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3 - 1 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND VACANCIES (§§ 1 to 21)
1 - 1 - 1 Time of appointing electors

The electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed, in each State, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in every fourth year succeeding every election of a President and Vice President.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 2 Failure to make choice on prescribed day

Whenever any State has held an election for the purpose of choosing electors, and has failed to make a choice on the day prescribed by law, the electors may be appointed on a subsequent day in such a manner as the legislature of such State may direct.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 3 Number of electors

The number of electors shall be equal to the number of Senators and Representatives to which the several States are by law entitled at the time when the President and Vice President to be chosen come into office; except, that where no apportionment of Representatives has been made after any enumeration, at the time of choosing electors, the number of electors shall be according to the then existing apportionment of Senators and Representatives.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 4 Vacancies in electoral college

Each State may, by law, provide for the filling of any vacancies which may occur in its college of electors when such college meets to give its electoral vote.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 5  Determination of controversy as to appointment of electors

If any State shall have provided, by laws enacted prior to the day fixed for the appointment of the electors, for its final determination of any controversy or contest concerning the appointment of all or any of the electors of such State, by judicial or other methods or procedures, and such determination shall have been made at least six days before the time fixed for the meeting of the electors, such determination made pursuant to such law so existing on said day, and made at least six days prior to said time of meeting of the electors, shall be conclusive, and shall govern in the counting of the electoral votes as provided in the Constitution, and as hereinafter regulated, so far as the ascertainment of the electors appointed by such State is concerned.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 6 Credentials of electors; transmission to Archivist of the United States and to Congress; public inspection

It shall be the duty of the executive of each State, as soon as practicable after the conclusion of the appointment of the electors in such State by the final ascertainment, under and in pursuance of the laws of such State providing for such ascertainment, to communicate by registered mail under the seal of the State to the Archivist of the United States a certificate of such ascertainment of the electors appointed, setting forth the names of such electors and the canvass or other ascertainment under the laws of such State of the number of votes given or cast for each person for whose appointment any and all votes have been given or cast; and it shall also thereupon be the duty of the executive of each State to deliver to the electors of such State, on or before the day on which they are required by section 7 of this title to meet, six duplicate-originals of the same certificate under the seal of the State; and if there shall have been any final determination in a State in the manner provided for by law of a controversy or contest concerning the appointment of all or any of the electors of such State, it shall be the duty of the executive of such State, as soon as practicable after such determination, to communicate under the seal of the State to the Archivist of the United States a certificate of such determination in form and manner as the same shall have been made; and the certificate or certificates so received by the Archivist of the United States shall be preserved by him for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection; and the Archivist of the United States at the first meeting of Congress thereafter shall transmit to the two Houses of Congress copies in full of each and every such certificate so received at the National Archives and Records Administration.

June 25, 1948, Oct. 31, 1951,  Oct. 19, 1984
1 - 1 - 7 Meeting and vote of electors

The electors of President and Vice President of each State shall meet and give their votes on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment at such place in each State as the legislature of such State shall direct.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 8 Manner of voting

The electors shall vote for President and Vice President, respectively, in the manner directed by the Constitution.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 9 Certificates of votes for President and Vice President

The electors shall make and sign six certificates of all the votes given by them, each of which certificates shall contain two distinct lists, one of the votes for President and the other of the votes for Vice President, and shall annex to each of the certificates one of the lists of the electors which shall have been furnished to them by direction of the executive of the State.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 10 Sealing and endorsing certificates

The electors shall seal up the certificates so made by them, and certify upon each that the lists of all the votes of such State given for President, and of all the votes given for Vice President, are contained therein.

(June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 11 Disposition of certificates

The electors shall dispose of the certificates so made by them and the lists attached thereto in the following manner:

First. They shall forthwith forward by registered mail one of the same to the President of the Senate at the seat of government.

Second. Two of the same shall be delivered to the secretary of state of the State, one of which shall be held subject to the order of the President of the Senate, the other to be preserved by him for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection.

Third. On the day thereafter they shall forward by registered mail two of such certificates and lists to the Archivist of the United States at the seat of government, one of which shall be held subject to the order of the President of the Senate. The other shall be preserved by the Archivist of the United States for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection.

