Tatian the Assyrian 120 - 180 60
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Page Data
Menu 1 Pages .5 Time 25
Menu 2 Pages 1.25 Time 1:03
Body Pages 340 Time 4:44
Menu to Body .4%, .4% 1/3, 1/272
Chapters 109
Pages per chapter 3
1 Greeks Claim, Without Reason, the Invention of the Arts 1.9 1:35.
2 The Vices and Errors of the Philosophers 1.2 1.
3 Ridicule of the Philosophers 1.7 :125.
4 Christians Worship God Alone 1.3 1:05.
5 Doctrine of the Christians as to the Creation of the World 1.4 1:10.
6 Christians’ Belief in the Resurrection 1.2 1.
7 Concerning the Fall of Man 1.4 1:10.
8 Demons Sin Among Mankind 2.1 1:45.
9 They Give Rise to Superstitions 1.7 1:25.
10 Ridicule of the Heathen Divinities 1.3 1:05.
11 Sin of Men Due Not to Fate, But to Free-Will 1.2 1.
12 Two Kinds of Spirits 2.7 2:15.
13 Theory of the Soul’s Immortality 1.3 1:05.
14 The Demons Shall Be Punished More Severely Than Men 1.1 :55.
15 Necessity of a Union with the Holy Spirit 1.9 1:35.
16 Vain Display of Power by the Demons 1.5 1:15.
17 They Falsely Promise Health to Their Votaries 2.1 1:45.
18 They Deceive, Instead of Healing 1.4 1:10.
19 Depravity Lies at the Bottom of Demon-Worship 2 1:40.
20 Thanks are Ever Due to God 1.4 1:10.
21 Doctrines of the Christians and Greeks Respecting God Compared 1.8 1:30.
22 Ridicule of the Solemnities of the Greeks 1.2 1.
23 Pugilists and Gladiators 1.1 :55.
24 Other Public Amusements .5 :25.
25 Boastings and Quarrels of the Philosophers 1.5 1:15.
26 Ridicule of the Studies of the Greeks 2 1:40.
27 Christians are Hated Unjustly 1.4 1:10.
28 Condemnation of the Greek Legislation .4 :20.
29 Account of Tatian’s Conversion 1 :55.
30 How He Resolved to Resist the Devil .8 :40.
31 Philosophy of the Christians More Ancient Than that of the Greeks 1.8 1:30.
32 Doctrine of the Christians, is Opposed to Dissensions, and Fitted for All 1.6 1:20.
33 Vindication of Christian Women 2.2 1:50.
34 Ridicule of the Statues Erected by the Greeks 1.6 1:20.
35 Tatian Speaks as an Eye-Witness 1 :50.
36 Testimony of the Chaldeans to the Antiquity of Moses 1 :50.
37 Testimony of the Phœnicians .6 :30.
38 Egyptians Place Moses in the Reign of Inachus .6 :30.
39 Catalogue of the Argive Kings 1.5 1:15.
40 Moses More Ancient and Credible Than the Heathen Heroes .7 :35.
41 Part 41 1.5 1:15
42 Concluding Statement as to the Author .3 :15.

Introductory Note


Taitian the Assyrian

Translated by J. E. Ryland.

a.d. 110–172. It was my first intention to make this author a mere appendix to his master, Justin Martyr; for he stands in an equivocal position, as half Father and half heretic. His good seems to have been largely due to Justin’s teaching and influence. One may trust that his falling away, in the decline of life, is attributable to infirmity of mind and body; his severe asceticism countenancing this charitable thought. Many instances of human frailty, which the experience of ages has taught Christians to view with compassion rather than censure, are doubtless to be ascribed to mental aberration and decay. Early Christians had not yet been taught this lesson; for, socially, neither Judaism nor Paganism had wholly surrendered their unloving influences upon their minds. Moreover, their high valuation of discipline, as an essential condition of self-preservation amid the fires of surrounding scorn and hatred, led them to practice, perhaps too sternly, upon offenders, what they often heroically performed upon themselves,—the amputation of the scandalous hand, or the plucking out of the evil eye.

In Tatian, another Assyrian follows the Star of Bethlehem, from Euphrates and the Tigris. The scanty facts of his personal history are sufficiently detailed by the translator, in his Introductory Note. We owe to himself the pleasing story of his conversion from heathenism. But I think it important to qualify the impressions the translation may otherwise leave upon the student’s mind, by a little more sympathy with the better side of his character, and a more just statement of his great services to the infant Church.

His works, which were very numerous, have perished, in consequence of his lapse from orthodoxy. Give him due credit for his Diatessaron, of which the very name is a valuable testimony to the Four Gospels as recognised by the primitive churches. It is lost, with the “infinite number” of other books which St. Jerome attributes to him. All honour to this earliest harmonist for such a work; and let us believe, with Mill and other learned authorities, that, if Eusebius had seen the work he censures, he might have expressed himself more charitably concerning it.

We know something of Tatian, already, from the melancholy pages of Irenæus. Theodoret finds no other fault with his Diatessaron than its omission of the genealogies, which he, probably, could not harmonize on any theory of his own. The errors into which he fell in his old age were so absurd, and so contrary to the Church’s doctrine and discipline, that he could not be tolerated as one of the faithful, without giving to the heathen new grounds for the malignant slanders with which they were ever assailing the Christians. At the same time, let us reflect,

that his fall is to be attributed to extravagant ideas of that encraty which is a precept of the Gospel, and which a pure abhorrence of pagan abominations led many of the orthodox to practice with extreme rigidity. And this is the place to say, once for all, that the figures of Elijah upon Mt. Carmel and of John Baptist in the wilderness, approved by our Lord’s teachings, but moderated, as a lesson to others, by his own holy but less austere example, justify the early Church in making room for the two classes of Christians which must always be found in earnest religion, and which seem to have their warrant in the fundamental constitution of human nature. There must be men like St. Paul, living in the world, though not of it; and there must be men like the Baptist, of whom the world will say, “he hath a devil.” Marvellously the early Catholics were piloted between the rocks and the whirlpools, in the narrow drift of the Gospel; and always the Holy Spirit of counsel and might was their guardian, amid their terrible trials and temptations. This must suggest, to every reflecting mind, a gratitude the most profound. To preserve evangelical encraty, and to restrain fanatical asceticism, was the spirit of early Christianity, as one sees in the ethics of Hermas. But the awful malaria of Montanism was even now rising like a fog of the marshes, and was destined to leave its lasting impress upon Western Christianity; “forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats.” Our author, alas, laid the egg which Tertullian hatched, and invented terms which that great author raised to their highest power; for he was rather the disciple of Tatian than of the Phrygians, though they kindled his strange fire. After Tertullian, the whole subject of marriage became entangled with sophistries, which have ever since adhered to the Latin churches, and introduced the most corrosive results into the vitals of individuals and of nations. Southey suggests, that, in the Roman Communion, John Wesley would have been accommodated with full scope for his genius, and canonized as a saint, while his Anglican mother had no place for him. But, on the other hand, let us reflect that while Rome had no place for Wiclif and Hus, or Jerome of Prague, she has used and glorified and canonized many fanatics whose errors were far more disgraceful than those of Tatian and Tertullian. In fact, she would have utilized and beatified these very enthusiasts, had they risen in the Middle Ages, to combine their follies with equal extravagance in persecuting the Albigenses, while aggrandizing the papal ascendency.

I have enlarged upon the equivocal character of Tatian with melancholy interest, because I shall make sparing use of notes, in editing his sole surviving work, pronounced by Eusebius his masterpiece. I read it with sympathy, admiration, and instruction. I enjoy his biting satire of heathenism, his Pauline contempt for all philosophy save that of the Gospel, his touching reference to his own experiences, and his brilliant delineation of Christian innocence and of his own emancipation from the seductions of a deceitful and transient world. In short, I feel that Tatian deserves critical editing, in the original, at the hand and heart of some expert who can thoroughly appreciate his merits, and his relations to primitive Christianity.

The following is the original Introductory Notice:—

We learn from several sources that Tatian was an Assyrian, but know nothing very definite either as to the time or place of his birth. Epiphanius (Hær., xlvi.) declares that he was a native of Mesopotamia; and we infer from other ascertained facts regarding him, that he flourished about the middle of the second century. He was at first an eager student of heathen literature, and seems to have been especially devoted to researches in philosophy. But he found no satisfaction in the bewildering mazes of Greek speculation, while he became utterly disgusted with what heathenism presented to him under the name of religion. In these circumstances, he happily met with the sacred books of the Christians, and was powerfully attracted by the purity of morals which these inculcated, and by the means of deliverance from the bondage of sin which

they revealed. He seems to have embraced Christianity at Rome, where he became acquainted with Justin Martyr, and enjoyed the instructions of that eminent teacher of the Gospel. After the death of Justin, Tatian unfortunately fell under the influence of the Gnostic heresy, and founded an ascetic sect, which, from the rigid principles it professed, was called that of the Encratites, that is, “The self-controlled,” or, “The masters of themselves.” Tatian latterly established himself at Antioch, and acquired a considerable number of disciples, who continued after his death to be distinguished by the practice of those austerities which he had enjoined. The sect of the Encratites is supposed to have been established about a.d. 166, and Tatian appears to have died some few years afterwards.

The only extant work of Tatian is his “Address to the Greeks.” It is a most unsparing and direct exposure of the enormities of heathenism. Several other works are said to have been composed by Tatian; and of these, a Diatessaron, or Harmony of the Four Gospels, is specially mentioned. His Gnostic views led him to exclude from the continuous narrative of our Lord’s life, given in this work, all those passages which bear upon the incarnation and true humanity of Christ. Not withstanding this defect, we cannot but regret the loss of this earliest Gospel harmony; but the very title it bore is important, as showing that the Four Gospels, and these only, were deemed authoritative about the middle of the second century.

1 Address to the Greeks
1 - 1 The Greeks Claim, Without Reason, the Invention of the Arts.

Be not, O Greeks, so very hostilely disposed towards the Barbarians, nor look with ill will on their opinions. For which of your institutions has not been derived from the Barbarians? The most eminent of the Telmessians invented the art of divining by dreams; the Carians, that of prognosticating by the stars; the Phrygians and the most ancient Isaurians, augury by the flight of birds; the Cyprians, the art of inspecting victims. To the Babylonians you owe astronomy; to the Persians, magic; to the Egyptians, geometry; to the Phœnicians, instruction by alphabetic writing. Cease, then, to miscall these imitations inventions of your own. Orpheus, again, taught you poetry and song; from him, too, you learned the mysteries. The Tuscans taught you the plastic art; from the annals of the Egyptians you learned to write history; you acquired the art of playing the flute from Marsyas and Olympus,—these two rustic Phrygians constructed the harmony of the shepherd’s pipe. The Tyrrhenians invented the trumpet; the Cyclopes, the smith’s art; and a woman who was formerly a queen of the Persians, as Hellanicus tells us, the method of joining together epistolary tablets: her name was Atossa. Wherefore lay aside this conceit, and be not ever boasting of your elegance of diction; for, while you applaud yourselves, your own people will of course side with you. But it becomes a man of sense to wait for the testimony of others, and it becomes men to be of one accord also in the pronunciation of their language. But, as matters stand, to you alone it has happened not to speak alike even in common intercourse; for the way of speaking among the Dorians is not the same as that of the inhabitants of Attica, nor do the Æolians speak like the Ionians. And, since such a discrepancy exists where it ought not to be, I am at a loss whom to call a Greek. And, what is strangest of all, you hold in honour expressions not of native growth, and by the intermixture of barbaric words have made your language a medley. On this account we have renounced your wisdom, though I was once a great proficient in it; for, as the comic poet says,—

These are gleaners’ grapes and small talk,—
Twittering places of swallows, corrupters of art.

Yet those who eagerly pursue it shout lustily, and croak like so many ravens. You have, too, contrived the art of rhetoric to serve injustice and slander, selling the free power of your speech for hire, and often representing the same thing at one time as right, at another time as not good. The poetic art, again, you employ to describe battles, and the amours of the gods, and the corruption of the soul.

1 - 2 The Vices and Errors of the Philosophers.

What noble thing have you produced by your pursuit of philosophy? Who of your most eminent men has been free from vain boasting? Diogenes, who made such a parade of his independence with his tub, was seized with a bowel complaint through eating a raw polypus, and so lost his life by gluttony. Aristippus, walking about in a purple robe, led a profligate life, in accordance with his professed opinions. Plato, a philosopher, was sold by Dionysius for his gormandizing propensities. And Aristotle, who absurdly placed a limit to Providence and made happiness to consist in the things which give pleasure, quite contrary to his duty as a preceptor flattered Alexander, forgetful that he was but a youth; and he, showing how well he had learned the lessons of his master, because his friend would not worship him shut him up and and carried him about like a bear or a leopard. He in fact obeyed strictly the precepts of his teacher in displaying manliness and courage by feasting, and transfixing with his spear his intimate and most beloved friend, and then, under a semblance of grief, weeping and starving himself, that he might not incur the hatred of his friends. I could laugh at those also who in the present day adhere to his tenets,—people who say that sublunary things are not under the care of Providence; and so, being nearer the earth than the moon, and below its orbit, they themselves look after what is thus left uncared for; and as for those who have neither beauty, nor wealth, nor bodily strength, nor high birth, they have no happiness, according to Aristotle. Let such men philosophize, for me!

1 - 3 Ridicule of the Philosophers.

I cannot approve of Heraclitus, who, being self-taught and arrogant, said, “I have explored myself.” Nor can I praise him for hiding his poem in the temple of Artemis, in order that it might be published afterwards as a mystery; and those who take an interest in such things say that Euripides the tragic poet came there and read it, and, gradually learning it by heart, carefully handed down to posterity this darkness of Heraclitus. Death, however, demonstrated the stupidity of this man; for, being attacked by dropsy, as he had studied the art of medicine as well as philosophy, he plastered himself with cow-dung, which, as it hardened, contracted the flesh of his whole body, so that he was pulled in pieces, and thus died. Then, one cannot listen to Zeno, who declares that at the conflagration the same man will rise again to perform the same actions as before; for instance, Anytus and Miletus to accuse, Busiris to murder his guests, and Hercules to repeat his labours; and in this doctrine of the conflagration he introduces more wicked than just persons—one Socrates and a Hercules, and a few more of the same class, but not many, for the bad will be found far more numerous than the good. And according to him the Deity will manifestly be the author of evil, dwelling in sewers and worms, and in the perpetrators of impiety. The eruptions of fire in Sicily, moreover, confute the empty boasting of Empedocles, in that, though he was no god, he falsely almost gave himself out for one. I laugh, too, at the old wife’s talk of Pherecydes, and the doctrine inherited from him by Pythagoras, and that of Plato, an imitation of his, though some think otherwise. And who would give his approval to the cynogamy of Crates, and not rather, repudiating the wild and tumid speech of those who resemble him, turn to the investigation of what truly deserves attention? Wherefore be not led away by the solemn assemblies of philosophers who are no philosophers, who dogmatize one against the other, though each one vents but the crude fancies of the moment. They have, moreover, many collisions among themselves; each one hates the other; they indulge in conflicting opinions, and their arrogance makes them eager for the highest places. It would better become them, moreover, not to pay court to kings unbidden, nor to flatter men at the head of affairs, but to wait till the great ones come to them.

1 - 4 The Christians Worship God Alone.

For what reason, men of Greece, do you wish to bring the civil powers, as in a pugilistic encounter, into collision with us? And, if I am not disposed to comply with the usages of some of them, why am I to be abhorred as a vile miscreant? Does the sovereign order the payment of tribute, I am ready to render it. Does my master command me to act as a bondsman and to serve, I acknowledge the serfdom. Man is to be honoured as a fellow-man; God alone is to be feared,—He who is not visible to human eyes, nor comes within the compass of human art. Only when I am commanded to deny Him, will I not obey, but will rather die than show myself false and ungrateful. Our God did not begin to be in time: He alone is without beginning, and He Himself is the beginning of all things. God is a Spirit, not pervading matter, but the Maker of material spirits, and of the forms that are in matter; He is invisible, impalpable, being Himself the Father of both sensible and invisible things. Him we know from His creation, and apprehend His invisible power by His works. I refuse to adore that workmanship which He has made for our sakes. The sun and moon were made for us: how, then, can I adore my own servants? How can I speak of stocks and stones as gods? For the Spirit that pervades matter is inferior to the more divine spirit; and this, even when assimilated to the soul, is not to be honoured equally with the perfect God. Nor even ought the ineffable God to be presented with gifts; for He who is in want of nothing is not to be misrepresented by us as though He were indigent. But I will set forth our views more distinctly.

1 - 5 The Doctrine of the Christians as to the Creation of the World.

God was in the beginning; but the beginning, we have been taught, is the power of the Logos. For the Lord of the universe, who is Himself the necessary ground (ὑπόστασις) of all being, inasmuch as no creature was yet in existence, was alone; but inasmuch as He was all power, Himself the necessary ground of things visible and invisible, with Him were all things; with Him, by Logos-power (διὰ λογικῆς δυνάμεως), the Logos Himself also, who was in Him, subsists. And by His simple will the Logos springs forth; and the Logos, not coming forth in vain, becomes the first-begotten work of the Father. Him (the Logos) we know to be the beginning of the world. But He came into being by participation, not by abscission; for what is cut off is separated from the original substance, but that which comes by participation, making its choice of function, does not render him deficient from whom it is taken. For just as from one torch many fires are lighted, but the light of the first torch is not lessened by the kindling of many torches, so the Logos, coming forth from the Logos-power of the Father, has not divested of the Logos-power Him who begat Him. I myself, for instance, talk, and you hear; yet, certainly, I who converse do not become destitute of speech (λόγος) by the transmission of speech, but by the utterance of my voice I endeavour to reduce to order the unarranged matter in your minds. And as the Logos, begotten in the beginning, begat in turn our world, having first created for Himself the necessary matter, so also I, in imitation of the Logos, being begotten again, and having become possessed of the truth, am trying to reduce to order the confused matter which is kindred with myself. For matter is not, like God, without beginning, nor, as having no beginning, is of equal power with God; it is begotten, and not produced by any other being, but brought into existence by the Framer of all things alone.

1 - 6 Christians’ Belief in the Resurrection.

And on this account we believe that there will be a resurrection of bodies after the consummation of all things; not, as the Stoics affirm, according to the return of certain cycles, the same things being produced and destroyed for no useful purpose, but a resurrection once for all, when our periods of existence are completed, and in consequence solely of the constitution of things under which men alone live, for the purpose of passing judgment upon them. Nor is sentence upon us passed by Minos or Rhadamanthus, before whose decease not a single soul, according to the mythic tales, was judged; but the Creator, God Himself, becomes the arbiter. And, although you regard us as mere triflers and babblers, it troubles us not, since we have faith in this doctrine. For just as, not existing before I was born, I knew not who I was, and only existed in the potentiality (ὐπόστασις) of fleshly matter, but being born, after a former state of nothingness, I have obtained through my birth a certainty of my existence; in the same way, having been born, and through death existing no longer, and seen no longer, I shall exist again, just as before I was not, but was afterwards born. Even though fire destroy all traces of my flesh, the world receives the vaporized matter; and though dispersed through rivers and seas, or torn in pieces by wild beasts, I am laid up in the storehouses of a wealthy Lord. And, although the poor and the godless know not what is stored up, yet God the Sovereign, when He pleases, will restore the substance that is visible to Him alone to its pristine condition.

1 - 7 Concerning the Fall of Man.

For the heavenly Logos, a spirit emanating from the Father and a Logos from the Logos-power, in imitation of the Father who begat Him made man an image of immortality, so that, as incorruption is with God, in like manner, man, sharing in a part of God, might have the immortal principle also. The Logos, too, before the creation of men, was the Framer of angels. And each of these two orders of creatures was made free to act as it pleased, not having the nature of good, which again is with God alone, but is brought to perfection in men through their freedom of choice, in order that the bad man may be justly punished, having become depraved through his own fault, but the just man be deservedly praised for his virtuous deeds, since in the exercise of his free choice he refrained from transgressing the will of God. Such is the constitution of things in reference to angels and men. And the power of the Logos, having in itself a faculty to foresee future events, not as fated, but as taking place by the choice of free agents, foretold from time to time the issues of things to come; it also became a forbidder of wickedness by means of prohibitions, and the encomiast of those who remained good. And, when men attached themselves to one who was more subtle than the rest, having regard to his being the first-born, and declared him to be God, though he was resisting the law of God, then the power of the Logos excluded the beginner of the folly and his adherents from all fellowship with Himself. And so he who was made in the likeness of God, since the more powerful spirit is separated from him, becomes mortal; but that first-begotten one through his transgression and ignorance becomes a demon; and they who imitated him, that is his illusions, are become a host of demons, and through their freedom of choice have been given up to their own infatuation.

1 - 8 The Demons Sin Among Mankind.

But men form the material (ὑπόθεσις) of their apostasy. For, having shown them a plan of the position of the stars, like dice-players, they introduced Fate, a flagrant injustice. For the judge and the judged are made so by Fate; the murderers and the murdered, the wealthy and the needy, are the offspring of the same Fate; and every nativity is regarded as a theatrical entertainment by those beings of whom Homer says,—

“Among the gods
Rose laughter irrepressible.”

But must not those who are spectators of single combats and are partisans on one side or the other, and he who marries and is a pæderast and an adulterer, who laughs and is angry, who flees and is wounded, be regarded as mortals? For, by whatever actions they manifest to men their characters, by these they prompt their hearers to copy their example. And are not the demons themselves, with Zeus at their head, subjected to Fate, being overpowered by the same passions as men? And, besides, how are those beings to be worshipped among whom there exists such a great contrariety of opinions? For Rhea, whom the inhabitants of the Phrygian mountains call Cybele, enacted emasculation on account of Attis, of whom she was enamoured; but Aphrodité is delighted with conjugal embraces. Artemis is a poisoner; Apollo heals diseases. And after the decapitation of the Gorgon, the beloved of Poseidon, whence sprang the horse Pegasus and Chrysaor, Athené and Asclepios divided between them the drops of blood; and, while he saved men’s lives by means of them, she, by the same blood, became a homicide and the instigator of wars. From regard to her reputation, as it appears to me, the Athenians attributed to the earth the son born of her connection with Hephæstos, that Athené might not be thought to be deprived of her virility by Hephæstos, as Atalanta by Meleager. This limping manufacturer of buckles and earrings, as is likely, deceived the motherless child and orphan with these girlish ornaments. Poseidon frequents the seas; Ares delights in wars; Apollo is a player on the cithara; Dionysus is absolute sovereign of the Thebans; Kronos is a tyrannicide; Zeus has intercourse with his own daughter, who becomes pregnant by him. I may instance, too, Eleusis, and the mystic Dragon, and Orpheus, who says,—

“Close the gates against the profane!”

Aïdoneus carries off Koré, and his deeds have been made into mysteries; Demeter bewails her daughter, and some persons are deceived by the Athenians. In the precincts of the temple of the son of Leto is a spot called Omphalos; but Omphalos is the burial-place of Dionysus. You now I laud, O Daphne!—by conquering the incontinence of Apollo, you disproved his power of vaticination; for, not foreseeing what would occur to you, he derived no advantage from his art. Let the far-shooting god tell me how Zephyrus slew Hyacinthus. Zephyrus conquered him; and in accordance with the saying of the tragic poet,—

“A breeze is the most honourable chariot of the gods,”

conquered by a slight breeze, Apollo lost his beloved.

1 - 9 They Give Rise to Superstitions.

Such are the demons; these are they who laid down the doctrine of Fate. Their fundamental principle was the placing of animals in the heavens. For the creeping things on the earth, and those that swim in the waters, and the quadrupeds on the mountains, with which they lived when expelled from heaven,—these they dignified with celestial honour, in order that they might themselves be thought to remain in heaven, and, by placing the constellations there, might make to appear rational the irrational course of life on earth. Thus the high-spirited and he who is crushed with toil, the temperate and the intemperate, the indigent and the wealthy, are what they are simply from the controllers of their nativity. For the delineation of the zodiacal circle is the work of gods. And, when the light of one of them predominates, as they express it, it deprives all the rest of their honour; and he who now is conquered, at another time gains the predominance. And the seven planets are well pleased with them, as if they were amusing themselves with dice. But we are superior to Fate, and instead of wandering (πλανητῶν) demons, we have learned to know one Lord who wanders not; and, as we do not follow the guidance of Fate, we reject its lawgivers. Tell me, I adjure you, did Triptolemus sow wheat and prove a benefactor to the Athenians after their sorrow? And why was not Demeter, before she lost her daughter, a benefactress to men? The Dog of Erigone is shown in the heavens, and the Scorpion the helper of Artemis, and Chiron the Centaur, and the divided Argo, and the Bear of Callisto. Yet how, before these performed the aforesaid deeds, were the heavens unadorned? And to whom will it not appear ridiculous that the Deltotum should be placed among the stars, according to some, on account of Sicily, or, as others say, on account of the first letter in the name of Zeus (Διός)? For why are not Sardinia and Cyprus honoured in heaven? And why have not the letters of the names of the brothers of Zeus, who shared the kingdom with him, been fixed there too? And how is it that Kronos, who was put in chains and ejected from his kingdom, is constituted a manager of Fate? How, too, can he give kingdoms who no longer reigns himself? Reject, then, these absurdities, and do not become transgressors by hating us unjustly.

1 - 10 Ridicule of the Heathen Divinities.

There are legends of the metamorphosis of men: with you the gods also are metamorphosed. Rhea becomes a tree; Zeus a dragon, on account of Persephone; the sisters of Phaëthon are changed into poplars, and Leto into a bird of little value, on whose account what is now Delos was called Ortygia. A god, forsooth, becomes a swan, or takes the form of an eagle, and, making Ganymede his cupbearer, glories in a vile affection. How can I reverence gods who are eager for presents, and angry if they do not receive them? Let them have their Fate! I am not willing to adore wandering stars. What is that hair of Berenicé? Where were her stars before her death? And how was the dead Antinous fixed as a beautiful youth in the moon? Who carried him thither: unless perchance, as men, perjuring themselves for hire, are credited when they say in ridicule of the gods that kings have ascended into heaven, so some one, in like manner, has put this man also among the gods, and been recompensed with honour and reward? Why have you robbed God? Why do you dishonour His workmanship? You sacrifice a sheep, and you adore the same animal. The Bull is in the heavens, and you slaughter its image. The Kneeler crushes a noxious animal; and the eagle that devours the man-maker Prometheus is honoured. The swan is noble, forsooth, because it was an adulterer; and the Dioscuri, living on alternate days, the ravishers of the daughters of Leucippus, are also noble! Better still is Helen, who forsook the flaxen-haired Menelaus, and followed the turbaned and gold-adorned Paris. A just man also is Sophron, who transported this adulteress to the Elysian fields! But even the daughter of Tyndarus is not gifted with immortality, and Euripides has wisely represented this woman as put to death by Orestes.

1 - 11 The Sin of Men Due Not to Fate, But to Free-Will.

How, then, shall I admit this nativity according to Fate, when I see such managers of Fate? I do not wish to be a king; I am not anxious to be rich; I decline military command; I detest fornication; I am not impelled by an insatiable love of gain to go to sea; I do not contend for chaplets; I am free from a mad thirst for fame; I despise death; I am superior to every kind of disease; grief does not consume my soul. Am I a slave, I endure servitude. Am I free, I do not make a vaunt of my good birth. I see that the same sun is for all, and one death for all, whether they live in pleasure or destitution. The rich man sows, and the poor man partakes of the same sowing. The wealthiest die, and beggars have the same limits to their life. The rich lack many things, and are glorious only through the estimation they are held in; but the poor man and he who has very moderate desires, seeking as he does only the things suited to his lot, more easily obtains his purpose. How is it that you are fated to be sleepless through avarice? Why are you fated to grasp at things often, and often to die? Die to the world, repudiating the madness that is in it. Live to God, and by apprehending Him lay aside your old nature. We were not created to die, but we die by our own fault. Our free-will has destroyed us; we who were free have become slaves; we have been sold through sin. Nothing evil has been created by God; we ourselves have manifested wickedness; but we, who have manifested it, are able again to reject it.

1 - 12 The Two Kinds of Spirits.

We recognise two varieties of spirit, one of which is called the soul (ψυχή), but the other is greater than the soul, an image and likeness of God: both existed in the first men, that in one sense they might be material (ὑλικοί), and in another superior to matter. The case stands thus: we can see that the whole structure of the world, and the whole creation, has been produced from matter, and the matter itself brought into existence by God; so that on the one hand it may be regarded as rude and unformed before it was separated into parts, and on the other as arranged in beauty and order after the separation was made. Therefore in that separation the heavens were made of matter, and the stars that are in them; and the earth and all that is upon it has a similar constitution: so that there is a common origin of all things. But, while such is the case, there yet are certain differences in the things made of matter, so that one is more beautiful, and another is beautiful but surpassed by something better. For as the constitution of the body is under one management, and is engaged in doing that which is the cause of its having been made, yet though this is the case, there are certain differences of dignity in it, and the eye is one thing, and another the ear, and another the arrangement of the hair and the distribution of the intestines, and the compacting together of the marrow and the bones and the tendons; and though one part differs from another, there is yet all the harmony of a concert of music in their arrangement;—in like manner the world, according to the power of its Maker containing some things of superior splendour, but some unlike these, received by the will of the Creator a material spirit. And these things severally it is possible for him to perceive who does not conceitedly reject those most divine explanations which in the course of time have been consigned to writing, and make those who study them great lovers of God. Therefore the demons, as you call them, having received their structure from matter and obtained the spirit which inheres in it, became intemperate and greedy; some few, indeed, turning to what was purer, but others choosing what was inferior in matter, and conforming their manner of life to it. These beings, produced from matter, but very remote from right conduct, you, O Greeks, worship. For, being turned by their own folly to vaingloriousness, and shaking off the reins of authority, they have been forward to become robbers of Deity; and the Lord of all has suffered them to besport themselves, till the world, coming to an end, be dissolved, and the Judge appear, and all those men who, while assailed by the demons, strive after the knowledge of the perfect God obtain as the result of their conflicts a more perfect testimony in the day of judgment. There is, then, a spirit in the stars, a spirit in angels, a spirit in plants and the waters, a spirit in men, a spirit in animals; but, though one and the same, it has differences in itself. And while we say these things not from mere hearsay, nor from probable conjectures and sophistical reasoning, but using words of a certain diviner speech, do you who are willing hasten to learn. And you who do not reject with contempt the Scythian Anacharsis, do not disdain to be taught by those who follow a barbaric code of laws. Give at least as favourable a reception to our tenets as you would to the prognostications of the Babylonians. Hearken to us when we speak, if only as you would to an oracular oak. And yet the things just referred to are the trickeries of frenzied demons, while the doctrines we inculcate are far beyond the apprehension of the world.

1 - 13 Theory of the Soul’s Immortality.

The soul is not in itself immortal, O Greeks, but mortal. Yet it is possible for it not to die. If, indeed, it knows not the truth, it dies, and is dissolved with the body, but rises again at last at the end of the world with the body, receiving death by punishment in immortality. But, again, if it acquires the knowledge of God, it dies not, although for a time it be dissolved. In itself it is darkness, and there is nothing luminous in it. And this is the meaning of the saying, “The darkness comprehendeth not the light.” For the soul does not preserve the spirit, but is preserved by it, and the light comprehends the darkness. The Logos, in truth, is the light of God, but the ignorant soul is darkness. On this account, if it continues solitary, it tends downward towards matter, and dies with the flesh; but, if it enters into union with the Divine Spirit, it is no longer helpless, but ascends to the regions whither the Spirit guides it: for the dwelling-place of the spirit is above, but the origin of the soul is from beneath. Now, in the beginning the spirit was a constant companion of the soul, but the spirit forsook it because it was not willing to follow. Yet, retaining as it were a spark of its power, though unable by reason of the separation to discern the perfect, while seeking for God it fashioned to itself in its wandering many gods, following the sophistries of the demons. But the Spirit of God is not with all, but, taking up its abode with those who live justly, and intimately combining with the soul, by prophecies it announced hidden things to other souls. And the souls that are obedient to wisdom have attracted to themselves the cognate spirit; but the disobedient, rejecting the minister of the suffering God, have shown themselves to be fighters against God, rather than His worshippers.

1 - 14 The Demons Shall Be Punished More Severely Than Men.

And such are you also, O Greeks,—profuse in words, but with minds strangely warped; and you acknowledge the dominion of many rather than the rule of one, accustoming yourselves to follow demons as if they were mighty. For, as the inhuman robber is wont to overpower those like himself by daring; so the demons, going to great lengths in wickedness, have utterly deceived the souls among you which are left to themselves by ignorance and false appearances. These beings do not indeed die easily, for they do not partake of flesh; but while living they practice the ways of death, and die themselves as often as they teach their followers to sin. Therefore, what is now their chief distinction, that they do not die like men, they will retain when about to suffer punishment: they will not partake of everlasting life, so as to receive this instead of death in a blessed immortality. And as we, to whom it now easily happens to die, afterwards receive the immortal with enjoyment, or the painful with immortality, so the demons, who abuse the present life to purposes of wrong-doing, dying continually even while they live, will have hereafter the same immortality, like that which they had during the time they lived, but in its nature like that of men, who voluntarily performed what the demons prescribed to them during their lifetime. And do not fewer kinds of sin break out among men owing to the brevity of their lives, while on the part of these demons transgression is more abundant owing to their boundless existence?

1 - 15 Necessity of a Union with the Holy Spirit.

But further, it becomes us now to seek for what we once had, but have lost, to unite the soul with the Holy Spirit, and to strive after union with God. The human soul consists of many parts, and is not simple; it is composite, so as to manifest itself through the body; for neither could it ever appear by itself without the body, nor does the flesh rise again without the soul. Man is not, as the croaking philosophers say, merely a rational animal, capable of understanding and knowledge; for, according to them, even irrational creatures appear possessed of understanding and knowledge. But man alone is the image and likeness of God; and I mean by man, not one who performs actions similar to those of animals, but one who has advanced far beyond mere humanity—to God Himself. This question we have discussed more minutely in the treatise concerning animals. But the principal point to be spoken of now is, what is intended by the image and likeness of God. That which cannot be compared is no other than abstract being; but that which is compared is no other than that which is like. The perfect God is without flesh; but man is flesh. The bond of the flesh is the soul; that which encloses the soul is the flesh. Such is the nature of man’s constitution; and, if it be like a temple, God is pleased to dwell in it by the spirit, His representative; but, if it be not such a habitation, man excels the wild beasts in articulate language only,—in other respects his manner of life is like theirs, as one who is not a likeness of God. But none of the demons possess flesh; their structure is spiritual, like that of fire or air. And only by those whom the Spirit of God dwells in and fortifies are the bodies of the demons easily seen, not at all by others,—I mean those who possess only soul; for the inferior has not the ability to apprehend the superior. On this account the nature of the demons has no place for repentance; for they are the reflection of matter and of wickedness. But matter desired to exercise lordship over the soul; and according to their free-will these gave laws of death to men; but men, after the loss of immortality, have conquered death by submitting to death in faith; and by repentance a call has been given to them, according to the word which says, “Since they were made a little lower than the angels.” And, for every one who has been conquered, it is possible again to conquer, if he rejects the condition which brings death. And what that is, may be easily seen by men who long for immortality.

1 - 16 Vain Display of Power by the Demons.

But the demons who rule over men are not the souls of men; for how should these be capable of action after death? unless man, who while living was void of understanding and power, should be believed when dead to be endowed with more of active power. But neither could this be the case, as we have shown elsewhere. And it is difficult to conceive that the immortal soul, which is impeded by the members of the body, should become more intelligent when it has migrated from it. For the demons, inspired with frenzy against men by reason of their own wickedness, pervert their minds, which already incline downwards, by various deceptive scenic representations, that they may be disabled from rising to the path that leads to heaven. But from us the things which are in the world are not hidden, and the divine is easily apprehended by us if the power that makes souls immortal visits us. The demons are seen also by the men possessed of soul, when, as sometimes, they exhibit themselves to men, either that they may be thought to be something, or as evil-disposed friends may do harm to them as to enemies, or afford occasions of doing them honour to those who resemble them. For, if it were possible, they would without doubt pull down heaven itself with the rest of creation. But now this they can by no means effect, for they have not the power; but they make war by means of the lower matter against the matter that is like themselves. Should any one wish to conquer them, let him repudiate matter. Being armed with the breastplate of the celestial Spirit, he will be able to preserve all that is encompassed by it. There are, indeed, diseases and disturbances of the matter that is in us; but, when such things happen, the demons ascribe the causes of them to themselves, and approach a man whenever disease lays hold of him. Sometimes they themselves disturb the habit of the body by a tempest of folly; but, being smitten by the word of God, they depart in terror, and the sick man is healed.

1 - 17 They Falsely Promise Health to Their Votaries.

