Population
3
4 Regional World Population
5 Biggest Cities of Ancient World
6 Historical Army Sizes
7 Population Densities
8 Travel
England_Celtic_tribes_-_South
1 Rome City Population
509 130,000
1 390 BC 30,000 *Servian wall 1.5 Mile diameter
2 246 BC 100,000
3 150 BC 300,000
4 129 BC 294,000 Male Citizens
5 84 BC 500,000
6 50 BC 1 Million
7 27 BC 990,000
8 5 BC - 800,000-1M
9 100 AD 1 Million+ 813/hectare (72,150/sq. km) within wall Aurelian Wall 1,230 hectares (13.86 sq. km) unlikely
10 320 AD - 600,000 *275 aurelian wall 3 Mile diameter 4-500K within wall
11 400 500-750,000
12 410 - 200,000
13 419 - 300-500,000
14 500 - 75-100,000
15 550s - 30-100,000
16 554 - 30,000
17 590 - 150,000
18 700 20,000
19 800 - 30,000
20 1870 - 220,000
21 1935 1 Million
22 2005 2,700,000
2 Roman Republic/Empire Population
124,214 by consul quintius besides orphans 496 BC in 9.63/sqkm for 12,898/sqkm
1 390 BC 1M * 326-146 Roman Territory increases 120X
2 146 BC 10M
3 90 BC 910K Citizen males
4 30 BC 40M
5 10s 50-60M (33M in West)
6 10s 4M Male Citizens
7 30 45M
8 47 7M citizens
9 150s Peak 65M , 350 for world 21% Roman
10 180 40M
11 300 55M (23 in West 32 in East)
12 330 56M
13 395 40M
14 476 11M
15 470s Western Roman Empire 22M Both 30-35M
3 300s POPULATION OF ROMAN EMPIRE 56M
WESTERN EMPIRE 22M
1 6M SICILY, SARDINIA & CORSICA
2 5M SPAIN
3 4M ITALY
4 3M RHAETIA, NORICUM, PANNONIA
5 3M DALMATIA
6 750K GAUL & RHINELAND

7 250K AFRICA, NUMIDIA, MAURETANIA

300s POPULATION OF ROMAN EMPIRE 56M

EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE 34M
1 15M ASIA MINOR
2 6.5M SYRIA, PALESTINE & MESOPOTAMIA
3 6.5M EGYPT
4 3.5M GREECE & MACEDONIA
5 2.5M MOESIA & THRACE
6 500K CYRENAICA
4 Regional World Population Millions
1 1340 19 France & Lowlands (1500 16, 1200 10, 1000 6, 400 5, 650 3.5)
2 1340 10 Italy (1500 9, 1200 7.8, 400 6, 1000 5, 650 2.5)
3 1340 9 Iberian Peninsula (1500 8.3, 1200 8, 1000 7, 400 4, 650 3.5)
4 400 12 Asia Minor (1000 8, 650 & 1200 7)
5 1340 11.5 Germany & Scandinavia (1500 7.5, 1200 7, 1000 4, 400 3.5, 650 2)
6 200s BCE 11M Greek Civilization
7 400 6 Egypt (1340 4.5, 650 3, 1200 2.5, 1000 1.5)
8 1340 6 Greece & Balkans (400 & 1000 5, 1500 4.5, 650 3)
9 400 5 Syria & Levant (650 & 1200 3, 1000 2)
10 1340 5M British Isles (1500 3, 1200 2.8, 1000 2, 650 500K, 400 1)
11 500s 3M Italy
11 400 2.5 North Africa (1200 1.5, 1000 1)
12 1140 1.6M Crusader States
12 2500 500K Sumer
- 1000 CE 18M Byzantine Empire (1125 10-12M)
- 1000 CE 10M in Anatolia
- 1000 CE 5M in Balkans & Greek homeland
- 1000 CE 1M in Constantinople
- 1000 CE 2M in southern Italy & Syria
5 Biggest Cities of the Ancient World 4000 BCE - 565 CE 1M-8K
1 0 1M ROME
2 565 CE 750-1M Byzantium (400 CE 300K)
3 100 CE 500-750K Alexandria
4 100 CE 350-500K Carthage
5 100 CE 250K Smyrna
6 100 CE 150K Pergamum
7 1600 100K WLC AVARIS
8 2800 80K WLC URUK (31-2500 50K WLC 3400 20K3700 14K WLC)
9 1400 80K WLC THEBES (1800 40K WLC)
10 2000 65K UR (34K in walls)
11 2000 60K MEMPHIS 23-1800 30K
12 1600 60K Babylon
13 2500 50K URUK
14 100 CE 25-50K Northern Provence Middle Sized City
15 4100 - 2900 40­50K UR 400hct 100­125/hct (2047 50hct 34K 680/hct, 2600 - 2566 21hct >6K 286/hct)
16 2000 25­50K URUK 250hct 100­200/hct
17 2500 40K LAGASH (2000 30K 23-1800 10K)
18 2800 40K KISH (2500 25K, 2300 10K)
19 2000 40K ISIN (1800 20K)
20 2000 40K LARSA (1800 20K, 2500 10K)
21 54 BCE 40K AVERACUM (Bourges, France) Walls 1.2 Miles in Diameter
22 2000-1800 40K THEBES
23 25-2000 40K MOHENJO-DARO 51hct (urban area) 784/hct (2000 100+hct 40K 400/hct, 1800 20K)
24 830 Tikal 40K (Maya's Largest)
25 2350 >40K EBLA 56hct 714/hct
26 2300 36K WLC AKKAD
27 1800 35K ERH-LI-T'ON
28 2500 34K UMMA (2800 26K, 23-1800 20K, 2000 10K)
29 2300 30K EBLA
30 2250 30K EBLA
31 1360 30K Mycene
32 2000-1800 25K SUSA 120 stades around (use 1/3 only)
33 1600 <25K Nineveh
34 2000 20-25K HARAPPA 43+hct 465-581/hct
35 100 CE 10-25K Most Cities in Roman World
36 3100 22K TELL BRAK (2800 20K 25-2300 BCE 15K)
37 25-2300 20K TELL LEILAN
38 2800 20K SHURUPPAK (2500 BCE 17K)
39 2500 20K NIPPUR (2800 13K 2300-2000 10K)
40 2300 20K TELL CHURRA
41 2500-2300 20K SHAHR-I SOKHTA
42 25-2300 20K MOHENJO-DARO (2000 10K)
43 2100 19K Lagash (Gursu)
44 2800 16K BAD-TIBIRA
45 2500 16K Umma
46 25-2300 15K MOZAH
47 2300-2000 14K NAMAZGA-TEPE
48 3100 13K SUHERI (28-2000 BCE10K)
49 2500 13K ADAB (2800 11K, 23-1800 10K)
50 25-2332 12K Kafajah (Tutub)
51 2500 11K KESH
52 37-3400 10K LARAK
53 3700 6-10K ERIDU
54 23-1800 10K ZABALAM
55 3100-1800 10K ANSHAN
56 2300 10K HARAPPA
57 4000 - 3100 6.2­10K ERIDU 40hct 155­250/hct (6500 - 3800 8­10hct 4K 500/hct)
58 3400 5­10K HIERAKONPOLIS 35hct 143­350/hct
59 25-2332 9K Eshnunna
60 3100 6­8K HABUBA-KABIRA 40hct 150­200/hct
6 Historical Army Sizes
1 850 Imperial Byzantine Army 150,000
1025 150,000
Rome 150s - * 500,000 soldiers (legionaries totalling 150K and auxilia making up the rest)
7 Population Densities
1 Cities of Islam Roman Empire 250
* 100 CE 50-100K Middle Sized City in Italy, Africa & Roman East urban density of 500/ha
2 Middle East Roman Empire 375
3 Greece Roman Empire 250-288
4 Rome Roman Empire 250-288
5 Avaracum 250
8 Travel
Land
1 Ground Relay Messaging
2 Ground Army Travel Marching 15-18 miles done in 7 of our hours (5 Roman Hours)
3 Ground Army Battle Marching 20M/Day

