Cassius Dio 155 - 235 80
History of Rome 1180 BC - 229 AD 1,409
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Although I have read pretty nearly everything about them that has been written by anybody, I have not included it all in my history, but only what I have seen fit to select. I trust, moreover, that if I have used a fine style, so far as the subject matter permitted, no one will on this account question the truthfulness of the narrative, as has happened in the case of some writers; for I have endeavoured to be equally exact in both these respects, so far as possible. I will begin at the point where I have obtained the clearest accounts of what is reported to have taken place in this land which we inhabit.

This land in which the city of Rome has been built.

 
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Aeneas after the Trojan war came to the Aborigines, who were the former inhabitants of the land wherein Rome has been built and who
 
1 - 3 Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex, v. 123

This Aeneas, after the capture of Troy, came, as we have remarked, to Italy and the Latins. He

 
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were at that time ruled by Latinus, the son of Faunus. He came ashore at Laurentum, by the mouth of the river Numicius, where in obedience to some oracle he is said to have made preparations to dwell. The ruler of the land, Latinus, tried to prevent his settling in the land, and joined in battle with him, but was defeated. Then, as the result of dreams that appeared to both leaders, they effected a reconciliation, and Latinus both granted the other a settlement there and gave him his daughter Lavinia in marriage. Thereupon Aeneas founded a city, which he named Lavinium; and the country was called Latium, and the people there were termed Latins.

 
1 - 5 Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v. 123

landed near Laurentum, called also Troy, near the River Numicius, along with his son by Creusa—Ascanius or Ilus. There his followers ate their tables, which were of parsley or of the harder portions of bread loaves; for they had no real tables. Furthermore, a white sow leaped from his boat and running to the Alban mount, named after her, gave birth to a litter of thirty, which indicated that in the thirtieth year his children should get fuller possession of both land and sovereignty. Since he had heard of these portents beforehand from an oracle he ceased his wanderings, sacrificed the sow, and prepared to found a city. Latinus would not allow him to do this; but after being defeated in war, he gave Aeneas his daughter Lavinia in marriage. Aeneas then founded a city and called it Lavinium.  Concerning the Etruscans Dio says: "These facts about them have properly been recorded at this point in the story; elsewhere still other facts will be mentioned from time to time, in their proper places, whenever the course of the history, in setting forth the successive incidents, shall involve them. And this same principle must suffice also in

 
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But the Rutuli, who occupied adjoining territory, had been previously hostile to the Latins, and now, setting out from the city of Ardea, they made war upon them. They had the support of Turnus, a distinguished man and a relative of Latinus, who had become angry with the latter because of Lavinia's marriage, for it was to him that the maiden had originally been promised, A battle took place, Turnus and Latinus both fell, and Aeneas gained the victory and his father-in-law's kingdom as well. After a time, however, the Rutuli secured the Etruscans as allies and marched against Aeneas; and in this war they won. But Aeneas

 
1 - 7 Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v. 123

Now Latinus and Turnus, king of the Rutuli, perished in war at each other's hands, whereupon Aeneas became king. And when Aeneas also had been killed in war at Laurentum by the same Rutuli and Mezentius the Etruscan, while Lavinia his wife was pregnant of Silvius, Ascanius the son of  the case of other essential facts. For, while I shall recount the history of the Romans in full, to the best of my ability, outside of that only what has a bearing on their affairs will be recorded.

 
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vanished from sight, being seen no more alive or dead, and he was honoured as a god among the Latins. Hence he was regarded by the Romans also as the founder of their race and they take pride in being called "Sons of Aeneas." The sovereignty over the Latins descended to his son Ascanius, who had accompanied his father from home; Aeneas had not yet had a child by Lavinia, though he left her pregnant. Ascanius was surrounded and besieged by the enemy, but by night the Latins attacked them and ended both the siege and the war.

As time went on the Latins multiplied and the majority of them abandoned Lavinium and built another town in a better location. To it they gave

 
1 - 9 Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v. 123
Creusa became king. He completely conquered Mezentius, who, after steadily refusing to receive his embassies and seeking to subject all of Latinus' dependencies to an annual tribute, had finally engaged him in battle. When the Latins had waxed strong and moreover the thirtieth year was now at hand, they scorned Lavinium and founded a second city, named from the sow Alba Longa (i.e. 
 
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the name of Alba from its whiteness and from its length they called it Longa. Upon the death of Ascanius they chose as king the son born to Aeneas by Lavinia rather than the son of Ascanius, the reason for their preference being that Latinus was the former's grandfather. The new king's name was Silvius. And Silvius begat Aeneas, from Aeneas sprang Latinus, and Latinus was succeeded by Pastis. Tiberinus, who next became ruler, lost his life by falling into a river called the Albula. It was this river that was renamed the Tiber after him. Flowing through Rome, it serves many purposes of the city and is in the highest degree useful to the Romans. Amulius, a descendant of Tiberinus, displayed an overweening pride and dared to make himself a god; he went so far as to match the thunder with artificial thunder, to answer lightning with lightning, and to hurl thunderbolts. He met his end by the sudden overflow of the lake beside which his palace was built; it submerged both him and his palace. But Aventinus his son perished in warfare.

 
1 - Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v.

"long white"), and likewise called the mountain the Alban mount. But the images brought along from Troy twice returned to Lavinium all by themselves. After the death of Ascanius it was not his son lulus who became king, but Silvius, the son of Aeneas by Lavinia — or, according to some, Ascanius' son Silvius. Silvius begat another Aeneas, whose son was Latinus, whose son was Capys; Capys had a son Tiberinus, whose son was Amulius, whose son was Aventinus.  It is impossible for mortal man either to foresee all that is to happen or to find a way of turning aside the inevitable: of this very maiden Rhea Silvia were to be born the avengers of his crime.

 
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So much for Lavinium and the Albans. But the history of the Romans begins with Numitor and Amulius, who were grandsons of Aventinus and descendants of Aeneas.