Fourth. They shall forthwith cause the other of the certificates and lists to be delivered to the judge of the district in which the electors shall have assembled.

June 25, 1948, Oct. 31, 1951, Oct. 19, 1984
1 - 1 - 12 Failure of certificates of electors to reach President of the Senate or Archivist of the United States; demand on State for certificate

When no certificate of vote and list mentioned in sections 9 and 11 of this title from any State shall have been received by the President of the Senate or by the Archivist of the United States by the fourth Wednesday in December, after the meeting of the electors shall have been held, the President of the Senate or, if he be absent from the seat of government, the Archivist of the United States shall request, by the most expeditious method available, the secretary of state of the State to send up the certificate and list lodged with him by the electors of such State; and it shall be his duty upon receipt of such request immediately to transmit same by registered mail to the President of the Senate at the seat of government.

June 25, 1948, Oct. 31, 1951,Oct. 19, 1984
1 - 1 - 13 Same; demand on district judge for certificate

When no certificates of votes from any State shall have been received at the seat of government on the fourth Wednesday in December, after the meeting of the electors shall have been held, the President of the Senate or, if he be absent from the seat of government, the Archivist of the United States shall send a special messenger to the district judge in whose custody one certificate of votes from that State has been lodged, and such judge shall forthwith transmit that list by the hand of such messenger to the seat of government.

June 25, 1948, Oct. 31, 1951,  Oct. 19, 1984
1 - 1 - 14 Forfeiture for messenger’s neglect of duty

Every person who, having been appointed, pursuant to section 13 of this title, to deliver the certificates of the votes of the electors to the President of the Senate, and having accepted such appointment, shall neglect to perform the services required from him, shall forfeit the sum of $1,000.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 15 Counting electoral votes in Congress

Congress shall be in session on the sixth day of January succeeding every meeting of the electors. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet in the Hall of the House of Representatives at the hour of 1 o’clock in the afternoon on that day, and the President of the Senate shall be their presiding officer. Two tellers shall be previously appointed on the part of the Senate and two on the part of the House of Representatives, to whom shall be handed, as they are opened by the President of the Senate, all the certificates and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes, which certificates and papers shall be opened, presented, and acted upon in the alphabetical order of the States, beginning with the letter A; and said tellers, having then read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, shall make a list of the votes as they shall appear from the said certificates; and the votes having been ascertained and counted according to the rules in this subchapter provided, the result of the same shall be delivered to the President of the Senate, who shall thereupon announce the state of the vote, which announcement shall be deemed a sufficient declaration of the persons, if any, elected President and Vice President of the United States, and, together with a list of the votes, be entered on the Journals of the two Houses. Upon such reading of any such certificate or paper, the President of the Senate shall call for objections, if any. Every objection shall be made in writing, and shall state clearly and concisely, and without argument, the ground thereof, and shall be signed by at least one Senator and one Member of the House of Representatives before the same shall be received. When all objections so made to any vote or paper from a State shall have been received and read, the Senate shall thereupon withdraw, and such objections shall be submitted to the Senate for its decision; and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, in like manner, submit such objections to the House of Representatives for its decision; and no electoral vote or votes from any State which shall have been regularly given by electors whose appointment has been lawfully certified to according to section 6 of this title from which but one return has been received shall be rejected, but the two Houses concurrently may reject the vote or votes when they agree that such vote or votes have not been so regularly given by electors whose appointment has been so certified. If more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State shall have been received by the President of the Senate, those votes, and those only, shall be counted which shall have been regularly given by the electors who are shown by the determination mentioned in section 5 of this title to have been appointed, if the determination in said section provided for shall have been made, or by such successors or substitutes, in case of a vacancy in the board of electors so ascertained, as have been appointed to fill such vacancy in the mode provided by the laws of the State; but in case there shall arise the question which of two or more of such State authorities determining what electors have been appointed, as mentioned in section 5 of this title, is the lawful tribunal of such State, the votes regularly given of those electors, and those only, of such State shall be counted whose title as electors the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide is supported by the decision of such State so authorized by its law; and in such case of more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State, if there shall have been no such determination of the question in the State aforesaid, then those votes, and those only, shall be counted which the two Houses shall concurrently decide were cast by lawful electors appointed in accordance with the laws of the State, unless the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide such votes not to be the lawful votes of the legally appointed electors of such State. But if the two Houses shall disagree in respect of the counting of such votes, then, and in that case, the votes of the electors whose appointment shall have been certified by the executive of the State, under the seal thereof, shall be counted. When the two Houses have voted, they shall immediately again meet, and the presiding officer shall then announce the decision of the questions submitted. No votes or papers from any other State shall be acted upon until the objections previously made to the votes or papers from any State shall have been finally disposed of.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 16 Same; seats for officers and Members of two Houses in joint meeting