Strangely I was doing a little research on how far a horse can realistically travel in one day and after much google-fu it seems to depend very much on the type of horse, conditioning (i.e. is it used for long distance travel all the time, rather than been standing in a field for months, or only used for racing, etc..) and condition (i.e. is it well fed and watered), as well as how heavy a load and the terrain involved.

..anyway this is the list of distances (in miles per day) I've come up with from a variety of sources that I shall be using personally:

On Roads / trails
Level or rolling terrain: 40
Hilly terrain: 30
Mountainous terrain: 20

Off-Road (or unkempt trails etc)
Level/rolling grasslands: 30
Hilly grasslands: 25
Level/rolling forest/thick scrub: 20
Very hilly forest/thick scrub: 15

Un-blazed Mountain passes: 10
Marshland: 10

 

Assumptions
An average quality horse, of a breed suitable for riding, conditioned for overland travel and in good condition.
Roads and trails are in good condition and up kept by whatever local authority deals with them.
Weather is good to fair, and travelers are riding for around ten hours a day.

Notes
Halve these distances for a horse pulling a cart or for a very heavily laden horse (e.g. a fully armoured knight who insists on wearing his armour all day rather than having it stowed on a second baggage horse as would be normal!).

Add half again for specially trained horses and riders who are prepared to push hard (rangers, scouts and messangers, etc...) though do bear in mind that horses cannot be pushed like this for more than a few days at a time. You can add a bit more again to this distance if the breed of horse is exceptionally suitable for this sort of thing, but I'd say 2 to 2.5 times the base is the absolute maximum without some sort of magical assistance!

Poor weather such as heavy rain or wind should reduce distances by about one quarter, and very poor conditions like heavy snow or gale force winds, etc.. should reduce distances by at least half if not more.

Finding a place to ford a small river or swimming your horse across a larger river should knock a couple of miles off the day's journey, other unique obstacles might have a similar reduction. (as a guide remember a horse walks at around 4 miles per hour (compared to a human average of around 2.5 - 3mph) so if the obstacle takes half an hour to deal with thats a couple of miles lost.

Out of interest
The Tevis cup is a 100-mile-in-one-day competition which goes over some quite rugged and mountainous trail terrain in the western states of USA... but they do it on very special arab horses, with little or no baggage and even the winning times are usually around 17 hours!

Sea
1 Sailing Good Weather
2 Sailing Bad Weather
3 Rowing
9 Historical Tidbits
1 10 to 30% or 6 million to 19 million people lived in the cities, leaving the vast majority of some 46 to 59 million people to live in the country as independent and mostly tenant farmers.
2 Chinese cities tend to have an especially low density because of the Chinese refusal to sleep below anyone, so their houses are ... nearly all of just 1 story. Inland Chinese cities 75/Hectare, seaports or the imperial capital density hardly exceeded 100/Hectare
3 imperial army perhaps mobilized for military service 3-4% of an adult males reckoned at 4.5M
4 Western Europe remarkable growth from 900 A.D. on as northern Europeans cleared forests and perfected deep ploughing techniques. By the eleventh century the populations of Western exceeded those of the Mediterranean world and Near East for the first time in history.
5 40-60% built-up city mound comprised of residential structures
6 statistical definitions concerning population densities are probably not relevant to Ancient Egypt
7 minimum of 25% of the area within the area of the Aurelian walls was public areas, empty space etc., than the population density goes up to c. 1,084 per hectare or c. 96,200 per sq. km.
8 Rome in the early principate was one of the most densely populated cities the world has ever known – as crowded, probably, as modern day Bombay or Calcutta.
- 850 & 1025 150K Byzantine Army
- Roman mile 4860 feet 1.086 Mile 5280 Feet 92%
- Ur, a large town that covered about 50 acres (20 hectares), had 10,000 animals kept in sheepfolds and stables and 3,000 slaughtered every year. The city's population of 6,000 included a labour force of 2,500, cultivating 3,000 acres (12 km²) of land.

