thoughts were positive or negative. Emoto claims this can be achieved through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of water.

Since 1999 Emoto has published several volumes of a work titled Messages from Water, which contains photographs of water crystals next to essays and "words of intent."

Biography

Born in Yokohama, Japan, Emoto graduated from Yokohama Municipal University with courses in International Relations. "In 1986, he established the I.H.M. Corporation in Tokyo and is currently the head of the I.H.M. General Research Institute, Inc., the President of I.H.M., Inc., and the chief representative of I.H.M.'s HADO Fellowship".[1] In 1992 he received certification as a Doctor of Alternative Medicine from the Open International University for Alternative Medicine in India, an unaccredited institute with minimal academic requirements. [2] "Subsequently, he was introduced to the concept of micro-cluster water and Magnetic Resonance Analysis technology in the United States, which began his quest to discover the mystery of water".

Emoto is President Emeritus of the International Water For Life Foundation, a 501 non-profit organization based in Oklahoma City, founded in 2005. He has three children and is married to Kazuko Emoto.

Water Crystal Work and Criticism

Emoto's water crystal experiments consist of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures, or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetics of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. A discovery was made by Emoto, and that is that there are “many differences in the crystalline structure of the water” depending on the type of water source, which were taken from all over the world. For example, a water sample from a “pristine mountain” stream would show a “geometric” design that is “beautifully” shaped when frozen. On the other hand, “polluted water” sources will show a “definite distortion” and will be “randomly formed”.

Commentators have criticized Emoto for insufficient experimental controls, and for not sharing enough details of his approach with the scientific community. In addition, Emoto has been criticized for designing his experiments in ways that leave them open to human error influencing his findings.

In the day-to-day work of his group, the creativity of the photographers rather than the rigor of the experiment is an explicit policy of Emoto. Emoto freely acknowledges that he is not a scientist, and that photographers are instructed to select the most pleasing photographs.

In 2003, James Randi publicly offered Emoto one million dollars if his results can be reproduced in a double-blind study.

In 2006, Emoto published a paper together with Dean Radin and others in the peer-reviewed Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing (of which Radin was co-editor-in-chief. They describe that in a double blind test approximately 2000 people in Tokyo could increase the aesthetic appeal of water stored in a room in California, compared to water in another room, solely through their positive intentions.

Water Memory

Water memory is a speculation that water is capable of retaining a "memory" of substances once dissolved in it to arbitrary dilution. Shaking the water at each stage of a serial dilution is claimed to be necessary for an effect to occur. The concept was proposed by Jacques Benveniste to explain the purported therapeutic powers of homeopathic remedies, which are prepared by diluting solutions to such a high degree that not even a single molecule of the original substance remains in each final preparation. Benveniste sought to prove this basic tenet of homeopathy by conducting an experiment to be published "independently of homeopathic interests" in a major journal.

While some studies, including Benveniste's, have reported such an effect, double-blind replications of the experiments involved have failed to reproduce the results, and the concept is not accepted by the scientific community. Liquid water does not maintain ordered networks of molecules longer than a small fraction of a nanosecond.

The Nature controversy

The most prominent advocate of this idea was the French immunologist Jacques Benveniste.[4] His team at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) diluted a solution of human antibodies to such a degree that there was no likelihood that a single molecule remained. Nonetheless, they reported, human basophils responded to the solutions just as though they had encountered the original antibody (part of the allergic reaction). The effect was reported only when the solution was shaken violently during dilution. Benveniste stated: "It's like agitating a car key in the river, going miles downstream, extracting a few drops of water, and then starting one's car with the water." At the time, Benveniste offered no theoretical explanation for the effect.

Benveniste submitted the research to the prominent science journal Nature for publication. There was concern on the part of Nature's editorial oversight board that the material, if published, would lend credibility to homeopathic practitioners even if the effects were not replicable. There was equal concern that the research was simply wrong, given the changes that it would demand of the known laws of physics and chemistry. The editor of Nature, John Maddox, stated that, "Our minds were not so much closed as unready to change our whole view of how science is constructed." Rejecting the paper on any objective grounds was deemed unsupportable, as there were no methodological flaws apparent at the time.

In the end, a compromise was reached. The paper was published in Nature Vol. 333 on 30 June 1988, but it was accompanied with an editorial by Maddox that noted "There are good and particular reasons why prudent people should, for the time being, suspend judgment" and described some of the fundamental laws of chemistry and physics which it would violate, if shown to be true. Additionally, Maddox demanded that the experiments be re-run under the supervision of a hand-picked group of what became known as "ghostbusters", including Maddox, famed magician-cum-paranormal researcher James Randi, and Walter Stewart, a physicist and free-lance debunker at the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

In the first series of supervised experiments, the original experimental procedure was followed as it had been when the paper was first submitted for publication. The experiments were successful, matching the published data quite closely. However, Maddox noted that during the procedure the experimenters were aware of which test tubes originally contained the antibodies and which did not. A second experimental series was started with Maddox and his team in charge of the double-blinding; notebooks were photographed, the lab videotaped, and vials juggled and secretly coded. Randi went so far as to wrap the labels in tinfoil, seal them in an envelope, and then stick them on the ceiling so Benveniste and his colleagues could not read them. No memory effect was observed in the blinded experiments.