At such joint meeting of the two Houses seats shall be provided as follows: For the President of the Senate, the Speaker’s chair; for the Speaker, immediately upon his left; the Senators, in the body of the Hall upon the right of the presiding officer; for the Representatives, in the body of the Hall not provided for the Senators; for the tellers, Secretary of the Senate, and Clerk of the House of Representatives, at the Clerk’s desk; for the other officers of the two Houses, in front of the Clerk’s desk and upon each side of the Speaker’s platform. Such joint meeting shall not be dissolved until the count of electoral votes shall be completed and the result declared; and no recess shall be taken unless a question shall have arisen in regard to counting any such votes, or otherwise under this subchapter, in which case it shall be competent for either House, acting separately, in the manner hereinbefore provided, to direct a recess of such House not beyond the next calendar day, Sunday excepted, at the hour of 10 o’clock in the forenoon. But if the counting of the electoral votes and the declaration of the result shall not have been completed before the fifth calendar day next after such first meeting of the two Houses, no further or other recess shall be taken by either House.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 17 Same; limit of debate in each House

When the two Houses separate to decide upon an objection that may have been made to the counting of any electoral vote or votes from any State, or other question arising in the matter, each Senator and Representative may speak to such objection or question five minutes, and not more than once; but after such debate shall have lasted two hours it shall be the duty of the presiding officer of each House to put the main question without further debate.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 18 Same; parliamentary procedure at joint meeting

While the two Houses shall be in meeting as provided in this chapter, the President of the Senate shall have power to preserve order; and no debate shall be allowed and no question shall be put by the presiding officer except to either House on a motion to withdraw.

June 25, 1948, Sept. 3, 1954,
1 - 1 - 19 Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act
(a)
(1)
If, by reason of death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, there is neither a President nor Vice President to discharge the powers and duties of the office of President, then the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, upon his resignation as Speaker and as Representative in Congress, act as President.
(2)
The same rule shall apply in the case of the death, resignation, removal from office, or inability of an individual acting as President under this subsection.
(b)
If, at the time when under subsection (a) of this section a Speaker is to begin the discharge of the powers and duties of the office of President, there is no Speaker, or the Speaker fails to qualify as Acting President, then the President pro tempore of the Senate shall, upon his resignation as President pro tempore and as Senator, act as President.
(c)An individual acting as President under subsection (a) or subsection (b) of this section shall continue to act until the expiration of the then current Presidential term, except that—
(1)
if his discharge of the powers and duties of the office is founded in whole or in part on the failure of both the President-elect and the Vice-President-elect to qualify, then he shall act only until a President or Vice President qualifies; and
(2)
if his discharge of the powers and duties of the office is founded in whole or in part on the inability of the President or Vice President, then he shall act only until the removal of the disability of one of such individuals.
(d)
(1)
If, by reason of death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, there is no President pro tempore to act as President under subsection (b) of this section, then the officer of the United States who is highest on the following list, and who is not under disability to discharge the powers and duties of the office of President shall act as President: Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Energy, Secretary of Education, Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Secretary of Homeland Security.
(2)
An individual acting as President under this subsection shall continue so to do until the expiration of the then current Presidential term, but not after a qualified and prior-entitled individual is able to act, except that the removal of the disability of an individual higher on the list contained in paragraph (1) of this subsection or the ability to qualify on the part of an individual higher on such list shall not terminate his service.
(3)
The taking of the oath of office by an individual specified in the list in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be held to constitute his resignation from the office by virtue of the holding of which he qualifies to act as President.
(e)
Subsections (a), (b), and (d) of this section shall apply only to such officers as are eligible to the office of President under the Constitution. Subsection (d) of this section shall apply only to officers appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, prior to the time of the death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, of the President pro tempore, and only to officers not under impeachment by the House of Representatives at the time the powers and duties of the office of President devolve upon them.
(f)
During the period that any individual acts as President under this section, his compensation shall be at the rate then provided by law in the case of the President.
June 25, 1948,  Sept. 9, 1965,  Oct. 15, 1966,  Aug. 12, 1970,  Aug. 4, 1977,  Oct. 17, 1979,  Oct. 25, 1988Mar. 9, 2006
1 - 1 - 20 Resignation or refusal of office