 
1 - 13 Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v. 123
So much regarding Alba and the Albans; the story of Rome now begins. Aventinus begat Numitor and Amulius, — or Procas, according to some; and this man's sons, they say, were the aforesaid Numitor and Amulius. Numitor while king was driven out by Amulius, who killed Numitor's son Aegestes on a hunting party and made Silvia, or Rhea Ilia, the sister of Aegestes, and daughter of the aforesaid Numitor, a priestess of Vesta, so that she might remain a virgin. For he stood in dread of an oracle which declared that he should be slain by the children of Numitor. It was for this reason that he killed Aegestes and made his sister priestess of Vesta, that she might continue a virgin and childless. But she while drawing water in Mars' grove conceived, and bore Romulus and Remus. The daughter of Amulius by her entreaties saved her from being put 

 
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Romulus has been described as eighteen years old when he joined in settling Rome. He founded it around the dwelling of Faustulus; the place had been named Palatium.

 
1 - Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. v. 123

to death, but the babes were given to Faustulus, a shepherd, husband of Laurentia, to be exposed beside the river Tiber. These the shepherd's wife took and reared; for it happened that she had at that time borne a dead child. When Romulus and Remus were grown they kept flocks in the fields of Amulius, but as they killed some of the shepherds of their grandfather Numitor a watch was set for them. When Remus was arrested, Romulus ran and told Faustulus, and he ran and related the whole story to Numitor. Finally Numitor recognized them as his own daughter's children. They with the assistance of many others killed Amulius, and after bestowing the kingdom of Alba on their grandfather Numitor made a beginning themselves of founding Rome in the eighteenth year of Romulus' life. But prior to this great Rome, which Romulus founded on the Palatine mount near the dwelling of Faustulus, another Rome in the form of a square had been founded by a Romulus and Remus more ancient than these.

 
1 - Eustathius in Odyss., p. 19613-1

Among these i.e., children suckled by animals, according to Dio, were also the founders of Rome (that is to say, Remus and Romulus), who were suckled by a wolf, called by the Italians lupa; this name has been aptly applied as a term for courtesans.  Romulus and Remus by their mutual strife made it plain that some go through dangers together with far less risk than through prosperity.

They themselves learned well and taught others the lesson that those who seek to avenge their wrongs are not invariably successful merely because they have first suffered injury, and that those who make demands on stronger men do not necessarily get what they demand, but often lose even what they had before.

Hersilia and the rest of the women of her kin, on discovering them one day drawn up in opposing ranks, ran down from the Palatine with their

 
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Romulus and Remus disputed about the sovereignty and the city, and they got into a conflict in which Remus was killed. . . . . From this incident arose the custom of putting to death one who dared to cross the trench of a camp by any other than the regular passage-ways.

When she Tarpeia went down for water she was seized and brought to Tatius, and was induced to betray the citadel.

 
1 - 18 Tzetzes, Chil. 2v. f.

Dio and Dionysius record the story of Cacus, and so do many other historians of Rome.  children, — for some children had already been born, — and rushing suddenly into the space between the armies said and did many things to arouse pity. Looking now at the one side and now at the other they cried: "Why do you do this, fathers? Why do you do it, husbands? When will you cease fighting? When will you cease hating each other? Make peace with your sons-in-law! Make peace with your fathers-in-law! For Pan's sake spare your children! For Quirinus' sake spare your grand-children! Pity your daughters, pity your wives! But if you are indeed irreconcilable and some bolt of madness has fallen upon your heads and drives you to frenzy, then first kill us on account of whom you are fighting, and first slay these children whom you hate, that with no longer any name or bond of kinship between you you may avoid the greatest of evils — the slaying of the grandsires of your children and the fathers of your grandchildren." With these words they tore open their garments and bared their breasts and bellies, while some pressed themselves against the men's swords and others threw their children against them. Moved by what they heard and saw the men began to weep, and they desisted from battle and came together for a conference there, just as they were, in the comitium, which received its name from this very event.

There is a great difference between establishing new ones and renaming those already in existence.  Romulus assumed a rather harsh attitude toward the senate and behaved toward it much like a tyrant; he returned the hostages of the Veientes on his own responsibility and not by common consent, as was usually done. When he perceived that they were vexed as this he made a number of unpleasant remarks, and finally said: "I have chosen you, Fathers, not that you may rule me, but that I might have you to command."

 
1 - Labbaeus, Veteres glossae verborum iuris, p. 12

The heavy-armed troops of Romulus, three thousand in number, as Dio tells us in the first portion of his history, were divided into three bodies called tribus, i.e., trittyes thirds, which the Greeks also termed phylai. Each trittys was divided into ten curiae, or "thinking bodies" (for cura means thought); and the men severally met by curiae, according as they had been assigned, and thought out the business in hand.

 
1 - 20 loann. Laur. Lyd., De magistr. rei publ. Rom.

Romulus had a crown and a sceptre with an eagle on the top and a white cloak reaching to the feet and striped with purple breadths from the shoulders to the feet . . . and a scarlet shoe . . . according to Cocceius.

 
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And he wore red shoes.  Dio, Book I. "So, no doubt, it is ordered by Nature that whatever is human shall not submit to be ruled by that which is like it and familiar to it, partly through jealousy, partly through contempt of it."

 
1 - loann, Antioch., fr. M.

Romulus, after assuming the royal power over the Romans, distinguished himself uniformly in warfare, but was ever haughty toward the citizens and particularly toward the leaders of the senate. Toward the soldiers who shared in his expeditions he was kindly disposed, assigning them lands and also giving them a part of the spoils; but toward the senate his attitude was very different. As a result the latter hated him, and surrounding him as he was delivering a speech in the senate-house they rent him limb from limb and so slew him. They were favoured in their desire for concealment by a violent wind storm and an eclipse of the sun, — the same sort of phenomenon B.C. 716that had attended his birth. Such was the end of Romulus, after he had held absolute sway for thirty-seven years. Now when he had thus disappeared, the multitude and the soldiery made diligent search for him; but his slayers were in a dilemma, unable either to declare their deed or to appoint another king. While the people were thus excited and were planning to take some action, a certain Julius Proclus, a knight, having arrayed himself as if he were just returning from somewhere, rushed into their midst and cried: "Grieve not, Quirites! I have myself beheld Romulus ascending to the sky.  Dio, Book I. "When, at the risk not only of his safety but even of his life, he encountered danger in your behalf."

Numa dwelt on the hill called Quirinal, because was he a Sabine, but he had his official residence on the Sacred Way; he used to spend his time near the temple of Vesta, although occasionally he would remain in the country.