300/he
10 Roman Legion Organization
Body
11 15-16K Total including Auxiliaries

9 Legion: 7,216T 5,120 Soldiers, 615 Cavalry, 1,280 Support, 192 Officers (64 Centurions, 64 Signifer, 64 Cornicen) 9 Upper Officers (5 Narrow Band Tribunes, 1 Camp Prefect, 1 Broad Band Tribune, 1 Legion Legate, 1 Aquilifer)
1 640 mules, 615 Horses
2 Contubernium (Squad): 10/Tent Group (8 fighters 2 helpers) 1 Mule=640T
3 10 Tent Groups/Century
4 6 Centuries/Cohort
5 10 Cohorts/Legion
8 1st Cohort: 800S 200NC 15O 1,015T
7 Cohort: 480S 20NC 18O 518T
6 Century: 80S 20NC 3O 2SB 105T
10 Auxiliaries = Legionaries
12 65 Cavalry/Cohort

13 30 Cavalry/Big Cohort
Battle
- 32 Maniples to a Legion.
- Maniple: 2 Centuries of 80, 40 accross & 4 deep 160 Men.

- 3 Maniples/Cohort.
- 5 Maniples/1st Cohort.
- 2nd Line 200 ft back
- 5 feet between centuries
- 3 feet between soldiers
Marching Order
1 Cavalry, light infantry, and archers running point
2 vanguard consisting of auxiliary troops, cavalry, heavy infantry, standard bearers, engineers, and the color party.
3 command group consisting of the commander, a bodyguard of picked troops, mules carrying artillery and battering rams, legion commanders, standards, and trumpeters
4 main body consisting of the legions, six men abreast
5 baggage trains, consisting of wagons carts and pack animals, and slaves
6 rear guard consisting of auxiliary troops and cavalry
- Cavalry also guarded the flanks of the column.
- If a retreat were necessary, the order of march was somewhat reversed: the baggage train went first--with the vanguard--to remove it from danger soonest, followed by the main army, then the rearguard.

- After marching all day, the army would pitch camp, which involved digging ditches; raising a palisade to surround the camp; pitching their tents and those of their officers; and digging latrines.

- A day of rest was customary after every three or four days of marches.
oxcarts go 10-15km/day 1 ton
Camp
 
Population Density
Boulder 1,552/sq km
1mean density modern city 5,991/sq. km
- median density 3,790/sq. km

- pre-industrial cities mean 16,661/sq. km

- pre-industrial cities median 12,897/sq. km

Rome in 496 BC
- cities from Roman period mean 13,607/sq. km

- 1901 Rome 538K 1,411 hectares 381/hectare 33,360/sq. km. This Rome used far more space than ancient Rome for housing

- Ostia 32K/sq. km

- Pompeii 18K/sq. km

- Rome 249,480 18K/sq. km

- Rome’s 443,520 32K/sq. km

- 1800 Ehr-li-t'on imperial capital 100/ha

- Umma 200+/ha

- Adab, Zabalam (Umm al-Khezi), and Jidr, 40-200/ha

- 1980 Bombay 18,796/sq. km

- 1988 Calcutta density 31,779/sq. km

- Bourges had 40,000 when Caesar killed everyone. Walls looked

- Paris has pop density of 53.833/sq mile

- mean for all the estimates is around 350 inhabitants per urban hectare

- boulder is 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile

- rome is 4,664.8 per square mile

- Loose Crowd - Arms Length 10 Square Feet per person

- Tight Crowd - Less than arm's length 4.5 Sq Ft
- Mob Crowd - 2.5 Sq Ft
- Football feild 43,200 sr ft w/ tight crowd has 9,600
Units & Measurements
1 Stadia=
2
3
4
5
6
7
300 Clans
? Tribes
800 Cities
40,000 in Avericum(Bourges)
5 Million
Suebi had 100 clans
Helvetians divided into four clans

- Family/Parents,Children,Grandparents 2-10, House, 3 Meters
- Band/Extended Family, Platoon, Troop, Village 10-50 30M 5
- Clan/Kin Field 50-500 1KM 10
- Tribe/County 500-15,000 Geographical Area 100KM
- Chiefdom 15,000-150,000 200KM
- State/Polity/Country/Language Group/Peoples 250,000-10 Million Paenensula, Island 1,000KM
- Empire 10-50 Million 5,000K
1 Vienne of Allobroges
2 Bibracte of Aedui
3 Amiens of Ambiani
4 Lyon of Ambarri
5 Angers of Andecavi
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Block Maniple 2 Centuries of 80 men for 160 men total. 16 Men 96 Feet Accross & 10 Men 60 Feet Deep
Maniple-16X10
Marching Century
OOO
OO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OOOOOO
OO
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8
OO
8

Organization of republican legions
Unit Organization Number of soldiers
First battle line Hastati Ten maniples of 120 men 1,200 soldiers
Second battle line Principes Ten maniples of 120 men 1,200 soldiers
Third battle line Triarii Ten maniples of 60 men 600 soldiers
Velites Split into groups attached to each maniple 1,200 soldiers
Irregulars variable variable

ESTIMATED SIZE OF ROMAN ARMY 24–305 AD
Army corps Tiberius
24 AD Hadrian
c. 130 AD S. Severus
211 AD 3rd-century crisis
c. 270 AD Diocletian
284–305
LEGIONS 125,000[61] 155,000[62] 182,000[63]
AUXILIA 125,000[64] 218,000[65] 250,000[66]
PRAETORIAN GUARD ~~5,000[67] ~~8,000[68] ~15,000[68]
Total Roman Army 255,000[69] 381,000[70] 447,000[71] 290,000?[72] 390,000[73]