Concerning the sympathies and antipathies of Democritus what can we say but this, that, according to the common saying, the man of Abdera is Abderiloquent? But, as he who gave the name to the city, a friend of Hercules as it is said, was devoured by the horses of Diomedes, so he who boasted of the Magian Ostanes will be delivered up in the day of consummation as fuel for the eternal fire. And you, if you do not cease from your laughter, will gain the same punishment as the jugglers. Wherefore, O Greeks, hearken to me, addressing you as from an eminence, nor in mockery transfer your own want of reason to the herald of the truth. A diseased affection (πάθος) is not destroyed by a counter-affection (ἀντιπάθεια), nor is a maniac cured by hanging little amulets of leather upon him. There are visitations of demons; and he who is sick, and he who says he is in love, and he who hates, and he who wishes to be revenged, accept them as helpers. And this is the method of their operation: just as the forms of alphabetic letters and the lines composed of them cannot of themselves indicate what is meant, but men have invented for themselves signs of their thoughts, knowing by their peculiar combination what the order of the letters was intended to express; so, in like manner, the various kinds of roots and the mutual relation of the sinews and bones can effect nothing of themselves, but are the elemental matter with which the depravity of the demons works, who have determined for what purpose each of them is available. And, when they see that men consent to be served by means of such things, they take them and make them their slaves. But how can it be honourable to minister to adulteries? How can it be noble to stimulate men in hating one another? Or how is it becoming to ascribe to matter the relief of the insane, and not to God? For by their art they turn men aside from the pious acknowledgment of God, leading them to place confidence in herbs and roots. But God, if He had prepared these things to effect just what men wish, would be a Producer of evil things; whereas He Himself produced everything which has good qualities, but the profligacy of the demons has made use of the productions of nature for evil purposes, and the appearance of evil which these wear is from them, and not from the perfect God. For how comes it to pass that when alive I was in no wise evil, but that now I am dead and can do nothing, my remains, which are incapable of motion or even sense, should effect something cognizable by the senses? And how shall he who has died by the most miserable death be able to assist in avenging any one? If this were possible, much more might he defend himself from his own enemy; being able to assist others, much more might he constitute himself his own avenger.

1 - 18 They Deceive, Instead of Healing.

But medicine and everything included in it is an invention of the same kind. If any one is healed by matter, through trusting to it, much more will he be healed by having recourse to the power of God. As noxious preparations are material compounds, so are curatives of the same nature. If, however, we reject the baser matter, some persons often endeavour to heal by a union of one of these bad things with some other, and will make use of the bad to attain the good. But, just as he who dines with a robber, though he may not be a robber himself, partakes of the punishment on account of his intimacy with him, so he who is not bad but associates with the bad, having dealings with them for some supposed good, will be punished by God the Judge for partnership in the same object. Why is he who trusts in the system of matter not willing to trust in God? For what reason do you not approach the more powerful Lord, but rather seek to cure yourself, like the dog with grass, or the stag with a viper, or the hog with river-crabs, or the lion with apes? Why you deify the objects of nature? And why, when you cure your neighbour, are you called a benefactor? Yield to the power of the Logos! The demons do not cure, but by their art make men their captives. And the most admirable Justin has rightly denounced them as robbers. For, as it is the practice of some to capture persons and then to restore them to their friends for a ransom, so those who are esteemed gods, invading the bodies of certain persons, and producing a sense of their presence by dreams, command them to come forth into public, and in the sight of all, when they have taken their fill of the things of this world, fly away from the sick, and, destroying the disease which they had produced, restore men to their former state.

1 - 19 Depravity Lies at the Bottom of Demon-Worship.

But do you, who have not the perception of these things, be instructed by us who know them: though you do profess to despise death, and to be sufficient of yourselves for everything. But this is a discipline in which your philosophers are so greatly deficient, that some of them receive from the king of the Romans 600 aurei yearly, for no useful service they perform, but that they may not even wear a long beard without being paid for it! Crescens, who made his nest in the great city, surpassed all men in unnatural love (παιδεραστία), and was strongly addicted to the love of money. Yet this man, who professed to despise death, was so afraid of death, that he endeavoured to inflict on Justin, and indeed on me, the punishment of death, as being an evil, because by proclaiming the truth he convicted the philosophers of being gluttons and cheats. But whom of the philosophers, save you only, was he accustomed to inveigh against? If you say, in agreement with our tenets, that death is not to be dreaded, do not court death from an insane love of fame among men, like Anaxagoras, but become despisers of death by reason of the knowledge of God. The construction of the world is excellent, but the life men live in it is bad; and we may see those greeted with applause as in a solemn assembly who know not God. For what is divination? and why are ye deceived by it? It is a minister to thee of worldly lusts. You wish to make war, and you take Apollo as a counsellor of slaughter. You want to carry off a maiden by force, and you select a divinity to be your accomplice. You are ill by your own fault; and, as Agamemnon wished for ten councillors, so you wish to have gods with you. Some woman by drinking water gets into a frenzy, and loses her senses by the fumes of frankincense, and you say that she has the gift of prophecy. Apollo was a prognosticator and a teacher of soothsayers: in the matter of Daphne he deceived himself. An oak, forsooth, is oracular, and birds utter presages! And so you are inferior to animals and plants! It would surely be a fine thing for you to become a divining rod, or to assume the wings of a bird! He who makes you fond of money also foretells your getting rich; he who excites to seditions and wars also predicts victory in war. If you are superior to the passions, you will despise all worldly things. Do not abhor us who have made this attainment, but, repudiating the demons, follow the one God. “All things were made by Him, and without Him not one thing was made.” If there is poison in natural productions, this has supervened through our sinfulness. I am able to show the perfect truth of these things; only do you hearken, and he who believes will understand.

1 - 20 Thanks are Ever Due to God.

Even if you be healed by drugs (I grant you that point by courtesy), yet it behoves you to give testimony of the cure to God. For the world still draws us down, and through weakness I incline towards matter. For the wings of the soul were the perfect spirit, but, having cast this off through sin, it flutters like a nestling and falls to the ground. Having left the heavenly companionship, it hankers after communion with inferior things. The demons were driven forth to another abode; the first created human beings were expelled from their place: the one, indeed, were cast down from heaven; but the other were driven from earth, yet not out of this earth, but from a more excellent order of things than exists here now. And now it behoves us, yearning after that pristine state, to put aside everything that proves a hindrance. The heavens are not infinite, O man, but finite and bounded; and beyond them are the superior worlds which have not a change of seasons, by which various diseases are produced, but, partaking of every happy temperature, have perpetual day, and light unapproachable by men below. Those who have composed elaborate descriptions of the earth have given an account of its various regions so far as this was possible to man; but, being unable to speak of that which is beyond, because of the impossibility of personal observation, they have assigned as the cause the existence of tides; and that one sea is filled with weed, and another with mud; and that some localities are burnt up with heat, and others cold and frozen. We, however, have learned things which were unknown to us, through the teaching of the prophets, who, being fully persuaded that the heavenly spirit along with the soul will acquire a clothing of mortality, foretold things which other minds were unacquainted with. But it is possible for every one who is naked to obtain this apparel, and to return to its ancient kindred.

1 - 21 Doctrines of the Christians and Greeks Respecting God Compared.

We do not act as fools, O Greeks, nor utter idle tales, when we announce that God was born in the form of a man. I call on you who reproach us to compare your mythical accounts with our narrations. Athené, as they say, took the form of Deïphobus for the sake of Hector, and the unshorn Phoœbus for the sake of Admetus fed the trailing-footed oxen, and the spouse us came as an old woman to Semele. But, while you treat seriously such things, how can you deride us? Your Asclepios died, and he who ravished fifty virgins in one night at Thespiæ lost his life by delivering himself to the devouring flame. Prometheus, fastened to Caucasus, suffered punishment for his good deeds to men. According to you, Zeus is envious, and hides the dream from men, wishing their destruction. Wherefore, looking at your own memorials, vouchsafe us your approval, though it were only as dealing in legends similar to your own. We, however, do not deal in folly, but your legends are only idle tales. If you speak of the origin of the gods, you also declare them to be mortal. For what reason is Hera now never pregnant? Has she grown old? or is there no one to give you information? Believe me now, O Greeks, and do not resolve your myths and gods into allegory. If you attempt to do this, the divine nature as held by you is overthrown by your own selves; for, if the demons with you are such as they are said to be, they are worthless as to character; or, if regarded as symbols of the powers of nature, they are not what they are called. But I cannot be persuaded to pay religious homage to the natural elements, nor can I undertake to persuade my neighbour. And Metrodorus of Lampsacus, in his treatise concerning Homer, has argued very foolishly, turning everything into allegory. For he says that neither Hera, nor Athené, nor Zeus are what those persons suppose who consecrate to them sacred enclosures and groves, but parts of nature and certain arrangements of the elements. Hector also, and Achilles, and Agamemnon, and all the Greeks in general, and the Barbarians with Helen and Paris, being of the same nature, you will of course say are introduced merely for the sake of the machinery of the poem, not one of these personages having really existed. But these things we have put forth only for argument’s sake; for it is not allowable even to compare our notion of God with those who are wallowing in matter and mud.

1 - 22 Ridicule of the Solemnities of the Greeks.

And of what sort are your teachings? Who must not treat with contempt your solemn festivals, which, being held in honour of wicked demons, cover men with infamy? I have often seen a man—and have been amazed to see, and the amazement has ended in contempt, to think how he is one thing internally, but outwardly counterfeits what he is not—giving himself excessive airs of daintiness and indulging in all sorts of effeminacy; sometimes darting his eyes about; sometimes throwing his hands hither and thither, and raving with his face smeared with mud; sometimes personating Aphrodité, sometimes Apollo; a solitary accuser of all the gods, an epitome of superstition, a vituperator of heroic deeds, an actor of murders, a chronicler of adultery, a storehouse of madness, a teacher of cynædi, an instigator of capital sentences;—and yet such a man is praised by all. But I have rejected all his falsehoods, his impiety, his practices,—in short, the man altogether. But you are led captive by such men, while you revile those who do not take a part in your pursuits. I have no mind to stand agape at a number of singers, nor do I desire to be affected in sympathy with a man when he is winking and gesticulating in an unnatural manner. What wonderful or extraordinary thing is performed among you? They utter ribaldry in affected tones, and go through indecent movements; your daughters and your sons behold them giving lessons in adultery on the stage. Admirable places, forsooth, are your lecture-rooms, where every base action perpetrated by night is proclaimed aloud, and the hearers are regaled with the utterance of infamous discourses! Admirable, too, are your mendacious poets, who by their fictions beguile their hearers from the truth!

1 - 23 Of the Pugilists and Gladiators.

I have seen men weighed down by bodily exercise, and carrying about the burden of their flesh, before whom rewards and chaplets are set, while the adjudicators cheer them on, not to deeds of virtue, but to rivalry in violence and discord; and he who excels in giving blows is crowned. These are the lesser evils; as for the greater, who would not shrink from telling them? Some, giving themselves up to idleness for the sake of profligacy, sell themselves to be killed; and the indigent barters himself away, while the rich man buys others to kill him. And for these the witnesses take their seats, and the boxers meet in single combat, for no reason whatever, nor does any one come down into the arena to succour. Do such exhibitions as these redound to your credit? He who is chief among you collects a legion of blood-stained murderers, engaging to maintain them; and these ruffians are sent forth by him, and you assemble at the spectacle to be judges, partly of the wickedness of the adjudicator, and partly of that of the men who engage in the combat. And he who misses the murderous exhibition is grieved, because he was not doomed to be a spectator of wicked and impious and abominable deeds. You slaughter animals for the purpose of eating their flesh, and you purchase men to supply a cannibal banquet for the soul, nourishing it by the most impious bloodshedding. The robber commits murder for the sake of plunder, but the rich man purchases gladiators for the sake of their being killed.

1 - 24 Of the Other Public Amusements.

What advantage should I gain from him who is brought on the stage by Euripides raving mad, and acting the matricide of Alcmæon; who does not even retain his natural behaviour, but with his mouth wide open goes about sword in hand, and, screaming aloud, is burned to death, habited in a robe unfit for man? Away, too, with the mythical tales of Acusilaus, and Menander, a versifier of the same class! And why should I admire the mythic piper? Why should I busy myself about the Theban Antigenides, like Aristoxenus? We leave you to these worthless things; and do you either believe our doctrines, or, like us, give up yours.

1 - 25 Boastings and Quarrels of the Philosophers.

What great and wonderful things have your philosophers effected? They leave uncovered one of their shoulders; they let their hair grow long; they cultivate their beards; their nails are like the claws of wild beasts. Though they say that they want nothing, yet, like Proteus, they need a currier for their wallet, and a weaver for their mantle, and a wood-cutter for their staff, and the rich, and a cook also for their gluttony. O man competing with the dog, you know not God, and so have turned to the imitation of an irrational animal. You cry out in public with an assumption of authority, and take upon you to avenge your own self; and if you receive nothing, you indulge in abuse, and philosophy is with you the art of getting money. You follow the doctrines of Plato, and a disciple of Epicurus lifts up his voice to oppose you. Again, you wish to be a disciple of Aristotle, and a follower of Democritus rails at you. Pythagoras says that he was Euphorbus, and he is the heir of the doctrine of Pherecydes; but Aristotle impugns the immortality of the soul. You who receive from your predecessors doctrines which clash with one another, you the inharmonious, are fighting against the harmonious. One of you asserts that God is body, but I assert that He is without body; that the world is indestructible, but I say that it is to be destroyed; that a conflagration will take place at various times, but I say that it will come to pass once for all; that Minos and Rhadamanthus are judges, but I say that God Himself is Judge; that the soul alone is endowed with immortality, but I say that the flesh also is endowed with it. What injury do we inflict upon you, O Greeks? Why do you hate those who follow the word of God, as if they were the vilest of mankind? It is not we who eat human flesh—they among you who assert such a thing have been suborned as false witnesses; it is among you that Pelops is made a supper for the gods, although beloved by Poseidon, and Kronos devours his children, and Zeus swallows Metis.

1 - 26 Ridicule of the Studies of the Greeks.

Cease to make a parade of sayings which you have derived from others, and to deck yourselves like the daw in borrowed plumes. If each state were to take away its contribution to your speech, your fallacies would lose their power. While inquiring what God is, you are ignorant of what is in yourselves; and, while staring all agape at the sky, you stumble into pitfalls. The reading of your books is like walking through a labyrinth, and their readers resemble the cask of the Danaïds. Why do you divide time, saying that one part is past, and another present, and another future? For how can the future be passing when the present exists? As those who are sailing imagine in their ignorance, as the ship is borne along, that the hills are in motion, so you do not know that it is you who are passing along, but that time (ὁ αἰών) remains present as long as the Creator wills it to exist. Why am I called to account for uttering my opinions, and why are you in such haste to put them all down? Were not you born in the same manner as ourselves, and placed under the same government of the world? Why say that wisdom is with you alone, who have not another sun, nor other risings of the stars, nor a more distinguished origin, nor a death preferable to that of other men? The grammarians have been the beginning of this idle talk; and you who parcel out wisdom are cut off from the wisdom that is according to truth, and assign the names of the several parts to particular men; and you know not God, but in your fierce contentions destroy one another. And on this account you are all nothing worth. While you arrogate to yourselves the sole right of discussion, you discourse like the blind man with the deaf. Why do you handle the builder’s tools without knowing how to build? Why do you busy yourselves with words, while you keep aloof from deeds, puffed up with praise, but cast down by misfortunes? Your modes of acting are contrary to reason, for you make a pompons appearance in public, but hide your teaching in corners. Finding you to be such men as these, we have abandoned you, and no longer concern ourselves with your tenets, but follow the word of God. Why, O man, do you set the letters of the alphabet at war with one another? Why do you, as in a boxing match, make their sounds clash together with your mincing Attic way of speaking, whereas you ought to speak more according to nature? For if you adopt the Attic dialect though not an Athenian, pray why do you not speak like the Dorians? How is it that one appears to you more rugged, the other more pleasant for intercourse?

1 - 27 The Christians are Hated Unjustly.

And if you adhere to their teaching, why do you fight against me for choosing such views of doctrine as I approve? Is it not unreasonable that, while the robber is not to be punished for the name he bears, but only when the truth about him has been clearly ascertained, yet we are to be assailed with abuse on a judgment formed without examination? Diagoras was an Athenian, but you punished him for divulging the Athenian mysteries; yet you who read his Phrygian discourses hate us. You possess the commentaries of Leo, and are displeased with our refutations of them; and having in your hands the opinions of Apion concerning the Egyptian gods, you denounce us as most impious. The tomb of Olympian Zeus is shown among you, though some one says that the Cretans are liars. Your assembly of many gods is nothing. Though their despiser Epicurus acts as a torch-bearer, I do not any the more conceal from the rulers that view of God which I hold in relation to His government of the universe. Why do you advise me to be false to my principles? Why do you who say that you despise death exhort us to use art in order to escape it? I have not the heart of a deer; but your zeal

for dialectics resembles the loquacity of Thersites. How can I believe one who tells me that the sun is a red-hot mass and the moon an earth? Such assertions are mere logomachies, and not a sober exposition of truth. How can it be otherwise than foolish to credit the books of Herodotus relating to the history of Hercules, which tell of an upper earth from which the lion came down that was killed by Hercules? And what avails the Attic style, the sorites of philosophers, the plausibilities of syllogisms, the measurements of the earth, the positions of the stars, and the course of the sun? To be occupied in such inquiries is the work of one who imposes opinions on himself as if they were laws.

1 - 28 Condemnation of the Greek Legislation.

On this account I reject your legislation also; for there ought to be one common polity for all; but now there are as many different codes as there are states, so that things held disgraceful in some are honourable in others. The Greeks consider intercourse with a mother as unlawful, but this practice is esteemed most becoming by the Persian Magi; pæderasty is condemned by the Barbarians, but by the Romans, who endeavour to collect herds of boys like grazing horses, it is honoured with certain privileges.

1 - 29 Account of Tatian’s Conversion.

Wherefore, having seen these things, and moreover also having been admitted to the mysteries, and having everywhere examined the religious rites performed by the effeminate and the pathic, and having found among the Romans their Latiarian Jupiter delighting in human gore and the blood of slaughtered men, and Artemis not far from the great city sanctioning acts of the same kind, and one demon here and another there instigating to the perpetration of evil,—retiring by myself, I sought how I might be able to discover the truth. And, while I was giving my most earnest attention to the matter, I happened to meet with certain barbaric writings, too old to be compared with the opinions of the Greeks, and too divine to be compared with their errors; and I was led to put faith in these by the unpretending cast of the language, the inartificial character of the writers, the foreknowledge displayed of future events, the excellent quality of the precepts, and the declaration of the government of the universe as centred in one Being. And, my soul being taught of God, I discern that the former class of writings lead to condemnation, but that these put an end to the slavery that is in the world, and rescue us from a multiplicity of rulers and ten thousand tyrants, while they give us, not indeed what we had not before received, but what we had received but were prevented by error from retaining.

1 - 30 How He Resolved to Resist the Devil.

Therefore, being initiated and instructed in these things, I wish to put away my former errors as the follies of childhood. For we know that the nature of wickedness is like that of the smallest seeds; since it has waxed strong from a small beginning, but will again be destroyed if we obey the words of God and do not scatter ourselves. For He has become master of all we have by means of a certain “hidden treasure,” which while we are digging for we are indeed covered with dust, but we secure it as our fixed possession. He who receives the whole of this treasure has obtained command of the most precious wealth. Let these things, then, be said to our friends. But to you Greeks what can I say, except to request you not to rail at those who are better than yourselves, nor if they are called Barbarians to make that an occasion of banter? For, if you are willing, you will be able to find out the cause of men’s not being able to understand one another’s language; for to those who wish to examine our principles I will give a simple and copious account of them.

1 - 31 The Philosophy of the Christians More Ancient Than that of the Greeks.

But now it seems proper for me to demonstrate that our philosophy is older than the systems of the Greeks. Moses and Homer shall be our limits, each of them being of great antiquity; the one being the oldest of poets and historians, and the other the founder of all barbarian wisdom. Let us, then, institute a comparison between them; and we shall find that our doctrines are older, not only than those of the Greeks, but than the invention of letters. And I will not bring forward witnesses from among ourselves, but rather have recourse to Greeks. To do the former would be foolish, because it would not be allowed by you; but the other will surprise you, when, by contending against you with your own weapons, I adduce arguments of which you had no suspicion. Now the poetry of Homer, his parentage, and the time in which he flourished have been investigated by the most ancient writers,—by Theagenes of Rhegium, who lived in the time of Cambyses, Stesimbrotus of Thasos and Antimachus of Colophon, Herodotus of Halicarnassus, and Dionysius the Olynthian; after them, by Ephorus of Cumæ, and Philochorus the Athenian, Megaclides and Chamæleon the Peripatetics; afterwards by the grammarians, Zenodotus, Aristophanes, Callimachus, Crates, Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and Apollodorus. Of these, Crates says that he flourished before the return of the Heraclidæ, and within 80 years after the Trojan war; Eratosthenes says that it was after the 100th year from the taking of Ilium; Aristarchus, that it was about the time of the Ionian migration, which was 140 years after that event; but, according to Philochorus, after the Ionian migration, in the archonship of Archippus at Athens, 180 years after the Trojan war; Apollodorus says it was 100 years after the Ionian migration, which would be 240 years after the Trojan war. Some say that he lived 90 years before the Olympiads, which would be 3years after the taking of Troy. Others carry it down to a later date, and say that Homer was a contemporary of Archilochus; but Archilochus flourished about the 23d Olympiad, in the time of Gyges the Lydian, 500 years after Troy. Thus, concerning the age of the aforesaid poet, I mean Homer, and the discrepancies of those who have spoken of him, we have said enough in a summary manner for those who are able to investigate with accuracy. For it is possible to show that the opinions held about the facts themselves also are false. For, where the assigned dates do not agree together, it is impossible that the history should be true. For what is the cause of error in writing, but the narrating of things that are not true?

1 - 32 The Doctrine of the Christians, is Opposed to Dissensions, and Fitted for All.

But with us there is no desire of vainglory, nor do we indulge in a variety of opinions. For having renounced the popular and earthly, and obeying the commands of God, and following the law of the Father of immortality, we reject everything which rests upon human opinion. Not only do the rich among us pursue our philosophy, but the poor enjoy instruction gratuitously; for the things which come from God surpass the requital of worldly gifts. Thus we admit all who desire to hear, even old women and striplings; and, in short, persons of every age are treated by us with respect, but every kind of licentiousness is kept at a distance. And in speaking we do not utter falsehood. It would be an excellent thing if your continuance in unbelief should receive a check; but, however that may be, let our cause remain confirmed by the judgment pronounced by God. Laugh, if you please; but you will have to weep hereafter. Is it not absurd that Nestor, who was slow at cutting his horses’ reins owing to his weak and sluggish old age, is, according to you, to be admired for attempting to rival the young men in fighting, while you deride those among us who struggle against old age and occupy themselves with the things pertaining to God? Who would not laugh when you tell us that the Amazons, and Semiramis, and certain other warlike women existed, while you cast reproaches on our maidens? Achilles was a youth, yet is believed to have been very magnanimous; and Neoptolemus was younger, but strong; Philoctetes was weak, but the divinity had need of him against Troy. What sort of man was Thersites? yet he held a command in the army, and, if he had not through doltishness had such an unbridled tongue, he would not have been reproached for being peak-headed and bald. As for those who wish to learn our philosophy, we do not test them by their looks, nor do we judge of those who come to us by their outward appearance; for we argue that there may be strength of mind in all, though they may be weak in body. But your proceedings are full of envy and abundant stupidity.

1 - 33 Vindication of Christian Women.

Therefore I have been desirous to prove from the things which are esteemed honourable among you, that our institutions are marked by sober-mindedness, but that yours are in close affinity with madness. You who say that we talk nonsense among women and boys, among maidens and old women, and scoff at us for not being with you, hear what silliness prevails among the Greeks. For their works of art are devoted to worthless objects, while they are held in higher estimation by you than even your gods; and you behave yourselves unbecomingly in what relates to woman. For Lysippus cast a statue of Praxilla, whose poems contain nothing useful, and Menestratus one of Learchis, and Selanion one of Sappho the courtezan, and Naucydes one of Erinna the Lesbian, and Boiscus one of Myrtis, and Cephisodotus one of Myro of Byzantium, and Gomphus one of Praxigoris, and Amphistratus one of Clito. And what shall I say about Anyta, Telesilla, and Mystis? Of the first Euthycrates and Cephisodotus made a statue, and of the second Niceratus, and of the third Aristodotus; Euthycrates made one of Mnesiarchis the Ephesian, Selanion one of Corinna, and Euthycrates one of Thalarchis the Argive. My object in referring to these women is, that you may not regard as something strange what you find among us, and that, comparing the statues which are before your eyes, you may not treat the women with scorn who among us pursue philosophy. This Sappho is a lewd, love-sick female, and sings her own wantonness; but all our women are chaste, and the maidens at their distaffs sing of divine things more nobly than that damsel of yours. Wherefore be ashamed, you who are professed disciples of women yet scoff at those of the sex who hold our doctrine, as well as at the solemn assemblies they frequent. What a noble infant did Glaucippé present to you, who brought forth a prodigy, as is shown by her statue cast by Niceratus, the son of Euctemon the Athenian! But, if Glaucippé brought forth an elephant, was that a reason why she should enjoy public honours? Praxiteles and Herodotus made for you Phryné the courtezan, and Euthycrates cast a brazen statue of Panteuchis, who was pregnant by a whoremonger; and Dinomenes, because Besantis queen of the Pæonians gave birth to a black infant, took pains to preserve her memory by his art. I condemn Pythagoras too, who made a figure of Europa on the bull; and you also, who honour the accuser of Zeus on account of his artistic skill. And I ridicule the skill of Myron, who made a heifer and upon it a Victory because by carrying off the daughter of Agenor it had borne away the prize for adultery and lewdness. The Olynthian Herodotus made statues of Glycera the courtezan and Argeia the harper. Bryaxis made a statue of Pasiphaë; and, by having a memorial of her lewdness, it seems to have been almost your desire that the women of the present time should be like her. A certain Melanippë was a wise woman, and for that reason Lysistratus made her statue. But, forsooth, you will not believe that among us there are wise women!

1 - 34 Ridicule of the Statues Erected by the Greeks.

Worthy of very great honour, certainly, was the tyrant Bhalaris, who devoured sucklings, and accordingly is exhibited by the workmanship of Polystratus the Ambraciot, even to this day, as a very wonderful man! The Agrigentines dreaded to look on that countenance of his, because of his cannibalism; but people of culture now make it their boast that they behold him in his statue! Is it not shameful that fratricide is honoured by you who look on the statues of Polynices and Eteocles, and that you have not rather buried them with their maker Pythagoras? Destroy these memorials of iniquity! Why should I contemplate with admiration the figure of the woman who bore thirty children, merely for the sake of the artist Periclymenus? One ought to turn away with disgust from one who bore off the fruits of great incontinence, and whom the Romans compared to a sow, which also on a like account, they say, was deemed worthy of a mystic worship. Ares committed adultery with Aphrodité, and Andron made an image of their offspring Harmonia. Sophron, who committed to writing trifles and absurdities, was more celebrated for his skill in casting metals, of which specimens exist even now. And not only have his tales kept the fabulist Æsop in everlasting remembrance, but also the plastic art of Aristodemus has increased his celebrity. How is it then that you, who have so many poetesses whose productions are mere trash, and innumerable courtezans, and worthless men, are not ashamed to slander the reputation of our women? What care I to know that Euanthé gave birth to an infant in the Peripatus, or to gape with wonder at the art of Callistratus, or to fix my gaze on the Neæra of Calliades? For she was a courtezan. Laïs was a prostitute, and Turnus made her a monument of prostitution. Why are you not ashamed of the fornication of Hephæstion, even though Philo has represented him very artistically? And for what reason do you honour the hermaphrodite Ganymede by Leochares, as if you possessed something admirable? Praxiteles even made a statue of a woman with the stain of impurity upon it. It behoved you, repudiating everything of this kind, to seek what is truly worthy of attention, and not to turn with disgust from our mode of life while receiving with approval the shameful productions of Philænis and Elephantis.

1 - 35 Tatian Speaks as an Eye-Witness.

The things which I have thus set before you I have not learned at second hand. I have visited many lands; I have followed rhetoric, like yourselves; I have fallen in with many arts and inventions; and finally, when sojourning in the city of the Romans, I inspected the multiplicity of statues brought thither by you: for I do not attempt, as is the custom with many, to strengthen my own views by the opinions of others, but I wish to give you a distinct account of what I myself have seen and felt. So, bidding farewell to the arrogance of Romans and the idle talk of Athenians, and all their ill-connected opinions, I embraced our barbaric philosophy. I began to show how this was more ancient than your institutions, but left my task unfinished, in order to discuss a matter which demanded more immediate attention; but now it is time I should attempt to speak concerning its doctrines. Be not offended with our teaching, nor undertake an elaborate reply filled with trifling and ribaldry, saying, “Tatian, aspiring to be above the Greeks, above the infinite number of philosophic inquirers, has struck out a new path, and embraced the doctrines of Barbarians.” For what grievance is it, that men manifestly ignorant should be reasoned with by a man of like nature with themselves? Or how can it be irrational, according to your own sophist, to grow old always learning something?

1 - 36 Testimony of the Chaldeans to the Antiquity of Moses.

But let Homer be not later than the Trojan war; let it be granted that he was contemporary with it, or even that he was in the army of Agamemnon, and, if any so please, that he lived before the invention of letters. The Moses before mentioned will be shown to have been many years older than the taking of Troy, and far more ancient than the building of Troy, or than Tros and Dardanus. To demonstrate this I will call in as witnesses the Chaldeans, the Phœnicians and the Egyptians. And what more need I say? For it behoves one who professes to persuade his hearers to make his narrative of events very concise. Berosus, a Babylonian, a priest of their god Belus, born in the time of Alexander, composed for Antiochus, the third after him, the history of the Chaldeans in three books; and, narrating the acts of the kings, he mentions one of them, Nabuchodonosor by name, who made war against the Phœnicians and the Jews,—events which we know were announced by our prophets, and which happened much later than the age of Moses, seventy years before the Persian empire. But Berosus is a very trustworthy man, and of this Juba is a witness, who, writing concerning the Assyrians, says that he learned the history from Berosus: there are two books of his concerning the Assyrians.

1 - 37 Testimony of the Phœnicians.

After the Chaldeans, the testimony of the Phœnicians is as follows. There were among them three men, Theodotus, Hypsicrates, and Mochus; Chaitus translated their books into Greek, and also composed with exactness the lives of the philosophers. Now, in the histories of the aforesaid writers it is shown that the abduction of Europa happened under one of the kings, and an account is given of the coming of Menelaus into Phœnicia, and of the matters relating to Chiramus, who gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon the king of the Jews, and supplied wood of all kind of trees for the building of the temple. Menander of Pergamus composed a history concerning the same things. But the age of Chiramus is somewhere about the Trojan war; but Solomon, the contemporary of Chiramus, lived much later than the age of Moses.

1 - 38 The Egyptians Place Moses in the Reign of Inachus.

Of the Egyptians also there are accurate chronicles. Ptolemy, not the king, but a priest of Mendes, is the interpreter of their affairs. This writer, narrating the acts of the kings, says that the departure of the Jews from Egypt to the places whither they went occurred in the time of king Amosis, under the leadership of Moses. He thus speaks: “Amosis lived in the time of king Inachus.” After him, Apion the grammarian, a man most highly esteemed, in the fourth book of his Ægyptiaca (there are five books of his), besides many other things, says that Amosis destroyed Avaris in the time of the Argive Inachus, as the Mendesian Ptolemy wrote in his annals. But the time from Inachus to the taking of Troy occupies twenty generations. The steps of the demonstration are the following:—

1 - 39 Catalogue of the Argive Kings.

The kings of the Argives were these: Inachus, Phoroneus, Apis, Criasis, Triopas, Argeius, Phorbas, Crotopas, Sthenelaus, Danaus, Lynceus, Prœtus, Abas, Acrisius, Perseus, Sthenelaus, Eurystheus, Atreus, Thyestes, and Agamemnon, in the eighteenth year of whose reign Troy was taken. And every intelligent person will most carefully observe that, according to the tradition of the Greeks, they possessed no historical composition; for Cadmus, who taught them letters, came into Bœotia many generations later. But after Inachus, under Phoroneus, a check was with difficulty given to their savage and nomadic life, and they entered upon a new order of things. Wherefore, if Moses is shown to be contemporary with Inachus, he is four hundred years older than the Trojan war. But this is demonstrated from the succession of the Attic, and of the Macedonian, the Ptolemaic, and the Antiochian kings. Hence, if the most illustrious deeds among the Greeks were recorded and made known after Inachus, it is manifest that this must have been after Moses. In the time of Phoroneus, who was after Inachus, Ogygus is mentioned among the Athenians, in whose time was the first deluge; and in the time of Phorbas was Actæus, from whom Attica was called Actæa; and in the time of Triopas were Prometheus, and Epimetheus, and Atlas, and Cecrops of double nature, and Io; in the time of Crotopas was the burning of Phaëthon and the flood of Deucalion; in the time of Sthenelus was the reign of Amphictyon and the coming of Danaus into Peloponnesus, and the founding of Dardania by Dardanus, and the return of Europa from Phœnicia to Crete; in the time of Lynceus was the abduction of Koré, and the founding of the temple in Eleusis, and the husbandry of Triptolemus, and the coming of Cadmus to Thebes, and the reign of Minos; in the time of Prœtus was the war of Eumolpus against the Athenians; in the time of Acrisius was the coming over of Pelops from Phrygia, and the coming of Ion to Athens, and the second Cecrops, and the deeds of Perseus and Dionysus, and Musæus, the disciple of Orpheus; and in the reign of Agamemnon Troy was taken.

1 - 40 Moses More Ancient and Credible Than the Heathen Heroes.

Therefore, from what has been said it is evident that Moses was older than the ancient heroes, wars, and demons. And we ought rather to believe him, who stands before them in point of age, than the Greeks, who, without being aware of it, drew his doctrines as from a fountain. For many of the sophists among them, stimulated by curiosity, endeavoured to adulterate whatever they learned from Moses, and from those who have philosophized like him, first that they might be considered as having something of their own, and secondly, that covering up by a certain rhetorical artifice whatever things they did not understand, they might misrepresent the truth as if it were a fable. But what the learned among the Greeks have said concerning our polity and the history of our laws, and how many and what kind of men have written of these things, will be shown in the treatise against those who have discoursed of divine things.

1 - 41
But the matter of principal importance is to endeavour with all accuracy to make it clear that Moses is not only older than Homer, but than all the writers that were before him—older than Linus, Philammon, Thamyris, Amphion, Musæus, Orpheus, Demodocus, Phemius, Sibylla, Epimenides of Crete, who came to Sparta, Aristæus of Proconnesus, who wrote the Arimaspia, Asbolus the Centaur, Isatis, Drymon, Euclus the Cyprian, Horus the Samian, and Pronapis the Athenian. Now, Linus was the teacher of Hercules, but Hercules preceded the Trojan war by one generation; and this is manifest from his son Tlepolemus, who served in the army against Troy. And Orpheus lived at the same time as Hercules; moreover, it is said that all the works attributed to him were composed by Onomacritus the Athenian, who lived during the reign of the Pisistratids, about the fiftieth Olympiad. Musæus was a disciple of Orpheus. Amphion, since he preceded the siege of Troy by two generations, forbids our collecting further particulars about him for those who are desirous of information. Demodocus and Phemius lived at the very time of the Trojan war; for the one resided with the suitors, and the other with the Phœacians. Thamyris and Philammon were not much earlier than these. Thus, concerning their several performances in each kind, and their times and the record of them, we have written very fully, and, as I think, with all exactness. But, that we may complete what is still wanting, I will give my explanation respecting the men who are esteemed wise. Minos, who has been thought to excel in every kind of wisdom, and mental acuteness, and legislative capacity, lived in the time of Lynceus, who reigned after Danaus in the eleventh generation after Inachus. Lycurgus, who was born long after the taking of Troy, gave laws to the Lacedemonians. Draco is found to have lived about the thirty-ninth Olympiad, Solon about the forty-sixth, and Pythagoras about the sixty-second. We have shown that the Olympiads commenced 407 years after the taking of Troy. These facts being demonstrated, we shall briefly remark concerning the age of the seven wise men. The oldest of these, Thales, lived about the fiftieth Olympiad; and I have already spoken briefly of those who came after him.
1 - 42 Concluding Statement as to the Author.

These things, O Greeks, I Tatian, a disciple of the barbarian philosophy, have composed for you. I was born in the land of the Assyrians, having been first instructed in your doctrines, and afterwards in those which I now undertake to proclaim. Henceforward, knowing who God is and what is His work, I present myself to you prepared for an examination concerning my doctrines, while I adhere immoveably to that mode of life which is according to God.