Nature published a follow-up report in the next issue: "We conclude that there is no substantial basis for the claim that antiIgE at high dilution (by factors as great as 10120) retains its biological effectiveness, and that the hypothesis that water can be imprinted with the memory of past solutes is as unnecessary as it is fanciful." Nevertheless, there was no suggestion of fraud; Maddox and his team initially speculated that someone in the lab "was playing a trick on Benveniste," but later concluded, "We believe the laboratory has fostered and then cherished a delusion about the interpretation of its data." Maddox also pointed out that two of Benveniste's researchers were being paid for by the French homeopathic company Boiron.

In a response letter published in the same issue of the journal, Benveniste lashed out at Maddox and complained about the "ordeal" he endured at the hands of the Nature team, comparing it to "Salem witchhunts or McCarthy-like prosecutions."[9] In both the Nature response and a following Quirks and Quarks episode, Benveniste especially complained about Stewart, who he stated acted as if they were all frauds and treated them with disdain, complaining about his "typical know-it-all attitude". In his Nature letter, Benveniste also implied that Randi was attempting to hoodwink the experimental run by doing magic tricks, "distracting the technician in charge of its supervision!" He was more apologetic on Quirks and Quarks, re-phrasing his mention of Randi to imply that he had kept the team amused with his tricks and that his presence was generally welcomed. He also pointed out that although it was true two of his team-members were being paid for by a homeopathic company, the same company had paid for Maddox's team's hotel bill.

Maddox was unapologetic, stating "I'm sorry we didn't find something more interesting." On the same Quirks and Quarks show he dismissed Benveniste's complaints, stating that the possibility that the results would be unduly promoted by the homeopathy community demanded an immediate re-test. In failing, the tests demonstrated that the initial results were likely due to the experimenter effect. He also pointed out that the entire test procedure that Benveniste later complained about was one that had been agreed upon in advance by all parties. It was only when the test then failed that Benveniste disputed its appropriateness.

The debate continued in the letters section of Nature for several issues before being ended by the editorial board. It continued in the French press for some time. For all of the arguing over the retests, it has done nothing to stop what Maddox worried about; even in the light of their failure they are still used to claim that the experiments "prove" that homeopathy works. One of Benveniste's co-authors on the Nature paper, Francis Beauvais, later stated that while unblinded experimental trials usually yielded "correct" results (i.e. ultradiluted samples were biologically active, controls were not), "the results of blinded samples were almost always at random and did not fit the expected results: some 'controls' were active and some 'active' samples were without effect on the biological system."

Subsequent Research

After the Nature controversy, Benveniste gained the public support of Brian Josephson, a Nobel laureate physicist with a reputation for openness to paranormal claims. Experiments continued along the same basic lines, culminating with a 1997 paper claiming the effect could be transmitted over phone lines. This was followed by two additional papers in 1999 and another on remote-transmission in 2000 by which time it was claimed that it could also be sent over the internet.

Time magazine reported in 1999 that, in response to skepticism from physicist Robert Park, Josephson had challenged the American Physical Society (APS) to oversee a replication by Benveniste. This challenge was to be "a randomized double-blind test", of his claimed ability to transfer the characteristics of homeopathically diluted water over the Internet. The APS accepted the challenge and offered to cover the costs of the test. When he heard of this, Randi also offered to throw in the long-standing $1 million prize for any positive demonstration of the paranormal, to which Benveniste replied: "Fine to us." ] in his DigiBio NewsLetter. However, Randi later noted that Benveniste and Josephson did not follow up on their challenge, mocking their silence on the topic as if they were missing persons.

An independent test of the 2000 remote-transmission experiment was carried out in the USA by a team funded by the United States Department of Defense. Using the same experimental devices and setup as the Benveniste team, they failed to find any effect when running the experiment. Several "positive" results were noted, however, but only when a particular one of Benveniste's researchers was running the equipment. "We did not observe systematic influences such as pipetting differences, contamination, or violations in blinding or randomization that would explain these effects from the Benveniste investigator. However, our observations do not exclude these possibilities."

Benveniste admitted to having noticed this himself. "He stated that certain individuals consistently get digital effects and other individuals get no effects or block those effects." The experiment is notable for the way it attempted to avoid the confrontational nature of the earlier Maddox test.