ROMAN AUXILIARY REGIMENTS: TYPE, STRUCTURE AND STRENGTH[103]
Unit type Service Unit
commander Sub-unit
commander No of
sub-units Sub-unit
strength Unit
strength
Ala quingenaria cavalry praefectus decurio 16 turmae 30 (32)1 480 (512)
Ala milliaria cavalry praefectus decurio 24 turmae 30 (32) 720 (768)
Cohors quingenaria infantry praefectus2 centurio 6 centuriae 80 480
Cohors milliaria infantry tribunus militum3 centurio 10 centuriae 80 800
Cohors equitata
quingenaria infantry plus
cavalry contingent praefectus centurio (inf)
decurio (cav) 6 centuriae
4 turmae 80
30. 600
(480 inf/120 cav)
Cohors equitata
milliaria infantry plus
cavalry contingent tribunus militum3 centurio (inf)
decurio (cav) 10 centuriae
8 turmae 80
30 1,040
(800 inf/240 cav)

 

LEGIONS: Ranks, Role and Pay (c. AD 100)[144]
Pay-scale
(X basic) Legionary rank
(ascending order) Number
in legion Role Auxilia
equivalent:
cohors (ala) Social
rank Approx. modern
rank-equivalent (U.K.)
1 pedes 5,120 infantryman pedes (eques) commoner private
1.5 cornicen
tesserarius 59
59 horn-blower
officer of the watch cornicen
tesserarius (sesquiplicarius) commoners corporal
2 optio
signifer
imaginifer
aquilifer 59
59
1
1 centurion's deputy
centuria standard-bearer
bearer of emperor's image
legion standard-bearer optio (duplicarius)
signifer
vexillarius

- - - - (curator) commoners sergeant
16 centurio 45 centurion centurio (decurio) commoner company sergeant-major
n.a. centurio primi ordinis 13 (9 pilus prior
+ 4 1st Cohort) senior centurion centurio princeps
(decurio princeps) commoner regimental sergeant-major
n.a. centurio primus pilus(1) 1 chief centurion none commoner(1)
50 tribunus militum angusticlavius 5 legion staff-officer praefectus auxilii
(regimental commander) knight colonel
n.a. praefectus castrorum 1 legion quartermaster
(executive officer to legatus) none knight
n.a. tribunus militum laticlavius 1 legion deputy commander none senatorial
(senator's son)
70 legatus legionis 1 legion commander none senator general

 

IMPERIAL ROMAN ARMY: Summary of known deployments c. AD 130[281]
Province Approx. modern
equivalent Alae
(no. mill.) Cohortes
(no. mill.) Total
aux. units Auxiliary
infantry Auxiliary
cavalry* No.
legions Legionary
infantry Legionary
cavalry TOTAL
GARRISON
Britannia England/Wales 11 (1) 45 (6) 56 25,520 10,688 3 16,500 360 53,068
Rhine Frontier
Germania Inferior S Neth/NW Rhineland 6 17 23 8,160 4,512 2 11,000 240 23,912
Germania Superior Pfalz/Alsace 3 22 (1) 25 10,880 3,336 2 11,000 240 25,456
Danube Frontier
Raetia/Noricum S Ger/Switz/Austria 7 (1) 20 (5) 27 11,220 5,280 1 5,500 120 22,120
Pannonia (Inf + Sup) W Hungary/Slovenia 11 (2) 21 (4) 32 11,360 8,304 3 16,500 360 36,524
Moesia Superior Serbia 2 10 12 4,800 1,864 2 11,000 240 17,904
Moesia Inferior N Bulgaria/coastal Rom 5 12 17 5,760 3,520 3 16,500 120 25,780
Dacia (Inf/Sup/Poroliss) Romania 11 (1) 32 (8) 43 17,920 7,328 2 11,000 240 36,488
Eastern Frontier
Cappadocia Central/East Turkey 4 15 (2) 19 7,840 3,368 3 16,500 360 28,068
Syria (inc Judaea/Arabia) Syria/Leb/Palest/Jordan/Israel 12 (1) 43 (3) 55 21,600 10,240 5 27,500 600 59,940
North Africa
Aegyptus Egypt 4 11 15 5,280 3,008 2 11,000 240 19,528
Mauretania (inc Africa) Tunisia/Algeria/Morocco 10 (1) 30 (1) 40 14,720 7,796 1 5,500 120 28,136
Internal provinces 2 15 17 7,200 2,224 1 5,500 120 15,044
TOTAL EMPIRE 88 (7) 293 (30) 381 152,260 71,468 30 165,000 3,600 392,328

Three tribes in Romulus' Rome. Each tribe divided into 30 Curiae. Typical Roman era city was 14,000 per square kilometer. So
14,000 divided by three =
4,666/tribe. 4,666 div 10 Curiae=
467 per Curiae.

Rome city pop

- 390 BC 30,000
- 246 BC 100,000
- 150 BC 300,000
- 27 BC 990,000
-
-
- 5 BC - 800,000-1M
- 320 AD - 600,000
- 419 - 300-500,000
- 590 - 150,000
- 800 - 30,000

- 390 BC Servian Wall

- 275 Aurelian Wall

- 326-146 Roman Territory increases 120X

Politcal Organization

- Family/Parents, Children, Grandparents 2-10, House, 3 Meters 4
- Extented Family, Pack 20
- Band/Gang/Apartment Building 10-50 30M 40 32 units in my building
- Clan/Kin Field 50-500 400 Village, Neighborhood 1KM 10
- Tribe/County 500-14,000 4,000 Geographical Area 100KM
- Cheifdom/City-State/Walled City 12,000-150,000 200KM
- State/Polity/Country/Language Group/Peoples 250,000-10 Million Paenensula, Island 1,000KM
- Empire 10-50 Million 5,000KM

Hamlet has pop under 100

Rome city pop

- 390 BC 30,000 Servian wall 1.5 Mile diameter
- 246 BC 100,000
- 150 BC 300,000
- 129 BC 294,000 Male Citizens
- 84 BC 500,000
- 50 BC 1 Million
- 27 BC 990,000
- 5 BC - 800,000-1M
- 100 AD 1 Million+
- 270 aurelian wall 3 Mile diameter
- 320 AD - 600,000
- 400 500-750,000
- 410 - 200,000
- 419 - 300-500,000
- 500 - 75-100,000
- 550s - 30-100,000
- 554 - 30,000
- 590 - 150,000
- 700 20,000
- 800 - 30,000
- 1870 - 220,000
- 1935 1 Million
- 2005 2,700,000