2 Fragments
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In his treatise, Concerning Perfection according to the Saviour, he writes, “Consent indeed fits for prayer, but fellowship in corruption weakens supplication. At any rate, by the permission he certainly, though delicately, forbids; for while he permits them to return to the same on account of Satan and incontinence, he exhibits a man who will attempt to serve two masters—God by the ‘consent’ (1 Cor. 7:5), but by want of consent, incontinence, fornication, and the devil.”—Clem. Alex.: Strom., iii. c. 12.

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A certain person inveighs against generation, calling it corruptible and destructive; and some one does violence to Scripture, applying to pro-creation the Saviour’s words, “Lay not up treasure on earth, where moth and rust corrupt;” and he is not ashamed to add to these the words of the prophet: “You all shall grow old as a garment, and the moth shall devour you.”

And, in like manner, they adduce the saying concerning the resurrection of the dead, “The sons of that world neither marry nor are given in marriage.”—Clem. Alex.: iii. c. 12, § 86.

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Tatian, who maintaining the imaginary flesh of Christ, pronounces all sexual connection impure, who was also the very violent heresiarch of the Encratites, employs an argument of this sort: “If any one sows to the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption;” but he sows to the flesh who is joined to a woman; therefore he who takes a wife and sows in the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption.—Hieron.: Com. in Ep. ad Gal.

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Seceding from the Church, and being elated and puffed up by a conceit of his teacher, as if he were superior to the rest, he formed his own peculiar type of doctrine. Imagining certain invisible Æons like those of Valentinus, and denouncing marriage as defilement and fornication in the same way as Marcion and Saturninus, and denying the salvation of Adam as an opinion of his own.—Irenæus: Adv. Hœr., i. 28.

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Tatian attempting from time to time to make use of Paul’s language, that in Adam all die, but ignoring that “where sin abounded, grace has much more abounded.”—Irenæus: Adv. Heres., iii. 37.

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Against Tatian, who says that the words, “Let there be light,” are to be taken as a prayer. If He who uttered it knew a superior God, how is it that He says, “I am God, and there is none beside me”?

He said that there are punishments for blasphemies, foolish talking, and licentious words, which are punished and chastised by the Logos. And he said that women were punished on account of their hair and ornaments by a power placed over those things, which also gave strength to Samson by his hair, and punishes those who by the ornament of their hair are urged on to fornication.—Clem. Alex.: Frag.

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But Tatian, not understanding that the expression “Let there be” is not always precative but sometimes imperative, most impiously imagined concerning God, who said “Let there be light,” that He prayed rather than commanded light to be, as if, as he impiously thought, God was in darkness.—Origen: De Orat.

2 - 8

Tatian separates the old man and the new, but not, as we say, understanding the old man to be the law, and the new man to be the Gospel. We agree with him in saying the same thing, but not in the sense he wishes, abrogating the law as if it belonged to another God.—Clem. Alex.: Strom., iii. 12.

2 - 9

Tatian condemns and rejects not only marriage, but also meats which God has created for use.—Hieron.: Adv. Jovin., i. 3.

2 - 10

“But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink, and commanded the prophets, saying, Prophesy not.” On this, perhaps, Tatian the chief of the Encratites endeavours to build his heresy, asserting that wine is not to be drunk, since it was

commanded in the law that the Nazarites were not to drink wine, and now those who give the Nazarites wine are accused by the prophet.—Hieron.: Com. in Amos.

2 - 11

Tatian, the patriarch of the Encratites, who himself rejected some of Paul’s Epistles, believed this especially, that is addressed to Titus, ought to be declared to be the apostle’s, thinking little of the assertion of Marcion and others, who agree with him on this point.—Hieron.: Præf. in Com. ad Tit.

2 - 12

Archelaus (a.d. 280), Bishop of Carrha in Mesopotamia, classes his countryman Tatian with “Marcion, Sabellius, and others who have made up for themselves a peculiar science,” i.e., a theology of their own.—Routh: Reliquiæ, tom. v. p. 137. But see Edinburgh Series of this work, vol. xx. p. 267.

3 - 1

 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God is the 2,3 Word.  This was in the beginning with God.  Everything was by his hand, and without him not even one existing thing was made.  In him was life, and the life is the light of men.  And the light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness apprehended it not.

  There was in the days of Herod the king a priest whose name was Zacharias, of the family of Abijah; and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.  And they were both righteous before God, walking in all his commands, and in the uprightness of God without reproach.  And they had no son, for Elizabeth was barren, and they had both advanced in age.  And while he discharged Arabic, p. 2 the duties of priest in the order of his service before God, according to the custom of the priesthood it was his turn to burn incense; so he entered the temple of the Lord.  And the whole gathering of the people were praying without at the time of the incense.  And there appeared unto Zacharias the angel of the Lord, standing at the right of the altar of incense; and Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him.  But the angel said unto him, Be not agitated, Zacharias, for thy prayer is heard, and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John; and thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice at his birth.  And he shall be great before the Lord, and shall not drink wine nor strong drink, and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit while he is in his mother’s womb.  And he shall turn back many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God.  And he shall go before him in the spirit, and in the power of Elijah the prophet, to turn back the heart of the fathers to the sons, and those that obey not to the knowledge of the righteous; and to prepare for the Lord a perfect people.   And Zacharias said unto the angel, How shall I know this, since I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years?  And the angel answered and said unto him, I am Gabriel, that standeth before God; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and give thee tidings of this.  Henceforth thou shalt be speechless, and shalt not be able to speak until the day in which this shall come to pass, because thou didst not trust this my word, which shall be accomplished in its time.  And the people were standing Arabic, p. 3 awaiting Zacharias, and they were perplexed at his delaying in the temple.  And when Zacharias went out, he was not able to speak unto them:  so they knew that he had seen in the temple a vision; and he made signs unto them, and continued dumb.  And when the days of his service were completed, he departed to his dwelling.

 And after those days Elizabeth his wife conceived; and she hid herself five months, and said, This hath the Lord done unto me in the days when he looked upon me, to remove my reproach from among men.

 And in the sixth month Gabriel the angel was sent from God to Galilee to a city called Nazareth, to a virgin given in marriage to a man named Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.  And the angel entered unto her and said unto her, Peace be unto thee, thou who art filled with grace.  Our Lord is with thee, thou blessed amongst women.  And she, when she beheld, was agitated at his word, and pondered what this salutation could be.  And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God.  Thou shalt now conceive, and bear a son, and call his name Jesus.  This shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father:  and he shall rule over the house of Jacob for ever; and to his kingdom there shall be no end.  Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be to me when no man hath known me?  The angel answered and said unto her, The Arabic, p. 4 Holy Spirit will come, and the power of the Most High shall rest upon thee, and therefore shall hethat is born of thee be pure, and shall be called the Son of God.  And lo, Elizabeth thy kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her, her that is called barren.  For nothing is difficult for God.  Mary said, Lo, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be unto me according unto thy word.  And the angel departed from her.

 And then Mary arose in those days and went in haste into the hill country, to a  city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and asked for the health of Elizabeth.  And when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb.  And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit; and cried with a loud voice and said unto Mary, Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit that is in thy womb.  Whence have I this privilege, that the mother of my Lord should come unto me?  When the sound of thy salutation reached my ears, with great joy rejoiced the babe in my womb.  And blessed is she who believed that what was spoken to her from the Lord would be fulfilled.  And Mary said,

My soul doth magnify the Lord,

 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour,

 Who hath looked upon the low estate of his handmaiden:

Lo, henceforth, all generations shall pronounce blessing on me.

 For he hath done great things for me, who is mighty,

And holy is his name.

 And his mercy embraceth them who fear him,

Throughout the ages and the times.

Arabic, p. 5 He wrought the victory with his arm,

And scattered them that prided themselves in their opinions.

 He overthrew them that acted haughtily from their thrones,

And raised the lowly.

 He satisfied with good things the hungry,

And left the rich without anything.

 He helped Israel his servant,

And remembered his mercy

 (According as he spake with our fathers)

Unto Abraham and unto his seed for ever.

 And Mary abode with Elizabeth about three months, and returned unto her house.

58, 59 And Elizabeth’s time of delivery was come; and she brought forth a son.  And her neighbours and kinsfolk heard that God had multiplied his mercy towards her; and they rejoiced with her.  And when it was the eighth day, they came to circumcise the child, and called him Zacharias, calling him by the name of his father.   And his mother answered and said unto them, Not so; but he shall be called John.   And they said unto her, There is no man of thy kindred that is called by this name.  63, 64 And they made signs to his father, saying, How dost thou wish to name him?  And he asked for a tablet, and wrote and said, His name is John.  And every one wondered.   And immediately his mouth was opened, and his tongue, and he spake and praised God.  And fear fell on all their neighbours:  and this was spoken of in all the mountains of Judah.  And all who heard pondered in their hearts and said, What shall this child be?  And the hand of the Lord was with him.

 And Zacharias his father was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied and said,

 Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel,

Who hath cared for his people, and wrought for it salvation;

 And hath raised for us the horn of salvation

Arabic, p. 6 In the house of David his servant

 (As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets from eternity),

 That he might save us from our enemies,

And from the hand of all them that hate us.

 And he hath performed his mercy towards our fathers,

And remembered his holy covenants,

 And the oath which he sware unto Abraham our father,

 That he would give us deliverance from the hand of our enemies,

And without fear we shall serve before him

 All our days with equity and righteousness.

 And as for thee, O child, prophet of the Most High shalt thou be called.

Thou shalt go forth before the face of the Lord to prepare his way,

 To give the knowledge of salvation unto his people,

For the forgiveness of their sins,

 Through the mercy of the compassion of our God,

With which he careth for us, to appear from on high

 To give light to them that sit in darkness and under the shadow of death,

And to set straight our feet in the way of peace.

 And the child grew and became strong in the spirit, and abode in the desert until the time of his appearing unto the children of Israel.

3 - 2

Arabic, p. 7 Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah was on this wise:  In the time when his mother was given in marriage to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Spirit.  And Joseph her husband was a just man and did not wish to expose her, and he purposed to put her away secretly.   But when he thought of this, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, and said unto him, Joseph, son of David, fear not to take Mary thy wife, for that which is begotten in her is of the Holy Spirit.  She shall bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, and he shall save his people from their sins.  And all this was that the saying from the Lord by the prophet might be fulfilled:

 Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son,

And they shall call his name Immanuel,

which is, being interpreted, With us is our God.  And when Joseph arose from his sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife; and knew her not until she brought forth her firstborn son.

 And in those days there went forth a decree from Augustus Cæsar that all the people of his dominion should be enrolled. This first enrolment was while Quirinius 1was governor of Syria.  And every man went to be enrolled in his city.  And Joseph went up also from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to Judæa, to the city of David which is called Bethlehem (for he was of the house of David and of his tribe), with Arabic, p. 8 Mary his betrothed, she being with child, to be enrolled there.  And while she was there the days for her being delivered were accomplished.  And she brought forth her firstborn son; and she wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them where they were staying.

 And there were in that region shepherds abiding, keeping their flock in the watch of the night.  And behold, the angel of God came unto them, and the glory of the Lord shone upon them; and they were greatly terrified.  And the angel said unto them, Be not terrified; for I bring you tidings of great joy which shall be to the whole world; there is born to you this day a Saviour, which is the Lord the Messiah, in the city of David.  And this is a sign for you:  ye shall find a babe wrapped in swaddling cloths and laid in a manger.  And there appeared with the angels suddenly many heavenly forces praising God and saying,

 Praise be to God in the highest,

And on the earth peace, and good hope to men.

 And when the angels departed from them to heaven, the shepherds spake to one another and said, We will go to Bethlehem and see this word which hath been, as the Lord made known unto us.  And they came with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe laid in a manger.  And when they saw, they reported the word which was spoken to them about the child.  And all that heard wondered at the description which the shepherds described to them.  But Mary kept these sayings and discriminated them in her heart.  And those shepherds returned, magnifying and praising God for all that they had seen and heard, according as it was described unto them.

Arabic, p. 9 And when eight days were fulfilled that the child should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus, being that by which he was called by the angel before his conception in the womb.

 And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him before the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male opening the womb shall be called the holy thing of the Lord), and to give a sacrificial victim as it is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of doves or two young pigeons.  And there was in Jerusalem a man whose name was Simeon; and this man was upright and pious, and expecting the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him.  And it had been said unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death till he had seen with his eyes the Messiah of the Lord.  And this man came by the Spirit to the temple; and at the time when his parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might present for him a sacrifice, as it is written in the law, he bare him in his arms and praised God and said,

 Now loosest thou the bonds of thy servant, O Lord, in peace,

According to thy saying;

 For mine eye hath witnessed thy mercy,

 Which thou hast made ready because of the whole world;

 A light for the unveiling of the nations,

And a glory to thy people Israel.

 And Joseph and his mother were marvelling at the things which were being said concerning him.  And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, Behold, he is set for the overthrow and rising of many in Israel; and for a sign of contention;  and a spear shall pierce through thine own soul; that the thoughts of the Arabic, p. hearts of many may be revealed.  And Anna the prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, was also advanced in years (and she dwelt with her husband seven years from her virginity, and she remained a widow about eighty-four years); and she left not the temple, and served night and day with fasting and prayer.  And she also rose in that hour and thanked the Lord, and she spake of him with every one who was expecting the deliverance of Jerusalem.  And when they had accomplished everything according to what is in the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to Nazareth their city.

3 - 3

And after that, the Magi came from the east to Jerusalem, and said, Where is the King of the Jews which was born?  We have seen his star in the east, and have come to worship him.  And Herod the king heard, and he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.  And he gathered all the chief priests and the scribes of the people, and asked them in what placethe Messiah should be born.  They said, In Bethlehem of Judæa:  thus it is written in the prophet,

 Thou also, Bethlehem of Judah,

Art not contemptible among the kings of Judah:

From thee shall go forth a king,

And he shall be a shepherd to my people Israel.

 Then Herod called the Magi secretly, and inquired of them the time at which the star appeared to them.  And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said unto them, Go and search about the child diligently; and when ye have found him, come and make known to me, that I also may go and worship him.  And they, when they Arabic, p. heard the king, departed; and lo, the star which they had seen in the east went before them, until it came and stood above the place where the child 10, was.  And when they beheld the star, they rejoiced with very great joy.  And they entered the house and beheld the child with Mary his mother, and fell down worshipping him, and opened their saddle-bags and offered to him offerings, gold and myrrh and frankincense.  And they saw in a dream that they should not return to Herod, and they travelled by another way in going to their country.

 And when they had departed, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, and said unto him, Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I speak to thee; for Herod is determined to seek the child to slay him.  And Joseph arose and took the child and his mother in the night, and fled into Egypt, and remained in it until the time of the death of Herod:  that that might be fulfilled which was said by the Lord in the prophet, which said, From Egypt did I call my son.  And Herod then, when he saw that he was mocked of the Magi, was very angry, and sent and killed all the male children which were in Bethlehem and all its borders, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had inquired from the Magi.  Then was fulfilled the saying in Jeremiah the prophet, which said,

 A voice was heard in Ramah,

Weeping and much lamentation;

Rachel weeping for her children,

And not willing to be consoled for their loss.

 But when Herod the king died, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, and said unto him, Rise and take the child and his mother, and Arabic, p. go into the land of Israel; for they have died who sought the child’s life.   And Joseph rose and took the child and his mother, and came to the land of Israel.  But when he heard that Archelaus had become king over Judæa instead of Herod his father, he feared to go thither; and he saw in a dream that he should go into the land of Galilee, and that he should abide in a city called Nazareth:  that the saying in the prophet might be fulfilled, that he should be called a Nazarene.

 And the child grew, and became strong in spirit, becoming filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon him.

 And his kinsfolk used to go every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the passover.   And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to their custom, to the feast.  And when the days were accomplished, they returned; and the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and Joseph and his mother knew not:  and they supposed that he was with the children of their company.  And when they had gone one day’s journey, they sought him beside their people and those who knew them, and they found him not; so they returned to Jerusalem and sought him again.   And after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, hearing them and asking them questionsand all who heard him wondered at his wisdom and his words.  And when they saw him they wondered, and his mother said unto him, My son, why hast thou dealt with us thus? behold, I and thy father have been seeking for thee with much anxiety.  And he said unto them, Why were ye seeking me? know ye not that I must be in the house of my Father?  And they understood not the word which he spake unto them.  And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was obedient to them:  and his mother used to keep all these sayings in her heart.

Arabic, p. 13 And Jesus grew in his stature and wisdom, and in grace with God and men.

 And in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, when Pontius Pilate was governor in Judæa, and one of the four rulers, Herod, in Galilee; and Philip his brother, one of the four rulers, in Ituræa and in the district of Trachonitis; and Lysanias, one of the four rulers, in Abilene; in the chief-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the command of God went forth to John the son of Zacharias in the desert.  And he came into all the region which is about Jordan, proclaiming the baptism of repentance unto the forgiveness of sins.  And he was preaching in the wilderness of Judæa, and saying, Repent ye; the kingdom of heaven is come near.   This is he that was spoken of in Isaiah the prophet,

The voice which crieth in the desert,

 Prepare ye the way of the Lord,

And make straight in the plain, paths for our God.

 All the valleys shall become filled,

And all the mountains and hills shall become low;

And the rough shall become plain, And the difficult place, easy;

 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.

 This man came to bear witness, that he might bear witness to the light, that every man might believe through his mediation.  He was not the light, but that he might bear witness to the light, which was the light of truth, that giveth light to every man coming into the world.  He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.  He came unto his own, and his own received him not.  And those who received him, to them gave he the power that they might be sons of God,—those which believe in his name:  which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of a man, but of God.  And the Word became flesh, and took up his abode among us; and we saw his glory as the glory of the only Son from the Father, which is full of grace and equity.  John bare witness Arabic, p. of him, and cried, and said, This is he that I said cometh after me and was before me, because he was before me.  And of his fullness received we all grace for grace.  For the law was given through the mediation of Moses, but truth and grace were through Jesus Christ.

3 - 4

 No man hath seen God at any time; the only Son, God, which is in the bosom of his Father, he hath told of him.

 And this is the witness of John when the Jews sent to him from Jerusalem priests and Levites to ask him, Who art thou?  And he acknowledged, and denied not; and he confessed that he was not the Messiah.  And they asked him again, What then?  Art thou Elijah?  And he said, I am not he.  Art thou a prophet?  He said, No.  They said unto him, Then who art thou? that we may answer them that sent us.  What sayest thou of thyself?  And he said, I am the voice that crieth in the desert, Repair ye the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet.  And they that were sent were from the Pharisees.  And they asked him and said unto him, Why baptizest thou now, when thou art not the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor a prophet?   John answered and said unto them, I baptize with water:  among you is standing one whom ye know not:  this is he who I said cometh after me and was before me, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose.  And that was in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

 Now John’s raiment was camel’s hair, and he was girded with skins, and his food Arabic, p. was of locusts and honey of the wilderness.   Then went out unto him the people of Jerusalem, and all Judæa, and all the region which is about the 14, Jordan; and they were baptized of him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.  But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to be baptized, he said unto them, Ye children of vipers, who hath led you to flee from the wrath to come?  16, 17 Do now the fruits which are worthy of repentance; and think and say not within yourselves, We have a father, even Abraham; for I say unto you, that God is able to raise up of these stones children unto Abraham.  Behold, the axe hath been laid at the roots of the trees, and so every tree that beareth not good fruit shall be taken and cast into the fire.  And the multitudes were asking him and saying, What shall we do?   He answered and said unto them, He that hath two tunics shall give to him that hath not; and he that hath food shall do likewise.  And the publicans also came to be baptized, and they said unto him, Teacher, what shall we do?  He said unto them, Seek not more than what ye are commanded to seek.  And the servants of the guard asked him and said, And we also, what shall we do?  He said unto them, Do not violence to any man, nor wrong him; and let your allowances satisfy you.

 And when the people were conjecturing about John, and all of them thinking in their hearts whether he were haply the Messiah, John answered and said unto them, I baptize you with water; there cometh one after me who is stronger than I, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to loosen; he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire:  who taketh the fan in his hand to cleanse his threshing-floors, Arabic, p. and the wheat he gathereth into his garners, while the straw he shall burn in fire which can not be put out.

 And other things he taught and preached among the people.

 Then came Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized of him.   And Jesus was about thirty years old, and it was supposed that he was the son of Joseph.  And John saw Jesus coming unto him, and said, This is the Lamb of God, that taketh on itself the burden of the sins of the world!  This is he concerning whom I said, There cometh after me a man who was before me, because he was before me.  And I knew him not; but that he should be made manifest to Israel, for this cause came I to baptize with water.  And John was hindering him and saying, I have need of being baptized by thee, and comest thou to me?  Jesus answered him and said, Suffer this now:  thus it is our duty to fulfill all righteousness.  Then he suffered him.  And when all the people were baptized, Jesus also was baptized.  And immediately he went up out of the water, and heaven opened Arabic, p. to him, and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in the similitude of the body of a dove; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.  And John bare witness and said, I beheld the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove; and it abode upon him.  But I knew him not; but he that sent me to baptize with water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt behold the Spirit descending and lighting upon him, the same is he that baptizeth with the Holy Spirit.  And I have seen and borne witness that this is the Son of God.

42, 43 And Jesus returned from the Jordan, filled with the Holy Spirit.  And immediately the Spirit took him out into the wilderness, to be tried of the devil; and he was with the beasts.  And he fasted forty days and forty nights.  And he ate nothing in those days, and at the end of them he hungered.  And the tempter came and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, speak, and these stones shall become bread.  He answered and said, It is written, Not by bread alone shall man live, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.  Then the devil brought him to the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down:  for it is written,

He shall give his angels charge concerning thee:

And they shall take thee on their arms,

So that thy foot shall not stumble against a stone.

 Jesus said unto him, And it is written also, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.  And the devil took him up to a high mountain, and shewed him all the kingdoms Arabic, p. of the earth, and their glory, in the least time; and the devil said unto him, To thee will I give all this dominion, and its glory, which is delivered to me that I may give it to whomsoever I will.  If then thou wilt worship before me, all of it shall be thine.

3 - 5

 Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee hence, Satan:  for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him alone shalt thou serve.  And when the devil had completed all his temptations, he departed from him for a season.  And behold, the angels drew near and ministered unto him.

4, 5 And next day John was standing, and two of his disciples; and he saw Jesus as he was walking, and said, Behold, the Lamb of God!  And his two disciples heard him saying this, and they followed Jesus.  And Jesus turned and saw them coming after him, and said unto them, What seek ye?  They said unto him, Our master, where art thou staying?  And he said unto them, Come and see.  And they came and saw his place, and abode with him that day:  and it was about the tenth hour.   One of the two which heard from John, and followed Jesus, was Andrew the brother of Simon.  And he saw first Simon his brother, and said unto him, We have found the Messiah.  And he brought him unto Jesus.  And Jesus looked upon him and said, Thou art Simon, son of Jonah:  thou shalt be called Cephas.

 And on the next day Jesus desired to go forth to Galilee, and he found Philip, Arabic, p. and said unto him, Follow me.  Now Philip was of Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Simon.  And Philip found Nathanael, and said unto him, He of whom Moses did write in the law and in the prophets, we have found that he is Jesus the son of Joseph of Nazareth.  Nathanael said unto him, Is it possible that there can be any good thing from Nazareth?  Philip said unto him, Come and see.  And Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, This is indeed a  son of Israel in whom is no guile.  And Nathanael said unto him, Whence knowest thou me?  Jesus said unto him, Before Philip called thee, while thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee.  Nathanael answered and said unto him, My Master, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.  Jesus said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, hast thou believed? thou shalt see what is greater than this.  And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

 And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee.

 And on the third day there was a feast in Cana, a city of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:  and Jesus also and his disciples were invited to the feast.  And they lacked wine:  and his mother said unto Jesus, They have no wine.   And Jesus said unto her, What have I to do with thee, woman? hath not mine hour come?  And his mother said unto the servants, What he saith unto you, do.   And there were there six vessels of stone, placed for the Jews’ purification, such as Arabic, p. 20 would contain two or three jars.  And Jesus said unto them, Fill the vessels with water.  And they filled them to the top.  He said unto them, Draw out now, and present to the ruler of the feast. And they did so.  And when the ruler of the company tasted that water which had become wine, and knew not whence it was (but the servants knew, because they filled up the water), the ruler of the company called the bridegroom, and said unto him, Every man presenteth first the good wine, and on intoxication he bringeth what is poor; but thou hast kept the good wine until now.  And this is the first sign which Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed on him.  And his fame spread in all the country which was around them.  And he taught in their synagogues, and was glorified by every man.  And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and entered, according to his custom, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read.  And he was given the book of Isaiah the prophet.  And Jesus opened the book and found the place where it was written,

 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,

And for this anointed he me, to preach good tidings to the poor;

And he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted,

And to proclaim forgiveness to the evil-doers, and sight to the blind,

And to bring the broken into forgiveness,

 And to proclaim an acceptable year of the Lord.

 And he rolled up the book and gave it to the servant, and went and sat down:  and the eyes of all that were in the synagogue were observing him.  And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled which ye have heard with your ears.  And they all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which were proceeding from his mouth.

Arabic, p. 21 And from that time began Jesus to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom of God, and to say, Repent ye, and believe in the gospel.  The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of heaven hath come near.

 And while he was walking on the shore of the sea of Galilee, he saw two brethren, Simon who was called Cephas, and Andrew his brother, casting their nets into the sea; for they were fishers.  And Jesus said unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.  And they immediately left their nets there and followed him.  And when he went on from thence, he saw other two brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and Jesus called them.  And they immediately forsook the ship and their father Zebedee, and followed him.

 And when the multitude gathered unto him to hear the word of God, while he was standing on the shore of the sea of Gennesaret, he saw two boats standing beside the sea, while the two fishers which were gone out of them were washing their nets.  And one of them belonged to Simon Cephas.  And Jesus went up and sat down in it, and commanded that they should move away a little from the land into the water.  And he sat down and taught the multitudes from the boat.  And when he had left off his speaking, he said unto Simon, Put out into the deep, and cast your net for a draught.  And Simon answered and said unto him, My Master, we toiled all night and caught nothing; now at thy word I will cast the net.  And when they did this, there were enclosed a great many fishes; and their net was on the point of breaking.  And they beckoned to their comrades that were in the other boat, to come and help them.  And when they came, they filled both boats, so that they were on the point of sinking.

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Arabic, p. 22 But when Simon Cephas saw this he fell before the feet of Jesus, and said unto him, My Lord, I beseech of thee to depart from me, for I am a sinful man.  And amazement took possession of him, and of all who were with him, because of the draught of the fishes which they had taken.  And thus also were James and John the sons of Zebedee overtaken, who were Simon’s partners.  And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not; henceforth thou shalt be a fisher of men unto life.  And they brought the boats to the land; and they left everything, and followed him.

 And after that came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judæa; and he went about there with them, and baptized.  And John also was baptizing in Ænon, which is beside Salim, because there was much water there:  and they came, and were baptized.  7, 8 And John was not yet come into prison.  And there was an inquiry between one of John’s disciples and one of the Jews about purifying.  And they came unto John, and said unto him, Our master, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou hast borne witness, behold, he also baptizeth, and many come to him.  John answered and said unto them, A man can receive nothing of himself, except it be given him from heaven.  Ye are they that bear witness unto me that I said, I am not the Messiah, but I am one sent before him.  And he that hath a bride is a bridegroom:  and the friend of the bridegroom is he that standeth and listeneth to him, and rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom’s voice.  Lo now, behold, 13, Arabic, p. 23 my joy becometh complete.  And he must increase and I decrease.  For he that is come from above is higher than everything; and he that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh; and he that came down from heaven is higher than all.  And he beareth witness of what he hath seen and heard:  and no man receiveth his witness.  And he that hath received his witness hath asserted that he is truly God.  And he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God:  God gave not the Spirit by measure.  The Father loveth the Son, and hath put everything in his hands.  Whosoever believeth in the Son hath eternal life; but whosoever obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God cometh upon him.

 And Jesus learned that the Pharisees had heard that he had received many disciples, and that he was baptizing more than John (not that Jesus was himself baptizing, but his disciples); and so he left Judæa.

 And Herod the governor, because he used to be rebuked by John because of Herodias the wife of Philip his brother, and for all the sins which he was committing, added to all that also this, that he shut up John in prison.

 And when Jesus heard that John was delivered up, he went away to Galilee.   And he entered again into Cana, where he had made the water wine.  And there was at Capernaum a king’s servant, whose son was sick.  And this man heard that Jesus was come from Judæa to Galilee; and he went to him, and besought of him that he would come down and heal his son; for he had come near unto death.  28, 29 Jesus said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye do not believe.  The Arabic, p. 24 king’s servant said unto him, My Lord, come down, that the child die not.   Jesus said unto him, Go; for thy son is alive.  And that man believed the word which Jesus spake, and went.  And when he went down, his servants met him and told him, and said unto him, Thy son is alive.  And he asked them at what time he recovered.  They said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.  And his father knew that that was at that hour in which Jesus said unto him, Thy son is alive.  And he believed, he and the whole people of his house.  And this is the second sign which Jesus did when he returned from Judæa to Galilee.  And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee.

 And he left Nazareth, and came and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea shore, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali:  that it might be fulfilled which was said in Isaiah the prophet, who said,

 The land of Zebulun, the land of Naphtali,

The way of the sea, the passage of the Jordan,

Galilee of the nations:

 The people sitting in darkness

Saw a great light,

And those sitting in the region and in the shadow of death,

There appeared to them a light.

 And he taught them on the sabbaths.  And they wondered because of his doctrine:  for his word was as if it were authoritative.  And there was in the synagogue a man with an unclean devil, and he cried out with a loud voice, and said, Let me alone; what have I to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come for our destruction?  I know thee who thou art, thou Holy One of God.  And Jesus rebuked him, and said, Stop up thy mouth, and come out of him.  And the demon threw him in the midst and came out of him, having done him no harm.  And great amazement Arabic, p. 25 took hold upon every man.  And they talked one with another, and said, What is this word that orders the unclean spirits with power and authority, and they come out?  And the news of him spread abroad in all the region which was around them.

 And when Jesus went out of the synagogue, he saw a man sitting among the publicans, named Matthew:  and he said unto him, Come after me.  And he rose, and followed him.

47, 48 And Jesus came to the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John.  And Simon’s wife’s mother was oppressed with a great fever, and they besought him for her.  And he stood over her and rebuked her fever, and it left her, and immediately she rose and ministered to them.  And at even they brought to him many that had demons:  and he cast out their devils with the word.  And all that had sick, their diseases being divers and malignant, brought them unto him.  And he laid his hand on them one by one and healed them:  that that might be fulfilled which was said in the prophet Isaiah, who said, He taketh our pains and beareth our diseases.  And all the city was gathered together unto the door of Jesus.  And he cast out devils also from many, as they were crying out and saying, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of God; and he rebuked them.  And he suffered not the demons to speak, because they knew him that he was the Lord the Messiah.

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Arabic, p. 26 And in the morning of that day he went out very early, and went to a desert place, and was there praying.  And Simon and those that were with him sought him.  And when they found him, they said unto him, All the people seek for thee.  He said unto them, Let us go into the adjacent villages and towns, that I may preach there also; for to this end did I come.  And the multitudes were seeking him, and came till they reached him; and they took hold of him, that he should not go away from them.  But Jesus said unto them, I must preach of the kingdom of God in other cities also:  for because of this gospel was I sent.  And Jesus was going about all the cities and the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all the diseases and all the sicknesses,  and casting out the devils.  And his fame became known that he was teaching in every place and being glorified by every man.  And when he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphæus sitting among the tax-gatherers; and he said unto him, Follow me:  and he rose and followed him.  And the news of him was heard of in all the land of Syria:  and they brought unto him all those whom grievous ills had befallen through divers diseases, and those that were enduring torment, and those that were possessed, and lunatics, and paralytics; and he healed them.

112 And after some days Jesus entered into Capernaum again.  And when they heard that he was in the house, many gathered, so that it could not hold them, even about Arabic, p. 27 the door; and he made known to them the word of God.  And there were there some of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, sitting, come from all the villages of Galilee, and Judæa, and Jerusalem; and the power of the Lord was present to heal them.  And some men brought a bed with a man on it who was paralytic.  And they sought to bring him in and lay him before him.  And when they found no way to bring him in because of the multitude of people, they went up to the roof, and let him down with his bed from the roofing, into the midst before Jesus.   And when Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the paralytic, My son, thy sins are forgiven thee.  And the scribes and Pharisees began to think within their hearts, Why doth this man blaspheme?  Who is it that is able to forgive sins, but God alone?   And Jesus knew by the spirit that they were thinking this within themselves, and he said unto them, Why do ye think this within your heart?  Which is better, that it should be said to the paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or that it should be said to him, Arise, and take thy bed, and walk?  That ye may know that the Son of man is empowered on earth to forgive sins (and he said to the paralytic), I say unto thee, Arise, take thy bed, and go to thine house.  And he rose forthwith, and took his bed, and went out in the presence of all.  And he went to his house praising God.   And when those multitudes saw, they feared; and amazement took possession of them, and they praised God, who had given such power to men.  And they said, We have seen marvellous things to-day, of which we have never before seen the like.

Arabic, p. 28 And after that, Jesus went out, and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting among the publicans:  and he said unto him, Follow me.  And he left everything, and rose, and followed him.  And Levi made him a great feast in his house.  And there was a great multitude of the publicans and others sitting with him.   And the scribes and Pharisees murmured, and said unto his disciples, Why do ye eat and drink with the publicans and sinners?  Jesus answered and said unto them, The physician seeketh not those who are well, but those that are afflicted with grievous 30, 31 sickness.  I came not to call the righteous, but the sinners, to repentance.  And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast always, and pray, and the Pharisees also, but thy disciples eat and drink?  He said unto them, Ye cannot make the sons of the marriage feast fast, while the bridegroom is with them.  Days will come, when the bridegroom is taken away from them; then will they fast in those days.  And he spake unto them a parable:  No man inserteth a new patch and seweth it in a worn garment, lest the newness of the new take from the worn, and there occur a great rent.  And no man putteth fresh wine into old skins, lest the wine burst the skins, and the skins be destroyed, and the wine spilled; but they put the fresh wine in the new skins, and both are preserved.  And no man drinketh old wine and straightway desireth fresh; for he saith, The old is better.

 And while Jesus was walking on the sabbath day among the sown fields, his disciples Arabic, p. 29 hungered.  And they were rubbing the ears with their hands, and eating.  But some of the Pharisees, when they saw them, said unto him, See, why do thy disciples on the sabbath day that which is not lawful?  But Jesus said unto them, Have ye not read in olden time what David did, when he had need and hungered, he and those that were with him? how he entered the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the bread of the table of the Lord, which it was not lawful that any should eat, save the priests, and gave to them that were with him also?   And he said unto them, The sabbath was created because of man, and man was not created because of the sabbath.  Or have ye not read in the law, that the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and yet they are blameless?  I say unto you now, that here is what is greater than the temple.  If ye had known this:  I love mercy, not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned those on whom is no blame.  The Lord of the sabbath is the Son of man.  And his relatives heard, and went out to take him, and said, He hath gone out of his mind.

 And on the next sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and was teaching.   And there was there a man whose right hand was withered.  And the scribes and the Pharisees were watching him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day, that they might find the means of accusing him.  But he knew their thoughts, and said unto the man whose hand was withered, Rise and come near into the midst of the synagogue.  And when he came and stood, Jesus said unto them, I ask you, which is lawful to be done on the sabbath day, good or evil? shall lives be saved or Arabic, p. 30 destroyed?  But they were silent.  Regarding them with anger, being grieved because of the hardness of their hearts.  And he said unto the man, Stretch out thy hand.  And he stretched it out:  and his hand became straight.   Then he said unto them, What man of you shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a well on the sabbath day, will not take it and lift it out?  And how much is man better than a sheep!  Wherefore it is lawful on the sabbath to do good.

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 And the Pharisees went out, and consulted together concerning him, that they might destroy him.  And Jesus perceived, and removed thence:  and great multitudes followed him; and he healed all of them:  and he forbade them that they should not make him known:  that the saying in Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which said,

 Behold, my servant with whom I am pleased;

My beloved in whom my soul hath delighted:

My spirit have I put upon him,

And he shall proclaim to the nations judgement.

 He shall not dispute, nor cry out;

And no man shall hear his voice in the marketplace.

 And a bruised reed shall he not break,

And a smoking lamp shall he not extinguish,

Until he shall bring forth judgement unto victory.

 And the nations shall rejoice in his name.