The only evidence of a refusal to accept, or of a resignation of the office of President or Vice President, shall be an instrument in writing, declaring the same, and subscribed by the person refusing to accept or resigning, as the case may be, and delivered into the office of the Secretary of State.

June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 21  Definitions

As used in this chapter the term—

(a)
“State” includes the District of Columbia.
(b)
executives of each State” includes the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia.
Oct. 4, 1961,
 
3 - 2 OFFICE AND COMPENSATION OF PRESIDENT (§§ 101 to 115)
1 - 1 - 1 Commencement of term of office

The term of four years for which a President and Vice President shall be elected, shall, in all cases, commence on the 20th day of January next succeeding the day on which the votes of the electors have been given.

(June 25, 1948,
1 - 1 - 2 Compensation of the President

The President shall receive in full for his services during the term for which he shall have been elected compensation in the aggregate amount of $400,000 a year, to be paid monthly, and in addition an expense allowance of $50,000 to assist in defraying expenses relating to or resulting from the discharge of his official duties. Any unused amount of such expense allowance shall revert to the Treasury pursuant to section 1552 of title 31, United States Code. No amount of such expense allowance shall be included in the gross income of the President. He shall be entitled also to the use of the furniture and other effects belonging to the United States and kept in the Executive Residence at the White House.

June 25, 1948, Jan. 19, 1949, Oct. 20, 1951,  Jan. 17, 1969Nov. 2, 1978Sept. 29, 1999, Jan. 23, 2004,
1 - 1 - 3  Traveling expenses

There may be expended for or on account of the traveling expenses of the President of the United States such sum as Congress may from time to time appropriate, not exceeding $100,000 per annum, such sum when appropriated to be expended in the discretion of the President and accounted for on his certificate solely.