Dio says: "It is my desire to write a history of all the memorable achievements of the Romans, as well in time of peace as in war, so that no one, whether

 
1 - 23 loann. Antioch., fr. M.

He bade me tell you that he has become a god and is called Quirinus and also bade me admonish you by all means to choose someone as king without delay, and to continue to live under this form of government." At this announcement all believed and were relieved of their disquietude. They straightway built a temple to Quirinus, and unanimously decided to continue to be ruled by a king; but here their accord ended. The original Roman element and the Sabines who had settled among them each demanded that the king be chosen from their own ranks, with the result that the state was left without a ruler. For a whole year, accordingly, the senate exercised the supreme power, assigning the command for five days at a time to the most distinguished senators in rotation; these were called interreges Roman or non-Roman, shall look in vain for any of the essential facts."

For since he understood well that the majority of mankind hold in contempt what is of like nature with themselves and in daily association with them, through a feeling that it is no better than themselves, but, as a result of their belief in the divine, worship that which is unseen and different, as being superior, he dedicated a certain piece of ground to the Muses . . .

Dio, Book I. "These, then, are the rites which Numa established."

 
1 - 24 Suidas, s.v. Nονμᾶς.

And he placed over the priests the pontifices and flamines as they were called; and he appointed the Salii who should practise the dance. The Vestal virgins he likewise appointed to have charge of the fire and water. They enjoyed the highest honour among the Romans, and kept their chastity for life; if one of them was known by a man she was buried. Accordingly they were not permitted to use perfumes, flowers, or any robe other than a white one.

 
1 - Cedrenus I, p. 2f.

And he appointed the Vestal virgins to have charge of the fire and water; these kept their chastity for life, or in case they failed to do so, were buried beneath a shower of stones.  They settled down at that time to an orderly life through their own efforts, when once they had gained faith in the divine; after which they continued at peace both with one another and with the outside tribes throughout the entire reign of Numa. He, no less than Romulus, seemed to have been provided for them by divine guidance; indeed, men who know Sabine history best declare that he was born on the same day that Rome was founded. In this way because of both of them the city quickly became strong and well ordered; for the one gave it practice in the arts of warfare, — of necessity, since it was but newly founded, — and the other taught it, in addition, the arts of peace, so that it became equally distinguished in each.

 
1 - 26 Cadrenus I, p. 2f.

Thus, then, through both of them the city quickly became strong and well ordered; for Numa shaped its political and peaceable institutions, even as Romulus determined its military career.

 
1 - Cedrenus I, p. 29

Dio the Roman says that Janus, an ancient hero, because of his entertainment of Saturn, received the knowledge of the future and of the past, and that on this account he was represented with two faces by the Romans. From him the month of January was named, and the year takes its beginning from this same month.  Dio, Book I. "For in the beginning of some undertakings, when we are eagerly seeking certain ends, we gladly submit even to the expense involved."

 
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Numa placed January at the beginning of the year. He died after reigning forty-three years.

 
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Dio, Book II. "The Romans, realizing that their the Albans' reputation would stand in the way of their own growth."

Neither of the two Tullus or Mettius sanctioned the removal of his people to the other city, but both championed their own pretensions. For Tullus felt emboldened in view of the fame of Romulus and of the power the Romans now possessed, and so did Fufetius in view of the antiquity of Alba and because it was the mother city not only of the Romans themselves but of many others; and both felt no little pride. For these reasons they gave up

 
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When Numa died leaving no successor, Tullus Hostilius was chosen by the people and the senate. He sneered at most of Numa's practices and followed in the footsteps of Romulus; and he was not only himself eager for battle but also provoked the same spirit in his people. Thus when the territory of the Albans had been raided by the Romans, both sides rushed to battle; but before fighting they effected a reconciliation and both races decided to dwell together in one city. When, however, each clung to its own city and insisted that the other should  that contention but disputed about the leadership. They saw that it was impossible, on the basis of equal sovereignty, for the two peoples to form an alliance that would be safe and free from strife, owing to the inherent disposition of men to quarrel with their equals and to desire to rule others. On this subject also they made many representations to each other, to see if by any means either would voluntarily concede the sovereignty to the other. However, they accomplished nothing, but agreed to fight for the leadership.

 
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move to it, they gave up this intention. Next they disputed about the leadership; and when neither would yield to the other, they arranged to have a contest for the sovereignty. They did not, however, care to fight with entire armies nor yet to let the issue be decided by single combat. Now there were on both sides brothers born three at a birth, the offspring of twin mothers, of like age and matched in prowess; the Roman brothers were called Publihoratii and the Albans Curiatii. These they put forward as their champions for battle, paying no heed to the relationship between them. So the six took up their arms, arrayed themselves opposite each other in the space between the armies, called upon  Dio, Book II. "And he Horatius, attacking them when they expected no further danger."

Tullus was regarded as a most valiant man against the

 
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the same family gods and continually glanced upward at the sun. Then they joined battle, now in groups, and now by pairs. Finally, when two of the Romans had fallen and all of the Albans had been wounded, the surviving Horatius, because he could not contend with the three at once, even though he was unwounded, gave way in order that in pursuing him they might be scattered. And when they had become separated in the pursuit, he attacked each one by himself and slew them all. For this he was honoured; but because he furthermore killed his sister, when she lamented on seeing Horatius carrying the spoils of her cousins, he was tried for murder. However, he appealed to the people and was acquitted.

The Albans now became subjects of the Romans, but later they disregarded the compact. When summoned, as subjects, to serve as allies, they attempted at the crisis of the battle to desert to the enemy and to join in the attack upon the Romans; but they were detected and punished. Many, including their leader, Mettius, were put to death, while the rest suffered deportation; and their city, Alba, was razed to the ground, although for some five hundred years it had been honoured by the Romans as their mother city.

While Tullus was accounted a most valiant man against the enemy, he neglected the worship of the  enemy, but he absolutely despised and neglected the worship of the gods, until, during the occurrence of a pestilence, he himself fell sick. Then, indeed, he paid the strictest regard to all the gods, and in particular established the Salii Collini.

Marcius came to realize that it is not enough for men who desire peace to refrain from injuring others, and that inoffensiveness without aggressiveness is not a means of safety, but the more one strives after peace the more vulnerable does one become to the mass of mankind; and he accordingly changed his policy. He saw that the desire for quiet is not effective as a safeguard unless accompanied by equip-

 
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gods. But when a pestilence visited the Romans and he himself fell sick, he turned aside to superstition. He is said to have met his end by being consumed by lightning, or else as the result of a plot formed by Ancus Marcius, who was, as we have stated, a son of Numa's daughter. He was king of the Romans thirty-two years.