 And in those days Jesus went out to the mountain that he might pray, and he spent the night there in prayer to God.  And when the morning was come, he called the disciples.  And he went towards the sea:  and there followed him much people from Galilee that he might pray, and from Judæa, and from Jerusalem, and from Idumæa, and from beyond Jordan, and from Tyre, and from Sidon, and from Decapolis; and great multitudes came unto him, which had heard what he did.  And he spake to his disciples to bring him the boat because of the multitudes, that they might not throng him.  And he healed many, so that they were almost falling on Arabic, p. 31 him on account of their seeking to get near him.  And those that had plagues and unclean spirits, as soon as they beheld him, would fall, and cry out, and say, Thou art the Son of God.  And he rebuked them much, that they should not make him known.  And those that were under the constraint of unclean spirits were healed.  And all of the crowd were seeking to come near him; because power went out from him, and he healed them all.

18, 19 And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he went up to the mountain.  And he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve; and they are those whom he named apostles:  Simon, whom he named Cephas, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip and Bartholomew, and Matthew and Thomas, and James the son of Alphæus, and Simon which was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, and Judas the Iscariot, being he that had betrayed him.  And Jesus went down with them and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and the great multitude of people.  And these twelve he chose to be with him, and that he might send them to preach, and to have power to heal the sick and to cast out devils.

 Then he lifted up his eyes unto them, and opened his mouth, and taught them, and said,

 Blessed are the poor in spirit:  for the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

 Blessed are the sorrowful:  for they shall be comforted.

 Blessed are the humble:  for they shall inherit the earth.

 Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness:  for they shall be satisfied.

 Blessed are the merciful:  for on them shall be mercy.

Arabic, p. 32 Blessed are the pure in their hearts:  for they shall see God.

 Blessed are the peacemakers:  for they shall be called the sons of God.

 Blessed are they that were persecuted for righteousness’ sake:  for the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

 Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and separate you from them, and persecute you, and reproach you, and shall speak against you with all evil talk, for my sake, falsely.  Then rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven:  for so persecuted they the prophets before you.

 But woe unto you rich! for ye have received your consolation.

 Woe unto you that are satisfied! ye shall hunger.

Woe unto you that laugh now! ye shall weep and be sad.

 Woe unto you when men praise you! for so did their fathers use to do to the false prophets.

 Unto you do I say, ye which hear, Ye are the salt of the earth:  if then the salt become tasteless, wherewith shall it be salted?  For any purpose it is of no use, but is thrown outside, and men tread upon it.  Ye are the light of the world.  It is impossible that a city built on a mountain should be hid.  Neither do they light a lamp and place it under a bushel, but on the lamp-stand, and it giveth light to all who are in the house.  So shall your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.  There is nothing secret that shall not be revealed, or hidden that shall not be known.  Whoever hath ears that hear, let him hear.

 Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets; I came not to destroy, but to complete.  Verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth shall pass, there Arabic, p. 33 shall not pass one point or one letter of the law, until all of it shall be  accomplished.  Every one who shall violate now one of these small commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called lacking in the kingdom of heaven:  every one that shall do and teach shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.  I say unto you now, unless your righteousness abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven.

 Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Do not kill; and every one that killeth is worthy of the judgement.  But I say unto you that every one who is angry with his brother without a cause is worthy of the judgement; and every one that saith to his brother, Thou foul one, is condemned by the synagogue; and whosoever saith to him, Thou fool, is worthy of the fire of Gehenna.  If thou art now offering thy gift at the altar, and rememberest there that thy brother hath conceived against thee any grudge, leave thy gift at the altar, and go first and satisfy thy brother, and then return and offer thy gift.  Join thine adversary quickly, and while thou art still with him in the way, give a ransom and free thyself from him; lest thine adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the tax-collector, and thou fall into prison.  And verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt not go out thence until thou payest the last farthing.

57, 58 Ye have heard that it was said, Do not commit adultery:  but I now say unto you, that every one that looketh at a woman lusting after her hath forthwith already Arabic, p. 34 committed adultery with her in his heart.  If thy right eye injure thee, put it out and cast it from thee; for it is preferable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body go into the fire of hell.  And if thy right hand injure thee, cut it off and cast it from thee; and it is better for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body fall into Gehenna.  It was said that he that putteth away his wife should give her a writing of divorcement:   but I say unto you, that every one that putteth away his wife, except for the cause of adultery, hath made it lawful for her to commit adultery:  and whosoever taketh one that is put away committeth adultery.

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 Ye have heard also that it was said unto the ancients, Lie not, but perform unto God in thy oaths:  but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is a footstool under his feet; nor yet by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.  Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make in it one lock of hair black or white.  But your word shall be either Yea or Nay, and what is in excess of this is of the evil one.

6, 7 Ye have heard that it was said, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth:  but I say unto you, Stand not in opposition to the evil; but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other.  And he that would sue thee, and take thy tunic, leave to him also thy wrapper.  And whosoever compelleth thee one mile, go with Arabic, p. 35 him twain.  And he that asketh thee, give unto him:  and he that would borrow of thee, prevent him not.  And prosecute not him that taketh thy substance.  And as ye desire that men should do to you, so do ye also to them.

12, 13 Ye have heard that it was said, Love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy:  but I say unto you, Love your enemies, and pray for those that curse you, and deal well with those that hate you, and pray for those who take you with violence and persecute you;  that ye may be sons of your heavenly Father, who maketh his sun to rise on the good and the evil, and sendeth down his rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.  If ye love them that love you, what reward shall ye have? for the publicans and sinners also love those that love them.  And if ye do a kindness to those who treat you well, where is your superiority? for sinners also do likewise.  And if ye lend to him of whom ye hope for a reward, where is your superiority? for the sinners also lend to sinners, seeking recompense from them.  But love your enemies, and do good to them, and lend, and cut not off the hope of any man; that your reward may be great, and ye may be the children of the Highest:  for he is lenient towards the wicked and the ungrateful.  Be ye merciful, even as your Father also is merciful.  And if ye inquire for the good of your brethren only, what more have ye done than others? is not this the conduct of the publicans also?  Be ye now perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

 Consider your alms; do them not before men to let them see you:  and if it be not so, ye have no reward before your Father which is in the heavens.  When then thou givest an alms now, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as do the people of hypocrisy, Arabic, p. 36 in the synagogues and the marketplaces, that men may praise them.  And verily say I unto you, They have received their reward.  But thou, when thou doest alms, let thy left hand not know what thy right hand doeth; that thine alms may be concealed:  and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

 And whenever thou prayest, be not as the hypocrites, who love to stand in the synagogues and in the corners of the marketplaces for prayers, that men may behold them.  And verily say I unto you, They have received their reward.  But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and fasten thy door, and pray to thy Father in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.   And whenever ye pray, be not babblers, as the heathen; for they think that by the abundance of their words they shall be heard.  Then be not ye now like unto them:  for your Father knoweth your request before ye ask him.  One of his disciples said unto him, Our Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.  Jesus said unto them, Thus now pray ye now:  Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy 33, 34 name.  Thy kingdom come.  Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. Give us the food of to-day.  And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgave those that trespassed  against us.  And bring us not into temptations, but deliver us from the evil one. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever.  If ye forgive Arabic, p. 37 men their wrong-doing, your Father which is in heaven will forgive you.   But if ye forgive not men, neither will your Father pardon your wrong-doing.

 When ye fast, do not frown, as the hypocrites; for they make their faces austere, that they may be seen of men that they are fasting.  Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward.  But when thou fastest, wash thy face and anoint thy head; that thou make not an appearance to men of fasting, but to thy Father which is in secret:  and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee.

 Be not agitated, little flock; for your Father hath delighted to give you the kingdom.   Sell your possessions, and give in alms; take to yourselves purses that wax not old.  Lay not up treasure on earth, where moth and worm corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:  but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where moth and worm do not corrupt, nor thieves break through nor steal:  for where your treasure is, there also will your heart be.  The lamp of the body is the eye:  if then  thine eye now be sound, thy whole body also shall be light.  But if thine eye be evil, all thy body shall be dark.  And if the light which is in thee is darkness, how great is thy darkness!  Be watchful that the light which is in thee be not darkness.   Because that, if thy whole body is light, and have no part dark, it shall all be light, as the lamp giveth light to thee with its flame.

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Arabic, p. 38 No man can serve two masters; and that because it is necessary that he hate one of them and love the other, and honour one of them and despise the other.  Ye cannot serve God and possessions.  And because of this I say unto you, Be not anxious for yourselves, what ye shall eat and what ye shall drink; neither for your bodies, what ye shall put on.  Is not the life better than the food, and the body than the raiment?  Consider the birds of the heaven, which sow not, nor reap, nor store in barns; and yet your Father which is in heaven feedeth them.  Are not ye better than they?  Who of you when he trieth is able to add to his stature one cubit?  If then ye are not able for a small thing, why are ye anxious about the 6, 7 rest?  Consider the wild lily, how it grows, although it toils not, nor spins; and I say unto you that Solomon in the greatness of his glory was not clothed like one of them.  And if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, how much more shall be unto you, O ye of little faith!  Be not anxious, so as to say, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, With what shall we be clothed?  Neither let your minds be perplexed in this:  all these things the nations of the world seek; and your Father which is in heaven knoweth your need of all these things.  Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; Arabic, p. 39 and all these shall come to you as something additional for you.  Be not anxious for the morrow; for the morrow shall be anxious for what belongs to it.  Sufficient unto the day is its evil.

 Judge not, that ye be not judged:  condemn not, that ye be not condemned:  forgive, and it shall be forgiven you:  release, and ye shall be released:  give, that ye may be given unto; with good measure, abundant, full, they shall thrust into your bosoms.  With what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you.  See to it what ye hear:  with what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you; and ye shall be given more.  I say unto those that hear, He that hath shall be given unto; and he that hath not, that which he regardsas his shall be taken from him.

 And he spake unto them a parable, Can a blind man haply guide a blind man? shall they not both fall into a hollow?  A disciple is not better than his master; every perfect man shall be as his master.  Why lookest thou at the mote which is in the eye of thy brother, but considerest not the column that is in thine own eye?   Or how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, I will take out the mote from thine eye; and the column which is in thine eye thou seest not?  Thou hypocrite, take out first the column from thine eye; and then shalt thou see to take out the mote from the eye of thy brother.

 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before the swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and return and wound you.

 And he said unto them, Who of you, that hath a friend, goeth to him at midnight, and saith unto him, My friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend hath come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to offer to him:  and that friend shall Arabic, p. 40 answer him from within, and say unto him, Trouble me not; for the door is shut, and my children are with me in bed, and I cannot rise and give thee?   And verily I say unto you, If he will not give him because of friendship, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him what he seeketh.  And I also say unto you, Ask, and ye shall be given unto; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.  Every one that asketh receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and he that knocketh, it shall be opened to him.  What father of you, shall his son ask for bread—will he, think you, give him a stone? and if he ask of him a fish, will he, think you, instead of the fish give him a serpent? and if he ask him for an egg, will he, think you, extend to him a scorpion?  If ye then, although being evil, know the gifts which are good, and give them to your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?  Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them:  this is the law and the prophets.

 Enter ye by the narrow gate; for the wide gate and the broad way lead to destruction, and many they be which go therein.  How narrow is the gate and straitened the way leading to life! and few be they that find it.

 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, while within they are ravening wolves.  But by their fruits ye shall know them.  For every tree is known by its fruit.  For figs are not gathered of thorns, neither are grapes plucked of briers.  Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but the evil tree bringeth Arabic, p. 41 forth evil fruit.  The good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can the evil tree bring forth good fruit.  The good man from the good treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the evil man from the evil treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth evil things:  and from the overflowings of the heart the lips speak.  Every tree that beareth not good fruit is cut down and cast 40, 41 into the fire.  Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them.  Not all that say unto me, My Lord, my Lord, shall enter the kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.  Many shall say unto me in that day, My Lord, my Lord, did we not prophesy in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils, and in thy name do many powers?  Then shall I say unto them, I never knew you:  depart from me, ye servants of iniquity.  Every man that cometh unto me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to what he is like:  he is like the wise man which built a house, and digged and went deep, and laid the foundations on a rock:  and the rain came down, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and shook that house, and it fell not:  for its foundation was laid on rocks.  And every one that heareth these my words, and doeth them not, is like the foolish man which built his house on sand, without foundation:  and the rain descended, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and smote upon that house, and it fell:  and the fall of it was great.

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Arabic, p. 42 And when Jesus finished these sayings, the multitudes were astonished at his teaching; and that because he was teaching them as one having authority, not as their scribes and the Pharisees.

 And when he descended from the mountain, great multitudes followed him.

 And when Jesus entered Capernaum, the servant of one of the chiefs was in an evil case, and he was precious to him, and he was at the point of death.  And he heard of Jesus, and came to him with the elders of the Jews; and he besought him, and said, My Lord, my boy is laid in the house paralysed, and he is suffering grievous torment.  And the elders urgently requested of him, and said, He is worthy that this should be done unto him:  for he loveth our people, and he also built the synagogue 9, for us.  Jesus said unto him, I will come and heal him.  That chief answered and said, My Lord, I am not worthy that my roof should shade thee; but it sufficeth that thou speak a word, and my lad shall be healed.  And I also am a man in obedience to authority, having under my hand soldiers:  and I say to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant that he do this, and he doeth it.  And when Jesus heard that, he marvelled at him, and turned and said unto the multitude that were coming with him, Verily I say unto you, I have not found in Israel the like of this faith.  I say unto you, that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob Arabic, p. 43 in the kingdom of heaven:  but the children of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness:  and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.  And Jesus said to that chief, Go thy way; as thou hast believed, so shall it be unto thee.   And his lad was healed in that hour.  And that chief returned to the house and found that sick servant healed.

 And the day after, he was going to a city called Nain, and his disciples with him, and a great multitude.  And when he was come near the gate of the city, he saw a crowdaccompanying one that was dead, the only son of his mother; and his mother was a widow:  and there was with her a great multitude of the people of the city.  And when Jesus saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not.  And he went and advanced to the bier, and the bearers of it stood still; and he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.  And that dead man sat up and began to speak; and he gave him to his mother.  And fear came on all the people:  and they praised God, and said, There hath risen among us a great prophet:  and, God hath had regard to his people.  And this news concerning him spread in all Judæa, and in all the region which was about them.

 And when Jesus saw great multitudes surrounding him, he commanded them to depart to the other side.  And while they were going in the way, there came one of the scribes and said unto him, My Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.  Jesus said unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests; but the Son of man hath not a place in which to lay his head.  And he said unto another, Follow me.  And he said unto him, My Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.  Jesus said unto him, Leave the dead to bury their dead; but thou, follow me and preach the kingdom of God.  And another said unto him, I will follow Arabic, p. 44 thee, my Lord; but first suffer me to go and salute my household and come.  Jesus said unto him, There is no one who putteth his hand to the plough and looketh behind him, and yet is fit for the kingdom of God.

 And he said to them on that day in the evening, Let us go over to the other side of the lake; and he left the multitudes.  And Jesus went up and sat in the ship, he and his disciples, and there were with them other ships.  And there occurred on the sea a great tempest of whirlwind and wind,  and the ship was on the point of sinking from the greatness of the waves.  But Jesus was sleeping on a cushion in the stern of the ship; and his disciples came and awoke him, and said unto him, Our Lord, save us; lo, we perish.  And he rose, and rebuked the winds and the turbulence of the water, and said to the sea, Be still, for thou art rebuked; and the wind was still, and there was a great calm.  And he said unto them, Why are ye thus afraid? and why have ye no faith?  And they feared greatly.  And they marvelled, and said one to another, Who, think you, is this, who commandeth also the wind and the waves and the sea, and they obey him?

 And they departed and came to the country of the Gadarenes, which is on the other side, opposite the land of Galilee.  And when he went out of the ship to the land, there met him from among the tombs a man who had a devil for a long time, and wore no clothes, neither dwelt in a house, but among the tombs.  And no man was Arabic, p. 45 able to bind him with chains, because any time that he was bound with chains and fetters he cut the chains and loosened the fetters; and he was snatched  away of the devil into the desert, and no man was able to quiet him; and at all times, in the night and in the day, he would be among the tombs and in the mountains; and no man was able to pass by that way; and he would cry out and wound himself with stones.  And when he saw Jesus at a distance, he hastened and worshipped him, and cried with a loud voice and said, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, Son of the most high God?  I adjure thee by God, torment me not.  And Jesus commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man:  and he had suffered a long time since the time when he came into captivity to it.  And Jesus asked him, What is thy name?  He said unto him, Legion; for there had entered into him many devils.  And they besought him that he would not command them to depart into the depths.  And there was there a herd of many swine, feeding in the mountain, and those devils besought him to give them leave to enter the swine; and he gave them leave.  And the devils went out of the man and entered into the swine.  And that herd hastened to the summit and fell down into the midst of the sea, about two thousand, and they were choked in the water.  And when the keepers saw what happened, they fled, and told those in the cities and villages.  And the people went out to see what had happened; and they came to Jesus, and found the man whose Arabic, p. 46 devils had gone out, clothed, modest, seated at the feet of Jesus; and they feared.  And they reported what they saw, and how the man was healed who had a devil, and concerning those swine also.

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 And all the multitude of the Gadarenes entreated him to depart from them, because that great fear took hold upon them.

2, 3 But Jesus went up into the ship, and crossed, and came to his city.  And that man from whom the devils went out entreated that he might stay with him; but Jesus sent him away, and said unto him, Return to thy house, and make known what God hath done for thee.  And he went, and began to publish in Decapolis what Jesus had done for him; and they all marvelled.

 And when Jesus had crossed in the ship to that side, a great multitude received him; and they were all looking for him.  And a man named Jairus, the chief of the synagogue, fell before the feet of Jesus, and besought him much, and said unto him, I have an only daughter, and she is come nigh unto death; but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live.  And Jesus rose, and his disciples, and they followed him.  And there joined him a great multitude, and they pressed him.

112 And a woman, which had a flow of blood for twelve years, had suffered much of many physicians, and spent all that she had, and was not benefited at all, but her trouble increased further.  And when she heard of Jesus, she came in the thronging of Arabic, p. 47 the crowd behind him, and touched his garments; and she thought within herself, If I could reach to touch his garments, I should live.  And immediately the fountain of her blood was dried; and she felt in her body that she was healed of her plague.  And Jesus straightway knew within himself that power had gone out of him; and he turned to the crowd, and said, Who approached unto my garments?   And on their denying, all of them, Simon Cephas and those with him said unto him, Our Master, the multitudes throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who approached unto me?  And he said, Some one approached unto me; and I knew that power went forth from me.  And that woman, when she saw that she was not hid from him, came fearing and agitated (for she knew what had happened to her), and fell down and worshipped him, and told, in the presence of all the people, for what reason she touched him, and how she was healed immediately.  And Jesus said unto her, Be of good courage, daughter; thy faith hath made thee alive; depart in peace, and be whole from thy plague.

 And while he was yet speaking, there came a man from the house of the chief of the synagogue, and said unto him, Thy daughter hath died; so trouble not the teacher.  But Jesus heard, and said unto the father of the maid, Fear not:  but believe only, and she shall live.  And he suffered no man to go with him, except Simon Cephas, and James, and John the brother of James.  And they reached the house of the chief of the synagogue; and he saw them agitated, weeping and wailing.   And he entered, and said unto them, Why are ye agitated and weeping? the Arabic, p. 48 maid hath not died, but she is sleeping.  And they laughed at him, for they knew that she had died.  And he put every man forth without, and took the father of the maid, and her mother, and Simon, and James, and John, and entered into the place where the maid was laid.  And he took hold of the hand of the maid, and said unto her, Maid, arise.  And her spirit returned, and straightway she arose and walked:  and she was about twelve years of age.  And he commanded that there should be given to her something to eat.  And her father wondered greatly:  and he warned them that they should tell no man what had happened.  And this report spread in all that land.

 And when Jesus crossed over from there, there joined him two blind men, crying out, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou son of David.  And when he came to the house, those two blind men came to him:  and Jesus said unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this?  They said unto him, Yea, our Lord.  Then he touched  their eyes, and said, As ye have believed, it shall be unto you.  And immediately their eyes were opened.  And Jesus forbade them, and said, See that no man know.   But they went out and published the news in all that land.

 And when Jesus went out, they brought to him a dumb man having a devil.   And on the going out of the devil that dumb man spake.  And the multitudes marvelled, and said, It was never so seen in Israel

 And Jesus was going about in all the cities and in the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease Arabic, p. 49 and sickness; and many followed him.  And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he had compassion on them, for they were wearied and scattered, as sheep that have no shepherd.  And he called his twelve disciples, and gave them power and much authority over all devils and diseases; and sent them two and two, that they might proclaim the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.  And he charged them, and said, Walk not in the way of the heathen, nor enter into the cities of the Samaritans.  45, 46 Go especially unto the sheep that are lost of the sons of Israel.  And when ye go, proclaim and say, The kingdom of heaven is come near.  And heal the sick, and cleanse the lepers, and cast out the devils:  freely ye have received, freely 48, 49 give.  Get you not gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses; and take nothing for the way, except a staff only; nor bag, nor bread; neither shall ye have two tunics, nor shoes, nor staff, but be shod with sandals; for the labourer is worthy of his food.   And whatever city or village ye enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and there be until 52, 53 ye go out.  And when ye enter into the house, ask for the peace of the house:  and if the house is worthy, your peace shall come upon it; but if it is not worthy, your peace shall return unto you.  And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your sayings, when ye go out from that house, or from that village, shake off the dust Arabic, p. 50 that is under your feet against them for a testimony.  And verily I say unto you, To the land of Sodom and Gomorrah there shall be rest in the day of judgement, rather than to that city.

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 I am sending you as lambs among wolves:  be ye now wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.  Beware of men:  they shall deliver you to the councils of the magistrates, and scourge you in their synagogues; and shall bring you before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and against the nations.   And when they deliver you up, be not anxious, nor consider beforehand, what ye shall say; but ye shall be given in that hour what ye ought to speak.  Ye do not speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaketh in you.  The brother shall deliver up his brother to death, and the father his son; and the sons shall rise against their parents, and put them to death.  And ye shall be hated of every man because of my name; but he that endureth unto the end of the matter shall be saved.  When they expel you from this city, flee to another.  Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not finish all the cities of the people of Israel, until the Son of man come.

9, 10 A disciple is not superior to his lord, nor a servant to his master.  For it is enough then for the disciple that he be as his lord, and the servant as his master.  If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more the people of his house!  Fear them not therefore:  for there is nothing covered, that shall Arabic, p. 51 not be revealed; nor hid, that shall not be disclosed and published.  What I say unto you in the darkness, speak ye in the light; and what ye have told secretly in the ears in closets, let it be proclaimed on the housetops.  I say unto you now, my beloved, Be not agitated at those who kill the body, but have no power to kill the soul.  I will inform you whom ye shall fear:  him which is able to destroy soul and body in hell.  Yea, I say unto you, Be afraid of him especially.  Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing in a bond? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.  But what concerns you:  even the hair of your heads 17, also is numbered.  Fear not therefore; ye are better than many sparrows.  Every man who confesseth me now before men, I also will confess him before my Father which is in heaven; but whosoever denieth me before men, I also will deny him before my Father which is in heaven.

 Think ye that I am come to cast peace into the earth?  I came not to cast peace, but to cast dissension.  Henceforth there shall be five in one house, three of them disagreeing with two, and the two with the three.  The father shall become hostile to his son, and the son to his father; and the mother to her daughter, and the daughter to her mother; and the mother in law to her daughter in law, and the daughter in law to her mother in law:  and a man’s enemies shall be the people of his house.   Whosoever loveth father or mother better than me is not worthy of me; and whosoever Arabic, p. 52 loveth son or daughter more than his love of me is not worthy of me.   And every one that doth not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me.  Whosoever findeth his life shall lose it; and whosoever loseth his life for my sake shall find it.

 And whosoever receiveth you receiveth me; and whosoever receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.  And whosoever receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall take a prophet’s reward; and whosoever shall receive a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall take a righteous man’s reward.  And every one that shall give to drink to one of these least ones a drink of water only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.

 And when Jesus finished charging his twelve disciples, he removed thence to teach and preach in their cities.  And while they were going in the way they entered into a certain village; and a woman named Martha entertained him in her house.   And she had a sister named Mary, and she came and sat at the feet of our Lord, and heard his sayings.  But Martha was disquieted by much serving; and she came and said unto him, My Lord, givest thou no heed that my sister left me alone to serve? speak to her that she help me.  Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art solicitous and impatient on account of many things:  but what is sought is one thing.  But Mary hath chosen for herself a good portion, and that which shall not be taken from her.

 And the apostles went forth, and preached to the people that they might repent.   And they cast out many devils, and anointed many sick with oil, and healed them.  38, 39 And the disciples of John told him of all these things.  And when John heard in Arabic, p. 53 the prison of the doings of the Messiah, he called two of his disciples, and sent them to Jesus, and said, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another?  And they came to Jesus, and said unto him, John the Baptist hath sent us unto thee, and said, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another?  And in that hour he cured many of diseases, and of plagues of an evil spirit; and he gave sight to many blind.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and tell John everything ye have seen and heard:  the blind see, and the lame walk, and the lepers are cleansed, and the blind hear, and the dead rise, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.  And blessed is he who doubteth not in me.

 And when John’s disciples departed, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken with the winds?  And if not, then what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment?  Behold, they that are in magnificent garments and in voluptuousness are in the abode of kings.  And if not, then what went ye out to see? a prophet?  Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.  This is he of whom it is written,

I am sending my messenger before thy face

To prepare the way before thee.

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 Verily I say unto you, There hath not arisen among those whom women have borne a greater than John the Baptist; but he that is little now in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.

Arabic, p. 54 And all the people which heard, and the publicans, justified God, for they had been baptized with the baptism of John.  But the Pharisees and the scribes wrongedthe purpose of God in themselves, in that they were not baptized of him.  And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven is snatched away by violence.  The law and the prophets were until John; and after that, the kingdom of God is preached, and all press to enter it:  and they that exert themselves 6, 7 snatch it away.  All the prophets and the law until John prophesied.  And if ye will, then receive it, that he is Elijah, which is to come.  Whosoever hath ears that hear let him hear.  Easier is the perishing of heaven and earth, than the passing away of one point of the law.  To whom then shall I liken the people of this generation, and to whom are they like?  They are like the children sitting in the market, which call to their companions, and say, We sang to you, and ye danced not; we wailed to you, and ye wept not.  John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; and ye said, He hath demons:  and the Son of man came eating and drinking; and ye said, Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drinker of wine, and an associate of publicans 14, and sinners!  And wisdom was justified of all her children.  And when he said that, they came to the house.  And there gathered unto him again multitudes, so that they found not bread to eat.  And while he was casting out a devil which was dumb, when he cast out that devil, that dumb man spake.  And the multitudes Arabic, p. 55 marvelled.  And the Pharisees, when they heard, said, This man doth not cast out the devils, except by Beelzebul the chief of the demons, which is in him.  18, 19 And others requested of him a sign from heaven, to tempt him.  And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them in parables, Every kingdom that withstandeth itself shall become desolate; and every house or city that disagreeth with itself shall not stand:  and if a devil cast out a devil, he withstandeth himself; neither shall he be able to stand, but his end shall be.  Then how now shall his kingdom stand? for ye said that I cast out devils by Beelzebul.  And if I by Beelzebul cast out the devils, then your children, by what do they cast them out?  And for this cause they shall be judges against you.  But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the kingdom of God is come near unto you.  Or how can a man enter into the house of a valiant man, and seize his garments, if he do not beforehand secure himself from that valiant man? and then will he cut off his house.  But when the valiant man is armed, guarding his house, his possessions are in peace.  But if one come who is more valiant than he, he overcometh him, and taketh his whole armour, on which he relieth, and divideth his spoil.  Whosoever is not with me is against me; and whosoever gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.  For this reason I say unto you, Arabic, p. 56 that all sins and blasphemies with which men blaspheme shall be forgiven them:  but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, there is no forgiveness for him for ever, but he is deserving of eternal punishment:  because they said that he had an unclean spirit.  And he said also, Every one that speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come.  Either ye must make a good tree and its fruit good; or ye must make an evil tree and its fruit evil:  for the tree is known by its fruit.  Ye children of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? from the overflowings of the heart the mouth speaketh.  The good man from the good treasures which are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the wicked man from the evil treasures which are in his heart bringeth forth evils.  I say unto you, that every idle word which men shall speak, they shall give an answer for in the day of judgement:  for by thy sayings thou shalt be justified, and by thy sayings thou shalt be judged.

 And he said to the multitudes, When ye see the clouds appear from the west, straightway ye say that there cometh rain; and so it cometh to pass.  And when the south wind bloweth, ye say that there will be heat; and it cometh to pass.  And when the evening is come, ye say, It will be fair weather, for the heaven has become red.  And in the morning ye say, To-day there will be severe weather, for the redness Arabic, p. 57 of the heaven is paling.  Ye hypocrites, ye know to examine the face of the heaven and the earth; but the signs of this time ye know not to discern.

 Then they brought to him one possessed of a demon, dumb and blind; and he healed him, so that the dumb and blind began to speak and see.  And all the multitudes wondered, and said, Is this, think you, the son of David?

 And the apostles returned unto Jesus, and told him everything that they had done and wrought.  And he said unto them, Come, let us go into the desert alone, and rest ye a little.  And many were going and returning, and they had not leisure, not even to eat bread.

 And after that, there came to him one of the Pharisees, and besought him that he would eat bread with him.  And he entered into the house of that Pharisee, and reclined.  And there was in that city a woman that was a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting in the house of that Pharisee, she took a box of sweet ointment, and stood behind him, towards his feet, weeping, and began to wet his feet with her tears, and to wipe them with the hair of her head, and to kiss his feet, and anoint them with the sweet ointment.  And when thatPharisee saw it, who invited him, he thought within himself, and said, This man, if he were a prophet, would know who she is and what is her history:  for the woman which touched him was a sinner.

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 Jesus answered and said unto him, Simon, I have something to say unto thee.  And he said unto him, Say on, my Master.  Jesus said unto him, There were two debtors Arabic, p. 58 to one creditor; and one of them owed five hundred pence, and the other owed fifty pence.  And because they had not wherewith to pay, he forgave them both.  Which of them ought to love him more?  Simon answered and said, I suppose, he to whom he forgave most.  Jesus said unto him, Thou hast judged rightly.   And he turned to that woman, and said to Simon, Dost thou see this woman?  I entered into thy dwelling, and thou gavest me not water to wash my feet:  but this  woman hath bathed my feet with her tears, and dried them with her hair.  And thou kissedst me not:  but this woman, since she entered, hath not ceased to kiss my feet.  And thou anointedst not my head with oil:  but this woman hath anointed my feet with sweet ointment.  And for this, I say unto thee, Her many sins are forgiven her, because she loved much; for he to whom little is forgiven loveth little.  9, 10 And he said unto that woman, Thy sins are forgiven thee.  And those that were invited began to say within themselves, Who is this that forgiveth sins also?  And Jesus said to that woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.

 And many believed in him when they saw the signs which he was doing.  13, 14 But Jesus did not trust himself to them, for he knew every man, and he needed not any man to testify to him concerning every man; for he knew what was in man.

 And after that, Jesus set apart from his disciples other seventy, and sent them two and two before his face to every region and city whither he was purposing to go.  And he said unto them, The harvest is abundant, and the labourers are few:  entreat now the Lord of the harvest, that he send forth labourers into his harvest.  Go Arabic, p. 59 ye:  and lo, I am sending you as lambs among wolves.  Take not with you purses, nor a wallet, nor shoes; neither salute any man in the way.  And whatsoever house ye enter, first salute that house:  and if there be there a son of peace, let your peace rest upon him; but if there be not, your peace shall return to you.  And be ye in that house eating and drinking what they have:  for the labourer is worthy of his hire.  And remove not from house to house.  And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat what is presented to you:  and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come near unto you.  But whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go out into the market, and say,  Even the dust that clave to our feet from your city, we shake off against you; but know this, that the kingdom of God is come near unto you.  I say unto you, that for Sodom there shall be quiet in the day of judgement, but there shall not be for that city.  Then began Jesus to rebuke the cities in which there had been many mighty works, and they repented not.  And he said, Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! if there had been in Tyre and Sidon the signs which were in thee, it may be that they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes.  Howbeit I say unto you, that for Tyre and Sidon there shall be rest in the day of judgement, more than for you.  And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt sink down unto Hades; for if there had been in Sodom the wonders which were in thee, it would have remained until this day.  And now I say unto thee, that for the land of Sodom there shall be quiet in the day of judgement, more than for thee.

Arabic, p. 60 And he said again unto his apostles, Whosoever heareth you heareth me; and whosoever heareth me heareth him that sent me:  and whosoever wrongeth you wrongeth me; and whosoever wrongeth me wrongeth him that sent me.

 And those seventy returned with great joy, and said unto him, Our Lord, even the devils also are subject unto us in thy name.  He said unto them, I beheld Satan fallen like lightning from heaven.  Behold, I am giving you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and the whole race of the enemy; and nothing shall hurt you.  Only ye must not rejoice that the devils are subject unto you; but be glad that your names are written in heaven.

 And in that hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, I acknowledge thee, my Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto children:  yea, my Father; so was thy will.  And he turned to his disciples, and said unto them, Everything hath been delivered to me of my Father:  and no man knoweth who the Son is, save the Father; and who the Father is, save the Son, and to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him.  Come unto me, all of you, ye that are wearied and bearers of burdens, and I will give you rest.  Bear my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am gentle and lowly in my heart:  and ye shall find rest unto your souls.  For my yoke is pleasant, and my burden is light.

 And while great multitudes were going with him, he turned, and said unto them,  Whosoever cometh unto me, and hateth not his father, and his mother, and his brethren, and his sisters, and his wife, and his children, and himself also, cannot Arabic, p. 61 be a disciple to me.  And whosoever doth not take his cross, and follow me, cannot be a disciple to me.  Which of you desireth to build a tower, and doth not sit down first and reckon his expenses and whether he hath enough to complete it? lest when he hath laid the foundations, and is not able to finish, all that behold him laugh at him, and say, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.  Or what king goeth to the battle to fight with another king, and doth not consider first whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh to him with twenty thousand?  And if he is not able, he sendeth unto him while he is afar off, and seeketh peace.  So shall every man of you consider, that desireth to be a disciple to me; for if he renounceth not all that he hath, he cannot be a disciple to me.

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 Then answered certain of the scribes and Pharisees, that they might tempt him, and said, Teacher, we desire to see a sign from thee.  He answered and said, This evil and adulterous generation seeketh a sign; and it shall not be given a sign, except the sign of Jonah the prophet.  And as Jonah was a sign to the inhabitants of Nineveh, so shall the Son of man also be to this generation.  And as Jonah was in the belly of the great fish three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.  The queen of the south shall rise in the judgement with the people of this generation, and condemn them:  for she came from the ends of the earth that she might hear the wisdom of Solomon; Arabic, p. 62 and behold, here is a better than Solomon.  The men of Nineveh shall stand in the judgement with this generation, and condemn it:  for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, here is a greater than Jonah.  The unclean spirit, when he goeth out of the man, departeth, and goeth about through places wherein are no waters, that he may find rest for himself; and when he findeth it not, he saith, I will return to my house whence I came out.  And if he come and find it adorned and set in order, then he goeth, and associateth with himself seven other spirits worse than himself; and they enter and dwell in it:  and the end of that man shall be worse than his beginning.  Thus shall it be unto this evil generation.

 And while he was saying that, a woman from the multitude lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts that nursed thee.  But he said unto her, Blessed is he that heareth the word of God, and keepeth it.

 And while he was speaking unto the multitude, there came unto him his mother and his brethren, and sought to speak with him; and they were not able, because of the multitude; and they stood without and sent, calling him unto them.  A man said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren are standing without, and seek to speak with thee.  But he answered unto him that spake unto him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren?  And he beckoned with his hand, stretching it out towards his disciples, and said, Behold, my mother! and behold, my brethren!   And every man that shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven is my brother, and my sister, and my mother.

 And after that, Jesus was going about in the cities and in the villages, and proclaiming Arabic, p. 63 and preaching the kingdom of God, and his twelve with him,  and the women which had been healed of diseases and of evil spirits, Mary that was called Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven devils, and Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod’s steward, and Susanna, and many others, who were ministering to them of their substance.

 And after that, Jesus went out of the house, and sat on the sea shore.  And there gathered unto him great multitudes.  And when the press of the people was great upon him, he went up and sat in the boat; and all the multitude was standing on the shore of the sea.  And he spake to them much in parables, and said, The sower went forth to sow:  and when he sowed, some fell on the beaten highway; and it was trodden upon, and the birds ate it.  And other fell on the rocks:  and some, where there was not much earth; and straightway it sprang up, because it had no depth in the earth:  and when the sun rose, it withered; and because it had no root, it dried up.  And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it; and it yielded no fruit.  And other fell into excellent and good ground; and it came up, and grew, and brought forth fruit, some thirty, and some sixty, and some a hundred.  And when he said that, he cried, He that hath ears that hear, let him hear.  And when they were alone, his disciples came, and asked him, and said unto him, What is this parable? and why spakest thou unto them in parables?  He Arabic, p. 64 answered and said unto them, Unto you is given the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of God; but it is not given unto them that are without.  He that hath shall be given unto, and there shall be added; and he that hath not, that which he hath shall be taken from him also.  For this cause therefore I speak unto them in parables; because they see, and see not; and hear, and hear not, nor understand.  And in them is being fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, who said,

Hearing they shall hear, and shall not understand;

And seeing they shall see, and shall not perceive:

 The heart of this people is waxed gross,

And their hearing with their ears is become heavy,

And they have closed their eyes;

Lest they should see with their eyes,

And hear with their ears,

And understand with their hearts,

And should return,

And I should heal them.