- 390 BC Servian Wall

- 275 Aurelian Wall

Bourges had 40,000 when Caesar killed everyone. Walls looked 1.2 Miles in Diameter. Not clear.
Paris has pop density of 53.833/sq mile
the mean for all the estimates is around 350 inhabitants per urban hectare
boulder is 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile
rome is 4,664.8 per square mile

pop dense rome empire

1 Middle East 150
2 Cities of Islam 250
3 Greece 100-115
4 Rome 100-115
Roman Republic/Empire Pop

- 390 BC 1 Million
- 146 BC 10 Million
- 90 BC 910,000 Citizen males
- 30 BC 40 Million
- 10s 50-60 Million (33 Million in West)
- 10s 4 Million Male Citizens
- 30 45 Million
- 47 7 Million citizens
- 150s Peak 65 Million, 350 for world. 21% Roman
- 180 40 Million
- 300 55 Million (23 in West 32 in East)
- 330 56 Million
- 395 40 Million
- 476 11 Million
- 470s Western Roman Empire 22 Million, both sides 30-35 Million
150s - * 500,000 soldiers (legionaries totalling 150,000 and auxilia making up the rest)
* Approximately 600 Senators made up the elite of the elite.
* Perhaps up to 30,000 men filled the roles of Equestrians (knights), or the second tier of the aristocracy.
* 10 to 30% or 6 million to 19 million people lived in the cities, leaving the vast majority of some 46 to 59 million people to live in the country as independent and mostly tenant farmers.
* Rome itself was made up of over 1 million people and, though it would shrink remarkably after the fall of the west, no city would surpass that number until the great urban population booms of the industrial age, 1,500 years or more later.
* The slave population of Rome approached 500,000 on its own, probably half of which were owned by the 600 men of the Senate. Additional estimates have suggested that of the total 65 million people, 2 to 10 million may have been slaves.

- 500s 3 Million in Italy

200s BC Hellenic Civilization 11 Million

Polity Organization

- Family/Parents,Children,Grandparents 2-10, House, 3 Meters
- Band/Extended Family, Platoon, Troop, Village 10-50 30M 5
- Clan/Kin Field 50-500 1KM 10
- Tribe/County 500-15,000 Geographical Area 100KM
- Chiefdom 15,000-150,000 200KM
- State/Polity/Country/Language Group/Peoples 250,000-10 Million Paenensula, Island 1,000KM
- Empire 10-50 Million 5,000KM

* In 28 BC the citizen population was 4,063,000 (including both men and women)
* In 8 BC - 4,233,000
* In AD 14 - 4,937,000
Army March 20 Miles in a Day

Suebi had 100 clans

The Rome described here is the Rome bounded by the Aurelian walls. This Rome covered an area of c. 1,230 hectares2 or c.13.86 sq. km.3 Within the walls of ancient Rome were large areas of dense housing called insulae "apartments" (c. 46,602) and domus "palaces", (c. 1,760).4 There were also extensive public areas such as the various forums, public buildings, the Imperial palace and gardens and especially near the area of the walls, (which were not built until the reign of the Emperor Aurelian, c. 270 C.E.), large areas of open space.5

B) Population Density of Ancient Rome if Population One Million and Implications

If the Population density of Ancient Rome was 1,000,000, (one million) the following density of population is achieved; a density of c. 813 per hectare or c. 72,150 per sq. km.6

What are the implications of this figure? The most important implication of this figure is that Rome had an incredibly high density of population. Moreover in terms of the actual density of population if we calculate in that a minimum of 25% of the area within the area of the Aurelian walls was public areas, empty space etc., than the population density goes up to c. 1,084 per hectare or c. 96,200 per sq. km. Are these figures realistic?7

If we assume a population of about a million, we must conclude that Rome in the early principate was one of the most densely populated cities the world has ever known – as crowded, probably, as modern day Bombay or Calcutta.8If Bombay and especially Calcutta have become modern day examples of horrific urban congestion the aptness of this comparison is somewhat weakened when the actual population density of Bombay (c. 1980) is found to be c. 18,796 per sq. km., and Calcutta density (c. 1988) is found to be c. 31,779 per sq. km.9
In fact modern cities seem to have lower population densities than pre-industrial cities because they cover much larger areas. The mean density of a modern city works out to c. 5,991 per sq. km. and median density works out to c. 3,790 per sq. km.10 Regarding a comparison with pre-industrial cities the densities work out to a mean of c. 16,661 per sq. km., and a median of c. 12,897 per sq. km. Regarding figures for cities from the Roman period the mean density works is c. 13,607.11 Of Course given our lack of "hard" information for cities of the Middle ages and the Ancient world the density figures for cities of that time period are not set in stone. The Margin of error is very large.

Another comparison is with the population of modern Rome at various times. In 1901 Rome had an estimated population of c. 538,000 which covered an area of 1,411 hectares with a density of c. 381 per hectare or c. 33,360 per sq. km. And this Rome used far more of the space of ancient Rome for housing.12

Finally a comparison with the excavated city sites such as Ostia and Pompeii and the use of modern counting procedures lead to a density of c. 18,000 per sq. km. for Pompeii and c. 32,000 per sq. km. for Ostia. Applying these figures to Rome leads to a population of c. 249,480 if the Pompeii figure is used. If the Ostia figure is used Rome's population is c. 443,520.13

The implications of the above analysis is that a figure for 1,000,000 (one million) for ancient Rome is rather unlikely, given the density called for if the population had been 1,000,000 (one million). Also the fact that Rome would not achieve a population of 1,000,000 (one million) until well into the twentieth century. Further that it is rather unlikely that Rome had such an unprecedented density of population for a pre-industrial city as 72,150 per sq. km.14

Comparison with the ancient excavated cities of Ostia and Pompeii along with comparison with the recent modern population of Rome suggest a figure of 400,000 – 500,000 people for the population of ancient Rome.15