June 25, 1948,  Nov. 2, 1978,
1 - 1 - 4  Salary of the Vice President
(a)
The per annum rate of salary of the Vice President of the United States shall be the rate determined for such position under chapter 11 of title 2, as adjusted under this section. Subject to subsection (b), effective at the beginning of the first month in which an adjustment takes effect under section 5303 of title 5 in the rates of pay under the General Schedule, the salary of the Vice President shall be adjusted by an amount, rounded to the nearest multiple of $100 (or if midway between multiples of $100, to the nearest higher multiple of $100), equal to the percentage of such per annum rate which corresponds to the most recent percentage change in the ECI (relative to the date described in the next sentence), as determined under section 704(a)(1) of the Ethics Reform Act of 1989. The appropriate date under this sentence is the first day of the fiscal year in which such adjustment in the rates of pay under the General Schedule takes effect.
(b)
In no event shall the percentage adjustment taking effect under the second and third sentences of subsection (a) in any calendar year (before rounding) exceed the percentage adjustment taking effect in such calendar year under section 5303 of title 5 in the rates of pay under the General Schedule.
June 25, 1948, Jan. 19, 1949, Mar. 2, 1955, Aug. 14, 1964, Sept. 15, 1969, Aug. 9, 1975, Sept. 10, 1982,  Nov. 30, 1989, Nov. 5, 1990Oct. 13, 1994
1 - 1 - 5 Assistance and services for the President
(a)
(1)
Subject to the provisons [1] of paragraph (2) of this subsection, the President is authorized to appoint and fix the pay of employees in the White House Office without regard to any other provision of law regulating the employment or compensation of persons in the Government service. Employees so appointed shall perform such official duties as the President may prescribe.
(2)The President may, under paragraph (1) of this subsection, appoint and fix the pay of not more than—
(A)
25 employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level II of the Executive Schedule of section 5313 of title 5; and in addition
(B)
25 employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level III of the Executive Schedule of section 5314 of title 5; and in addition
(C)
50 employees at rates not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and in addition
(D)
such number of other employees as he may determine to be appropriate at rates not to exceed the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5.
(b)
(1)
Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, the President is authorized to appoint and fix the pay of employees in the Executive Residence at the White House without regard to any other provision of law regulating the employment or compensation of persons in the Government service. Employees so appointed shall perform such official duties as the President may prescribe.
(2)The President may, under paragraph (1) of this subsection, appoint and fix the pay of not more than—
(A)
employees at rates not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and in addition
(B)
such number of other employees as he may determine to be appropriate at rates not to exceed the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5.
(c)The President is authorized to procure for the White House Office and the Executive Residence at the White House, as provided in appropriation Acts, temporary or intermittent services of experts and consultants, as described in and in accordance with the first two sentences of section 3109(b) of title 5
(1)
in the case of the White House Office, at respective daily rates of pay for individuals which are not more than the daily equivalent of the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level II of the Executive Schedule of section 5313 of title 5; and
(2)
in the case of the Executive Residence, at respective daily rates of pay for individuals which are not more than the daily equivalent of the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5.
Notwithstanding such section 3109(b), temporary services of any expert or consultant described in such section 3109(b) may be procured for a period in excess of one year if the President determines such procurement is necessary.
(d)There are authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year to the President such sums as may be necessary for—
(1)
the care, maintenance, repair, alteration, refurnishing, improvement, air-conditioning, heating, and lighting (including electric power and fixtures) of the Executive Residence at the White House;
(2)
the official expenses of the White House Office;
(3)
the official entertainment expenses of the President;
(4)
the official entertainment expenses for allocation within the Executive Office of the President; and
(5)
the subsistence expenses of persons in the Government service while traveling on official business in connection with the travel of the President.
Sums appropriated under this subsection for expenses described in paragraphs (1), (3), and (5) may be expended as the President may determine, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law. Such sums shall be accounted for solely on the certificate of the President, except that, with respect to such expenses, the Comptroller General may inspect all necessary books, documents, papers, and records relating to any such expenditures solely for the purpose of verifying that all such expenditures related to expenses in paragraph (1), (3), or (5). The Comptroller General shall certify to Congress the fact of such verification, and shall report any such expenses not expended for such purpose.
(e)
Assistance and services authorized pursuant to this section to the President are authorized to be provided to the spouse of the President in connection with assistance provided by such spouse to the President in the discharge of the President’s duties and responsibilities. If the President does not have a spouse, such assistance and services may be provided for such purposes to a member of the President’s family whom the President designates.