37, 38 But ye, blessed are your eyes, which see; and your ears, which hear.  Blessed are the eyes which see what ye see.  Verily I say unto you, Many of the prophets and the righteous longed to see what ye see, and saw not; and to hear what ye hear, and heard not.  When ye know not this parable, how shall ye know all parables?  442 Hear ye the parable of the sower.  The sower which sowed, sowed the word of God.  Every one who heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, the evil one cometh and snatcheth away the word that hath been sown in his heart:  and this is that which was sown on the middle of the highway.  But that which was sown on the rocks is he that heareth the word, and straightway receiveth 45, 46 Arabic, p. 65 it with joy; only, it hath no root in his soul, but his belief in it is for a time; and whenever there is distress or persecution because of a word, he stumbleth quickly.  And that which was sown among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the error of riches, and the rest of the other lusts enter, and choke the word, and it becometh without fruit.  And that which was sown in good ground is he that heareth my word in a pure and good heart, and understandeth it, and holdeth to it, and bringeth forth fruit with patience, and produceth either a hundredfold or sixtyfold or thirty.

 And he said, So is the kingdom of God, like a man who casteth seed into the earth, and sleepeth and riseth by night and day, and the seed groweth and cometh up, whencehe knoweth not.  And the earth bringeth it to the fruit; and first it will be blade, and after it ear, and at last perfect wheat in the ear:  and whenever the fruit ripeneth, he bringeth immediately the sickle, for the harvest hath come.

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Section XVII.

 And he set forth to them another parable, and said, The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field; but when men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went away.  And when the blade sprang up and brought forth fruit, there were noticed the tares also.  And the servants of the master of the house came, and said unto him, Our lord, didst thou not sow good Arabic, p. 66 seed in thy field? whence are there tares in it?  He said unto them, An enemy hath done this.  His servants said unto him, Wilt thou that we go and separate it?  He said unto them, Perhaps, when ye separate the tares, ye would root up with them wheat also.  Leave them to grow both together until the harvest:  and in the time of the harvest I will say unto the reapers, Separate the tares first, and bind them in bundles to be burned with fire; and gather the wheat into my barns.

8, 9 And he set forth to them another parable, and said, To what is the kingdom of God like? and to what shall I liken it? and in what parable shall I set it forth?  It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and planted in his field:  and of the number of the things that are sown in the earth it is smaller than all of the things which are sown, which are upon the earth; but when it is grown, it is greater than all the herbs, and produceth large branches, so that the birds of heaven make their nests in its branches.

13, 14 And he set forth to them another parable:  To what shall I liken the kingdom of God?  It is like the leaven which a woman took, and kneaded into three measures of flour, until the whole of it was leavened.

 And Jesus spake all that to the multitudes by way of parables, according as they were able to hear.  And without parables spake he not unto them; that the saying of the Lord through the prophet might be fulfilled:

I will open my mouth in parables;

And I will utter secrets which were before the foundations of the world.

 But he explained to his disciples privately everything.

 Then Jesus left the multitudes, and came to the house.  And his disciples came unto him, and said unto him, Explain unto us that parable about the tares Arabic, p. 67 and the field.  He answered and said unto them, He that sowed good seed is the Son of man; and the field is the world; and the good seed are the children of the kingdom; and the tares are the children of the evil one; and the enemy that sowed them is Satan; and the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.   And as the tares are separated and burned in the fire, so shall it be in the end of this world.  The Son of man shall send his angels, and separate from his kingdom all things that injure, and all the doers of iniquity, and they shall cast them into the furnace of fire:  and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.  Then the righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.  Whosoever hath ears that hear, let him hear.

 And again the kingdom of heaven is like treasure hid in a field:  that which a man found and hid; and, for his pleasure in it, went and sold all that he had, and bought that field.

 And again the kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a merchant seeking excellent pearls; and when he found one pearl of great price, he went and sold everything that he had, and bought it.

 And again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:  and when it was filled, they drew it up on to the shore of the sea, and sat down to select; and the good of them they threw into the vessels, and the bad they threw outside.  Thus shall it be in the end of the world:  the angels shall go forth, and separate the wicked from among the good, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire:  there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

 Jesus said unto them, Have ye understood all these things?  They said unto Arabic, p. 68 him, Yea, our Lord.  He said unto them, Therefore every scribe that becometh a disciple of the kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a householder, who bringeth out of his treasures the new and the old.

36, 37 And when Jesus had finished all these parables, he removed thence, and came to his city; and he taught them in their synagogues, so that they were perplexed.   And when the sabbath came, Jesus began to teach in the synagogue; and many of those that heard marvelled, and said, Whence came these things to this man?  And many envied him and gave no heed to him, but said, What is this wisdom that is given to this man, that there should happen at his hands such as these mighty works?   Is not this a carpenter, son of a carpenter? and is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?  And his sisters, all of them, lo, are they not all with us?  Whence hath this man all these things?  And they were in doubt concerning him.  And Jesus knew their opinion, and said unto them, Will ye haply say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal first thyself:  and all that we have heard that thou didst in Capernaum, do here also in thine own city?  And he said, Verily I say unto you, A prophet is not received in his own city, nor among his brethren:  for a prophet is not despised, save in his own city, and among his own  kin, and in his own house.  Verily I say unto you, In the days of Elijah the prophet, there were many widows among the children of Israel, when the heaven held back three years and six months, and there was a great famine in all the land; and Elijah Arabic, p. 69 was not sent to one of them, save to Zarephath of Sidon, to a woman that was a widow.  And many lepers were among the children of Israel in the days of Elisha the prophet; but not one of them was cleansed, save Naaman the Nabathæan.   And he was not able to do there many mighty works, because of their unbelief; except that he laid his hand upon a few of the sick, and healed them.  And he marvelled at their lack of faith.  And when those who were in the synagogue heard, they were all filled with wrath; and they rose up, and brought him forth outside the city, and brought him to the brow of the hill upon which their city was built, that they might cast him from its summit:  but he passed through among them and went away.

 And he went about in the villages which were around Nazareth, and taught in their synagogues.

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 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus, and all the things which came to pass at his hand; and he marvelled, for he had obtained excellent information concerning him.  And some men said that John the Baptist was risen from among the dead; and others said that Elijah had appeared; and others, Jeremiah; and others, that a prophet of the old prophets was risen; and others said that he was a prophet like one of the prophets.  Herod said to his servants, This is John the Baptist, he whom I beheaded; he is risen from among the dead:  therefore mighty Arabic, p. 70 works result from him.  For Herod himself had sent and taken John, and cast him into prison, for the sake of Herodias his brother Philip’s wife, whom he had taken.  And John said to Herod, Thou hast no authority to take the wife of thy brother.  And Herodias avoided him and wished to kill him; and she could not.   But Herod feared John, for he knew that he was a righteous man and a holy; and he guarded him, and heard him much, and did, and obeyed him with gladness.  And he wished to kill him; but he feared the people, for they adhered to him as the prophet.  And there was a celebrated day, and Herod had made a feast for his great men on the day of his anniversary, and for the officers and for the chief men of Galilee.  And the daughter of Herodias came in and danced in the midst of the company, and pleased Herod and those that sat with him.  And the king said to the damsel, Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee.  And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask, I will give it thee, to the half of my kingdom.  And she went out, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask him?  She said unto her, The head of John the Baptist.  And immediately she came in hastily to the king, and said unto him, I desire in this hour that thou give me on a dish the head of John the Baptist.  And the king was exceeding sorry; but because of the oath and the guests he did not wish to refuse her.  But immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded that he should bring the head of John:  and he went and cut off the head of John in the prison, and brought it on a dish, and delivered it to the damsel; and the damsel gave it to her mother.  And his disciples heard, and came Arabic, p. 71 and took his body, and buried it.  And they came and told Jesus what had happened.  And for this cause Herod said, I beheaded John:  who is this, of whom I hear these things.  And he desired to see him.  And Jesus, when he heard, removed thence in a boat to a waste place alone, to the other side of the sea of the Galilee of Tiberias.

 And many saw them going, and knew them, and hastened by land from all the cities, and came thither beforehand; for they saw the signs which he was doing on the 23, 24 sick.  And Jesus went up into the mountain, and sat there with his disciples.  And the feast of the passover of the Jews was near.  And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and saw great multitudes coming to him.  And he was moved with compassion for them, for they were like sheep that were without a shepherd.  And he received them, and spake to them concerning the kingdom of God, and healed those who had need of healing.

 And when the evening approached, his disciples came to him, and said unto him, The place is desert, and the time is past; send away the multitudes of the people, that they may go to the towns and villages which are around us, and buy for themselves bread; for they have nothing to eat.  But he said unto them, They have no need to go away; give ye them what may be eaten.  They said unto him, We have not here enough.  He said unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread that these may eat?  332 And he said that proving him; and he knew what he was resolved to do.  Philip said Arabic, p. 72 unto him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread would not suffice them after  every one of them hath taken a small amount.  One of his disciples said unto him (namely, Andrew the brother of Simon Cephas), Here is a lad having five loaves of barley and two fishes:  but this amount, what is it for all these?  But wilt thou that we go and buy for all the people what may be eaten? for we have no more than these five loaves and the two fishes.  And the grass was plentiful in that place.  Jesus said unto them, Arrange all the people that they may sit down on the grass, fifty people in a company.  And the disciples did so.  And all the people sat down by companies, by hundreds and fifties.  Then Jesus said unto them, Bring hither those five loaves and the two fishes.  And when they brought him that, Jesus took the bread and the fish, and looked to heaven, and blessed, and divided, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and the disciples set for the multitudes the bread and the fish; and they ate, all of them, and were satisfied.  And when they were satisfied, he said unto his disciples, Gather the fragments that remain over, that nothing be lost.  And they gathered, and filled twelve baskets with fragments, being those that remained over from those which ate of the five barley loaves and the two fishes.  And those people who ate were five thousand, besides the women and children.  Arabic, p. 73 And straightway he pressed his disciples to go up into the ship, and that they should go before him unto the other side to Bethsaida, while he himself should send away the multitudes.  And those people who saw the sign which Jesus did, said, Of a truth this is a prophet who hath come into the world.  And Jesus knew their purpose to come and take him, and make him a king; and he left them, and went up into the mountain alone for prayer.

47, 48 And when the nightfall was near, his disciples went down unto the sea, and sat in a boat, and came to the side of Capernaum.  And the darkness came on, and Jesus had not come to them.  And the sea was stirred up against them by reason of a violent wind that blew.  And the boat was distant from the land many furlongs, and they were much damaged by the waves, and the wind was against them.

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 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus came unto them, walking upon the  water, after they had rowed with difficulty about twenty-five or thirty furlongs.   And when he drew near unto their boat, his disciples saw him walking on the water; and they were troubled, and supposed that it was a false appearance; and they cried out from their fear.  But Jesus straightway spoke unto them, and said, Take courage, for it is I; fear not.  Then Cephas answered and said unto him, My Lord, if it be thou, bid me to come unto thee on the water.  And Jesus said unto him, Come.  And Cephas went down out of the boat, and walked on the water to come unto Jesus.  But Arabic, p. 74 when he saw the wind strong, he feared, and was on the point of sinking; and he lifted up his voice, and said, My Lord, save me.  And immediately our Lord stretched out his hand and took hold of him, and said unto him, Thou of little faith, why didst thou doubt?  And when Jesus came near, he went up unto them into the boat, he and Simon, and immediately the wind ceased.  And those that were in the ship came and worshipped him, and said, Truly thou art the Son of God.  And straightway that ship arrived at the land which they made for.   And when they came out of the ship to the land, they marvelled greatly and were perplexed in themselves:  and they had not understood by means of that bread, because their heart was gross.

 And when the people of that region knew of the arrival of Jesus, they made haste in all that land, and began to bring those that were diseased, borne in their beds to the place where they heard that he was.  And wheresoever the place might be which he entered, of the villages or the cities, they laid the sick in the markets, and sought of him that they might touchwere it only the edge of his garment:  and all that touched him were healed and lived.

 And on the day after that, the multitude which was standing on the shore of the sea saw that there was there no other ship save that into which the disciples had gone up, and that Jesus went not up into the ship with his disciples (but there were other ships from Tiberias near the place where they ate the bread when Jesus blessed  it):  and when that multitude saw that Jesus was not there, nor yet his disciples, they Arabic, p. 75 went up into those ships, and came to Capernaum, and sought Jesus.  And when they found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Our Master, when camest thou hither?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye have not sought me because of your seeing the signs, but because of your eating the bread and being satisfied.  Serve not the food which perisheth, but the food which abideth in eternal life, which the Son of man will give unto you:  him  hath God the Father sealed.  They said unto him, What shall we do that we may work the work of God?  Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe in him whom he hath sent.  They said unto him, What sign hast thou done, that we may see, and believe in thee? what hast thou wrought?   Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it was written, Bread from heaven gave he them to eat.  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not bread from heaven; but my Father gave you the bread of truth from heaven.  The bread of God is that which came down from heaven and gave the 28, 29 world life.  They said unto him, Our Lord, give us at all times this bread.  Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life:  whosoever cometh unto me shall not hunger, and whosoever believeth in me shall not thirst for ever.  But I said unto you, Ye have seen me, and have not believed.  And all that my Father hath given to me cometh unto me; and whosoever cometh unto me I shall not cast him forth without.   I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but to do the will of him that sent me; and this is the will of him that sent me, that I should lose nothing of Arabic, p. 76 that which he gave me, but raise it up in the last day.  This is the will of my Father, that every one that seeth the Son, and believeth in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day.

 The Jews therefore murmured against him because of his saying, I am the bread which came down from heaven.  And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? then how saith this man, I came down from 37, 38 heaven?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Murmur not one with another.  No man is able to come unto me, except the Father which sent me draw him; and I will raise him up in the last day.  It is written in the prophet, They shall all be the taught of God.  Every one who heareth from the Father now, and learneth of him, cometh unto me.  No man now seeth the Father; but he that is from God, he it is that seeth the Father.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever believeth in me hath eternal 42, 43 life.  I am the bread of life.  Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died.  This is the bread which came down from heaven, that a man may eat of it, and not die.  I am the bread of life which came down from heaven:  and if a man eat of this bread he shall live for ever:  and the bread which I shall give is my body, which I give for the life of the world.

 The Jews therefore quarrelled one with another, and said, How can he give us Arabic, p. 77 his body that we may eat it?  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, If ye do not eat the body of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye shall not have life in yourselves.  Whosoever eateth of my body and drinketh of my blood hath eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day.  My body truly is meat, and my blood truly is drink.  Whosoever eateth my body and drinketh my blood abideth in me, and I in him—as the living Father sent me, and I am alive because of the Father; and whosoever eateth me, he also shall live because of me.  This is the bread which came down from heaven:  and not according as your fathers ate the manna, and died:  whosoever eateth of this bread shall live for ever.  This he said in the synagogue, when he was teaching in Capernaum.  And many of his disciples, when they heard, said, This word is hard; who is he that can hear it?

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 And Jesus knew within himself that his disciples were murmuring because of that, and he said unto them, Doth this trouble you?  What if ye should see the Son of man then ascend to the place where he was of old?  It is the spirit that quickeneth, and the body profiteth nothing:  the words that I speak unto you are spirit and life.  But there are some of you that do not believe.  And Jesus knew beforehand who they were who should not believe, and who it was that should betray him.  And he said unto them, Therefore I said unto you, No man can come unto me, if that hath not been given him by the Father.

Arabic, p. 78 And because of this word many of his disciples turned back and walked not with him.  And Jesus said unto the twelve, Do ye haply also wish to go away?  Simon Cephas answered and said, My Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.  And we have believed and known that thou art the Messiah, the Son of the living God.  Jesus said unto them, Did not I choose you, ye company of the twelve, and of you one is a devil?  He said that because of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot; for he, being of the twelve, was purposed to betray him.

 And while he was speaking, one of the Pharisees came asking of him that he would eat with him:  and he went in, and reclined to meat.  And that Pharisee, when he saw it,marvelled that he had not first cleansed himself before his eating.  Jesus said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees wash the outside of the cup and the dish, and ye think that ye are cleansed; but your inside is full of injustice and wickedness.

15, 16 Ye of little mind, did not he that made the outside make the inside?  Now give what ye have in alms, and everything shall be clean unto you.

17, 18 And there came to him Pharisees and scribes, come from Jerusalem.  And when they saw some of his disciples eating bread while they had not washed their hands, they found fault.  For all of the Jews and the Pharisees, if they wash not their hands thoroughly, eat not; for they held to the ordinance of the elders.  And they ate not what was bought from the market, except they washed it; and many other things did they keep of what they had received, such as the washing of cups, and measures, and vessels of brass, and couches.  And scribes and Pharisees asked him, Arabic, p. 79 Why do thy disciples not walk according to the ordinances of the elders, but eat bread without washing their hands?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Why do ye also overstep the command of God by reason of your ordinance?   God said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whosoever revileth his father and his mother shall surely die.  But ye say, If a man say to his father or to his mother, What thou receivest from me is an offering,—and ye suffer him not to do anything for his father or his mother; and ye make void and reject the word of God by reason of the ordinance that ye have ordained and commanded, such as the washing of cups and measures, and what resembles that ye do much.  And ye forsook the command of God, and held to the ordinance of men.  Do ye well to wrong  the command of God in order that ye may establish your ordinance?  Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah the prophet prophesy concerning you, and say,

 This people honoureth me with its lips;

But their heart is very far from me.

 But in vain do they fear me,

In that they teach the commands of men.

 And Jesus called all the multitude, and said unto them, Hear me, all of you, and understand:  nothing without the man, which then enters him, is able to defile him; but what goeth out of him, that it is which defileth the man.  He that hath ears that hear, let him hear.  Then his disciples drew near, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees which heard this word were angry?  He answered and said unto them, Every plant which my Father which is in heaven planted not shall be Arabic, p. 80 uprooted.  Let them alone; for they are blind leading blind.  And if the blind lead the blind, both of them shall fall into a hollow.

 And when Jesus entered the house from the multitude, Simon Cephas asked him, and said unto him, My Lord, explain to us that parable.  He said unto them, Do ye also thus not understand?  Know ye not that everything that entereth into the man from without cannot defile him; because it entereth not into his heart; it entereth into his stomach only, and thence is cast forth in the cleansing which maketh clean all the food?  The thing which goeth forth from the mouth of the man proceedeth from his heart, and it is that which defileth the man.  From within the heart of men proceed evil thoughts, fornication, adultery, theft, false witness, murder, injustice, wickedness, deceit, stupidity, evil eye, calumny, pride, foolishness:   these evils all of them from within proceed from the heart, and they are the things  which defile the man:  but if a man eat while he washeth not his hands, he is not defiled.

 And Jesus went out thence, and came to the borders of Tyre and Sidon.  And he entered into a certain house, and desired that no man should know it; and he could not be hid.  But straightway a Canaanitish woman, whose daughter had an 48, 49 unclean spirit, heard of him.  And that woman was a Gentile of Emesa of Syria.  And she came out after him, crying out, and saying, Have mercy upon me, my Lord, thou  son of David; for my daughter is seized in an evil way by Satan.  And he answered Arabic, p. 81 her not a word.  And his disciples came and besought him, and said, Send her away:  for she crieth after us.  He answered and said unto them, I was not sent except to the sheep that are gone astray of the house of Israel.  But she came and worshipped him, and said, My Lord, help me, have mercy upon me.

 Jesus said unto her, It is not seemly that the children’s bread should be taken and thrown to the dogs.  But she said, Yea, my Lord:  the dogs also eat of the crumbs that fall from their masters’ tables, and live.  Then said Jesus unto her, O woman, great is thy faith:  it shall be unto thee as thou hast desired.  Go then thy way; and because of this word, the devil is gone out of thy daughter.  And her daughter was healed in that hour.  And that woman went away to her house, and found her daughter laid upon the bed, and the devil gone out of her.

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 And Jesus went out again from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came to the sea of Galilee, towards the borders of Decapolis.  And they brought unto him one dumb and deaf, and entreated him that he would lay his hand upon him and heal him.  And he drew him away from the multitude, and went away alone, and spat upon his fingers, and thrust them into his ears, and touched his tongue; and looked to heaven, and sighed, and said unto him, Be opened.  And in that hour his ears were opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he spake with ease.  And Jesus charged them much that they should not tell this to any man:  but the more he charged them, the more they increased in publishing, and marvelled much, and Arabic, p. 82 said, This man doeth everything well:  he made the deaf to hear, and those that lacked speech to speak.

8, 9 And while he was passing through the land of Samaria, he came to one of the cities of the Samaritans, called Sychar, beside the field which Jacob gave to Joseph to his son.  And there was there a spring of water of Jacob’s.  And Jesus was fatigued from the exertion of the way, and sat at the spring.  And the time was about the sixth hour.  And a woman of Samaria came to draw water; and Jesus said unto her, Give me water, that I may drink.  And his disciples had entered into the city to buy for themselves food.  And that Samaritan woman said unto him, How dost thou, being a Jew, ask me to give thee to drink, while I am a Samaritan woman?   (And the Jews mingle not with the Samaritans.)  Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who this is that said unto thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest ask him, and he would give thee the water of life.  That woman said unto him, My Lord, thou hast no bucket, and the well is deep:  from whence hast thou the water of life?  Can it be that thou art greater than our father Jacob, who gave us this well, and drank from it, and his children, and his sheep?   Jesus answered and said unto her, Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again:  but whosoever drinketh of the water which I shall give him shall not thirst for ever:  but the water which I shall give him shall be in him a spring of water springing up unto eternal life.  That woman said unto him, My Lord, give me of this water, that I may not thirst again, neither come and draw water from here.  Jesus said unto her, Arabic, p. 83 Go and call thy husband, and come hither.  She said unto him, I have no husband.  Jesus said unto her, Thou saidst well, I have no husband:  five husbands hast thou had, and this man whom thou hast now is not thy husband; and in this thou saidst truly.  That woman said unto him, My Lord, I perceive thee to be a prophet.  Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say that in Jerusalem is the place in which worship must be.  Jesus said unto her, Woman, believe me, an hour cometh, when neither in this mountain, nor yet in Jerusalem, shall ye worship the Father.  Ye worship that which ye know not:  but we worship that which we know:  for salvation is of the Jews.  But an hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth:  and the Father also seeketh such as these worshippers.  For God is a Spirit:  and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.  That woman said unto him, I know that the Messiah cometh:  and when he is come, he will teach us everything.  Jesus said unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.

 And while he was speaking, his disciples came; and they wondered how he would speak with a woman; but not one of them said unto him, What seekest thou? or, Whatspeakest thou with her?  And the woman left her waterpot, and went to the city, and said to the people, Come, and see a man who told me all that ever I did:  perhaps then he is the Messiah.  And people went out from the city, and came to him.  And in the mean while his disciples besought him, and said unto him, Our 36, 37 master, eat.  And he said unto them, I have food to eat that ye know not.  And the disciples said amongst themselves, Can any one have brought him aught to eat?   Jesus said unto them, My food is to do the will of him that sent me, and to accomplish Arabic, p. 84 his work.  Said ye not that after four months cometh the harvest? behold, I therefore say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and behold the lands, that they have become white, and the harvest is already come.  And he that reapeth receiveth his wages, and gathereth the fruit of eternal life; and the sower and the reaper rejoice together.  For in this is found the word of truth, One soweth, and another reapeth.  And I sent you to reap that in which ye have not laboured:  others laboured, and ye have entered on their labour.

 And from that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the words of that woman, who testified and said, He told me all that ever I did.  And when those Samaritans came unto him, they besought him to abide with them; and he 45, 46 abode with them two days.  And many believed in him because of his word; and they said to that woman, Now not because of thy saying have we believed in him:  we have heard and known that this truly is the Messiah, the Saviour of the world.

47, 48 And after two days Jesus went out thence and departed to Galilee.  And Jesus testified that a prophet is not honoured in his own city.  And when he came to Galilee, the Galilæans received him.

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 And when Jesus came to a certain village, there drew near to him a leper, and fell at his feet, and besought him, and said unto him, If thou wilt, thou art able to cleanse me.  And Jesus had mercy upon him, and stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will cleanse thee.  And immediately his leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.  And he sternly charged him, and sent him out, Arabic, p. 85 and said unto him, See that thou tell not any man:  but go and shew thyself to the priests, and offer an offering for thy cleansing as Moses commanded for their testimony.  But he, when he went out, began to publish much, and spread abroad the news, so that Jesus could not enter into any of the cities openly, for the extent to which the report of him spread, but he remained without in a desert place.  And much people came unto him from one place and another, to hear his word, and that they might be healed of their pains.  And he used to withdraw from them into the desert, and pray.

 And after that, was the feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

 And there was in Jerusalem a place prepared for bathing, which was called in Hebrew the House of Mercy, having five porches.  And there were laid in them much people of the sick, and blind, and lame, and paralysed, waiting for the moving of the water.  And the angel from time to time went down into the place of bathing, and moved the water; and the first that went down after the moving of the water, every pain that he had was healed.  And a man was there who had a disease for thirty-eight years.  And Jesus saw this man laid, and knew that he had been thus a long time; and he said unto him, Wouldest thou be made whole?  That diseased one answered and said, Yea, my Lord, I have no man, when the water moveth, to put me into the bathing-place; but when I come, another goeth down before 16, me.  Jesus said unto him, Rise, take thy bed, and walk.  And immediately that man was healed; and he rose, and carried his bed, and walked.

 And that day was a sabbath.  And when the Jews saw that healed one, they said unto him, It is a sabbath:  thou hast no authority to carry thy bed.  And he answered and said unto them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take thy bed, Arabic, p. 86 and walk.  They asked him therefore, Who is this man that said unto thee, Take thy bed, and walk?  But he that was healed knew not who it was; for Jesus had removed from that place to another, because of the press of the great multitude which was in that place.  And after two days Jesus happened upon him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art whole:  sin not again, lest there come upon thee what is worse than the first.  And that man went, and said to the Jews that it was Jesus that had healed him.  And because of that the Jews persecuted Jesus and sought to kill him, because he was doing this on the sabbath.  And Jesus said unto them, My Father worketh until now, and I also work.  And because of this especially the Jews sought to kill him, not because he profaned the sabbath only; but for his saying also that God was his Father, and his making himself equal with God.   Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son cannot do anything of himself, but what he seeth the Father do; what the Father doeth, that the Son also doeth like him.  The Father loveth his Son, and everything that he doeth he sheweth him:  and more than these works will he shew him, that ye may marvel.  And as the Father raiseth the dead and giveth them life, so the Son also giveth life to whomsoever he will.  And the Father judgeth no man, but hath given all judgement unto the Son; that every man may honour the Son, as he honoureth the Father.  And he that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which sent him.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever heareth my word, and believeth in him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into judgement, but passeth from Arabic, p. 87 death unto life.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, An hour shall come, and now is also, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and those which hear shall live.  And as the Father hath life in himself, likewise he gave to the Son also that he might have life in himself,  and authority to do judgement also, because he is the Son of man.  Marvel not then at that:  I mean the coming of the hour when all that are in the tombs shall hear his voice, and shall come forth:   those that have done good, to the resurrection of life; and those that have done evil deeds, to the resurrection of judgement.

 I am not able of myself to do anything; but as I hear, I judge:  and my judgement is just; I seek not my own will, but the will of him that sent me.  I bear witness of myself, and so my witness is not true.  It is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he beareth of me is true.  Ye have sent unto John, and he hath borne witness of the truth.  But not from man do I seek witness; but I say that ye may live.  That was a lamp which shineth and giveth light:  and ye were pleased to glory now in his light.  But I have witness greater than that of John:  the works which my Father hath given me to accomplish, those works which I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.  And the Father which sent me, he hath borne witness of me.  Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his appearance.  And his word abideth not in you; because in him whom he hath sent ye do not believe.  Search the scriptures, in which ye rejoice  that ye have eternal life; and they bear witness of me; and ye do not wish to come to 49, 50 Arabic, p. 88 me, that ye may have eternal life.  I seek not praise of men.  But I know you, that the love of God is not in you.  I am come in the name of my Father, and ye received me not; but if another come in his own name, that one will ye receive.  And how can ye believe, while ye receive praise one from another, and praise from God, the One, ye seek not?  Can it be that ye think that I will accuse you before the Father?  Ye have one that accuseth you, Moses, in whom ye have rejoiced.  If ye believed Moses, ye would believe me also; Moses wrote of me.   And if ye believed not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?

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 And Jesus departed thence, and came to the side of the sea of Galilee, and went up into the mountain, and sat there.  And there came unto him great multitudes, having with them lame, and blind, and dumb, and maimed, and many others, and they cast them at the feet of Jesus:  for they had seen all the signs which he did in Jerusalem, when they were gathered at the feast.  And he healed them all.  And those multitudes marvelled when they saw dumb men speak, and maimed men healed, and lame men walk, and blind men see; and they praised the God of Israel.

 And Jesus called his disciples, and said unto them, I have compassion on this multitude, because of their continuing with me three days, having nothing to eat; and to send them away fasting I am not willing, lest they faint in the way, some of them having Arabic, p. 89 come from far.  His disciples said unto him, Whence have we in the desert bread wherewith to satisfy all this multitude?  Jesus said unto them, How many loaves have ye?  They said unto him, Seven, and a few small fishes.  And he commanded the multitudes to sit down upon the ground; and he took those seven loaves and the fish, and blessed, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and the disciples set before the multitudes.  And they all ate, and were satisfied:  and they took that which remained over of the fragments, seven basketfuls.   And the people that ate were four thousand men, besides the women and children.   And when the multitudes departed, he went up into the boat, and came to the borders of Magada.

 And the Pharisees and Sadducees came to him, and began to seek a discussion with him.  And they asked him to shew them a sign from heaven, tempting him.   And Jesus sighed within himself, and said, What sign seeketh this evil and adulterous generation?  It seeketh a sign, and it shall not be given a sign, except the sign of Jonah the prophet.  Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not be given a sign.  And he left them, and went up into the boat, and went away to that side.

 And his disciples forgot to take with them bread, and there was not with them in the boat, not even one loaf.  And Jesus charged them, and said, Take heed, and guard yourselves from the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and from the leaven of Herod.  And they reflected within themselves that they had taken with them no bread.  And Jesus knew, and said unto them, Why think ye within yourselves, O ye of little faith, and are anxious, because ye have no bread? until now do ye not perceive, neither understand? is your heart yet hard?  And have ye eyes, and yet see not? Arabic, p. 90 and have ye ears, and yet hear not? and do ye not remember when I brake those five loaves for five thousand? and how many baskets full of broken pieces took ye up?  They said, Twelve.  He said unto them, And the seven also for four thousand:  how many baskets full of broken pieces took ye up?  They said, Seven.  He said unto them, How have ye not understood that I spake not to you because of the bread, but that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees?  Then they understood that he spake, not that they should beware of the leaven of the bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees, which he called leaven.

 And after that, he came to Bethsaida.  And they brought to him a certain blind  man, and besought him that he would touch him.  And he took the hand of that blind man, and led him out without the village, and spat in his eyes, and laid his hand on him, and asked him, What seest thou?  And that blind man looked intently, and said unto him, I see men as trees walking.  And he placed his hand again on his eyes; and they were restored, and he saw everything clearly.  And he sent him to his house, and said, Do not enter even into the village, nor tell any man in the village.

 And Jesus went forth, and his disciples, to the villages of Cæsarea Philippi.   And while he was going in the way, and his disciples alone, he asked his disciples, and said, What do men say of me that I am, the Son of man?  They said unto him, Some say, John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and others, Jeremiah, or one of the 34, 35 prophets.  He said unto them, And ye, what say ye that I am?  Simon Cephas answered Arabic, p. 91 and said, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of the living God.  Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon son of Jonah:  flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.  And I say unto thee also, that thou art Cephas, and on this rock will I build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.  To thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven:  and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.  And he sternly charged his disciples, and warned them that they should not tell any man concerning him, that he was the Messiah.  And henceforth began Jesus to shew to his disciples that he was determined to go to Jerusalem, and suffer much, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and of the scribes, and be killed, and on the third day rise.  And he was speaking plainly.  And Simon Cephas, as one grieved for him, said, Far be thou, my Lord, from that.  And he turned, and looked upon his disciples, and rebuked Simon, and said, Get thee behind me, Satan:  for thou art a stumblingblock unto me:  for thou thinkest not of what pertains to God, but of what pertains to men.

 And Jesus called the multitudes with his disciples, and said unto them, Whosoever would come after me, let him deny himself, and take his cross every day, and come after me.  And whosoever would save his life shall lose it; and whosoever loseth his life for my sake, and for the sake of my gospel, shall save it.  What shall a man profit, if he gain all the world, and destroy his own life, or lose it? or what Arabic, p. 92 will a man give in ransom for his life?  Whosoever shall deny me and my sayings in this sinful and adulterous generation, the Son of man also will deny him, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with his holy angels.  For the Son of man is about to come in the glory of his Father with his holy angels; and then shall he reward each man according to his works.

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 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There be here now some standing that shall not taste death, until they see the kingdom of God come with strength, and the Son of man who cometh in his kingdom.

 And after six days Jesus took Simon Cephas, and James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain, the three of them only.  And while they were praying, Jesus changed, and became after the fashion of another person; and his face shone like the sun, and his raiment was very white like the snow, and as the light of lightning, so that nothing on earth can whiten like it.  And there appeared unto him Moses and Elijah talking to Jesus.  And they thought that the time of his decease which was to be accomplished at Jerusalem was come.  And Simon and those that were with him were heavy in the drowsiness of sleep; and with effort they roused themselves, and saw his glory, and those two men that were standing with him.  Arabic, p. 93 And when they began to depart from him, Simon said unto Jesus, My Master, it is good for us to be here:  and if thou wilt, we will make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah; not knowing what he said, because of the fear which took possession of them.  And while he was yet saying that, a bright cloud overshadowed them.  And when they saw Moses and Elijah that they had entered into that cloud, they feared again.  And a voice was heard out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son, whom I have chosen; hear ye therefore him.  And when this voice was heard, Jesus was found alone.   And the disciples, when they heard the voice, fell on their faces from the fear which took hold of them.  And Jesus came and touched them and said, Arise, be not afraid.  And they lifted up their eyes, and saw Jesus as he was.

 And when they went down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, and said unto them, Tell not what ye have seen to any man, until the Son of man rise from among the dead.  And they kept the word within themselves, and told no man in those days what they had seen.  And they reflected among themselves, What is this word which he spake unto us, I, when I am risen from among the dead?  And his disciples asked him, and said, What is that which the scribes say, then, that Elijah must first come?  He said unto them, Elijah cometh first to set in order everything, Arabic, p. 94 and as it was written of the Son of man, that he should suffer many things, and be rejected.  But I say unto you, that Elijah is come, and they knew him not, and have done unto him whatsoever they desired, as it was written of him.  23, 24 In like manner the Son of man is to suffer of them.  Then understood the disciples that he spake unto them concerning John the Baptist.

 And on that day whereon they came down from the mountain, there met him a multitude of many people standing with his disciples, and the scribes were discussing with them.  And the people, when they saw Jesus, were perplexed, and in the midst of their joy hastened and saluted him.  And on that day came certain of the Pharisees, and said unto him, Get thee out, and go hence; for Herod seeketh to kill thee.  Jesus said unto them, Go ye and say to this fox, Behold, I am casting out demons, and I heal to-day and to-morrow, and on the third day I am perfected.   Nevertheless I must be watchful to-day and to-morrow, and on the last day I shall depart; for it cannot be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.

 And after that, there came to him a man from that multitude, and fell upon his knees, and said unto him, I beseech thee, my Lord, look upon my son; he is my only child:  and the spirit cometh upon him suddenly.  A lunacy hath come upon him, and he meeteth with evils.  And when it cometh upon him, it beateth him about;  and he foameth, and gnasheth his teeth, and wasteth;  and many times it hath thrown him into the water and into the fire to destroy him, and it hardly leaveth him after Arabic, p. 95 bruising him.  And I brought him near to thy disciples, and they could not heal him.  Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, till when shall I be with you? and till when shall I bear with you? bring thy son hither.  And he brought him unto him:  and when the spirit saw him, immediately it beat him about; and he fell upon the ground, and was raging and foaming.  And Jesus asked his father, How long is the time during which he hath been thus?  He said unto him, From his youth until now.  But, my Lord, help me wherein thou canst, and have mercy upon me.  Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe!  All things are possible to him that believeth.  And immediately the father of the child cried out, weeping, and said, I believe, my Lord; help my lack of faith.  And when Jesus saw the hastening of the people, and their coming at the sound, he rebuked that unclean spirit, and said to it, Thou dumb spirit that speakest not, I command thee, come out of him, and enter not again into him.  And that spirit, devil, cried out much, and bruised him, and came out; and that child fell as one dead, and many thought that he had died.  But Jesus took him by his hand, and raised him up, and gave him to his father; and that child was healed from that hour.  And the people all marvelled at the greatness of God.