POPULATION ESTIMATES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
IN AGE OF CONSTANTINE (306-337) AND THEODOIUS I (379-395)
WESTERN EMPIRE
BRITIAN
GAUL & RHINELAND
SPAIN
ITALY
SICILY, SARDINIA & CORSICA
AFRICA, NUMIDIA, MAURETANIA
RHAETIA, NORICUM, PANNONIA &
DALMATIA
TOTAL WESTERN EMPIRE

750,000
5,000,000
4,000,000
6,000,000
250,000
3,000,000
3,000,000
22,000,000
EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
MOESIA & THRACE
GREECE & MACEDONIA
ASIA MINOR
SYRIA, PALESTINE & MESOPOTAMIA
EGYPT
CYRENAICA
TOTAL EASTERN EMPIRE

2,500,000
3,500,000
15,000,000
6,500,000
6,500,000
500,000
34,000,000
TOTAL POPULATION
WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
TOTAL: 22,000,000
34,000,000
56,000,000
POPULATION ESTIMATES, 400-1500 A.D
Population (reckoned in millions of people)
Region 400 650 1000 1200 1340 1500
British Isles 1 0.5 2 2.8 5 3
France & Lowlands 5 3.5 6 10 19 16
Germany & Scandinavia 3.5 2 4 7 11.5 7.5
Iberian Peninsula 4 3.5 7 8 9 8.3
Italy 6 2.5 5 7.8 10 9
Greece & Balkans 5 3 5 ---- 6 4.5
Asia Minor 12 7 8 7 ---- ----
Syria & Levant 5 3 2 3 ---- ----
Egypt 6 3 1.5 2.5 4.5 ----
North Africa 2.5 ---- 1 1.5 ---- ----
100 AD

Alexandria 500-750,000
Antioch, Ephesus, Carthage 350-500,000
Smyrna 250,000
Pergamum 150,000
Middle Sized City in Italy, Africa & Roman East 50-100,000
Northern Provence Middle Sized City 25-50,000
Most Cities in Roman World 10-25,000

Byzantium 30,000
400 - 300,000
565 - 500-750,000
565 750-1 Million

850 Imperial Byzantine Army 150,000
1025 150,000

Byzantine Empire: In 850, the imperial army (theme and tagmatic units) is estimated at 150,000 men; in 1025 the army was perhaps 150,000 men. Basil II (976-1025) possibly ruled over 18 million subjects: 10 million in Anatolia, 5 million in the Balkans and Greek homeland, 1 million in Constantinople, and possibly another 2 million in southern Italy and Syria. The imperial army perhaps mobilized for military service 3-4% of an adult males reckoned at 4.5 million. Defeats in 1071-1078 and Turkomen migrations reduced the population of Anatolia. By 1125, the emperor John II (1118-1143) possibly ruled over an empire of 10-12 million subjects or two-thirds of the number of subjects over whom Basil reigned one hundred years earlier.

Western Europe: Figures for Western show remarkable growth from 900 A.D. on as northern Europeans cleared forests and perfected deep ploughing techniques. By the eleventh century the populations of Western exceeded those of the Mediterranean world and Near East for the first time in history.

Crusader States: By 1140, the Crusaders occupied the most densely populated regions of the Levant, possibly dominating 1,625,000 residents. Crusader numbers can be sensed by the number of knights who could take field in 1140. The King of Jerusalem could field 675 knights from his vassals and additional 300 knights of the military monastic orders of the Templars and Hospitalars. The Count of Tripoli could field possibly 100 knights; the Prince of Antioch and Count of Edessa together could field no more than 700 knights. This was a potential force of 1,775 knights, but the greatest host that ever engaged was at the Battle of Hattin in 1187, and King Guy of Jersualem could muster no more than 1,200 knights.
City
Author

Period City Site
(hectares)

Estimated
Population

Implied Population
Density (inh/hct)

ERIDU
Mallowan 1970:331 Ubaid 8­10 4,000 500
Wright 1981:325
Early Uruk 40 6,200­10,000 155­250
HABUBA-KABIRA
Algaze 1993 3100 40 6­8,000 150­200
HIERAKONPOLIS
Valbelle 1990
3400 35 5­10,000 143­350
URUK
Nissen 1993:56 end 3rd mill. 250 25­50,000 100­200
Adams 1981:85
E.D.I 400 40­50,000 100­125
UR
Wright 1981:327 E.D.I. 21 less than 6000 286
Wooley 1965:193 Third Dyn. 50 34,000 680
Wright 1981:320-1 Third Dyn. 50 (within walls) 34,000 680
EBLA
Pettinato 1981:134 E.D.III 56 "at most" 40,000 714
MOHENJO-DARO
Barrow&Shodhan 1977:11 -2500 51(urban area) 40,000 784
Whitehouse 1983 -2000 100+ 40,000 400
HARAPPA
Whitehouse 1983 -2000 43+ 20-25,000 465-581
City -3700 -3400 -3100 -2800 -2500 -2300 -2000 -1800
ERIDU 6-10 c c
BAD-TIBIRA c 16
LARAK 10 10 c
SIPPAR c
SHURUPPAK c 20 17
URUK 14 20 50 80 50
---------------- ------- ------ ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
SUHERI 13 10 10 10 10
KISH 40 25 10
NIPPUR 13 20 10 10
LAGASH 40 10 30 10
UMMA 26 34 20 10 20
KESH 11
ADAB 11 13 10 10 10
ISIN 40 20
LARSA 10 40 20
ZABALAM 10 10 10
ESHNUNNA e
--------------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
TELL BRAK 22 20 15 15
TELL LEILAN 20 20
MOZAH 15 15
TELL CHURRA 20
MARI e e
EBLA e 30
AKKAD 36
ASSUR e
--------------- ----- ------ ----- ----- ------ ----- ------ ------
MEMPHIS e 30 60 30
HELIOPOLIS e
THEBES 40 40
------------ ----- ------ ------ ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
ANSHAN 10 10 10 10 10 10
SHAHR-I SOKHTA 20 20
SUZA e 25 25
MOHENJO-DARO 20 20 10
HARAPPA 10
NAMAZGA-TEPE 14 14
------------------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ------ ----- ----- -----
ERH-LI-T'ON 35
Table 3: THE WORLD'S LARGEST CITY

3400 ­ 1400 B.C.E.