Third-party attempts at replication of the Benveniste experiment have failed to produce positive results that could be independently replicated. In 1993, Nature published a paper describing a number of follow-up experiments that failed to find a similar effect, and an independent study published in Experientia in 1992 showed no effect. An international team led by Professor Madeleine Ennis of Queen's University of Belfast claimed in 1999 to have replicated the Benveniste results. Randi then forwarded the $1 million challenge to the BBC Horizon program to prove the "water memory" theory following Ennis' experimental procedure. In response, experiments were conducted with the Vice-President of the Royal Society, Professor John Enderby, overseeing the proceedings. The challenge ended with no memory effect observed by the Horizon team. For a piece on homeopathy, the ABC program 20/20 also attempted, unsuccessfully, to reproduce Ennis's results.

Research published in 2005 on hydrogen bond network dynamics in water showed that "liquid water essentially loses the memory of persistent correlations in its structure" within fifty millionths of a nanosecond.

7 Heroes of New Age
richard_hoagland
Richard Hoagland - The king of proof of Alien presence in our solar system
Richard Hoagland
 
 
   
 
david_wilcock_3_med
David Wilcock - The king of disseminating scientific experiments proving God
 
 
graham hancock
Graham Hancock - The king of ancient civilizations
 
 
artbell
Art Bell - The king of New Age information disseminization
 
 
dru
Drunvalo Melchizedek - The king of Sacred Geometry
Dunvalo Melchizedek
 
 
 
David Icke
 
 
jose-arguelles
Jose Arguelles - The king of the Mayan calendar and the harmonic convergence
Jose Arguelles
 
 
mckenna
Terrence Mckenna - The king of hallucinegenic drugs
Terrence Mckenna
 
 
nassim
Nassim Haramein - The King of the unified field theory.

david-icke
David Icke - The king of conspiracy theory

Steven Greer
greer%20&%20Jerry
Steven Greer - The king of Disclosure
 
braden
Greg Braden - The king of the divine Matrix
Greg Bradden
 
 
KerryCassidy
Kerry Cassidy - The Queen of in depth interviews with first hand witnesses to Alien subjects
Kerry Cassidy & Bill Ryan
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Bill Ryan - The king of in depth interviews with first hand witnesses to Alien subjects
 
8 Enemies of New Age
biblethumper-400x355
Bible Thumpers are idiots who don't give a fuck about anything else but this one book

Fundamentalist Christians (and Muslims, Jews, etc...)

My definition of a Fundamentalist Christian is a person who thinks the only spiritual book worthwhile reading is the Bible, the only way to reach God is through Jesus Christ, and anyone who doesn't agree with them is destined to burn in the fiery pit of Hell for all of eternity. These people believe that you live here on Earth once and then either go to heaven or Hell for eternity and there is no reincarnation. There are two kinds of Fundamentalist Christians. 1) People with weak minds and strong hearts, and 2) People with weak minds and cold hearts. Fundamentalists with weak minds and strong hearts are those who feel in their heart that there is a purpose to life and the universe is alive, but they still have limited beliefs such as thinking that you live here on Earth once and then you ei

and none of these churches will grow to become the totalitarian regime of religions like the Catholic Church was for so many years.

; so it's entirely understandable when giant churches with leaders who tell their followers what to believe and how to vote lose their adherants to the wind. All it is is a breaking up of over centralization. The fractal/holographic nature of the universe is that the whole is contained in the smallest part.

When I say fundamentalists are the enemy to New Age, I don't mean it in the same way as a fundamentalist does. I don't believe fundamentalists are bad people who are going to burn in Hell forever. All I mean is that Fundamentalists don't like New Agers, and New Agers disagree with what Fundamentalists believe.

If you look at my religious statistics page here, you'll see that church membership is declining. The reason it's declining is because these fundamentalist Christian beliefs are not keeping up with the times, so their adherants have to move on. It's that simple. The funny thing to me is that Fundamentalist Christians believe that New Age is a creation of control freaks who are trying to take over the world and force people to believe as they, which couldn't be further from the truth. It's the Fundamentalist's who are the control freaks. They are the ones trying to illegalize abortion, effectively throwing someone in jail for purging their body of an unwanted parasite. They are the ones who want to illegalize plants that God made and throw anyone who grows and consumes them into jail. That's not freedom.

Fundamentalists think the only way to God is through Jeus Christ - Fundamentalists

 

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Steven Hawking - The high priest of the Athiests
said that "Only cranks and weirdos see UFOs".

 
Atheists
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Zahi Hawass the archaeologist must be retarded
 
The FCC
 
 
kerlikowske-drug-czar
Gil Kerlikowske
The FDA