 And when Jesus entered into the house, his disciples came, and asked him privately, and said unto him, Why were we not able to heal him?  Jesus said unto Arabic, p. 96 them, Because of your unbelief.  Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain, Remove hence; and it shall remove; and nothing shall overcome you.  But it is impossible to cast out this kind by anything except by fasting and prayer.

 And when he went forth thence, they passed through Galilee:  and he would not that any man should know it.  And he taught his disciples, and said unto them,  Keep ye these sayings in your ears and your hearts:  for the Son of man is to be delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and when he is killed, he shall rise on the third day.  But they knew not the word which he spake unto them, for it was concealed from them, that they should not perceive it; and they feared to ask him about this word.  And they were exceeding sorrowful.

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 And in that day this thought presented itself to his disciples, and they said, which haply should be the greatest among them.  And when they came to Capernaum, and entered into the house, Jesus said unto them, What were ye considering in the way among yourselves?  And they were silent because they had considered that matter.

 And when Simon went forth without, those that received two dirhams for the tribute came to Cephas, and said unto him, Doth your master not give his two dirhams?  He said unto them, Yea.  And when Cephas entered the house, Jesus anticipated him, and said unto him, What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth, from whom do they receive custom and tribute? from their sons, or from Arabic, p. 97 strangers?  Simon said unto him, From strangers.  Jesus said unto him, Children then are free.  Simon said unto him, Yea.  Jesus said unto him, Give thou also unto them, like the stranger.  But, lest it trouble them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook; and the first fish that cometh up, open its mouth, and thou shalt find a stater:  take therefore that, and give for me and thee.

 And in that hour came the disciples to Jesus, and said unto him, Who, thinkest thou, is greater in the kingdom of heaven?  And Jesus knew the thought of their heart, and called achild, and set him in the midst, and took him in his arms, and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If ye do not return, and become as children, ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven.  Every one that shall receive in my name such as this child hath received me:  and whosoever receiveth me receiveth not me, but him that sent me.  And he who is little in your company, the same shall be great.  But whosoever shall injure one of these little ones that believe in me, it were better for him that a great millstone should be hanged about his neck, and he should be drowned in the depths of the sea.

 John answered and said, Our Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we prevented him, because he followed not thee with us.  Jesus said unto them, Prevent him not; for no man doeth powers in my name, and can hasten to speak evil 16, of me.  Every one who is not in opposition to you is with you.  Woe unto the world Arabic, p. 98 because of trials! but woe unto that man by whose hand the trials come!   If thy hand or thy foot injure thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter into life being halt or maimed, and not that thou shouldest have two hands or two feet, and fall into the hell of fire that burneth for ever; 19, 20 where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched.  And if thine eye seduce  thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, than that thou shouldest have two eyes, and fall into the 22, 23 fire of Gehenna; where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched.  Every  one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.  How good is salt! but if the salt also be tasteless, wherewith shall it be salted?  It is fit neither for the land nor for dung, but they cast it out.  He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.  Have ye salt in yourselves, and be in peace one with another.

 And he arose from thence, and came to the borders of Judæa beyond Jordan:  and there went unto him thither great multitudes, and he healed them; and he taught them also, according to his custom.  And the Pharisees came unto him, tempting him, and asking him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife?  He said, What did Moses command you?  They said, Moses made it allowable for us, saying, Whosoever will, let him write a writing of divorcement, and put away his wife.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, He that made them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this reason shall the man leave his father Arabic, p. 99 and his mother, and cleave to his wife; and they both shall be one body?   So then they are not twain, but one body; the thing, then, which God hath joined together, let no man put asunder.  And those Pharisees said unto him, Why did Moses consent that a man should give a writing of divorcement and put her away?   Jesus said unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts gave you leave to divorce your wives; but in the beginning it was not so.  I say unto you, Whosoever putteth away his wife without fornication, and marrieth another, hath exposed her to adultery.  And his disciples, when he entered the house, asked him again about that.  And he said unto them, Every one who putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, hath exposed her to adultery.  And any woman that leaveth her husband, and becometh another’s, hath committed adultery.  And whosoever marrieth her that is divorced hath committed adultery.  And his disciples said unto him, If there be between the man and the woman such a case as this, it is not good for a man to marry.  He said unto them, Not every man can endure this saying, except him to whom it is given.  There are eunuchs which from their mother’s womb were born so; and there are eunuchs which through men became eunuchs; and there are eunuchs which made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven.  He that is able to be content, let him be content.

 Then they brought to him children, that he should lay his hand upon them, and pray:  and his disciples were rebuking those that were bringing them.  And Jesus saw, and it was distressing to him; and he said unto them, Suffer the children to Arabic, p. 100 come unto me, and prevent them not; for those that are like these have the kingdom of God.  Verily I say unto you, Whosoever receiveth not the kingdom of God as this child, shall not enter it.  And he took them in his arms, and laid his hand upon them, and blessed them.

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And there came unto him publicans and sinners to hear his word.  And the scribes and the Pharisees murmured, and said, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.  And Jesus, when he beheld their murmuring, spake unto them this parable:  What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if one of them were lost, would not leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go and seek the straying one  till he found it?  Verily I say unto you, When he findeth it, he will rejoice over it more than over the ninety-nine that went not astray; and bear it on his shoulders, and bring it to his house, and call his friends and neighbours, and say unto them, Rejoice with me, since I have found my straying sheep.  So your Father which is in heaven willeth not that one of these little ones that have strayed should perish, and he seeketh for them repentance.  I say unto you, Thus there shall be rejoicing in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety-nine righteous persons that do not need repentance.

 And what woman having ten drachmas would lose one of them, and not light a lamp, and sweep the house, and seek it with care till she found it; and when she found it, call her friends and neighbours, and say unto them, Rejoice with me, as I have found my drachma that was lost?  I say unto you, Thus there shall be joy Arabic, p. 101 before the angels of God over the one sinner that repenteth, more than over the ninety-nine righteous persons that do not need repentance.

12, 13 And Jesus spake unto them also another parable:  A man had two sons:  and the younger son said unto him, My father, give me my portion that belongeth to me of thy goods.  And he divided between them his property.  And after a few days the younger son gathered everything that belonged to him, and went into a far country, and there squandered his property by living prodigally.  And when he had exhausted everything he had, there occurred a great dearth in that country.   And when he was in want, he went and joined himself to one of the people of a city of that country; and that man sent him into the field to feed the swine.  And he used to long to fill his belly with the carob that those swine were eating:  and no man gave him.  And when he returned unto himself, he said, How many hired servants now in my father’s house have bread enough and to spare, while I here perish with hunger!  I will arise and go to my father’s house, and say unto him, My father, I have sinned in heaven and before thee, and am not worthy now to be called thy son:  make me as one of thy hired servants.  And he arose, and came to his father.  But his father saw him while he was at a distance, and was moved with compassion for him, and ran, and fell on his breast,and kissed him.  And his son said unto him, My father, I have sinned in heaven and before thee, and am not worthy to be called thy son.  His father said unto his servants, Bring forth a stately robe, and put  it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and put on him shoes on his feet:  and bring and slay a fatted ox, that we may eat and make merry:  for this my son was dead, and is Arabic, p. 102 alive; and was lost, and is found.  And they began to be merry.  Now his elder son was in the field; and when he came and drew near to the house, he heard the sound of many singing.  And he called one of the lads, and asked him what this was.  He said unto him, Thy brother hath arrived; and thy father hath slain a fatted ox, since he hath received him safe and sound.  And he was angry, and would not enter; so his father went out, and besought him to enter.  And he said to his father, How many years do I serve thee in bondage, and I never transgressed a commandment of thine; and thou hast never given me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends? but this thy son, when he had squandered thy property with harlots, and come, thou hast slain for him a fatted ox.  His father said unto him, My son, thou art at all times with me, and everything I have is thine.  It behoveth thee to rejoice and make merry, since this thy brother was dead, and is alive; and was lost, and is found.

 And he spake a parable unto his disciples:  There was a rich man, and he had a steward; and he was accused to him that he had squandered his property.  So his lord called him, and said unto him, What is this that I hear regarding thee?  Give me the account of thy stewardship; for it is now impossible that thou shouldest be a steward for me.  The steward said within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh from me the stewardship?  To dig I am not able; and to beg I am ashamed.  I know what I will do, that, when I go out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses.  And he called one after another of his lord’s debtors, and said to the first, How much owest thou my lord?  He said unto him, An hundred portions of oil.  He said unto him, Take thy writing, and sit down, and write quickly fifty portions.  And he said to the next, And thou, how much owest thou my lord?  He said unto him, An hundred cors of wheat.  He said unto him, Take Arabic, p. 103 thy writing, and sit down, and write eighty cors.  And our lord commended the sinful stewardbecause he had done a wise deed; for the children of this world are wiser than the children of the light in this their age.  And I also say unto you, Make unto yourselves friends with the wealth of this unrighteousness;  so that, when it is exhausted, they may receive you into their tents for ever.  He who is faithful in a little is faithful also in much:  and he who is unrighteous in a little is unrighteous also in much.  If then in the wealth of unrighteousness ye were not trustworthy, who will intrust you with the truth?  If ye are not found faithful in what does not belong to you, who will give you what belongeth to you?

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 Therefore the kingdom of heaven is like a certain king, who would make a reckoning with his servants.  And when he began to make it, they brought to him one who owed him ten talents.  And because he had not wherewith to pay, his lord ordered that he should be sold, he, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment be made.  So that servant fell down and worshipped him, and said unto him, My lord, have patience with me, and I shall pay thee everything.   And the lord of that servant had compassion, and released him, and forgave him his debt.  And that servant went out, and found one of his fellow-servants, who owed him Arabic, p. 104 a hundred pence; and he took him, and dealt severely with him, and said unto him, Give me what thou owest.  So the fellow-servant fell down at his feet, and besought him, and said, Grant me respite, and I will pay thee.  And he would not; but took him, and cast him into prison, till he should give him his debt.   And when their fellow-servants saw what happened, it distressed them much; and they came and told their lord of all that had taken place.  Then his lord called him, and said unto him, Thou wicked servant, all that debt I forgave thee, because thou besoughtest me:  was it not then incumbent on thee also to have mercy on thy fellow-servant, as I had mercy on thee?  And his lord became wroth, and delivered him to the scourgers, till he should pay all that he owed.  So shall my Father which is in heaven do unto you, if one forgive not his brother his wrong conduct from his heart.  Take heed within yourselves:  if thy brother sin, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him.  And if he act wrongly towards thee seven times in a day, and on that day return seven times unto thee, and say, I repent towards thee; forgive him.   And if thy brother act wrongly towards thee, go and reprove him between thee and him alone:  if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.  But if he hear thee not, take with thee one or two, and so at the mouth of two or three every saying shall be established.  And if he listen not to these also, tell the congregation; and if he listen not even to the congregation, let him be unto thee as a publican and a Gentile.   Verily I say unto you, All that ye bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:  and what ye loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.  I say unto you also, If two of you agree on earth to ask, everything shall be granted them from my Father Arabic, p. 105 which is in heaven.  For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I amongst them.  Then Cephas drew near to him, and said unto him, My Lord, how many times, if my brother act wrongly towards me, should I forgive him? until seven times?  Jesus said unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven; but, Until seventy times seven, seven.  And the servant that knoweth his lord’s will, and maketh not ready for him according to his will, shall meet with much punishment; but he that knoweth not, and doeth something for which he meriteth punishment, shall meet with slight punishment.  Every one to whom much hath been given, much shall be asked of him; and he that hath had much committed to him, much shall be required at his hand.  I came to cast fire upon the earth; and I would that it had been kindled already.  And I have a baptism to be baptized with, and greatly am I straitened till it be accomplished.  See that ye despise not one of these little ones that believe in me.  Verily I say unto you, Their angels at all times see the face of my Father which is in heaven.  The Son of man came to save the thing which was lost.

 And after that, Jesus walked in Galilee; and he did not like to walk in Judæa, because the Jews sought to kill him.  And there came people who told him of the Galilæans, those whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Do ye imagine that those Galilæans were sinners more than all the Galilæans, so that this thing has come upon them?  Nay.  Verily I say unto you now, that ye shall all also, if ye repent not, likewise perish.   Or perchance those eighteen on whom the palace fell in Siloam, and slew them, do ye imagine that they were to be condemned more than all the people that dwell Arabic, p. 106 in Jerusalem?  Nay.  Verily I say unto you, If ye do not all repent, ye shall perish like them.

 And he spake unto them this parable:  A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.  So he said to the husbandman, Lo, three years do I come and seek fruit on this fig tree, and find none:  cut it down; why doth it render the ground unoccupied?  The husbandman said unto him, My lord, leave it this year also, that I may dig about it, and dung it; then if it bear fruit—! and if not, then cut it down in the coming year.

 And when Jesus was teaching on the sabbath day in one of the synagogues, there was there a woman that had a spirit of disease eighteen years; and she was bowed down, and could not straighten herself at all.  And Jesus saw her, and called her, and said unto her, Woman, be loosed from thy disease.  And he put his hand upon her; and immediately she was straightened, and praised God.  And the chief of the synagogue answered with anger, because Jesus had healed on a sabbath, and said unto the multitudes, There are six days in which work ought to be done; come in them and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.  But Jesus answered and said unto him, Ye hypocrites, doth not each of you on the sabbath day loose his ox or his ass from the manger, and go and water it?  Ought not this woman, who is a daughter of Abraham, and whom the devil hath bound eighteen years, to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?  And when he said this, they were all put to shame, those standing, who were opposing him:  and all the people were pleased with all the wonders that proceeded from his hand.

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2 Arabic, p. 107 And at that time the feast of tabernacles of the Jews drew near.  So the brethren of Jesus said unto him, Remove now hence, and go to Judæa, that thy disciples may see the deeds that thou doest.   For no man doeth a thing secretly and wisheth to be apparent.  If thou doest this, shew thyself to the world.  For up to this time not even the brethren of Jesus believed on him.  Jesus said unto them, My time till now has not arrived; but as for you, your time is alway ready.   It is not possible for the world to hate you; but me it hateth, for I bear witness against it, that its deeds are evil.  As for you, go ye up unto this feast:  but I go not up now to this feast; for my time has not yet been completed.  He said this, and remained behind in Galilee.

 But when his brethren went up unto the feast, he journeyed from Galilee, and came to the borders of Judæa, to the country beyond Jordan; and there came after him great multitudes, and he healed them all there.  And he went out, and proceeded to the feast, not openly, but as one that conceals himself.  And the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, In what place is this man?  And there occurred much murmuring there in the great multitude that came to the feast, on his account.  For some said, He is good:  and others said, Nay, but he leadeth the people astray.  But no man spake of him openly for fear of the Jews.

Arabic, p. 108 But when the days of the feast of tabernacles were half over, Jesus went up to the temple, and taught.  And the Jews wondered, and said, How doth this man know writing, seeing he hath not learned?  Jesus answered and said, My doctrine  is not mine, but his that sent me.  Whoever wisheth to do his will understandeth my doctrine,whether it be from God, or whether I speak of mine own accord.   Whosoever speaketh of his own accord seeketh praise for himself; but whosoever seeketh praise for him that sent him, he is true, and unrighteousness in his heart there is none.  Did not Moses give you the law, and no man of you keepeth the law?  Why seek ye to kill me?  The multitude answered and said unto him, Thou hast demons:  who seeketh to kill thee?  Jesus answered and said unto them, I did one deed, and ye all marvel because of this.  Moses hath given you circumcision (not because it is from Moses, but it is from the fathers); and ye on the sabbath circumcise a man.  And if a man is circumcised on the sabbath day, that the law of Moses may not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I healed on the sabbath day the whole man?  Judge not with hypocrisy, but judge righteous judgement.

 And some people from Jerusalem said, Is not this he whom they seek to slay?   And lo, he discourseth with them openly, and they say nothing unto him.  Think you that our elders have learned that this is the Messiah indeed?  But this man is known whence he is; and the Messiah, when he cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.  So Jesus lifted up his voice as he taught in the temple, and said, Ye both know me, and know whence I am; and of my own accord am I not come, but he Arabic, p. 109 that sent me is true, he whom ye know not:  but I know him; for I am from him, and he sent me.  And they sought to seize him:  and no man laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come.  But many of the multitude believed on him; and they said, The Messiah, when he cometh, can it be that he will do more than these signs that this man doeth?

 And a man of that multitude said unto our Lord, Teacher, say to my brother that he divide with me the inheritance.  Jesus said unto him, Man, who is it that appointed me over you as a judge and divider?  And he said unto his disciples, Take heed within yourselves of all inordinate desire; for it is not in abundance of possessions that life shall be.  And he gave them this parable:  The ground of a rich man brought forth abundant produce:  and he pondered within himself, and said, What shall I do, since I have no place to store my produce?  And he said, I will do this:  I will pull down the buildings of my barns, and build them, and make them greater; and store there all my wheat and my goods.  And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid by for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, enjoy thyself.  God said unto him, O thou of little intelligence, this night shall thy soul be taken from thee; and this that thou hast prepared, whose shall it be?  So is he that layeth up treasures for himself, and is not rich in God.

 And while Jesus was going in the way, there came near to him a young man of the rulers, and fell on his knees, and asked him, and said, Good Teacher, what is it that I must do that I may have eternal life?  Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good, while there is none good but the one, even God?  Thou knowest the commandments.   If thou wouldest enter into life, keep the commandments.  The young Arabic, p. 1man said unto him, Which of the commandments?  Jesus said unto him,  Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not do injury, Honour thy father and thy mother:  and, Love thy neighbour as thyself.  That young man said unto him, All these have I kept from my youth:  what then is it that I lack?  And Jesus looked intently at him, and loved him, and said unto him, If thou wouldest be perfect, what thou lackest is one thing:  go away and sell everything that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven:  and take thy cross, and follow me.  And that young man frowned at this word, and went away feeling sad; for he was very rich.  And when Jesus saw his sadness, he looked towards his disciples, and said unto them, How hard it is for them that have possessions to enter the kingdom of God!

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 Verily I say unto you, It is difficult for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven.  And I say unto you also, that it is easier for a camel to enter the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.  And the disciples were wondering at these sayings.  And Jesus answered and said unto them again, My children, how hard it is for those that rely on their possessions to enter the kingdom of God!  And those that were listening wondered more, and said amongst themselves, being agitated, Who, thinkest thou, can be saved?  And Jesus looked at them intently, and said unto them, With men this is not possible, but with God it is:  Arabic, p. 1it is possible for God to do everything.  Simon Cephas said unto him, Lo, we have left everything, and followed thee; what is it, thinkest thou, that we shall have?  Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, Ye that have followed me, in the new world, when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit on twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel.  Verily I say unto you, No man leaveth houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or kinsfolk, or lands, because of the kingdom of God, or for my sake, and the sake of my gospel, who shall not obtain many times as much in this time, and in the world to come inherit eternal life:  and now in this time, houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecution; and in the world to come everlasting life.  Many that are first shall be last, and that are last shall be first.

 And when the Pharisees heard all this, because of their love for wealth they scoffed at him.  And Jesus knew what was in their hearts, and said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves before men; while God knows your hearts:  the thing that is lofty with men is base before God.

 And he began to say, A certain man was rich, and wore silk and purple, and enjoyed himself every day in splendour:  and there was a poor man named Lazarus, and he was cast down at the door of the rich man, afflicted with sores, and he longed to fill Arabic, p. 1his belly with the crumbs that fell from the table of that rich man; yea, even the dogs used to come and lick his sores.  And it happened that that poor man died, and the angels conveyed him into the bosom of Abraham:  and the rich man also died, and was buried.  And while he was being tormented in Hades, he lifted up his eyes from afar, and saw Abraham with Lazarus in his bosom.  And he called with a loud voice, and said, My father Abraham, have mercy upon me, and send Lazarus to wet the tip of his finger with water, and moisten my tongue for me; for, behold, I am burned in this flame.  Abraham said unto him, My son, remember that thou receivedst thy good things in thy life, and Lazarus his afflictions:  but now, behold, he is at rest here, and thou art tormented.  And in addition to all this, there is between us and you a great abyss placed, so that they that would cross unto you from hence cannot, nor yet from thence do they cross unto us.  He said unto him, Then I beseech thee, my father, to send him to my father’s house; for I have five brethren; let him go, that they also sin not, and come to the abode of this torment.  Abraham said unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.  He said unto him, Nay, my father Abraham:  but let a man from the dead go unto them, and they will repent.  Abraham said unto him, If they listen neither to Moses nor to the prophets, neither if a man from the dead rose would they believe him.

 The kingdom of heaven is like a man that is a householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers for his vineyard.  And he agreed with the labourers on one penny a day for each labourer, and he sent them into his vineyard.  And he went Arabic, p. 1out in three hours, and saw others standing in the market idle.  He said unto them, Go ye also into my vineyard, and what is right I will pay you.   And they went.  And he went out also at the sixth and the ninth hour, and did likewise, and sent them.  And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle.  He said unto them, Why are ye standing the whole day idle?   They said unto him, Because no one hath hired us.  He said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard, and what is right ye shall receive.  So when evening came, the lord of the vineyard said unto his steward, Call the labourers, and pay them their wages; and begin with the later ones, and end with the former ones.  And those of eleven hours came, and received each a penny.  When therefore the first came, they supposed that they should receive something more; and they also received each a penny.  And when they received it, they spake angrily against the householder, and said, These last worked one hour, and thou hast made them equal with us, who have suffered the heat of the day, and its burden.  He answered and said unto one of them, My friend, I do thee no wrong:  was it not for a penny that  thou didst bargain with me?  Take what is thine, and go thy way; for I wish to give this last as I have given thee.  Or am I not entitled to do with what is mine  what I choose?  Or is thine eye perchance evil, because I am good?  Thus shall the last ones be first, and the first last.  The called are many, and the chosen are few.

 And when Jesus entered into the house of one of the chiefs of the Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, and they were watching him to see what he would 44, 45 do, and there was before him a man which had the dropsy, Jesus answered and said unto the scribes and the Pharisees, Is it lawful on the sabbath to heal?  But Arabic, p. 1they were silent.  So he took him, and healed him, and sent him away.   And he said unto them, Which of you shall have his son or his ox fall on the sabbath day into a well, and not lift him up straightway, and draw water for him?  And they were not able to answer him a word to that.

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 And he spake a parable unto those which were bidden there, because he saw them choose the places that were in the highest part of the sitting room:  When a man invites thee to a feast, do not go and sit at the head of the room; lest there be there a man more honourable than thou, and he that invited you come and say unto thee, Give the place to this man:  and thou be ashamed when thou risest and takest another place.  But when thou art invited, go and sit last; so that when he that invited thee cometh, he may say unto thee, My friend, go up higher:  and thou shalt have praise before all that were invited with thee.  For every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that abaseth himself shall be exalted.

 And he said also to him that had invited him, When thou makest a feast or a banquet, do not invite thy friends, nor even thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest haply they also invite thee, and thou have this reward.  But when thou makest a feast, invite the poor, and those with withered hand, and the lame, and the blind:  and blessed art thou, since they have not the means to reward thee; that thy reward may be at the rising of the righteous.  And when one of them that were invited heard that, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God.

10, 11 Jesus answered again in parables, and said, The kingdom of heaven hath been likened Arabic, p. 1to a certain king, which made a feast for his son, and prepared a great banquet, and invited many:  and he sent his servants at the time of the feast to inform them that were invited, Everything is made ready for you; come.  And they would not come, but began all of them with one voice to make excuse.  And the first said unto them, Say to him, I have bought a field, and I must needs go out to see it:  I pray thee to release me, for I ask to be excused.  And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I am going to examine them:  I pray thee to release me, for I ask to be excused.  And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.  And the king sent also other servants, and said, Say to those that were invited, that my feast is ready, and my oxen and my fatlings are slain, and everything is ready:  come to the feast.  But they made light of it, and went, one to his field, and another to his merchandise:  and the rest took his servants, and entreated them shamefully, and killed them.  And one of the servants came, and informed his lord of what had happened.  And when the king heard, he became angry, and sent his armies; and they destroyed those murderers, and burned their cities.  Then he said to his servants, The feast is prepared, but those that were invited were not worthy.  Go out quickly into the markets and into the partings of the ways of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and those with pains, and the lame, and the blind.  And the servants did as the king commanded them.   And they came, and said unto him, Our lord, we have done all that thou commandedst us, and there is here still room.  So the lord said unto his servants, Go out into the roads, and the ways, and the paths, and every one that ye find, invite Arabic, p. 1to the feast, and constrain them to enter, till my house is filled.  I say unto you, that no one of those people that were invited shall taste of my feast.   And those servants went out into the roads, and gathered all that they found, good and bad:  and the banquet-house was filled with guests.  And the king entered to see those who were seated, and he saw there a man not wearing a festive garment:  and he said unto him, My friend, how didst thou come in here not having on festive garments?   And he was silent.  Then the king said to the servants, Bind his hands and his feet, and put him forth into the outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.  The called are many; and the chosen, few.

 And after that, the time of the feast of unleavened bread of the Jews arrived, and Jesus went out to go to Jerusalem.  And as he went in the way, there met him ten persons who were lepers, and stood afar off:  and they lifted up their voice, and said, Our Master, Jesus, have mercy upon us.  And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go and shew yourselves unto the priests.  And when they went, they were cleansed.  And one of them, when he saw himself cleansed, returned, and was praising God with a loud voice; and he fell on his face before the feet of Jesus, giving him thanks:  and this man was a Samaritan.  Jesus answered and said, Were not those that were cleansed ten? where then are the nine?  Not one of them turned aside to come and praise God, but this man who is of a strange people.  He said unto him, Arise, and go thy way; for thy faith hath given thee life.

 And while they were going up in the way to Jerusalem, Jesus went in front of them; and they wondered, and followed him fearing.  And he took his twelve disciples apart, and began to tell them privately what was about to befall him.  And he said unto Arabic, p. 1them, We are going up to Jerusalem, and all the things shall be fulfilled that are written in the prophets concerning the Son of man.  He shall be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and deliver him to the peoples;  and they shall treat him shamefully, and scourge him, and spit in his face, and humble him,and crucify him, and slay him:  and on the third day he shall rise.  But they understood not one thing of this; but this word was hidden from them, and they did not perceive these things that were addressed to them.

 Then came near to him the mother of the (two) sons of Zebedee, she and her (two) sons, and worshipped him, and asked of him a certain thing.  And he said unto her, What wouldest thou?  And James and John, her two sons, came forward, and said unto him, Teacher, we would that all that we ask thou wouldest do unto us.  He said unto them, What would ye that I should do unto you?   They said unto him, Grant us that we may sit, the one on thy right, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom and thy glory.  And Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask.  Are ye able to drink the cup that I am to drink? and with the baptism that I am to be baptized with, will ye be baptized?  And they said unto him, We are able.  Jesus said unto them, The cup that I drink ye shall drink; and with the baptism wherewith I am baptized ye shall be baptized:  but that ye should sit on my right and on my left is not mine to give; but it is for him for whom my Father hath prepared it.

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 And when the ten heard, they were moved with anger against James and John.   And Jesus called them, and said unto them, Ye know that the rulers of the nations are their lords; and their great men are set in authority over them.  Not thus shall it Arabic, p. 1be amongst you:  but he amongst you that would be great, let him be to you a servant; and whoever of you would be first, let him be to every man a bond-servant:  even as the Son of man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give himself a ransom in place of the many.  He said this, and was going about the villages and the cities, and teaching; and he went to Jerusalem.  And a man asked him, Are those that shall be saved few?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Strive ye to enter at the narrow door:  I say unto you now, that many shall seek to enter, and shall not be ablefrom the time when the master of the house riseth, and closeth the door, and ye shall be standing without, and shall knock at the door, and shall begin to say, Our lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say, I say unto you, I know you not whence ye are:  and ye shall begin to say, Before thee we did eat and drink, and in our markets didst thou teach; and he shall say unto you, I know you not whence ye are; departfrom me, ye servants of untruth.  There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, while ye are put forth without.  And they shall come from the east and the west, and from the north and the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God.  And there shall then be last that have become first, and first that have become last.

15, 16 And when Jesus entered and passed through Jericho, there was a man named Zacchæus, rich, and chief of the publicans.  And he desired to see Jesus who he was; and he was not able for the pressure of the crowd, because Zacchæus was little of stature.  Arabic, p. 119 And he hastened, and went before Jesus, and went up into an unripe fig tree to see Jesus:  for he was to pass thus.  And when Jesus came to that place, he saw him, and said unto him, Make haste, and come down, Zacchæus:  to-day I must be in thy house.  And he hastened, and came down, and received him joyfully.  And when they all saw, they murmured, and said, He hath gone in and lodged with a man that is a sinner.  So Zacchæus stood, and said unto Jesus, My Lord, now half of my possessions I give to the poor, and what I have unjustly taken from every man I give him fourfold.  Jesus said unto him, Today is salvation come to this house, because this man also is a son of Abraham.  For the Son of man came to seek and save the thing that was lost.

 And when Jesus went out of Jericho, he and his disciples, there came after him a great multitude.  And there was a blind man sitting by the way side begging.   And his name was Timæus, the son of Timæus.  And he heard the sound of the multitude passing, and asked, Who is this?  They said unto him, Jesus the Nazarene passeth by.  And when he heard that it was Jesus, he called out with a loud voice, and said, Jesus, son of David, have mercy on me.  And those that went before Jesus were rebuking him, that he should hold his peace:  but he cried the more, and said, Son of David, have mercy on me.  And Jesus stood, and commanded that they should call him.  And they called the blind man, and said unto him, Be of good courage, and rise; for, behold, he calleth thee.  And the blind man threw away his garment, and rose, and came to Jesus.  Jesus said unto him, What dost thou wish that I should do unto thee?  And that blind man said unto him, My Lord and Master, that my eyes may be opened, so that I may see thee.  Arabic, p. 120 And Jesus had compassion on him, and touched his eyes, and said unto him, See; for thy faith hath saved thee.  And immediately he received his sight, and came after him, and praised God; and all the people that saw praised God.

 And he spake a parable because he was nearing Jerusalem, and they supposed that at that time the kingdom of God was about to appear.  He said unto them, A man, a son of a great race, went into a far country, to receive a kingdom, and return.  And he called his ten servants, and gave them ten shares, and said unto them, Trade till the time of my coming.  But the people of his city hated him, and sent messengers after him, and said, We will not that this man reign over us.  And when he had received a kingdom, and returned, he said that the servants to whom he had given the money should be called unto him, that he might know what each of them had traded.  And the first came, and said, My lord, thy share hath gained ten shares.  The king said unto him, Thou good and faithful servant, who hast been found faithful in a little, be thou set over ten districts.  And the second came, and said, My lord, thy portion hath gained five portions.  And he said unto him also, And thou shalt be set over five districts.  And another came, and said, My lord, here is thy portion, which was with me laid by in a napkin:  I feared thee, because thou art a hard man, and takest what thou didst not leave, and seekest what thou didst not give, and reapest what thou didst not sow.  His lord said unto him, From thy mouth shall I judge thee, thou wicked and idle servant, who wast untrustworthy.  Thou knewest that I am a hard man, and take what I did not leave, and reap what I did not sow:  why didst thou not put my money at usury, and so I might come and seek it, with its gains?  And he said unto those that were standing in front of him, Take from him the share, and give it to him that hath 50, 51 Arabic, p. 121 ten shares.  They said unto him, Our lord, he hath ten shares.  He said unto them, I say unto you, Every one that hath shall be given unto; and he that hath not, that which he hath also shall be taken from him.  And those mine enemies who would not that I should reign over them, bring them, and slay them before me.

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 And when Jesus entered Jerusalem, he went up to the temple of God, and found there oxen and sheep and doves.  And when he beheld those that sold and those that bought, and the money-changers sitting, he made for himself a scourge of rope, and drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep and the oxen, and the money-changers; and he threw down their money, and upset their tables, and the seats of them that sold the doves; and he was teaching, and saying unto them, Is it not written, My house is a house of prayer for all peoples? and ye have made it a den for robbers.  And he said unto those that sold the doves, Take this hence, and make not my Father’s house a house of merchandise.  And he suffered not any one to carry vessels inside the temple.  And his disciples remembered the scripture, The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up.  The Jews answered and said unto him, What sign hast thou shewn us, that thou doest this?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and I shall raise it in three days.  The Jews said unto him, This temple was built in forty-six years, and wilt thou raise it in three days?   But he spake unto them of the temple of his body, that when they destroyed it, he Arabic, p. 122 would raise it in three days.  When therefore he rose from among the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this; and they believed the scriptures, and the word that Jesus spake.

 And when Jesus sat down over against the treasury, he observed how the multitudes were casting their offerings into the treasury:  and many rich men were 13, throwing in much.  And there came a poor widow, and cast in two mites.  And Jesus called his disciples, and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, This poor widow cast into the treasury more than all the people:  and all of these cast into the place of the offering of God of the superfluity of their wealth; while this woman of her want threw in all that she possessed.

 And he spake unto them this parable, concerning people who trusted in themselves that they are righteous, and despised every man:  Two men went up to the temple to pray; one of them a Pharisee, and the other a publican.  And the Pharisee stood apart, and prayed thus, O Lord, I thank thee, since I am not like the rest of men, the unjust, the profligate, the extortioners, or even like this publican;  but I fast two days a week, and tithe all my possessions.  And the publican was standing at a distance, and he would not even lift up his eyes to heaven, but was beating upon his breast, and saying, O Lord, have mercy on me, me the sinner.  I say unto you, that this man went down justified to his house more than the Pharisee.  Every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and every one that abaseth himself shall be exalted.

Arabic, p. 123 And when eventide was come, he left all the people, and went outside the city to Bethany, he and his twelve, and he remained there.  And all the people, because they knew the place, came to him, and he received them; and them that had need of healing he healed.  And on the morning of the next day, when he returned to the city from Bethany, he hungered.  And he saw a fig tree at a distance on the beaten highway, having on it leaves.  And he came unto it, expecting to find something on it; and when he came, he found nothing on it but the leaves—it was not the season of figs—and he said unto it, Henceforward for ever let no man eat fruit of thee. And his disciples heard.

 And they came to Jerusalem.  And there was there a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, ruler of the Jews.  This man came unto Jesus by night, and said unto him, My Master, we know that thou hast been sent from God as a teacher; and no man can do these signs that thou doest, except him whom God is with.  Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, If a man be not born a second time, he cannot see the kingdom of God.  Nicodemus said unto him, How can a man who is old be born? can he, think you, return again to his mother’s womb a second time, to enter and be born?  Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, If a man be not born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.  For he that is born of flesh is flesh; and he that is born of Spirit is spirit.  Wonder not that I said unto thee that ye must be born a Arabic, p. 124 second time.  The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest its voice, but thou knowest not from what place it cometh, nor whither it goeth:  so is every man that is born of the Spirit.  Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can that be?  Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou teaching Israel, and yet knowest not these things?  Verily, verily, I say unto thee, What we know we say, and what we have seen we witness:  and ye receive not our witness.  If I said unto you what is on earth, and ye believed not, how then, if I say unto you what is in heaven, will ye believe?  And no man hath ascended up into heaven, except him that descended from heaven, the Son of man, which is in heaven.   And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so is the Son of man to be lifted up; so that every man who may believe in him may not perish, but have eternal life.  God so loved the world, that he should give his only Son; and so every one that believeth on him should not perish, but should have eternal life.   God sent not his Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world might be saved by his hand.  He that believeth in him shall not be judged:  but he that believeth not is condemned beforehand, because he hath not believed in the name of the only Son, the Son of God.  This is the judgement, that the light came into the world, and men loved the darkness more than the light; because their deeds were evil.  Whosoever doeth evil deeds hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, lest his deeds be reproved.  But he that doeth the truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be known, that they have been done in God.

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Arabic, p. 125 And when evening came, Jesus went forth outside of the city, he and his disciples.  And as they passed in the morning, the disciples saw that fig tree withered away from its root.  And they passed by, and said, How did the fig tree dry up immediately?  And Simon remembered, and said unto him, My Master, behold, that fig tree which thou didst curse hath dried up.  And Jesus answered and said unto them, Let there be in you the faith of God.  Verily I say unto you, if ye believe, and doubt not in your hearts, and assure yourselves that that will be which ye say, ye shall have what ye say.  And if ye say to this mountain, Remove, and fall into the sea, it shall be.  And all that ye ask God in prayer, and believe, he 9, will give you.  And the apostles said unto our Lord, Increase our faith.  He said unto them, If there be in you faith like a grain of mustard, ye shall say to this fig tree, Be thou torn up, and be thou planted in the sea; and it will obey you.   Who of you hath a servant driving a yoke of oxen or tending sheep, and if he come from the field, will say unto him straightway, Go and sit down?  Nay, he will say unto him, Make ready for me wherewith I may sup, and gird thy waist, and serve me, till I eat and drink; and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink also.   Doth that servant haply, who did what he was bid, receive his praise?  I think not.  So ye also, when ye have done all that ye were bid, say, We are idle servants; what it was our duty to do, we have done.