 
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Marcius succeeded Hostilius, receiving the kingdom as a voluntary gift from the Romans. He was not perfect in his arm, for he was maimed at the joint ankylê, whence he got the nickname Ancus. Though naturally mild, he was compelled to change his policy, and so turned his attention to campaigns.  ment for war; he perceived also that the satisfactions of a policy of inoffensiveness very quickly and easily ruin those who carry it too far. For this reason he concluded that war afforded at once a more honourable and secure guaranty of peace, both materially and morally; and so whatever he was unable to obtain from the Latins with their consent, and without injuring them, he took away against their will by force of arms.

 
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For the rest of the Latins, on account of the destruction of Alba and in fear that they themselves might suffer some similar disaster, were angry at the Romans. As long as Tullus survived, they had restrained themselves, fearing him as a mighty warrior; but thinking that Marcius was easy to attack because of his peaceful disposition, they assailed his territory and pillaged it. He, realizing that war is the means of peace, assailed his assailants, and avenged himself; he captured some of their cities, one of which he razed to the ground, and disposed of many of the prisoners as captives, while he settled many others in Rome. As the Romans multiplied and land was added to their domain, the neighbouring peoples became displeased and set themselves at odds with them. Hence the Romans overcame the Fidenates by siege, discomfited the Sabines by falling upon them while they were scattered and seizing their camp, and so terrified the rest that they caused  Tarquinius, by using his great wealthy intelligence, and versatility everywhere, as occasion offered, impressed Marcius so favourably that he was enrolled

 
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them to remain at peace even against their will. After this Marcius' span of life came to its close, when he had ruled for twenty-four years; he was a man who paid strict attention to religion after the manner of his grandfather Numa.

 
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The sovereignty was now appropriated by Lucius Tarquinius, who was the son of Demaratus, a Corinthian. Driven into exile, the latter had taken up his abode in Tarquinii, an Etruscan city; and a son, named Lucumo, had been born to him there of a native Etruscan woman. This son, though he inherited much wealth from his father, yet, because as an immigrant he was not thought worthy of the highest offices by the people of Tarquinii, moved to Rome, changing his name along with his city; for he was now called Lucius Tarquinius, after the city in which he had sojourned. It is said that as he was journeying to his new home an eagle swooped down and snatched off the cap he had on his head, and after soaring aloft and screaming for some time, fitted it again to his head; hence he conceived no slight hope and eagerly took up his residence in Rome. And thus not long afterward he was numbered among the foremost men. For, as the result of using his wealth quite unstintingly and of winning over the influential men through his intelligence and versatility,  by the latter among the patricians and senators, was often appointed general and was entrusted with the supervision of the king's children and of the kingdom. He was no less agreeable to the rest, and consequently they welcomed his leadership. The reason was that while he took all measures from which he might derive strength he did not lose his head, but though among the foremost, humbled himself. Any laborious tasks he would undertake in the place of others, and that openly; but pleasures he willingly resigned to others, while he himself obtained either nothing or but little, and then unnoticed. The responsibility for what went well he ascribed to any one sooner than to himself, and he placed the resulting advantages within the reach of the public for whoever desired them; but disagreeable issues he never laid to the charge of any one else, nor attempted to divide the blame. Besides, he favoured all the friends of Marcius individually both in word and deed. Money he spent unstintingly, and he was ready to offer his services to any who needed aught

 
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he was enrolled among the patricians and senators by Marcius, was appointed general, and was entrusted with the supervision of the king's children and of the kingdom. He showed himself an excellent man, sharing his money with those in need and offering himself readily to any one who required his assistance; he  of him. He neither said nor did anything mean to anybody, and did not willingly become anybody's enemy. Furthermore, whatever favours he received from others he always exaggerated, but unpleasant treatment he either did not notice at all or minimized it and regarded it as of very slight importance; and he not only refused to retaliate in such cases, but actually conferred kindnesses until he won even the offender over completely. From this course, accordingly, he gained a certain reputation for cleverness, because he had come to dominate Marcius and his whole circle; but by his subsequent behaviour he caused the majority of men to be distrusted, either as being deceitful by nature or as changing their disposition according to their power and fortunes.

 
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neither did nor said anything mean to any one. And if he received a favour at the hands of anybody, he magnified it, whereas if any offence was offered him, he either disregarded the injury or minimized it and made light of it, and far from retaliating upon the man who had done the injury, he would even confer kindnesses upon him. Thus he came to dominate both Marcius himself and his circle, and acquired the reputation of being a sensible and upright man.

But the aforesaid estimate of him did not continue permanently. For upon the death of Marcius he behaved in a knavish way to the latter 's two sons
 
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and got the kingdom for himself. For when the senate and the people were intending to elect the sons of Marcius, Tarquinius made advances to the most influential element among the senators, after having first sent the fatherless boys to some distant point, as if on a hunting expedition; and then by his words and by his efforts he secured the voting of the kingdom to himself, on the understanding, of course, that he would restore it to the boys when they reached manhood. But after assuming control of affairs he so managed the Romans that they would never wish to choose the boys in his stead. He accustomed the lads to indolence and ruined them soul and body by a sort of kindness. But still feeling anxious in spite of these arrangements, he strengthened himself in the senate. Those of the populace who were friendly towards him he enrolled, to the number of about two hundred, among the patricians and senators, and thus he brought both the senate and the people under his control. He also altered his raiment and insignia to a more magnificent style. These consisted of toga and tunic, purple all over and shot with gold, a crown of precious stones set in gold, and an ivory sceptre and chair; they were later used not only by his successors but also by those who held sway as emperors. He also on the occasion of a triumph paraded with a four-horse chariot and kept twelve lictors for life.