AT City Population
(,000)

-3700 URUK 14
-3400 URUK 20
-3100 URUK 50
-2800 URUK 80
-2500 URUK 50
-2300 AKKAD 36
-2000 MEMPHIS 60
-1800 THEBES 40
-1600 AVARIS 100
-1400 THEBES 80
An earlier version of this paper was presented to the World System Historical Data Group at the International Studies Convention in Toronto, March 1997. I wish to thank Robert McCormick Adams, Christopher Chase-Dunn, and William R, Thompson for their comments.

1. Tertius Chandler (1987:93) gives the following sources for his estimates: -2250: EBLA (30,000): Howard LeFay, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, December 1978; -2000: UR (65,000): Woolley 1955, 34,000 within walls; Memphis (60,000): Lichtheim ANCIENT LITERATURE OF EGYPT,1973, vol.I:104, 10,000 untaxed men (soldiers? priests?); SUSA (25,000) Strabo GEOGRAPHY 1917/32:15:3,2:728, 120 stades around (use 1/3 only); -1800: MOHENJO-DARO (20,000) M. Wheeler INDUS CIVILIZATION 1968:26.

2. Henri Frankfort (1948:396) offers the following individual population estimates for the Early Dynastic period: Lagash (Gursu) 19,000; Umma 16,000; Eshnunna 9,000, Kafajah (Tutub) 12,000. Partly in the light of these figures, and assuming urban density of 200 per acre (500 per ha) Braidwood and Reed (1957:29-30) put the population of Sumer ca. 2500 at half a million.

3. Chandler (1987:7) adds: "Chinese cities tend to have an especially low density because of the Chinese refusal to sleep below anyone, so their houses are ... nearly all of just 1 story. Hence, inland Chinese cities had a density of only about 75 per hectare, and even in seaports or the imperial capital the density hardly exceeded 100".

4. Harvey Weiss (1986:95) advocates a "correction factor", to 60 per cent of an "otherwise reasonable estimate of 100 person per ha of mounded settlement", to accommodate the argument that "only 40 to 60 per cent of a built-up city mound was comprised of residential structures".

5. With the exception of the entry for Ehr-li-t'on (in -1800), presumably an imperial capital for which, in the light of Chandler's comments (see note 3), a factor of 100 people/ha will be applied in Table 3.

6. We owe that listing i.a. to the "antediluvian" section of the Sumerian King List (that was compiled ca. -2000; see Jacobsen (1939:55-6), and to other epics (Hallo 1970). Jacobson notes the peculiarities of that section, and in particular its origin, that is likely to be Eridu, and its independence from the rest of the list, being probably a later addition. In the King List proper, the transitions between "kingships" held by the cities occur by force of arms ("city A was smitten with weapons"), in the ante-diluvian section the formula for the five cities is "I (the author) drop the city". All five cities are attested in the historical and archaeological record: Eridu from Ubaid onward, Larak and Shuruppak from -3700, Bad-tibira from -3100, but no report on earliest Sippar. A notable omission from the antediluvian section is Uruk whose site is largest and goes back to the Ubaid period. The entire Sumerian King List, most likely is, as Michalowski (1883) has argued, a propaganda piece on behalf of the Isin Dynasty that followed Ur III, and need to be viewed with caution.

7. The term "kingship" in the context of the Sumerian King List might be better rendered, especially for the "antediluvian" period, as "leadership". The archaeological evidence for "kingship" , such as royal palaces, is confined to the Early Dynastic period, and begins with Kish, and so is the use of the term "lugal" for king, or "war leader" (that dates from about -2700). By contrast, "ensi" (steward, manager) is older than "lugal", and emerges, in the written sources, from the temple ca. -3000 (Maisels 1990:169-172).

8. In Bietak's (1979:98) view, "statistical definitions concerning population densities are probably not relevant to Ancient Egypt".

9. These are Judeiro-Daro, in Sind, Lurewala Ther in Haryana, and Ganweriwala Ther, on the dried-out course of Hakka River, in Haryana (Parpola 1994:6).

10. On Chandler's list for -1600, the only Mesopotamian cities are Babylon (60,000), and Nineveh (less than 25,000). In Adams' Table 14 (1981:172-3) for the Old Babylonian period Umma rates 200+ ha, and Adab, Zabalam, Site 1389 (Umm al-Khezi), and Jidr, 40-200 ha.

11. Chandler's list of the world's largest cities (1987:523-7) starts with Memphis, from -3100 onwards, and goes on to Akkad, from -2240, Lagash, -2075, Ur, -2030, Thebes, -1980, Babylon, -1770, and Avaris, -1670.

Other world regions

In the fourth and third millennium, a system of cities emerged that covered the Fertile Crescent and the Indus Valley, and by -1800, apparently extended to China. In Europe, cities appear on the Chandler list for the first time in -1600, with Knossos on Crete in particular, followed in -1360 by Mycene (30,000) in mainland Greece. In Meso-America, the Valley of Mexico, and the Yucutan peninsula see the first towns rise a thousand years later, in mid-first millennium BC: on Chandler's list of large cities, Cuicuilco (Mexico) is shown at -300, and Izapac, of the Mayans, at +100. Tikal, the Mayan's largest city may have peaked at about 40,000. In Africa south of the Sahara, cities first develop in Ethiopia (Axum) at about 300, and in West Africa, at +1000.

County population in 2012: 305,318 (91% urban, 9% rural); it was 291,288 in 2000
County owner-occupied with a mortgage or a loan houses and condos in 2010: 57,517
County owner-occupied free and clear houses and condos in 2010: 17,476
County owner-occupied houses and condos in 2000: 74,249
Renter-occupied apartments: 44,307 (it was 40,431 in 2000)
% of renters here: 35%
State: 34%

Roman Empire, a family of 6 people would need to cultivate 12 iugera/ 3 hectares of land to meet minimum food requirements (without animals).[10] If a family owned animals to help cultivate land, then 20 iugera was needed. The same amount would also be required to meet subsistence levels if the land was farmed using sharecropping, as in Africa Proconsularis in the 2nd century AD, in which case a third of the total crop goes to the landowner as rent[10] (See Lex Manciana).