 For this reason I say unto you, Whatever ye pray and ask, believe that ye Arabic, p. 126 receive, and ye shall have.  And when ye stand to pray, forgive what is in your heart against any man; and your Father which is in heaven will forgive you also your wrong-doings.  But if ye forgive not men their wrong-doings, neither will your Father forgive you also your wrong-doings.

 And he spake unto them a parable also, that they should pray at all times, and not be slothful:  There was a judge in a city, who feared not God, nor was ashamed for men:  and there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, and said, Avenge me of mine adversary.  And he would not for a long time:  but afterwards he said within himself, If of God I have no fear, and before men I have no shame;  yet because this widow vexeth me, I will avenge her, that she come not at all times 23, 24 and annoy me.  And our Lord said, Hear ye what the judge of injustice said.  And shall not God still more do vengeance for his elect, who call upon him in the night and in the day, and grant them respite?  I say unto you, He will do vengeance for them speedily. Thinkest thou the Son of man will come and find faith on the earth?

26, 27 And they came again to Jerusalem.  And it came to pass, on one of the days, as Jesus was walking in the temple, and teaching the people, and preaching the  gospelthat the chief priests and the scribes with the elders came upon him, and said unto him, Tell us:  By what power doest thou this? and who gave thee this power to do that?  And Jesus said unto them, I also will ask you one word, and if ye tell me, I also shall tell you by what power I do that.  The baptism of John, from what place is it? from heaven or of men?  Tell me.  And they reflected within themselves, Arabic, p. 127 and said, If we shall say unto him, From heaven; he will say unto us, For what reason did ye not believe him?  But if we shall say, Of men; we fear that the people will stone us, all of them.  And all of them were holding  to John, that he was a true prophet.  They answered and said unto him, We know not.  Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you also by what power I work.  What think ye?  A man had two sons; and he went to the first, and said unto him, My son, go to-day, and till in the vineyard.  And he answered and said, I do not wish to:  but finally he repented, and went.  And he went to the other, and said unto him likewise.  And he answered and said, Yea, my lord:  and went not.  Which of these two did the will of his father?  They said unto him, The first.  Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, The publicans and harlots go before you into the kingdom of God.  John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not; but the publicans and harlots believed him; and ye, not even when ye saw, did ye repent at last, that ye might believe in him.

 Hear another parable:  A man was a householder, and planted a vineyard, and surrounded it with a hedge, and digged in it a winepress, and built in it a tower, 442 and gave it to husbandmen, and went to a distance for a long time.  So when the time of the fruits came, he sent his servants unto the husbandmen, that they might send him of the produce of his vineyard.  And those husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.  And he sent unto them another servant also; and they stoned him, and wounded him, and sent him away with shameful handling.  And he sent again another; and they slew him.  And he sent many other servants unto them.  And the husbandmen took his servants, and one they beat, and another they stoned, and another they slew.  So he sent again other servants more than the first; and Arabic, p. 128 they did likewise with them.  So the owner of the vineyard said, What shall I do?  I will send my beloved son:  it may be they will see him and be 49, 50 ashamed.  So at last he sent unto them his beloved son that he had.  But the husbandmen, when they saw the son, said amongst themselves, This is the heir.  552 And they said, We will slay him, and so the inheritance will be ours.  So they took him, and put him forth without the vineyard, and slew him.  When then the lord of the vineyard shall come, what will he do with those husbandmen?  They said unto him, He will destroy them in the worst of ways, and give the vineyard to other husbandmen, who will give him fruit in its season.  Jesus said unto them, Have ye never read in the scripture,

The stone which the builders declared to be base,

The same came to be at the head of the corner:

 From God was this,

And it is wonderful in our eyes?

 Therefore I say unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a people that will produce fruit.  And whosoever falleth on this stone shall be broken in pieces:  but on whomsoever it falleth, it will grind him to powder.  And when the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that it was concerning them he spake.  And they sought to seize him; and they feared the multitude, because they were holding to him as the prophet.

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 Then went the Pharisees and considered how they might ensnare him in a word, and deliver him into the power of the judge, and into the power of the ruler.  And they sent unto him their disciples, with the kinsfolk of Herod; and they said unto him, Arabic, p. 129 Teacher, we know that thou speakest the truth, and teachest the way of God with equity, and art not lifted upby any man:  for thou actest not so as to be seen of any man.  Tell us now, What is thy opinion?  Is it lawful that we should pay the tribute to Cæsar, or not? shall we give, or shall we not give?  But Jesus knew their deceit, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites?  Shew me the penny of the tribute.  So they brought unto him a penny.  Jesus said unto them, To whom belongeth this image and inscription?  They said unto him, To Cæsar.  7, 8 He said unto them, Give what is Cæsar’s to Cæsar, and what is God’s to God.  And they could not make him slip in a single word before the people; and they marvelled at his word, and refrained.

 And on that day came the Sadducees, and said unto him, There is no life for the dead.  And they asked him, and said unto him, Teacher, Moses said unto us, If a man die, not having children, let his brother take his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.  Now there were with us seven brethren:  and the first took a wife, and died without children; and the second took his wife, and died without children;  and the third also took her; and in like manner the seven of them also, and they 14, died without leaving children.  And last of them all the woman died also.  At the resurrection, then, which of these seven shall have this woman? for all of them took her.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Is it not for this that ye have erred, because ye know not the scriptures, nor the power of God?  And the sons of this world take wives, and the women become the men’s; but those that have become worthy of that world, and the resurrection from among the dead, do not take Arabic, p. 130 wives, and the women also do not become the men’s.  Nor is it possible that they should die; but they are like the angels, and are the children of God, because they have become the children of the resurrection.  For in the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read in the book of Moses, how from the bush God said unto him, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?   And God is not the God of the dead, but of the living:  for all of them are alive with him.  And ye have erred greatly.

22, 23 And when the multitudes heard, they were wondering at his teaching.  And some of the scribes answered and said unto him, Teacher, thou hast well said.  But the rest of the Pharisees, when they saw his silencing the Sadducees on this point, gathered against him to contend with him.

 And one of the scribes, of those that knew the law, when he saw the excellence of his answer to them, desired to try him, and said unto him, What shall I do to inherit eternal life? and, Which of the commandments is greater, and has precedence in the law?  Jesus said unto him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God, the Lord is one:  and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy thought, and with all thy 29, 30 strength.  This is the great and preëminentcommandment.  And the second, which is like it, is, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  And another commandment greater than these two there is not.  On these two commandments, then, are hung the Arabic, p. 131 law and the prophets.  That scribe said unto him, Excellent! my Master; thou hast said truly that he is one, and there is no other outside of him:   and that a man should love him with all his heart, and with all his thought, and with all his soul, and with all his strength, and that he should love his neighbour as himself, is better than all savours and sacrifices.  And Jesus saw him that he had answered wisely; and he answered and said unto him, Thou art not far from the 35, 36 kingdom of God.  Thou hast spoken rightly:  do this, and thou shalt live.  And he, as his desire was to justify himself, said unto him, And who is my neighbour?   Jesus said unto him, A man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and the robbers fell upon him, and stripped him, and beat him, his life remaining in him but little,  and went away.  And it happened that there came down a certain priest that way; and he saw him, and passed by.  And likewise a Levite also came and reached that place, and saw him, and passed by.  And a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to the place where he was, and saw him, and had compassion on him, and came near, and bound up his strokes, and poured on them wine and oil; and he sethim on the ass, and brought him to the inn, and expended his care upon him.   And on the morrow of that day he took out two pence, and gave them to the innkeeper, and said unto him, Care for him; and if thou spendest upon him more, when I return, I shall give thee.  Who of these three now, thinkest thou, is nearest to him that fell among the robbers?  And he said unto him, He that had compassion Arabic, p. 132 on him.  Jesus said unto him, Go, and do thou also likewise.  And no man dared afterwards to ask him anything.

 And he was teaching every day in the temple.  But the chief priests and scribes and the elders of the people sought to destroy him:  and they could not find what they should do with him; and all the people were hanging upon him to hear him.   And many of the multitude believed on him, and said, The Messiah, when he cometh, can it be that he will do more than these signs that this man doeth?  And the Pharisees heard the multitudes say that of him; and the chief priests sent officers to seize him.  And Jesus said unto them, I am with you but a short time yet, and I go to him that sent me.  And ye shall seek me, and shall not find me:  and where I shall be, ye shall not be able to come.  The Jews said within themselves, Whither hath this man determined to go that we shall not be able to find him? can it be that he is determined to go to the regions of the nations, and teach the heathen?  What is this word that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me:  and where I am, ye cannot come?

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 And on the great day, which is the last of the feast, Jesus stood, crying out and saying, If any man is thirsty, let him come unto me, and drink.  Every one that believeth in me, as the scriptures said, there shall flow from his belly rivers of pure water.  He said that referring to the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive:  for the Spirit was not yet granted; and because Jesus had not yet been Arabic, p. 133 glorified.  And many of the multitude that heard his words said, This is in truth the prophet.  And others said, This is the Messiah.  But others said, Can it be that the Messiah will come from Galilee?  Hath not the scripture said that from the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village of David, the Messiah cometh?  And there occurred a dissension in the multitude because of him.   And some of them were wishing to seize him; but no man laid a hand upon him.

 And those officers came to the chief priests and Pharisees:  and the priests said unto them, Why did ye not bring him?  The officers said, Never spake man thus as speaketh this man.  The Pharisees said unto them, Perhaps ye also have gone 12, astray?  Hath any of the rulers or the Pharisees haply believed in him? except this people which knows not the law; they are accursed.  Nicodemus, one of them, he that had come to Jesus by night, said unto them, Doth our law haply condemn a man, except it hear him first and know what he hath done?  They answered and said unto him, Art thou also haply from Galilee?  Search, and see that a prophet riseth not from Galilee.

17, 18 And when the Pharisees assembled, Jesus asked them, and said, What say ye of the Messiah? whose son is he?  They said unto him, The son of David.  He said unto them, And how doth David in the Holy Spirit call him Lord? for he said,

 The Lord said unto my Lord,

Sit on my right hand,

That I may put thine enemies under thy feet.

222 If then David calleth him Lord, how is he his son?  And no one was able to answer him; and no man dared from that day again to ask him of anything.

 And Jesus addressed them again, and said, I am the light of the world; and he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall find the light of life.  The Pharisees Arabic, p. 134 said unto him, Thou bearest witness to thyself; thy witness is not true.  Jesus answered and said unto them, If I bear witness to myself, my witness is true; for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye know not whence I came, or 26, 27 whither I go.  And ye judge after the flesh; and I judge no man.  And even if I judge, my judgement is true; because I am not alone, but I and my Father which 28, 29 sent me.  And in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is true.  I am he that beareth witness to myself, and my Father which sent me beareth witness to me.  They said unto him, Where is thy Father?  Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye know not me, nor my Father:  for did ye know me, ye would know my Father.  He said these sayings in the treasury, where he was teaching in the temple:  and no man seized him; because his hour had not yet come.  Jesus said unto them again, I go truly, and ye shall seek me and not find me, and ye shall die in your sins:  and where I go, ye cannot come.  The Jews said, Will he haply kill himself, that he saith, Where I go, ye cannot come?  He said unto them, Ye are from below; and I am from above:  ye are of this world; and I am not of this world.  I said unto you, that ye shall die in your sins:  if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.  The Jews said, And thou, who art thou?  Jesus said unto them, If I should begin to speak unto you, I have concerning you many words and judgement:  but he that sent me is true; and I, what I heard from him is what 38, 39 I say in the world.  And they knew not that he meant by that the Father.  Jesus Arabic, p. 135 said unto them again, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then ye shall know that I am he:  and I do nothing of myself, but as my Father taught me, so I speak.  And he that sent me is with me; and my Father hath not left me alone; because I do what is pleasing to him at all times.  And while he was saying that, many believed in him.

 And Jesus said to those Jews that believed in him, If ye abide in my words, truly ye are my disciples; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.   They said unto him, We are the seed of Abraham, and have never served any man in the way of slavery:  how then sayest thou, Ye shall be free children?  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Every one that doeth a sin is a slave of sin.  And the slave doth not remain for ever in the house; but the son remaineth 47, 48 for ever.  And if the Son set you free, truly ye shall be free children.  I know that ye are the seed of Abraham; but ye seek to slay me, because ye are unable for my word.  And what I saw with my Father, I say:  and what ye saw with your father, ye do.  They answered and said unto him, Our father is Abraham.  Jesus said unto them, If ye were the children of Abraham, ye would do the deeds of Abraham.   Now, behold, ye seek to kill me, a man that speak with you the truth, that I heard from God:  this did Abraham not do.  And ye do the deeds of your father.  They said unto him, We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, who is God.  Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me:  I proceeded and came from God; and it was not of my own self that I came, but he sent Arabic, p. 136 me.  Why then do ye not know my word?  Because ye cannot hear my word.   Ye are from the father, the devil, and the lust of your father do ye desire to do, who from the beginning is a slayer of men, and in the truth standeth not, because the truth is not in him.  And when he speaketh untruth, he speaketh from himself:  for he is a liar, and the father of untruth.  And I who speak the truth, ye believe me not.  Who of you rebuketh me for a sin?  And if I speak the truth, ye do not believe me.  Whosoever is of God heareth the words of God:  therefore do ye not hear, because ye are not of God.  The Jews answered and said unto him, Did we not say well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast demons?  Jesus said unto them, As for me, I have not a devil; but my Father do I honour, and ye dishonour me.  I seek not my glory:  here is one who seeketh and judgeth.

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 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever keepeth my word shall not see death for ever.  The Jews said unto him, Now we know that thou hast demons.  Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, Whosoever keepeth my word shall not taste death for ever.  Art thou haply greater than our father Abraham, who is dead, and than the prophets, which are dead? whom makest thou thyself?  Jesus said unto them, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing:  my Father is he that glorifieth me; of whom ye say, that he is our God; and yet ye have not known him:  but I know him; and if I should say that I know him not, I should become Arabic, p. 137 a liar like you:  but I know him, and keep his word.  Abraham your father longed to see my day; and he saw, and rejoiced.  The Jews said unto him, Thou art now not fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.  And they take stones to stone him:  but Jesus concealed himself, and went out of the temple.  And he passed through them, and went his way.

 And as he passed, he saw a man blind from his mother’s womb.  And his disciples asked him, and said, Our Master, who sinned, this man, or his parents, so that he was born blind?  Jesus said unto them, Neither did he sin, nor his parents:  but that the works of God may be seen in him.  It is incumbent on me to do the deeds of him that sent me, while it is day:  a night will come, and no man will be able to busy himself.  As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.   And when he said that, he spat upon the ground, and made clay of his spittle, and smeared it on the eyes of the blind man, and said unto him, Go and wash thyself in the pool of Siloam.  And he went and washed, and came seeing.  And his neighbours, which saw him of old begging, said, Is not this he that was sitting begging?   And some said, It is he; and others said, Nay, but he resembles him much.  He 19, 20 said, I am he.  They said unto him, How then were thine eyes opened?  He answered and said unto them, A man named Jesus made clay, and smeared it on my eyes, and said unto me, Go and wash in the water of Siloam:  and I went and washed, and received sight.  They said unto him, Where is he?  He said, I know not.  22, 23 Arabic, p. 138 And they brought him that was previously blind to the Pharisees.  And the day in which Jesus made clay and opened with it his eyes was a sabbath day.  And again the Pharisees asked him, How didst thou receive sight?  And he said unto them, He put clay on mine eyes, and I washed, and received sight.  The people of the Pharisees said, This man is not from God, for he keepeth not the sabbath.  And others said, How can a man that is a sinner do these signs?  And there came to be a division amongst them.  And again they said to that blind man, Thou, then, what sayest thou of him that opened for thee thine eyes?  He said unto them, I say that he is a prophet.  And the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he was blind, and received sight, until they summoned the parents of him who received sight, and asked them, Is this your son, of whom ye said that he was born blind? how then, behold, doth he now see?  His parents answered and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind:  but how he has come to see now, or who it is that opened his eyes, we know not:  and he also has reached his prime; ask him, and he will speak for himself.  This said his parents, because they were fearing the Jews:  and the Jews decided, that if any man should confess of him that he was the Messiah, they would put him out of the synagogue.  For this reason said his parents, He hath reached his prime; ask him.  And they called the man a second time, him that was blind, and said unto him, Praise God:  we know that this man is a sinner.  He answered and said unto them, Whether he be a sinner, I know not:  I know one thing, that I was blind, and I now see.  They said unto him again, Arabic, p. 139 What did he unto thee? how opened he for thee thine eyes?  He said unto them, I said unto you, and ye did not hear:  what wish ye further to hear? ye also, do ye wish to become disciples to him?  And they reviled him, and said unto him, Thou art the disciple of that man; but as for us, we are the disciples of Moses.  And we know that God spake unto Moses:  but this man, we know not whence he is.  The man answered and said unto them, From this is the wonder, because ye know not whence he is, and mine eyes hath he opened.  And we know that God heareth not the voice of sinners:  but whosoever feareth him, and doeth his will, him he heareth.  From eternity hath it not been heard of, that a man opened the eyes of a blind man, who had been born in blindness.  If then this man  were not from God, he could not do that.  They answered and said unto him, Thou wast all of thee born in sins, and dost thou teach us?  And they put him forth without.

 And Jesus heard of his being put forth without, and found him, and said unto him, Dost thou believe in the Son of God?  He that was made whole answered and said, Who is he, my Lord, that I may believe in him?  Jesus said unto him, Thou hast seen him, and he that speaketh to thee is he.  And he said, I believe, my Lord.  And he fell down worshipping him.

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 And Jesus said, To judge the world am I come, so that they that see not may see, and they that see may become blind.  And some of the Pharisees which were with him heard that, and they said unto him, Can it be that we are blind?  Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should not have sin:  but now ye say, We see:  and because of this your sin remaineth.

Arabic, p. 140 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever entereth not into the fold of the sheep by the door, but goeth up from another place, that man is a thief and a 5, 6 stealer.  But he that entereth by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.  And therefore the keeper of the door openeth for him the door; and the sheep hear his voice:  and he calleth his sheep by their names, and they go forth unto him.  And when he putteth forth his sheep, he goeth before them, and his sheep follow him:  because they know his voice.  And after a stranger will the sheep not go, but they flee from him:  because they hear not the voice of a stranger.  This parable spake Jesus unto them:  but they knew not what he was saying unto them.

 Jesus said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep.  And all that came are thieves and stealers:  but the sheep heard them not.   I am the door:  and if a man enter by me, he shall live, and shall go in and go out, and shall find pasture.  And the stealer cometh not, save that he may steal, and kill, and destroy:  but I came that they might have life, and that they might have the thing that is better.  I am the good shepherd; and the good shepherd giveth himself for his sheep.  But the hireling, who is not a shepherd, and whose the sheep are not, when he seeth the wolf as it cometh, leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf cometh, and snatcheth away the sheep, and scattereththem:  and the hireling fleeth because he is an hireling, and hath no care for the sheep.  I am the good shepherd; and I know what is mine, and what is mine knoweth me, as my Father knoweth me, and I know my Father; and I give myself for the sheep.   And I have other sheep also, that are not of this flock:  them also I must invite, and they shall hear my voice; and all the sheep shall be one, and the shepherd one.  Arabic, p. 141 And therefore doth my Father love me, because I give my life, that I may take it again.  No man taketh it from me, but I leave it of my own choice.  And I have the right to leave it, and have the right also to take it.  And this commandment did I receive of my Father.

 And there occurred a disagreement among the Jews because of these sayings.   And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is afflicted with madness; why listen ye to him?  And others said, These sayings are not those of men possessed with demons.  Can a demon haply open the eyes of a blind man?

25, 26 And the feast of the dedication came on at Jerusalem:  and it was winter.  And Jesus was walking in the temple in the porch of Solomon.  The Jews therefore surrounded him, and said unto him, Until when dost thou make our hearts anxious?   If thou art the Messiah, tell us plainly.  He answered and said unto them, I told you, and ye believe not:  and the deeds that I do in my Father’s name bear witness 29, 30 to me.  But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.   And my sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they come after me:  and I give them eternal life; and they shall not perish for ever, nor shall any man snatch them out of my hands.  For the Father, who hath given them unto me, is greater than all; and no man is able to take them from the hand of my Father.  I and 34, 35 my Father are one.  And the Jews took stones to stone him.  Jesus said unto them, Many good deeds from my Father have I shewed you; because of which of them, then, do ye stone me?  The Jews said unto him, Not for the good deeds do we stone thee, but because thou blasphemest; and, whilst thou art a man, makest thyself God.  Jesus said unto them, Is it not thus written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?  Arabic, p. 142 And if he called those gods—for to them came the word of God (and it is not possible in the scripture that anything should be undone)—he then, whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world, do ye say that he blasphemeth; because I said unto you, I am the Son of God?  If then I do not the deeds of my Father, ye believe me not.  But if I do, even if ye believe not me, believe the deeds:  that ye may know and believe that my Father is in me, and I in my Father.   And they sought again to take him:  and he went forth out of their hands.

 And he went beyond Jordan to the place where John was baptizing formerly; and abode there.  And many people came unto him; and they said, John did not work even one sign:  but all that John said of this man is truth.  And many believed in him.

 And there was a sick man, named Lazarus, of the village of Bethany, the brother of Mary and Martha.  And Mary was she that anointed with sweet ointment the feet of Jesus, and wiped them with her hair; and Lazarus, who was sick, was the brother of this woman.  And his sisters sent unto Jesus, and said unto him, Our Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.  But Jesus said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glorifying of God, that the Son of God may be glorified 50, 51 because of it.  And Jesus loved Martha, and Mary, and Lazarus.  And when he heard that he was sick, he abode in the place where he was two days.  And after that, he said unto his disciples, Come, let us go into Judæa.  His disciples said unto him, Our Arabic, p. 143 Master, now the Jews desire to stone thee; and goest thou again thither?  54, 55 Jesus said unto them, Is not the day of twelve hours?  If then a man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of the world.  But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no lamp in him.  This said Jesus:  and after that, he said unto them, Lazarus our friend hath fallen asleep; but I am going to awaken him.  His disciples said unto him, Our Lord, if he hath fallen asleep, he will recover.  But Jesus said that concerning his death:  while they supposed that he spake of lying down to sleep.  Then Jesus said unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.  And I am glad that I was not there for your sakes, that ye may believe; but let us go thither.  Thomas, who is called Thama, said to the disciples, his companions, Let us also go, and die with him.

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And Jesus came to Bethany, and found him already four days in the grave.  And Bethany was beside Jerusalem, and its distance from it was a sum of fifteen furlongs;  and many of the Jews came unto Mary and Martha, to comfort their heart because of their brother.  And Martha, when she heard that Jesus had come, went out to meet him:  but Mary was sitting in the house.  Martha then said unto Jesus, My Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.  But I know now that, whatever thou shalt ask of God, he will give thee.  Jesus said unto her, Thy brother shall rise.  Martha said unto him, I know that he shall rise in the resurrection at the last day.   Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life:  whosoever believeth in Arabic, p. 144 me, even though he die, he shall live:  and every living one that believeth in me shall never die.  Believest thou this?  She said unto him, Yea, my Lord:  I believe that thou art the Messiah, the Son of God, that cometh into the world.  And when she had said that, she went and called Mary her sister secretly, and said unto her, Our Master hath come, and summoneth thee.  And Mary, when she heard, rose in haste, and came unto him.  (And Jesus then had not come into the village, but was in the place where Martha met him.)  And the Jews also that were with her in the house, to comfort her, when they saw that Mary rose up and went out in haste, went after her, because they supposed that she was going to the tomb to weep.  And Mary, when she came to where Jesus was, and saw him, fell at his feet, and said unto him, If thou hadst been here, my Lord, my brother had not died.  And Jesus came; and when he saw her weeping, and the Jews that were with her weeping, he was troubled in himself, and sighed; and he said, In what place have ye laid him?  And they said unto him, Our Lord, come and see.  And the tears of Jesus came.  The Jews therefore said, See the greatness of his love for him!  But some of them said, Could not this man, who opened the eyes of that blind man, have caused that this man also should not die?  And Jesus came to the place of burial, being troubled within himself.  And the place of burial was a cave, and a stone was placed at its door.  Jesus therefore said, Take these stones away.  Martha, the sister of him that was dead, said unto him, My Lord, he hath come to stink for some time:  he hath been four days dead.  Jesus said unto her, Did not I say Arabic, p. 145 unto thee, If thou believest, thou shalt see the glory of God?  And they removed those stones.  And Jesus lifted his eyes on high, and said, My Father, I thank thee since thou didst hear me.  And I know that thou at all times hearest me:  but I say this unto thee because of this multitude that is standing, that they may believe that thou didst send me.  And when he had said that, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.  And that dead man came out, having his hands and feet bound with bandages, and his face wrapped in a scarf.  Jesus said unto them, Loose him, and let him go.

 And many of the Jews which came unto Mary, when they saw the deed of Jesus, believed in him.  But some of them went to the Pharisees, and informed them of all that Jesus did.

 And the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered, and said, What shall we do? for lo, this man doeth many signs.  And if we leave him thus, all men will believe in him:  and the Romans will come and take our country and people.  And one of them, who was called Caiaphas, the chief priest he was in that year, said unto them,  Ye know not anything, nor consider that it is more advantageous for us that one man should die instead of the people, and not that the whole people perish.  And this he said not of himself:  but because he was the chief priest of that year, he prophesied that Jesus was to die instead of the people; and not instead of the people alone, but that he might gather the scattered children of God together.   And from that day they considered how to kill him.

Arabic, p. 146 And Jesus did not walk openly amongst the Jews, but departed thence to a place near the wilderness, to a town called Ephraim; and he was there, going about with his disciples.  And the passover of the Jews was near:  and many went up from the villages unto Jerusalem before the feast, to purify themselves.  And they sought for Jesus, and said one to another in the temple, What think ye of his holding back from the feast?  And the chief priests and the Pharisees had given commandment, that, if any man knew in what place he was, he should reveal it to them, that they might take him.

 And when the days of his going up were accomplished, he prepared himself that he might go to Jerusalem.  And he sent messengers before him, and departed, and entered into a village of Samaria, that they might make ready for him.  And they received him not, because he was prepared for going to Jerusalem.  And when James and John his disciples saw it, they said unto him, Our Lord, wilt thou that we speak, and fire come down from heaven, to extirpate them, as did Elijah also?   And Jesus turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not of what spirit ye are.   Verily the Son of man did not come to destroy lives, but to give life.  And they went to another village.

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 And Jesus six days before the passover came to Bethany, where was Lazarus, whom Jesus raised from among the dead.  And they made a feast for him there:  and Martha was serving; while Lazarus was one of them that sat with him.  And at the time of Jesus’ being at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, great multitudes of the Jews heard that Jesus was there:  and they came, not because of Jesus alone, but Arabic, p. 147 that they might look also on Lazarus, whom he raised from among the dead.  5, 6 And the chief priests considered how they might kill Lazarus also; because many of the Jews were going on his account, and believing in Jesus.  And Mary took a case of the ointment of fine nard, of great price, and opened it, and poured it out on the head of Jesus as he was reclining; and she anointed his feet, and wiped them with her hair:  and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.  9, 10 But Judas Iscariot, one of the disciples, he that was to betray him, said, Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given unto the poor?  This he said, not because of his care for the poor, but because he was a thief, and the chest was with him, and what was put into it he used to bear.  And that displeased the rest of the disciples also within themselves, and they said, Why went this ointment to waste?  It was possible that it should be sold for much, and the poor be given it.  And they were angry with Mary.  And Jesus perceived it, and said unto them, Leave her; why molest ye her? a good work hath she accomplished on me:  for the day of my burial kept she it.  At all times the poor are with you, and when ye wish ye can do them a kindness:  but I am not at all times with you.  And for this cause, when she poured this ointment on my body, it is as if she did it for my burial, and anointed my body beforehand.  And verily I say unto you, In every place where this my gospel shall be proclaimed in all the world, what she did shall be told for a memorial of her.

18, Arabic, p. 148 And when Jesus said that, he went out leisurely to go to Jerusalem.  And when he arrived at Bethphage and at Bethany, beside the mount which is called the mount of Olives, Jesus sent two of his disciples, and he said unto them, Go into this village that is opposite you:  and when ye enter it, ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with him, which no man ever yet mounted:  loose him, and bring them unto me.  And if any man say unto you, Why loose ye them? say unto him thus, We seek them for our Lord; and straightway send them hither.  All this was, that what was said in the prophet might be fulfilled, which said,

 Say ye unto the daughter of Zion,

Behold, thy King cometh unto thee,

Meek, and riding upon an ass,

And upon a colt the foal of an ass.

 And the disciples did not know this at that time:  but after that Jesus was glorified, his disciples remembered that these things were written of him, and that this they had done unto him.  And when the two disciples went, they found as he had said unto them, and they did as Jesus charged them.  And when they loosed them, their owners said unto them, Why loose ye them?  They said unto them, We seek them for our Lord.  And they let them go.  And they brought the ass and the colt, and they placed on the colt their garments; and Jesus mounted it.  And most of the multitudes spread their garments on the ground before him:  and others cut branches from the trees, and threw them in the way.  And when he neared his descent from Arabic, p. 149 the mount of Olives, all the disciples began to rejoice and to praise God with a loud voice for all the powers which they had seen; and they said, Praise in the highest; Praise to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; and blessed is the kingdom that cometh, that of our father David:  Peace in heaven, and praise in the highest.

 And a great multitude, that which came to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took young palm branches, and went forth to meet him, and cried and said, Praise:  Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel.  Certain therefore of the Pharisees from among the multitudes said unto him, Our Master, rebuke thy disciples.  He said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If these were silent, the stones would cry out.

38, 39 And when he drew near, and saw the city, he wept over it, and said, Would that thou hadst known the things that are for thy peace, in this thy day! now that is hidden from thine eyes.  There shall come unto thee days when thine enemies shall encompass thee, and straiten thee from every quarter, and shall get possession of thee, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee a stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.

 And when he entered into Jerusalem, the whole city was agitated, and they said, Who is this?  And the multitudes said, This is Jesus, the prophet that is from Nazareth of Galilee.  And the multitude which was with him bare witness that he called Lazarus from the grave, and raised him from among the dead.  And for this cause great multitudes went out to meet him, because they heard the sign which he did.

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Arabic, p. 150 And when Jesus entered the temple, they brought unto him blind and lame:  and he healed them.  But when the chief priests and the Pharisees saw the wonders that he did, and the children that were crying in the temple and saying, Praise be to the Son of David:  it distressed them, and they said, Hearest thou not what these say?  Jesus said unto them, Yea:  did ye not read long ago, From the mouths of children and infants thou hast chosen my praise?  And the Pharisees said one to another, Behold, do ye not see that nothing availeth us? for lo, the whole world hath followed him.

 And there were among them certain Gentiles also, which had come up to worship at the feast:  these therefore came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, and said unto him, My lord, we wish to see Jesus.  And Philip came and told Andrew:  and Andrew and Philip told Jesus.  And Jesus answered and said unto them, The hour is come nigh, in which the Son of man is to be glorified.   Verily, verily, I say unto you, A grain of wheat, if it fall not and die in the earth, remaineth alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit.  He that loveth his life destroyeth it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto the life eternal.   If a man serve me, he will follow me; and where I am, there shall my servant be also:  and whosoever serveth me, the Father will honour him.  Now is my soul troubled:  Arabic, p. 151 and what shall I say?  My Father, deliver me from this hour.  But for this cause came I unto this hour.  My Father, glorify thy name.  And a voice was heard from heaven, I have glorified it, and shall glorify it.  And the multitude that were standing heard, and said, This is thunder:  and others said, An angel speaketh to him.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Not because of me was this voice, but because of you.  Now is the judgement of this world; and the prince of this world shall now be cast forth.  And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, shall draw every man unto me.  This he said, that he might shew by what manner of death he should die.  The multitudes said unto him, We have heard out of the law that the Messiah abideth for ever:  how then sayest thou, that the Son of man is to be lifted up? who is this, the Son of man?  Jesus said unto them, Another little while is the light with you.  Walk so long as ye have light, lest the darkness overtake you; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.   So long as ye have light, believe the light, that ye may be the children of the light.

 And when certain of the Pharisees asked of Jesus, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered and said unto them, The kingdom of God cometh not with expectation:  neither shall they say, Lo, it is here! nor, Lo, it is there! for the kingdom of God is within you.

 And in the daytime he was teaching in the temple; and at night he used to go out, and pass the night in the mount called the mount of Olives.  And all the people came to him in the morning in the temple, to hear his word.

26, 27 Then spake Jesus unto the multitudes and his disciples, and said unto them, On Arabic, p. 152 the seat of Moses are seated the scribes and Pharisees:  everything that they say unto you now to keep, keep and do:  but according to their deeds do ye not; for they say, and do not.  And they bind heavy burdens, and lay them on the shoulders of the people; while they with one of their fingers will not come 30, 31 near them.  But all their deeds they do to make a shew before men.  And all the multitude were hearing that with pleasure.

 And in the course of his teaching he said unto them, Guard yourselves from the scribes, who desire to walk in robes, and love salutation in the marketplaces, and sitting in the highest places of the synagogues, and at feasts in the highest parts of the rooms:  and they broaden their amulets, and lengthen the cords of their cloaks,  and love that they should be called by men, My master, and devour widows’ houses, because of their prolonging their prayers; these then shall receive greater judgement.   But ye, be ye not called masters:  for your master is one; all ye are brethren.   Call not then to yourselves any one father on earth:  for your Father is one, who is in heaven.  And be not called directors:  for your director is one, even the Messiah.  39, 40 He that is great among you shall be unto you a minister.  Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and whosoever shall abase himself shall be exalted.

 Woe unto you, Pharisees! because ye love the highest places in the synagogues, and salutation in the marketplaces.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye devour widows’ houses, because of your prolonging your prayers:  for this reason then ye shall receive greater judgement.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye have shut the kingdom of God before men.

Arabic, p. 153 Woe unto you that know the law! for ye concealed the keys of knowledge:  ye enter not, and those that are entering ye suffer not to enter.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye compass land and sea to draw one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye make him a son of hell twice as muchas yourselves.

 Woe unto you, ye blind guides! because ye say, Whosoever sweareth by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gold that is in the temple, shall be condemned. Ye blind foolish ones:  which is greater, the gold, or the temple which sanctifieth the gold?  And, Whosoever sweareth by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the offering that is upon it, shall be condemned.   Ye blind foolish ones:  which is greater, the offering, or the altar which sanctifieth the offering?  Whosoever then sweareth by the altar, hath sworn by it, and by all that is upon it.  And whosoever sweareth by the temple, hath sworn by it, and by him that is dwelling in it.  And whosoever sweareth by heaven, hath sworn by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth upon it.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye tithe mint and rue and dill and cummin and all herbs, and ye leave the important matters of the law, judgement, and mercy, and faith, and the love of God:  this ought ye to do, and not to leave that undone.  Ye blind guides, which strain out a gnat, and swallow camels.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, while the inside of them is full of injustice and wrong.   Ye blind Pharisees, cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, then shall the outside of them be cleansed.

Arabic, p. 154 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye resemble whited sepulchres, which appear from the outside beautiful, but within full of the bones of the dead, and all uncleanness.  So ye also from without appear unto men like the righteous, but within ye are full of wrong and hypocrisy.

 One of the scribes answered and said unto him, Teacher, in this saying of thine thou art casting a slur on us.  He said, And to you also, ye scribes, woe! for ye lade men with heavy burdens, and ye with one of your fingers come not near those burdens.

 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye build the tombs of the prophets, which your fathers killed, and adorn the burying-places of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.  Wherefore, behold, ye witness against yourselves, that ye are the children of those that slew the prophets.  And ye also, ye fill up the measure of your fathers.  Ye serpents, ye children of vipers, where shall ye flee from the judgement of Gehenna?