He would certainly have made many other innovations as well, had not Attus Navius withstood him when he desired to rearrange the tribes; this man was an augur whose equal has never been seen. Tarquinius, angry at his opposition, devised a plan to
 
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the priestesses who do not keep their chastity has continued to prevail. The men who dishonour them have their necks inserted in a forked pole in the Forum, and then are scourged naked until they perish. However, an attack was made upon Tarquinius by the sons of Marcius because he would not yield the sovereignty to them, but instead placed a certain Tullius, born to him by a slave woman, at the head of them all. This more than anything else displeased the patricians. The young men interested some of these in their cause, and then they fonned a plot against the king. They arrayed two men like rustics, equipped with axes and sickles, and made them ready to attack him. So these two, since they did not find Tarquinius in the Forum, came to the gates of the palace, pretending to have a dispute with each other, and asked for admission to his presence. Upon gaining their request they began to make opposing arguments, and while Tarquinius was giving his attention to one of them as he pleaded his cause, the other slew him.

 
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Such was the end that befell Tarquinius after he had ruled for thirty-eight years. Nevertheless, the sons of Marcius did not possess themselves of the royal power, but Tullius gained it, through the cooperation of Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius. Tullius was the son of a certain woman named Ocrisia, who had been the wife of SpuriusTullius, a Latin, and had been captured in the war and set apart for Tarquinius; she had either become pregnant at home or conceived after her capture (both stories are current). When Tullius had at length reached  Dio, Book II. "But when they yielded him obedience in everything."

 
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boyhood he went to sleep on a chair once in the daytime and a quantity of fire seemed to leap forth from his head. Tarquinius, seeing it, took a lively interest in the boy and when he arrived at maturity had him enrolled among the patricians and senators.

The murderers of Tarquinius were arrested, and his wife and Tullius learned the plan of the plot; but instead of making the king's death known at once, they took him up and pretended to care for him, as if he were still alive, and meanwhile exchanged mutual pledges that Tullius should take the sovereignty but surrender it to Tanaquil's sons when they became men. And when the multitude ran together and raised an outcry, Tanaquil, leaning out of an upper story, said: "Be not afraid. My husband both lives and shall be seen by you shortly. But in order that he may regain health at leisure and that no hindrance to business may arise from his being incapacitated, he entrusts the management of the public weal for the present to Tullius." These were her words, and the people not unwillingly accepted Tullius; for he appeared to be an upright man.

When he had thus been granted the administration of public affairs, he managed them for the most part according to orders supposed to come from Tarquinius. And when he saw the people yielding him obedience in all points, he brought the assassins of Tarquinius before the senate, though only because
 
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of their plot, as he styled it; for he still pretended that the king was alive. They were sentenced and put to death, and the sons of Marcius through fear took refuge among the Volsci. Then Tullius not only revealed the death of Tarquinius but openly took possession of the kingdom. At first he put forward the sons of Tarquinius as his excuse, claiming that he was the guardian of their royal office, but afterward he proceeded to pay court to the people, believing that he could secure control of the multitude very much more easily than of the patricians. He gave them money, assigned land to each individual, and made preparations to free the slaves and adopt them into tribes. As the leaders were irritated at this, he gave instructions that those liberated should perform some services, in requital, for the men who had liberated them. But when the patricians became incensed against him, and circulated, among other charges, one to the effect that he was holding the sovereignty without anybody's sanction, he gathered the people together and addressed them. And by the use of many alluring statements he so disposed them toward himself that they at once voted the kingdom to him outright. He in return bestowed many gifts upon them and enrolled some of them in the senate. These were originally at a disadvantage in most matters as compared with the patricians, but as time went on they shared equally with the patricians in everything except the office of interrex and certain

priesthoods, and were distinguished from them in no respect except by their shoes. For the shoes worn by the patricians in the city were ornamented with
 
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laced straps and the design of the letter, to signify that they were descended from the original hundred men that had been senators. This, they say, was the letter R, either as indicating the number of the hundred men referred to or else as the initial of the name of the Romans.

In this way Tullius gained control of the populace; but fearing that some rebellion might take place, he entrusted the greater part and the most important of the public business to the care of the more influential citizens. Thus they became harmonious among themselves and transacted the public business in the best manner. He also conducted a few wars against the Veientes and against all the Etruscans, in the course of which nothing was done worthy of record. Wishing to affiliate the Latins still more closely with the Romans, he persuaded them to construct a temple in Rome out of common funds. This they dedicated to Diana. But differences arose in regard to its superintendence. Meantime a Sabine brought to Rome an exceedingly fine cow, intending to sacrifice her to Diana in accordance with an oracle. The oracle declared that he who sacrificed her should exalt his country. One of the Romans, learning of this, went to the man and told him it was necessary that he first be purified in the river, and by his words he persuaded him. After persuading him, he took the cow under the pretence of keeping her safe; and having taken her, he sacrificed her. When the Sabine toade known the oracle, the Latins both yielded the presidency of the shrine to the  Dio, Book II. "And because his brother did not cooperate with him, he secretly put him out of the way by means of poison administered by his wife."

 
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Romans and in other ways honoured them as superior to themselves.

This was the course these matters took. Now Tullius joined his daughters in marriage with the Tarquins, and though he announced that he was going to restore the kingdom to them, he kept putting it off, on one pretext after another. And they were in no amiable frame of mind, but were indignant. The king paid no heed to them and urged the Romans to democracy and freedom. At this the Tarquins were all the more vexed. But the younger brother, angry as he was, still endured it, while the older one decided he could bear Tullius no longer. And when he found that his wife did not approve his attitude, any more than did his brother, he put his wife to death himself and compassed his brother's death by means of poison administered by the latter's wife. Then joining himself to his brother's wife, he plotted with her against Tullius. After persuading many of the senators and patricians who had grievances against Tullius to coöperate with him, he unexpectedly repaired with them to the senate, his wife Tullia also following him. And he spoke at considerable length, reminding those present of his father's worth and uttering many jests at the expense of Tullius. When the latter, on hearing of it, hastily made his appearance and even spoke a few words,  Tarquinius, when he had made sufficient preparations to rule over them even against their will, first proceeded to arrest the most influential of the senators and next some of the other citizens, putting many to death publicly, when he could bring some

 
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Tarquin seized him, and carrying him forth, cast him down the steps in front of the senate-house. So the king, bewildered by the audacity of Tarquin and surprised that no one came to his assistance, did not say or do anything more. Tarquin at once obtained the kingdom from the senate, and sent some men who slew Tullius while he was on his way home. The latter's daughter, after embracing her husband in the senate-house and saluting him as king, departed for the palace, driving her chariot over the dead body of her father as he lay there.