 

Population density: 403 people per square mile

Land area: 742 sq. mi.

Water area: 8.9 sq. mi.

* Approximately 600 Senators made up the elite of the elite.
* Perhaps up to 30,000 men filled the roles of Equestrians (knights), or the second tier of the aristocracy.
* The slave population of Rome approached 500,000 on its own, probably half of which were owned by the 600 men of the Senate.

Additional estimates have suggested that of the total 65 million people, 2 to 10 million may have been slaves.

1895 sq meters = cohort of 480

Mantinea Lycias - in 400 BC there as least 3,000 Housholds is 14,000 people. 285 km2, >100 people/sq Km. Half life in the city. 7,000.

at 200 people per hectare, mantinaea with 4km circumference had 25,400 people. 3,000 fighters, for 12% pop fighters one out of 8.3 people are fighters. with mantinaea 3.97km it was 25K people.

3.97K around wall, 119 posts around Mantinea, 33.36M between post. .8% Wall fighters.

Serivan Wall has 300 posts at 10K with 33.36, aurilian has 570 with 19K 600 with 20K

300 Mountains, 637 13ers in Colorado.

Strava 7,000 top 1.7%

4.5K 135 Posters on North Boulder Loop

100K in boulder so 7% riders

Lake Valley & North Rim Neighborhood 20/340. 20 Neighborhoods 340 Houses.

with 7,000 people that's 23 people per house.
In boulder that's 3 per house. so 340X3=1,020
X average for america 2.77 it's 942

12.63% on a wall
33% houses on a wall

 

in 367 BC two Plebeian Tribunes, Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Sextinus Lateranus promulgated a law which limited the amount of the ager publicus to be held by any individual to 500 iugera, roughly 325 acres (1.32 km2). 1.3 Diameter. Mantinea has 1.25

Each citizen gets a heredium which is two iugera (71X35.5M) which is 142X71

Living
Physical
Societal
Pop
X^
Civilian Infrastructure
Ancient
Modern
Civilian Organization
Ancient
Modern
Military Infrastructure
Ancient
Modern
Military Organization
Ancient
Modern
0
1
N/A
N/A
Person
Person
Scout, Spy
Spy
1
10
10X
Tent, Tipi, House
Tent, House
Family
Family
- Tribal Band
- Roman Contubernia
Squad, Section, Platoon
2
100
10X
Hamlet
Block, Neighborhood, Hamlet
Clan
Extended Family
Maniple, Century
Company, Battery
3
1K
10X
Village
Village
- Tribe
- Village 1Km
Village
1 Village, City 1KM
2 Band 10
3 Tribe 100
4 Kingdom, Country, Duchy 200
5 Nation 1000
- Tribal Field Army
- Large Roman Cohort
Batallion, Regiment
4
10K
10X
Town
Town
Tribe
Town
- Kingdom Field Army
- Imperial Camp, Legion
Division
5
20K
2X
City
Town
Tribe
Town
- Imperial Field Army
Army Corps
6
40K
2X
Metropolis 2Km
Town
Tribe 100Km
Town
- Imperial Field Army
Army Corps
7
160K
4X
Metropolis
City
Cheifdom
City, County
Total Army
Field Army
8
1M
6.25X
Mega City
Metropolis, State
Kingdom
Metropolis, State
N/A
Total Army
9
100M
100X
World
Country
Species
Nation
N/A
N/A
10
10B
100X
Sedement
World
Historical
World
N/A
N/A
Formation
Grid
 
X^
Pop
Grid XY
M/KM²
Area
Ph
0
1
1
4M²
1
10X
10
5X2
10X4
40M²
2
10X
100
10²
20²
400M²
3
10X
1K
50X20
40X100
4K²
4
10X
10K
100²
200²
40K²
5
2X
20K
200X100
400X200
80K²
6
2X
40K
200²
400X400
160K²
7
4X
160K
400²
800²
640²
8
6.25X
1M
1,000²
2K²
4MK²
9
100X
100M
10,000²
20K²
400K²
10
100X
10B
100,000²
200K²
40KK²
Roman Battle
 
X^
Pop
Grid XY
M/KM²
Area
Ph
0
1
     
1
10X
10
     
2
10X
100
     
3
10X
1K
     
4
10X
10K
     
5
2X
20K
     
6
2X
40K
     
7
4X
160K
     
8
6.25X
1M
     
9
100X
100M
     
10
100X
10B
     
Roman Marching
 
X^
Pop
Grid XY
M/KM²
Area
Ph
0
1
     
1
10X
10
     
2
10X
100
     
3
10X
1K
     
4
10X
10K
     
5
2X
20K
     
6
2X
40K
     
7
4X
160K
     
8
6.25X
1M
     
9
100X
100M
     
10
100X
10B
     
Living
Tribal
 
X^
Pop
M/KM²
Area
Name
Ph
0
1
   
1
10X
10
   
2
10X
100
   
3
10X
1K
   
4
10X
10K
   
5
2X
20K
   
6
2X
40K
   
7
4X
160K
   
8
6.25X
1M
   
9
100X
100M
   
10
100X
10B
   
Modern US
 
X^
Pop
M/KM²
Area
Ph
0
1
   
1
10X
10
   
2
10X
100
   
3
10X
1K
   
4
10X
10K
   
5
2X
20K
   
6
2X
40K
   
7
4X
160K
   
8
6.25X
1M
   
9
100X
100M
   
10
100X
10B
   
Modern India
 
X^
Pop
M/KM²
Area
Ph
0
1
   
1
10X
10
   
2
10X
100
   
3
10X
1K
   
4
10X
10K
   
5
2X
20K
   
6
2X
40K
   
7
4X
160K
   
8
6.25X
1M
   
9
100X
100M
   
10
100X
10B