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 Therefore, behold, I, the wisdom of God, am sending unto you prophets, and apostles, and wise men, and scribes:  and some of them ye shall slay and crucify; and some of them ye shall beat in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city:  that there may come on you all the blood of the righteous that hath been poured upon the ground from the blood of Abel the pure to the blood of Zachariah the son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.   Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

Arabic, p. 155 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, slayer of the prophets, and stoner of them that are sent unto her! how many times did I wish to gather thy children, as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!  Your house shall be left over you desolate.  Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

 And many of the rulers also believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they were not confessing him, lest they be put out of the synagogue:  and they loved the praise of men more than the praising of God.  And Jesus cried and said, Whosoever believeth in me, believeth not in me, but in him that sent me.  And whosoever seeth me hath seen him that sent me.  I am come a light into the world, and so every one that believeth in me abideth not in the darkness.  And whosoever heareth my sayings, and keepeth them not, I judge him not:  for I came not to judge the world, but to give the world life. Whosoever wrongeth me, and receiveth not my sayings, there is one that judgeth him:  the word that I spake, it shall judge him at the last day.  I from myself did not speak:  but the Father which sent me, he hath given me commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak; and I know that his commandment is eternal life.  The things that I say now, as my Father hath said unto me, even so I say.

 And when he said that unto them, the scribes and Pharisees began their evil-doing, being angry with him, and finding fault with his sayings, and harassing him in many things; seeking to catch something from his mouth, that they might be able to calumniate him.

 And when there gathered together myriads of great multitudes, which almost trode Arabic, p. 156 one upon another, Jesus began to say unto his disciples, Preserve yourselves from the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.  For there is nothing concealed, that shall not be revealed:  nor hid, that shall not be known.  Everything that ye have said in the darkness shall be heard in the light; and what ye have spoken secretly in the ears in the inner chambers shall be proclaimed on the roofs.

222 This said Jesus, and he went and hid himself from them.  But notwithstanding his having done all these signs before them, they believed not in him:  that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, who said,

My Lord, who is he that hath believed to hear us?

And the arm of the Lord, to whom hath it appeared?

 And for this reason it is not possible for them to believe, because Isaiah also said,

 They have blinded their eyes, and made dark their heart;

That they may not see with their eyes, and understand with their heart,

And turn,

So that I should heal them.

 This said Isaiah when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

 And when Jesus went out of the temple, certain of his disciples came forward to shew him the buildings of the temple, and its beauty and greatness, and the strength of the stones that were laid in it, and the elegance of its building, and that it was adorned with noble stones and beautiful colours.  Jesus answered and said unto them, See ye these great buildings? verily I say unto you, Days will come, when there shall not be left here a stone upon another, that shall not be cast down.

 And two days before the passover of unleavened bread, the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by deceit, and kill him:  and they said, It shall not be at the feast, lest the people be agitated.

 And when Jesus sat on the mount of Olives opposite the temple, his disciples, Simon Cephas and James and John and Andrew, came forward unto him, and said unto him between themselves and him, Teacher, tell us when that shall be, and what is the sign Arabic, p. 157 of thy coming and the end of the world.  Jesus answered and said unto them, Days will come, when ye shall long to see one of the days of the Son of 36, 37 man, and shall not behold.  Take heed lest any man lead you astray.  Many shall come in my name, and say, I am the Messiah; and they shall say, The time is come near, and shall lead many astray:  go not therefore after them.  And when ye hear of wars and tidings of insurrections, see to it, be not agitated:  for these things must first be; only the end is not yet come.  Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:  and great earthquakes shall be in one place and another, and there shall be famines and deaths and agitations:  and there shall be fear and terror and great signs that shall appear from heaven, and there shall be great 42, 43 storms   All these things are the beginning of travail.  But before all of that, they shall lay hands upon you, and persecute you, and deliver you unto the synagogues and into prisons, and bring you before kings and judges for my name’s sake.  And that shall be unto you for a witness.  But first must my gospel be preached unto all nations.  And when they bring you into the synagogues before the rulers and the authorities, be not anxious beforehand how ye shall answer for yourselves, or what ye 47, 48 shall say:  because it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit.  Lay it to your heart, not Arabic, p. 158 to be anxious before the time what ye shall say:  and I shall give you understanding and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay.   And then shall they deliver you unto constraint, and shall kill you:  and ye shall be hated of all nations because of my name.  And then shall many go astray, and they shall hate one another, and deliver one another unto death.  And your parents, and your brethren, and your kinsfolk, and your friends shall deliver you up, and shall 53, 54 slay some of you.  But a lock of hair from your heads shall not perish.  And by your patience ye shall gain your souls.  And many men, false prophets, shall arise, and lead many astray.  And because of the abounding of iniquity, the love of many shall wax cold.  But he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved.  And this, the gospel of the kingdom, shall be preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations; and then shall come the end of all.

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 But when ye see Jerusalem with the army compassing it about, then know that its desolation is come near.  Those then that are in Judæa at that time shall flee to the mountain; and those that are within her shall flee; and those that are in the villages shall not enter her.  For these days are the days of vengeance, that all that is written may be fulfilled.  And when ye see the unclean sign of desolation, spoken of in Daniel the prophet, standing in the pure place, he that readeth shall understand, 5, 6 and then he that is in Judæa shall flee in to the mountain:  and let him that is on the roof not go down, nor enter in to take anything from his house:  and let him that is in Arabic, p. 159 the field not turn behind him to take his garment.  Woe to them that are with child and to them that give suck in those days! there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath against this nation.  And they shall fall on the edge of the sword, and shall be taken captive to every land:  and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the nations, until the times of the nations be ended.

 Then if any man say unto you, The Messiah is here; or, Lo, he is there; believe him not:  there shall rise then false Messiahs and prophets of lying, and shall do signs and wonders, in order that they may lead astray even the elect also, if they be able.  But as for you, beware:  for I have acquainted you with everything beforehand.  If then they say unto you, Lo, he is in the desert; go not out, lest ye be taken:  and if they say unto you, Lo, he is in the chamber; believe not.  And as the lightning appeareth from the east, and is seen unto the west; so shall be the coming of the Son of man.  But first he must suffer much and be rejected by this generation.  Pray therefore that your flight be not in winter, nor on a sabbath:   there shall be then great tribulation, the like of which there hath not been from the beginning of the world till now, nor shall be.  And except the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh would have lived:  but because of the elect, whom he elected, he shortened those days.  And there shall be signs in the sun and the moon and the stars; and upon the earth affliction of the nations, and rubbing of hands for the confusion  Arabic, p. 160 of the noise of the sea, and an earthquake:  the souls of men shall go forth from fear of that which is to come upon the earth.  And in those days, straightway after the distress of those days, the sun shall become dark, and the moon shall not shew its light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven shall be convulsed:  and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven:  and at that time all the tribes of the earth shall wail, and look unto the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and much glory.  And he shall send his angels with the great trumpet, and they shall gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.  But when these things begin to be, be of good cheer, and lift up your heads; for your salvation is come near.

 Learn the example of the fig tree:  when it letteth down its branches, and putteth forth its leaves, ye know that the summer is come; so ye also, when ye see these things begun to be, know ye that the kingdom of God hath arrived at the door.  Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, until all these  things shall be.  Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my sayings shall not pass away.

 Take heed to yourselves, that your hearts become not heavy with inordinate desire, and drunkenness, and the care of the world at any time, and that day come upon you suddenly:  for it is as a shock that shocks all the inhabitants that are on the face of the whole earth.  Watch at all times, and pray, that ye may be worthy to escape Arabic, p. 161 from all the things that are to be, and that ye may stand before the Son of man.  Of that day and of that hour hath no man learned, not even the angels of heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.  See ye, and watch and pray:  for ye know not when that time will be.  It is as a man, who journeyed, and left his house, and gave his authority to his servants, and appointed every man to his work, and charged the porter to be wakeful.  Be wakeful then:  since ye know not when the lord of the house cometh, in the evening, or in the middle of the night, or when the cock croweth, or in the morning; lest he come unexpectedly, and find you sleeping.   The thing that I say unto you, unto all of you do I say it, Be ye watchful.

 For as it was in the days of Noah, so shall the coming of the Son of man be.   As they were before the flood eating and drinking, and taking wives, and giving wives to men, until the day in which Noah entered into the ark, and they perceived not till the flood came, and took them all; so shall the coming of the Son of man be.  And as it was in the days of Lot; they were eating and drinking, and selling and buying, and planting and building, on the day in which Lot went out from Sodom, and the Lord rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them 43, 44 all:  so shall it be in the day in which the Son of man is revealed.  And in that day, whosoever is on the roof, and his garments in the house, let him not go down to take them:  and he that is in the field shall not turn behind him.  Remember Lot’s wife.  Whosoever shall desire to save his life shall destroy it:  but whosoever shall destroy his life shall save it.  Verily I say unto you, In that night there shall be two on Arabic, p. 162 one bed; one shall be taken, and another left.  And two women shall be grinding at one mill; one shall be taken, and another left.  And two shall be in the field; one shall be taken, and another left.  They answered and said unto him, To what place, our Lord?  He said unto them, Where the body is, there will the eagles 552 gather.  Be attentive now:  for ye know not at what hour your Lord cometh.  Know this:  if the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have been attentive, and would not make it possible that his house should be broken through.  Therefore be ye also ready:  for in the hour that ye think not the Son of man cometh.

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 Simon Cephas said unto him, Our Lord, is it to us that thou hast spoken this parable, or also to every man?  Jesus said unto him, Who, thinkest thou, is the servant, the master of the house, trusted with control, whom his lord set over his household, to give them their food in its season?  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord shall come and find having done so.  Verily I say unto you, He will set him over all that he hath.  But if that evil servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat his servants and the maidservants of his lord, and shall begin to eat and to drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in the day that he thinketh not, and in the hour that he knoweth not, and shall Arabic, p. 163 judge him, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites, and with those that are not faithful:  there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be like unto ten virgins, those that took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom and the bride.  Five of them were wise, and five foolish.  And those foolish ones took their lamps, and took not with 12, them oil:  but those wise ones took oil in vessels along with their lamps.  When then the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept.  But in the middle of the night there occurred a cry, Behold, the bridegroom cometh!  Go forth therefore to 15, meet him.  Then all those virgins arose, and made ready their lamps.  The foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out.  But those wise answered and said, Perhaps there will not be enough for us and you:  but go ye to the sellers, and buy for yourselves.  And when they went away to buy, the bridegroom came; and those that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast:  and the door was shut.  And at last those other virgins also came and said, Our Lord, our Lord, open unto us.  He answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, I know you not.  Watch then, for ye know not that day nor that hour.

 It is as a man, who went on a journey, and called his servants, and delivered unto them his possessions.  And unto one he gave five talents, and another two, and another one; every one according to his strength; and went on his journey forthwith.  He Arabic, p. 164 then that received the five talents went and traded with them, and gained other five.  And so also he of the two gained other two.  But he that received the one went and digged in the earth, and hid the money of his lord.  And after a long time the lord of those servants came, and took from them the account.   And he that received five talents came near and brought other five, and said, My lord, thou gavest me five talents:  lo, I have gained other five in addition to them.   His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant:  over a little hast thou been faithful, over much will I set thee:  enter into the joy of thy lord.  And he that had the two came near and said, My lord, thou gavest me two talents:  lo, other two have I gained in addition to them.  His lord said unto him, Good, thou faithful servant:  over a little hast thou been faithful, over much will I set thee:  enter into the joy of thy lord.  And he also that received the one talent came forward and said, My lord, I knew thee that thou art a severe man, who reapest where thou sowest not, and gatherest where thou didst not scatter:  and so I was afraid, and went away and hid thy talent in the earth:  lo, thou hast what is thine.  His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest me that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I did not scatter; it was incumbent on thee to put my money to the bank, and then I should come and seek it with its gains.  Take now from him the talent, and give it to him that hath ten talents.   Whosoever hath shall be given, and he shall have more:  but he that hath not, even Arabic, p. 165 what he hath shall be taken from him.  And the unprofitable servant, put him forth into the outer darkness:  there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

39, 40 Your loins shall be girded, and your lamps lit; and ye shall be like the people that are looking for their lord, when he shall return from the feast; so that, when he cometh and knocketh, they may at once open unto him.  Blessed are those servants, whom their lord shall come and find attentive:  verily I say unto you, that he will gird his waist, and make them sit down, and pass through them and serve them.  And if he come in the second watch, or the third, and find thus, blessed are those servants.

 But when the Son of man cometh in his glory, and all his pure angels with him, then shall he sit on the throne of his glory:  and he will gather before him all the nations, and separate them the one from the other, like the shepherd who separateth the sheep from the goats; and will set the sheep on his right, and the goats on his left.  Then shall the King say to those that are at his right, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundations of the world:   I hungered, and ye gave me to eat; and I thirsted, and ye gave me to drink; and I was a stranger, and ye took me in; and I was naked, and ye clothed me; and I was sick, and ye visited me; and I was in prison, and ye cared for me.  Then shall those righteous say unto him, Our Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee to drink?  And when saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee?  And when saw we thee sick, or imprisoned, and cared for thee?  The King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, What Arabic, p. 166 ye did to one of these my brethren, the little ones, ye did unto me.  Then shall he say unto those that are on his left also, Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his hosts:  I hungered, and ye fed me not; and I thirsted, and ye did not give me to drink; and I was a stranger, and ye took me not in; and I was naked, and ye clothed me not; and I was sick, and imprisoned, and ye visited me not.  Then shall those also answer and say, Our Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or naked, or a stranger, or sick, or imprisoned, and did not minister unto thee?  Then shall he answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, When ye did it not unto one of these little ones, ye did itnot unto me also.  And these shall go away into eternal punishment:  but the righteous into eternal life.

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And when Jesus finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days will be the passover, and the Son of man is delivered up to be crucified.  Then gathered together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the court of the chief priest, who was called Caiaphas; and they took counsel together concerning Jesus, that they might seize him by subtilty, and kill him.  But they said, Not during the feast, lest there take place a disturbance among the people; for they feared the people.

 And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve.  And he went away, and communed with the chief priests, and the scribes, and those that held command in the temple, and said unto them, What Arabic, p. 167 would ye pay me, and I will deliver him unto you?  And they, when they heard it, were pleased, and made readyfor him thirty pieces of money.   And he promised them, and from that time he sought an opportunity that he might deliver unto them Jesus without the multitude.

 And on the first day of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, and said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and make ready for thee that thou mayest eat the passover?

 And before the feast of the passover, Jesus knew that the hour was arrived for his departure from this world unto his Father; and he loved his own in this world, and to the last he loved them.  And at the time of the feast, Satan put into the heart of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, to deliver him up.  And Jesus, because he knew that the Father had delivered into his hands everything, and that he came forth from the Father, and goeth unto God, rose from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded his waist, and poured water into a bason, and began to wash the feet of his disciples, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith his waist was girded.  And when he came to Simon Cephas, Simon said unto him, Dost thou, my Lord, wash for me my feet?  Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do, now thou knowest not; but afterwards thou shalt learn.  Simon said unto him, Thou shalt never wash for me my feet.  Jesus said unto him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me.  Simon Cephas said unto him, Then, my Lord, wash not for me my feet alone, but my hands also and my head.  Jesus said unto him, He that batheth needeth not to wash save his feet, whereas his whole  body is clean:  and ye also are clean, but not all of you.  For Jesus knew him that should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.

Arabic, p. 168 So when he had washed their feet, he took his garments, and sat down, and said unto them, Know ye what I have done unto you?  Ye call me, Master, and, Lord:  and ye say well; so I am.  If then I, now, who am your Lord and Master, have washed for you your feet, how needful is it that ye should wash one another’s feet!   This have I given you as an example, that as I have done to you so ye should do also.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, No servant is greater than his lord; nor an apostle greater than he that sent him.  If ye know that, ye are happy if ye do it.   My saying this is not for all of you:  for I know whom I have chosen:  but that the scripture might be fulfilled, He that eateth with me bread lifted against me his heel.  Henceforth I say unto you before it come to pass, that, when it cometh to pass, ye may believe that I am he.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and whosoever receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

 Who is the great one, he that sitteth, or he that serveth? is it not he that sitteth?   I am among you as he that serveth.  But ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations; I promise you, as my Father promised me, the kingdom, that ye may eat and drink at the table of my kingdom.

 And the first day came, the feast of unleavened bread, on which the Jews were wont to sacrifice the passover.  And Jesus sent two of his disciples, Cephas and John, and said unto them, Go and make ready for us the passover, that we may eat.  36, 37 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we make ready for thee?  He said unto them, Go, enter the city; and at the time of your entering, there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him, and the place where he entereth, say to such an one, the master of the house, Our Master saith, My time is come, and Arabic, p. 169 at thy house I keep the passover.  Where then is the lodging-place where I shall eat with my disciples?  And he will shew you a large upper room spread and made ready:  there then make ready for us.  And his two disciples went out, and came to the city, and found as he had said unto them:  and they made ready the passover as he had said unto them.

 And when the evening was come, and the time arrived, Jesus came and reclined, and the twelve apostles with him.  And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:  I say unto you, that henceforth I shall not eat it, until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

 Jesus said that, and was agitated in his spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, One of you, he that eateth with me, shall betray me.  And they were very sorrowful; and they began to say unto him, one after another of them, Can it be I, Lord?  He answered and said unto them, One of the twelve, he that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, will betray me.  And lo, the hand of him that betrayeth me is on the table.  And the Son of man goeth, as it is written of him:  woe then to that man by whose hand the Son of man is betrayed! for it would have been better for that man had he not been born.  And the disciples looked one on another, for they knew not to whom he referred; and they began to search among themselves, who that might be who was to do this.

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2 Arabic, p. 170 And one of his disciples was sitting in his bosom, he whom Jesus loved.  To him Simon Cephas beckoned, that he should ask him who this was, concerning whom he spake.  And that disciple leaned on Jesus’ breast, and said unto him, My Lord, who is this?  Jesus answered and said, He to whom I shall dip bread, and give it.  And Jesus dipped bread, and gave to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.   And after the bread, Satan entered him.  And Jesus said unto him, What thou desirest to do, hasten the doing of it.  And no man of them that sat knew why he said this unto him.  And some of them thought, because Judas had the box, that he was bidding him buy what would be needed for the feast; or, that he might pay something to the poor.  Judas the betrayer answered and said, Can it be I, my Master?  Jesus said unto him, Thou hast said.  And Judas took the bread straightway, and went forth without:  and it was still night.

 And Jesus said, Now is the Son of man being glorified, and God is being glorified  in him; and if God is glorified in him, God also will glorify him in him, and straightway will glorify him.

 And while they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and divided; and he gave to his disciples, and said unto them, Take and eat; this is my body.  And he Arabic, p. 171 took a cup, and gave thanks, and blessed, and gave them, and said, Take 14, and drink of it, all of you.  And they drank of it, all of them.  And he said unto them, This is my blood, the new covenant, that is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins.  I say unto you, I shall not drink henceforth of this, the juice of the vine, until the day in which I drink with you new wine in the kingdom of God.  And thus do ye in remembrance of me.  And Jesus said unto Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asketh that he may sift you like wheat:  but I entreat for thee, that thou lose not thy faith:  and do thou, at some time, turn and strengthen thy brethren.

 My children, another little while am I with you.  And ye shall seek me:  and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; I say unto you now also.  A new commandment I give you, that ye may love one another; and as I have loved you, so shall ye also love one another.  By this shall every man know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.  Simon Cephas said unto him, Our Lord, whither goest thou?  Jesus answered and said unto him, Whither I go, thou canst not now follow me; but later thou shalt come.

 Then said Jesus unto them, Ye all shall desert me this night:  it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered.  But after my rising, I shall go before you into Galilee.  Simon Cephas answered and said unto him, My Lord, if every man desert thee, I shall at no time desert thee.  I am with thee ready for imprisonment and for death.  And my life will I give up for thee.  Arabic, p. 172 Jesus said unto him, Wilt thou give up thy life for me?  Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Thou shalt to-day, during this night, before the cock crow twice, three times deny me, that thou knowest me not.  But Cephas said the more, Even if it lead to death with thee, I shall not deny thee, my Lord.  And in like manner said all the disciples also.

 Then Jesus said unto them, Let not your hearts be troubled:  believe in God, and believe in me.  The stations in my Father’s house are many, else I should have toldyou.  I go to prepare for you a place.  And if I go to prepare for you a place, I shall return again, and take you unto me:  and so where I am, there ye 32, 33 shall be also.  And the place that I go ye know, and the way ye know.  Thomas said unto him, Our Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how is the way for us to the knowledge of that?  Jesus said unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life:  and no man cometh unto my Father, but through me.  And if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father:  and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him.  Philip said unto him, Our Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us.  Jesus said unto him, Have I been all this time with you, and dost thou not know me, Philip? whosoever hath seen me hath seen the Father; how then sayest thou, Shew us the Father?  Believest thou not that I am in my Father, and my Father in me? and the saying that I say, I say not of myself:  but my Father who dwelleth in me, he doeth these deeds.  Believe that I am in my Father, and my Father in me:  Arabic, p. 173 or else believe for the sake of the deeds.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever believeth in me, the deeds that I do shall he do also; and more than that shall he do:  I go unto the Father.  And what ye shall ask in my name, I shall do unto you, that the Father may be glorified in his Son.  And if ye 43, 44 ask me in my name, I will do it.  If ye love me, keep my commandments.  And I will entreat of my Father, and he will send unto you another Paraclete, that he may be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth:  whom the world cannot receive; for it hath not seen him, nor known him:  but ye know him; for he hath dwelt  with you, and is in you.  I will not leave you orphans:  I will come unto you.   Another little while, and the world seeth me not; but ye see me that I live, and ye shall live also.  And in that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.

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 Whosoever hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me:  and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will shew myself unto him.  Judas (not Iscariot) said unto him, My Lord, what is the purpose of thy intention to shew thyself to us, and not to the world?  Jesus answered and said unto him, Whosoever loveth me will keep my word:  and my Father will love him, and to him will we come, and make our abode with him.   But he that loveth me not keepeth not my word:  and this word that ye hear is not my word, but the Father’s which sent me.

5, 6 This have I spoken unto you, while I was yet with you.  But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom my Father will send in my name, he will teach you everything, and Arabic, p. 174 he will bring to your remembrance all that I say unto you.  Peace I leave you; my peace I give unto you:  and not as this world giveth, give I unto you.   Let your heart not be troubled, nor fearful.  Ye heard that I said unto you, that I go away, and come unto you.  If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, that I go away to my Father:  for my Father is greater than I.  And now I say unto you before it come to pass, that, when it cometh to pass, ye may believe me.  Now I will not speak with you much:  the Archon of the world will come, and he will have nothing in me:  but that the world may know that I love my Father, and as my Father charged me, so I do.

 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purses, or wallets, and shoes,  lacked ye perchance anything?  They said unto him, Nothing.  He said unto them, Henceforth, whosoever hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise the wallet also:  and whosoever hath not a sword, shall sell his garment, and buy for himself a sword.  I say unto you, that this scripture also must be fulfilled in me, that I should be reckoned with the transgressors:  for all that is said of me is fulfilled in me.  His disciples said unto him, Our Lord, lo, here are two swords.  He said unto them, They are sufficient.  Arise, let us go hence.  And they arose, and praised, and went forth, and went, according to their custom, to the mount of Olives, he and his disciples.

 And he said unto them, I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.   Every branch that produceth not fruit in me, he taketh it:  and that which giveth fruit, he cleanseth it, that it may give much fruit.  Ye are already clean because of the word that I have spoken unto you.  Abide in me, and I in you.  And as the branch of the Arabic, p. 175 vine cannot produce fruit of itself, if it be not abiding in the vine; so too ye also, if ye abide not in me.  I am the vine, and ye are the branches:  He then that abideth in me, and I in him, he giveth much fruit:  for without me ye cannot do anything.  And if a man abide not in me, he is cast without, like a withered branch; and it is gathered, and cast into the fire, that it may be burned.  If ye abide in me, and my word abide in you, everything that ye desire to ask shall be  done unto you.  And herein is the Father glorified, that ye may give much fruit; and ye shall be my disciples.  And as my Father loved me, I loved you also:  abide in my love.  If ye keep my commands, ye shall abide in my love; as I have kept my Father’s commands, and abode in his love.  I have spoken that unto you, that my joy may be in you, and your joy be fulfilled.  This is my commandment, that ye love one another, as I loved you.  And no love is greater than this, namely, that a man should give his life for his friends.  Ye are my friends, if ye do all that I command you.  I call you not now servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth:  my friends have I now called you; for everything that I heard from my Father I have made known unto you.  Ye did not choose me, but I chose I you, and appointed you, that ye also should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should  abide; and that all that ye shall ask my Father in my name, he maygive you.  This I command you, that ye love one another.  And if the world hate you, know that before you it hated me.  If then ye were of the world, the world would love its own:  but ye are not of the world:  I chose you out of the world:  therefore the world Arabic, p. 176 hateth you.  Remember the word that I said unto you, that no servant is greater than his lord.  And if they persecuted me, you also will they persecute; and if they kept my word, your word also will they keep.  But all these things will they do unto you for my name’s sake, for they have not known him that sent me.  And if I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin:  but now they have no excuse for their sins.  Whosoever hateth me, also hateth my Father.  And if I had not done the deeds before them that no other man did, they would not have had sin:  but now they have seen and hated me and my Father also:  that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me for nothing.  But when the Paraclete is come, whom I will send unto you from my Father, even the Spirit of truth, which goeth forth from my Father, he shall bear witness of me:  and ye also bear witness, because from the beginning ye have been with me.

44, 45 I have said that unto you, that ye may not stumble.  And they shall put you out of their synagogues:  and there cometh an hour when every one that killeth you shall think that he hath offered unto God an offering.  And they will do that, because they do not know me, nor my Father.  I have said that unto you, so that when its time is come, ye may remember it, that I told you.  And this hitherto I said not unto you, because I was with you.  But now I go unto him that sent me; and no man of you asketh me whither I go.  I have said that unto you now, and grief hath come and taken possession of your hearts   But I say the truth unto you; It is better for you that I go away:  for if I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; Arabic, p. 177 but if I go away, I will send him unto you.  And when he cometh, he will reprove the world for sin, and for righteousness, and for judgement:  52, 53 for sin, because they have not believed in me; and for righteousness, because I go to my Father; and for judgement, because the Archon of this world hath been judged.  And further have I many things to speak unto you, but ye cannot tarry  now.  Howbeit when the Spirit of truth is come, he will remind you of all the truth:  he will say nothing from himself; but everything that he heareth, that shall he say:  and he shall make known unto you the things that are to be.  And he shall glorify me; for from me shall he take and shew you.  All that my Father hath is mine:  therefore said I unto you, that he taketh of mine, and shall shew you.

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 A little while, and ye shall not behold me; and a little while again, and ye shall behold me; because I go to the Father.  His disciples therefore said one to another, What is this that he hath said unto us, A little while, and ye shall not behold me; and a little while again, and ye shall behold me:  and, I go to my Father?  And they said, What is this little while that he hath said?  We know not what he speaketh.  And Jesus perceived that they were seeking to ask him, and said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said unto you, A little while, and ye behold me not, and a little while again, and ye shall behold me?  Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye shall weep and grieve, but the world shall rejoice:  and ye shall be sorrowful, but your grief shall turn to joy.

 For, a woman when the time is come for her that she should bring forth, the arrival of the day of her bringing forth distresseth her:  but whenever she hath brought forth a son, she remembereth not her distress, for joy at the birth of a man into the world.  And ye now also grieve:  but I shall see you, and your hearts shall rejoice, Arabic, p. 178 and your joy no man taketh from you.  And in that day ye shall ask me nothing.  And verily, verily, I say unto you, All that ye ask my Father in my name, he will give you.  Hitherto ye have asked nothing in my name:  ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be complete.

 I have spoken unto you now in ænigmas:  but there will come an hour when I shall not speak to you in ænigmas, but shall reveal unto you the Father plainly, in that day when ye shall ask in my name:  and I say not unto you, that I shall entreat the Father for you; for the Father loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from my Father.  I came forth from my Father, and came into the world:  and I leave the world, and go unto my Father.   His disciples said unto him, Lo, thy speech is now plain, and thou hast not said one thing in an ænigma.  Now, lo, we know that thou knowest everything, and needest not that any man should ask thee:  and by this we believe that thou camest forth 16, from God.  Jesus said unto them, Believe that an hour cometh, and lo, it hath come, and ye shall be scattered, every one of you to his place, and shall leave me alone:  and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.  This have I said unto you, that in me ye may have peace.  And in the world trouble shall overtake you:  but be of good courage; for I have overcome the world.

 This said Jesus, and lifted up his eyes unto heaven, and said, My Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee:  as thou gavest him authority over all flesh, that all that thou hast given him, he might give them eternal life.  And this is eternal life, that they should know that thou alone art true God, and that he  Arabic, p. 179 whom thou didst send is Jesus the Messiah.  I glorified thee in the earth, and the work which thou gavest me to do I have accomplished.  And now glorify thou me, O Father, beside thee, with that glory which I had with thee before the world was.  I made known thy name to the men whom thou gavest me out of the world:  thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept 25, 26 thy word.  Now they know that all that thou hast given me is from thee:  and the sayings which thou gavest me I have given unto them; and they received them, and knew of a truth that I came forth from thee, and believed that thou didst send me.   And I ask for their sake:  and my asking is not for the world, but for those whom thou hast given me; for they are thine:  and all that is mine is thine, and all that is thine is mine:  and I am glorified in them.  And now I am not in the world, and they are in the world, and I come to thee.  My holy Father, keep them in thy name which thou hast given unto me, that they may be one, as we are.  When I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name:  and I kept those whom thou gavest unto me:  and no man of them hath perished, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.  Now I come to thee:  and this I say in the world, that my joy may be complete in them.  I have given them thy word; and the world hated them, because they were not of the world, as I was not of the world.  And I ask not this, that thou take them from the world, but that thou keep them from the 34, 35 evil one.  They were not of the world, as I was not of the world.  O Father, sanctify them in thy truth:  for thy word is truth.  And as thou didst send me into the world, I Arabic, p. 180 also send them into the world.  And for their sake I sanctify myself, that they also may be sanctified in the truth.  Neither for these alone do I ask, but for the sake of them that believe in me through their word; that they may be all one; as thou art in me, and I in thee, and so they also shall be one in us:  that the world may believe that thou didst send me.  And the glory which thou hast given unto me I have given unto them; that they may be one, as we are one; I in them, and thou in me, that they may be perfect into one; and that the world may know that thou didst send me, and that I loved them, as thou lovedst me.  Father, and those whom thou hast given me, I wish that, where I am, they may be with me also; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me:  for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.  My righteous Father, and the world knew thee not, but I know thee; and they knew that thou didst send me; and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known to them; that the love wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I shall be in them.

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 This said Jesus, and went forth with his disciples to a place which was called Gethsemane, on the side that is in the plain of Kidron, the mountain, the place in which was a garden; and he entered thither, he and his disciples.  And Judas the betrayer knew that place:  for Jesus oft-times met with his disciples there.  And when Jesus came to the place, he said to his disciples, Sit ye here, so that I may go and pray; 4, 5 Arabic, p. 181 and pray ye, that ye enter not into temptations.  And he took with him Cephas and the sons of Zebedee together, James and John; and he began to look sorrowful, and to be anxious.  And he said unto them, My soul is distressed unto death:  abide ye here, and watch with me.  And he withdrew from them a little, the space of a stone’s throw; and he kneeled, and fell on his face, and prayed, so that, if it were possible, this hour might pass him.  And he said, Father, thou art able for all things; if thou wilt, let this cup pass me:  but let not my will be done, but let thy will be done.  And he came to his disciples, and found them sleeping; and he said unto Cephas, Simon, didst thou sleep?  Could ye thus not for one hour watch with me?  Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptations:  the spirit is willing and ready, but the body is weak.  And he went again a second time, and prayed, and said, My Father, if it is not possible with regard to this cup that it pass, except I drink it, thy will be done.  And he returned again, and found his disciples sleeping, for their eyes were heavy from their grief and anxiety; and they knew not what to say to him.  And he left them, and went away again, and prayed a third time, and said the very same word.  And there appeared unto him an angel from heaven, encouraging him.  And being afraid he prayed continuously:  and his sweat  Arabic, p. 182 became like a stream of blood, and fell on the ground.  Then he rose from his prayer, and came to his disciples, and found them sleeping.  And he said unto them, Sleep now, and rest:  the end hath arrived, and the hour hath come; and behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.  Arise, let us go:  for he hath come that betrayeth me.

 And while he was still speaking, came Judas the betrayer, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude carrying lanterns and torches and swords and staves, from the chief priests and scribes and elders of the people, and with him the footsoldiers of the Romans.  And Judas the betrayer gave them a sign, and said, He whom I shall kiss, he is he:  take him with care, and lead him away.

 And Jesus, because he knew everything that should come upon him, went forth unto them.  And immediately Judas the betrayer came to Jesus, and said, Peace, my Master; and kissed him.  And Jesus said unto him, Judas, with a kiss betrayest thou the Son of man?  Was it for that thou camest, my friend?  And Jesus said to those that came unto him, Whom seek ye?  They said unto him, Jesus the Nazarene.  Jesus said unto them, I am he.  And Judas the betrayer also was standing with them.  And when Jesus said unto them, I am he, they retreated backward, and fell to the ground.  And Jesus asked them again, Whom seek ye?  They answered, Jesus the Nazarene.  Jesus said unto them, I told you that I am he:  and if ye seek me, let these go away:  that the word might be fulfilled which he spake, Of those Arabic, p. 183 whom thou hast given me I lost not even one.  Then came those that were with Judas, and seized Jesus, and took him.

 And when his disciples saw what happened, they said, Our Lord, shall we smite them with swords?  And Simon Cephas had a sword, and he drew it, and struck the servant of the chief priest, and cut off his right ear.  And the name of that servant was Malchus.  Jesus said unto Cephas, The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?  Put the sword into its sheath:  for all that take with the sword shall die by the sword.  Thinkest thou that I am not able to ask of my Father, and he shall now raise up for me more thantwelve tribes of angels?  Then how should the scriptures which were spoken be fulfilled, that thus it must be?  Your leave in this.  And he touched the ear of him that was struck, and healed it.  And in that hour Jesus said to the multitudes, As they come out against a thief are ye come out against me with swords and staves to take me?  Daily was I with you in the temple sitting teaching, and ye took me not:  but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.  And that was, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.

 Then the disciples all left him, and fled.  And the footsoldiers and the officers and the soldiers of the Jews seized Jesus, and came.  And a certain young man followed him, and he was wrapped in a towel, naked:  and they seized him; so he Arabic, p. 184 left the towel, and fled naked.  Then they took Jesus, and bound him, and brought him to Annas first; because he was the father in law of Caiaphas, who was chief priest that year.  And Caiaphas was he that counselled the Jews, that it was necessary that one man should die instead of the people.

 And Simon Cephas and one of the other disciples followed Jesus.  And the chief priest knew that disciple, and he entered with Jesus into the court; but Simon was standing without at the door.  And that other disciple, whom the chief priest knew, went out and spake unto her that kept the door, and she brought Simon in.  And when the maid that kept the door saw Simon, she looked stedfastly at him, and said unto him, Art not thou also one of the disciples of this man, I mean Jesus the Nazarene?  But he denied, and said, Woman, I know him not, neither know I even what thou sayest.  And the servants and the soldiers rose, and made a fire in the middle of the court, that they might warm themselves; for it was cold.  And when the fire burned up, they sat down around it.  And Simon also came, and sat down with them to warm himself, that he might see the end of what should happen.

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And the chief priest asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his doctrine.  And Jesus said unto him, I was speaking openly to the people; and I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, where all the Jews gather; and I have spoken nothing in Arabic, p. 185 secret.  Why askest thou me? ask those that have heard, what I spake unto them:  for they know all that I said.  And when he had said that, one of the soldiers which were standing there struck the cheek of Jesus, and said unto him, Dost thou thus answer the chief priest?  Jesus answered and said unto him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of evil:  but if well, why didst thou smite me?  And Annas sent Jesus bound unto Caiaphas the chief priest.

 And when Jesus went out, Simon Cephas was standing in the outer court warming himself.  And that maid saw him again, and began to say to those that stood  by, This man also was there with Jesus the Nazarene.  And those that stood by  came forward and said to Cephas, Truly thou art one of his disciples.  And he denied again with an oath, I know not the man.  And after a little one of the servants of the chief priest, the kinsman of him whose ear Simon cut off, saw him; and he disputed and said, Truly this man was with him:  and he also is a Galilæan; and his speech resembles.  And he said unto Simon, Did not I see thee with him in the garden?  Then began Simon to curse, and to swear, I know not this man whom ye have mentioned.  And immediately, while he was speaking, the cock crew twice.  And in that hour Jesus turned, he being without, and looked stedfastly at Cephas.  And Simon remembered the word of our Lord, which he said unto him, 17, 18 Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.  And Simon went forth without, and wept bitterly.

Arabic, p. 186 And when the morning approached, the servants of all the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people and all the multitude assembled, 20, 21 and made a plot; and they took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.  And they sought false witnesses who should witness against him, that they might put him to 22, 23 death, and they found not; but many false witnesses came, but their witness did not 24, 25 agree.  But at last there came two lying witnesses,