 
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Thus ruled Tullius and thus he died, after a reign of forty-four years. Tarquin, who succeeded to the kingdom, surrounded himself with body-guards after the manner of Romulus, and used them both night and day, at home and about the Forum. For, as a result of what he had done to his father-in-law, and his wife to her father, they in turn were afraid of other people. And when he had made his preparations to rule over them, he proceeded to arrest and put to death the most influential of the senators and other citizens, executing publicly those  plausible charge against them, and many others secretly, while some he banished. Not merely because some of them loved Tullius more than they did him, nor because they had family, wealth, or spirit, and displayed conspicuous bravery and extraordinary wisdom did he destroy them, — by way of defending himself against some and anticipating the attack of others, — out of jealousy and a suspicion likewise that their dissimilarity of character must force them to hate him, but he even slew all his bosom friends who had exerted themselves to help him get the royal power, no less than the rest; for he thought that impelled by the audacity and fondness for revolution through which they had helped him to obtain dominion they might likewise give it to some one else. So he made away with the most powerful element among the senators and the knights and did not appoint to those orders any one whatever in place of the men who were being destroyed; for he believed that he was hated by the entire populace

 
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against whom he was able to bring a charge, and others secretly; some also he banished. He destroyed not merely the followers of Tullius, but in addition those who had cooperated with himself in securing the royal power, and thus he made away with the most powerful element among the senators and the knights. He believed that he was hated by the entire populace; hence he did not appoint any persons whatever in place of the men who were  and he was anxious to render the classes mentioned utterly powerless through lack of numbers. In fact, he even undertook to abolish the senate altogether, since he believed that every gathering of men, particularly of chosen persons who possessed some semblance of authority from antiquity, was most hostile to a tyrant. But since he was afraid that the multitude or even his body-guards themselves, in their capacity as citizens, might revolt by reason of vexation at the change in government, he refrained from doing this openly, but effectively gained his object in a convenient manner. He not only introduced no new member into the senate to make up the loss, but even to those who were left he communicated nothing of importance. He used to call the senators together, to be sure, yet it was not to gain their assistance in the conduct of any important business; nay, this very act was designed to furnish a proof of their small numbers and thereby to bring

 
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being destroyed, but undertaking to abolish the senate altogether, he not only introduced no new member into it to make up the loss, but even communicated nothing of importance to those who were members. He used to call the senators together, to be sure; yet it was not to gain their assistance in the administration of any important business, but in order that their fewness might be made evident to all and that they might con  humiliation and contempt upon them. Most of the business he carried on by himself or with the aid of his sons, partly in order that no one else should have any power, and partly for the reason that he shrank from publishing matters involving his own wrong-doing. He was difficult of access and hard to accost, and showed such great haughtiness and brutality toward all alike that he received as a result the nickname of Proud. Among other decidedly tyrannical deeds of himself and his sons, he once bound some citizens naked to stakes in the very Forum and before the eyes of the citizens, and scourged them to death with rods. This punishment, invented by him at that time, has often been inflicted.

 
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sequently become objects of contempt. Most of the business he carried on by himself or with the aid of his sons. He was hard to approach and hard to accost, and showed great haughtiness and brutality toward all alike, and he as well as his sons adopted a decidedly tyrannical bearing toward everybody. Hence he looked with suspicion even upon the members of his body-guard and secured a new guard from the Latin nation, intermingling the Latins with Romans in the ranks. He intended that the Latins as the result of obtaining equal privileges with the Romans should owe him gratitude, and that the Romans should cause him less dread, since they would no longer be by themselves but would bear arms only in association with the Latins.  Dio, Book II. "Uttering many strange reproaches publicly, as had been agreed upon, against his father, whom he charged with being a tyrant and a breaker of treaties."

 
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He also joined battle with the people of Gabii and fared ill in the conflict, but overcame them by a ruse; for he suggested to his son Sextus that he desert to their side. And that there might be some plausible pretext for his desertion, Sextus reproached his father publicly as a tyrant and a breaker of treaties, and the latter flogged his son and put himself on the defensive. Then, according to arrangement, the son made his pretended desertion to the people of Gabii, taking along with him money and companions. The enemy believed the trick both on account of the cruelty of Tarquin and because at this time also the son spoke many words of truth in abusing his father and by his conduct seemed to have become thoroughly estranged from him. So they were very glad to receive him, and in his company made many incursions into Roman territory and did it no slight damage. For this reason, and because he privately gave some of them money and also spent it lavishly for public purposes, he was chosen general by them and was entrusted with the management of their government. Thereupon, sending a man secretly, he acquainted his father with what had occurred, and asked him for a plan regarding the future. The king made no answer to the emissary, in order that he might not, in case he were recognized, either willingly  Dio, Book II. "When, therefore, he had learned this, he came to them the following day."

 
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or unwillingly reveal something; but leading him into a garden where there were poppies, he struck off with his staff the heads that were most conspicuous and strewed the ground with them; hereupon he dismissed the message-bearer. The latter, without comprehending the affair, repeated the king's actions to Sextus, and he understood the meaning of the suggestion. And Sextus destroyed the more prominent men of Gabii, some secretly by poison, others by the hands of certain alleged robbers, and still others he put to death after judicial trial by concocting against them false accusations of traitorous dealings with his father.

Thus did Sextus deal with the men of Gabii; he destroyed the more influential citizens and distributed their wealth among the populace. Later when some had already perished and the rest had been cozened and thoroughly believed in him, assisted by the Roman captives and the deserters whom he had gathered in large numbers for the purpose, he seized the city and handed it over to his father. The king bestowed it upon his son, and himself made war upon other nations.

 
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1The oracles of the Sibyl Tarquin obtained for

 
2 - Tzetzes in Lycophr. Alex. 127
The Sibyl about whom Lycophron is now speaking 
 
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the Romans quite against his will. A woman whom they called Sibyl, gifted with divine inspiration, came to Rome bringing three or nine books, and offered these to Tarquin for purchase, stating the price of the books. As he paid no attention to her, she burned one or three of the books. When again Tarquin scorned her, she destroyed part of the rest in a similar way. And she was about to burn up the others also when the augurs compelled him to purchase the few that were intact anyhow. He bought these for the price for which he might have secured them all, and delivered them to two senators to keep. Since they did not entirely understand the contents, they sent to Greece and hired two men to come from there to read and interpret these books. The people of the neighbourhood, desiring to learn just what it was that was revealed by the books, bribed Marcus Acilius, one of the custodians, and had some parts copied out. When this affair became known, Marcus was thrust between two hides sewn together and

 
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was the Cumaean, who died in the time of Tarquin the Proud, leaving behind three or nine of her prophetic books. Of these the Romans bought either one or three, since her servant had destroyed the rest by fire because they would not give her as much gold as she asked. This they later did, and bought either one that was left, or else three, and gave them to Marcus Acilius to keep. But because he lent them to be copied, they put him to death by enclosing him alive in the skin of an ox; 
 
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drowned, in order that neither earth nor water nor sun might be defiled by his death; and beginning with him, this punishment has ever since prevailed in the case of parricides.

The temple on the Tarpeian mount he constructed in accordance with the vow of his father. And as the earth was being excavated for the laying of the foundations, there appeared the head of a man but lately dead, still with blood in it. Accordingly the Romans sent to a soothsayer of Etruria to ask what was signified by the phenomenon. Now he, with the design of making the portent apply to Etruria, made a sketch upon the ground and in it laid out the plan of Rome and the Tarpeian mount. He intended to ask the envoys: "Is this Rome? Is this the mount? Was the head found here?" They would suspect nothing and would assent, and so the efficacy of the portent would be transferred to the place where it had been shown in the diagram. This was his design, but the envoys learned of it from his son, and when the question was put to them, they answered: "The settlement of Rome is not here, but in Latium, and the mount is in the country of the Romans, and the head was found on that mount." Thus the design of the soothsayer was thwarted and they learned the whole truth and

 
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and for the book or books they dug a hole in the midst of the Forum and buried them along with a chest.

Lucius Junius, a son of Tarquin's sister, in terror after the king had killed his father and brother and had also seized their property, feigned stupidity, in the hope that he might possibly survive. For he well understood that every person possessed of his wits,

 
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reported it to their fellow-citizens, to the effect that they should be very powerful and rule a vast multitude. This, then, was another event that inspired them with hope, and they accordingly renamed the mount Capitolium; for capita in the Roman tongue means the "head."

Needing money for the building of the temple, Tarquin waged war upon the inhabitants of Ardea; but from this he not only gained no money, but was actually driven out of the kingdom. Signs also came in his way that indicated his expulsion. Out of his garden vultures drove the young of eagles, and in the men's hall, where he was having a banquet with his friends, a huge serpent appeared and drove him and his companions from the table. In consequence of these portents he sent his sons Titus and Arruns to Delphi. But as Apollo declared that he should be driven from his domain only when a dog should use human speech, he was inspired with confident hope, thinking that the oracle could never be fulfilled.

Now Lucius Junius was a son of Tarquin's sister; his father and brother Tarquin had killed. So he, fearing now for his own person, feigned stupidity,  especially when he is of a distinguished family, becomes an object of suspicion to tyrants. And when once he had set out on this course, he acted his part with the greatest precision, and for that reason was also called Brutus; for this was the name that the Latins gave to idiots. When sent along with Titus and Arruns as a butt, he carried a kind of staff as a votive offering, he said, to the god, though it had no great value so far as one could see.

Dio, Book II. "After that he was found in the Pythian god's temple."

They made sport of Brutus, not only for his gift, but also because, when the oracle replied to the

 
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employing this means of safety as a screen for his life. Hence he was nicknamed Brutus, for the Latins were accustomed to give this name to idiots. While acting the fool he was taken along by the sons of Tarquin as a butt, when they journeyed to Delphi. And he said that he was carrying a votive offering to the god; this was a kind of staff, apparently possessing no point of excellence, so that he became a laughing-stock for it all the more. It furnished a sort of image of the affliction that he feigned. For he had hollowed it out and had secretly poured in gold, indicating thereby that there was likewise concealed behind the disesteem which he suffered for his stupidity a sound and estimable intelligence. Now when the sons of Tarquin inquired  ambassadors, upon their inquiring which should succeed to their father's kingdom, that the first to kiss his mother should obtain the power over the Romans, he kissed the earth, pretending to have fallen down accidentally; for he regarded her as the mother of all mankind.

Brutus overthrew the Tarquins for the following reason. During the siege of Ardea the sons of Tarquin were one day dining with Brutus and Collatinus, since these two were of their own age and relatives; and they fell into a discussion and finally into a dispute about the virtue of their wives, each one giving the preference to his own spouse. And, as all the women happened to be absent from the camp, they decided straightway that night, before they could be announced, to take horse and ride away to all of them simultaneously. This they did, and found all engaged in revelry except Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus,

 
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who should succeed to their father's kingdom, the god replied that the first who kissed his mother should obtain the power. Then Brutus, comprehending, fell down as if by chance and kissed the earth, rightly deeming her to be the mother of all.

This Brutus overthrew the Tarquins, taking as his justification the fate of Lucretia, though these princes were, quite apart from that, hated by all for their  whom they discovered at work on her wool. When this fact about her became noised abroad, Sextus conceived a desire to outrage her. Perchance he even felt some love for her, since she was of surpassing beauty; still, it was rather her reputation than her body that he desired to ruin. He watched for an occasion when Collatinus was among the Rutuli, hurried to Collatia, and coming to her by night as to a kinswoman, obtained both food and lodging. At first he tried to persuade her to grant her favours to him, but meeting with no success, he attempted force. When he found he could make no progress by this means either, he devised a novel plan by which, strangely

 
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despotic and violent ways. Lucretia was the daughter of Lucretius Spurius, a member of the senate, and she was wife of the distinguished Tarquinius Collatinus, and was renowned for her beauty and chastity. Sextus, the son of Tarquin, set his heart upon outraging her, not so much because he was inspired with passion by her beauty as because he chose to plot against her chaste reputation. So, having waited for Collatinus to be away from home, he came by night to her, as to the wife of a relative, and lodged at her house. And first he tried by persuasion to secure illicit pleasure from her and then he resorted to violence. When he could not succeed, he threatened to slay her. But inasmuch as she scorned  enough, he compelled her to submit voluntarily to be outraged. To his declaration that he would slay her she paid no attention, and to his statement that he would make away also with one of the servants she listened in contempt. But when he further threatened to lay the body of the servant beside her and spread the report that he had found them sleeping together and killed them, she could no longer endure it, but, fearing it might really be believed that this had so happened, chose to yield to him and die after giving an account of the affair rather than lose her good name in perishing at once. For this reason she did not refuse to commit adultery, but afterward she made ready a dagger beneath the pillow and sent for her husband and her father. As soon as they had come she wept bitterly and sighed, then said:

 
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even death, he threatened furthermore to lay a slave beside her and to kill them both and spread the report that he had found them sleeping together and had killed them. This rendered Lucretia distraught, and, fearing that it might be believed to have so happened, she surrendered. And after the act of adultery she placed a dagger beneath the pillow, and sent for her husband and her father. When they came, accompanied by Brutus and Publius Valerius, she wept bitterly and sighed, then related the whole  "Father, — I can confess it to you with less shame than to my husband, — it was no honourable deed I did last night, but Sextus forced me, threatening to kill me and a slave together and to pretend he had found me sleeping with the man. It was this threat that compelled me to sin, to prevent you from really believing that such a thing had taken place. Now I, because I am a woman, will treat my case as becomes me; but do you, if you are men and care for your wives and for your children, avenge me, free yourselves, and show the tyrants what manner of men you are and what manner of woman of yours they have outraged." When she had spoken to this effect, she did not wait for any reply, but immediately drew the dagger from its hiding-place and slew herself.

 
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story. Thereupon she added: "Now I will treat my case as becomes me; but do you, if you are men, avenge me, free yourselves, and show the tyrants what manner of men you are and what manner of woman of yours they have outraged." When she had spoken thus, she immediately drew the dagger from its hiding-place and killed herself.

When the men had heard and beheld these things, they were greatly grieved. But Brutus, availing himself of the advice and zeal of Publius in the emergency, showed the woman to many of the people as she lay there, and he addressed the others, causing them to manifest their hatred  Dio, Book II. "And departing from Roman territory, he Tarquin sounded the neighbouring peoples on many occasions."

 
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openly against the tyrants; and they made a compact not to receive Tarquin again. After accomplishing thus much and entrusting the city to the others, Brutus himself rode off to the camp, where he persuaded the soldiers to adopt the same course as the people had chosen. And when Tarquin learned of what had occurred and hastened toward the city, he was repulsed and fled to Tarquinii, accompanied by his children and the rest of his followers, with the single exception of Tullia; she, as the story goes, destroyed herself.
 
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All crowds judge measures by the men who direct them, and of whatever sort they perceive the men to be, they beheve that the measures are of the same sort.

Every one prefers the untried to the well known, attaching great hope to the uncertain in comparison with what has already gained his hatred.

All changes are very dangerous, and especially do those in governments work the greatest and most numerous evils to both individuals and states. Sensible men, therefore, choose to remain under the same forms continually, even if they be not the best, rather than by changing, now to one, now to another, to be continually unsettled.

 
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1Thus Tarquin was deprived of his power, after B.C. 509ruling twenty-five years; and the Romans turned to Brutus and chose him ruler. In order, however, that the rule of one man might not suggest the kingly power, they elected also, as joint-ruler with him, the husband of Lucretia, Tarquinius Collatinus. He was believed to be hostile to the tyrants because of the outrage done his wife. Now from Tarquin  Every person comes to possess wishes and desires according to his fortunes, and whatever his circumstances be, of like nature are also the opinions he acquires.

The business of kingship, more than any other, demands not merely excellence of character, but also great understanding and experience, and it is not possible without these qualities for the man who takes hold of it to show moderation. Many, for example, as if raised unexpectedly to some great height, have not endured their elevation, but being overcome with giddiness, have fallen and not only brought disaster to themselves but at the same time shattered all the interests of their subjects.

Dio, Book III. "It is done not merely by the actual men who rule them, but also by those who share the power with those rulers."

Dio, Book III. "Whose father also ruled you blamelessly."

'Dio, Book III. "Of the fact that he loves you, you could obtain no better proof than his eagerness to live among you."

 
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there came envoys to Rome to discuss his restoration; but when they found they were making no progress, . . .   Dio, Book III. "And he is particularly anxious to recover the property that was originally his."

Dio, Book III. "But how would it pay anybody to do this?"

Dio, Book III. "Even as Romulus also enjoined upon us."

And with regard to the future, base your judgment upon what they have done, but do not be deceived by the false professions they make when suppliants. For unholy deeds proceed in every case from a man's real purpose, yet any one may concoct creditable phrases. Judge, accordingly, by what a man has done, not by what he says he will do.

Dio, Book III. "The women made lamentation for a whole year."

Valerius, the colleague of Brutus, although he had

 
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Some of these conspirators put to death by Brutus were relatives of Collatinus, who was angry on their account. Accordingly, Brutus so aroused the people against Collatinus that they all but slew him with their own hands; however, they did not do this, but forced him to resign his office. In his place they elected as Brutus' colleague Publius Valerius, whose cognomen was Publicola; this appellation, translated, means Friend of the People, or Most Democratic.  proved himself the most democratic of men, came near being murdered by the multitude with their own hands; for they suspected him of being eager to become sole sovereign. And they would indeed have slain him, had he not quickly anticipated their action by courting their favour. For upon entering the assembly he lowered the fasces, which he had formerly carried upright, and took away the axes that were bound up with them. After he had in this way assumed an attitude of the deepest humility, he kept a sad countenance for some time, and wept bitterly; and when he at last managed to utter a sound, he spoke in a low, fearful voice, with the suggestion of a quaver.

For to Marcus, when he had proceeded up to the Capitol and was offering vows to the gods in view of the present state of affairs . . .

The temple of Jupiter was dedicated by Horatius, as determined by lot, although Valerius made the declaration that his son was dead, and arranged to have this news brought to him during the very performance of his sacred office, in order that Horatius, under the blow of the misfortune and because in general it was impious for any one in grief to fulfil the duties of priest, should yield to him the dedication of the structure. Horatius, although he did not doubt the report, — for it was noised abroad by many trustworthy persons, — did not, however, surrender his ministry; on the contrary, aftier bidding them leave unburied the body of his son, as if it were a stranger's, in order that it might not seem to concern his sacred office, he then performed all the necessary ceremonies.