June 25, 1948, Oct. 15, 1949, July 31, 1956, Oct. 4, 1961, Aug. 14, 1964,  Dec. 23, 1967,  Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 6 Assistance and services for the Vice President
(a)In order to enable the Vice President to provide assistance to the President in connection with the performance of functions specially assigned to the Vice President by the President in the discharge of executive duties and responsibilities, the Vice President is authorized—
(1)without regard to any other provision of law regulating the employment or compensation of persons in the Government service, to appoint and fix the pay of not more than—
(A)
employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level II of the Executive Schedule of section 5313 of title 5; and in addition
(B)
employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level III of the Executive Schedule of section 5314 of title 5; and in addition
(C)
employees at rates not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and in addition
(D)
such number of other employees as he may determine to be appropriate at rates not to exceed the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and
(2)
to procure, as provided in appropriation Acts, temporary or intermittent services of experts and consultants, as described in and in accordance with the first two sentences of section 3109(b) of title 5, at respective daily rates of pay for individuals which are not more than the daily equivalent of the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level II of the Executive Schedule of section 5313 of title 5.
Notwithstanding such section 3109(b), temporary services of any expert or consultant described in such section 3109(b) may be procured under paragraph (2) of this subsection for a period in excess of one year if the Vice President determines such procurement is necessary.
(b)In order to carry out the executive duties and responsibilities referred to in subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year to the Vice President such sums as may be necessary for—
(1)
the official expenses of the Office of the Vice President;
(2)
the official entertainment expenses of the Vice President; and
(3)
the subsistence expenses of persons in the Government service while traveling on official business in connection with the travel of the Vice President.
Sums appropriated under this subsection for expenses described in paragraphs (2) and (3) may be expended as the Vice President may determine, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law. Such sums shall be accounted for solely on the certificate of the Vice President, except that, with respect to such expenses, the Comptroller General may inspect all necessary books, documents, papers, and records relating to any such expenditures solely for the purpose of verifying that all such expenditures related to expenses in paragraph (2) or (3). The Comptroller General shall certify to Congress the fact of such verification, and shall report any such expenses not expended for such purpose.
(c)
Assistance and services authorized pursuant to this section to the Vice President are authorized to be provided to the spouse of the Vice President in connection with assistance provided by such spouse to the Vice President in the discharge of the Vice President’s executive duties and responsibilities. If the Vice President does not have a spouse, such assistance and services may be provided for such purposes to a member of the Vice President’s family whom the Vice President designates.
June 25, 1948, Oct. 15, 1949, Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 7 Domestic Policy Staff and Office of Administration; personnel
(a)In order to enable the Domestic Policy Staff to perform its functions, the President (or his designee) is authorized—
(1)without regard to any other provision of law regulating the employment or compensation of persons in the Government service, to appoint and fix the pay of not more than—
(A)
employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level III of the Executive Schedule of section 5314 of title 5; and in addition
(B)
18 employees at rates not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and in addition
(C)
such number of other employees as he may determine to be appropriate at rates not to exceed the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and
(2)
to procure, as provided in appropriation Acts, temporary or intermittent services of experts and consultants, as described in and in accordance with the first two sentences of section 3109(b) of title 5, at respective daily rates of pay for individuals which are not more than the daily equivalent of the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level III of the Executive Schedule of section 5314 of title 5.
(b)
(1)In order to enable the Office of Administration to perform its functions, the President (or his designee) is authorized—
(A)without regard to such other provisions of law as the President may specify which regulate the employment and compensation of persons in the Government service, to appoint and fix the pay of not more than—
(i)
employees at rates not to exceed the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level III of the Executive Schedule of section 5314 of title 5; and in addition
(ii)
employees at rates not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5; and
(B)
to procure, as provided in appropriation Acts, temporary or intermittent services of experts and consultants, as described in and in accordance with the first two sentences of section 3109(b) of title 5, at respective daily rates of pay for individuals which are not more than the daily equivalent of the maximum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–18 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5.
(2)
In addition to any authority granted under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the President (or his designee) is authorized to employ individuals in the Office of Administration in accordance with section 3101 of title 5 and provisions relating thereto. Any individual so employed under the authority granted under such section 3101 shall be subject to the limitation specified in section 114 of this title.
(c)
There are authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary for the official expenses of the Domestic Policy Staff and the Office of Administration.
Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 8  Assistance to the President for unanticipated needs
(a)
There is authorized to be appropriated to the President an amount not to exceed $1,000,000 each fiscal year to enable the President, in his discretion, to meet unanticipated needs for the furtherance of the national interest, security, or defense, including personnel needs and needs for services described in section 3109(b) of title 5, and administrative expenses related thereto, without regard to any provision of law regulating the employment or compensation of persons in the Government service or regulating expenditures of Government funds.
(b)
The President shall transmit a report to each House of the Congress for each fiscal year beginning on or after the effective date of this subsection which sets forth the purposes for which expenditures were made under this section for such fiscal year and the amount expended for each such purpose. Each such report shall be transmitted no later than 60 days after the close of the fiscal year covered by such report.
(c)
An individual may not be paid under the authority of this section at a rate of pay in excess of the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level II of the Executive Schedule of section 5313 of title 5.
Nov. 2, 1978,
1 - 1 - 9 Public property in and belonging to the Executive Residence at the White House

The steward, housekeeper, or such other employee of the Executive Residence at the White House as the President may designate, shall under the direction of the President, have the charge and custody of and be responsible for the plate, furniture, and public property therein. A complete inventory, in proper books, shall be made annually in the month of June, under the direction of the Director of the National Park Service, of all the public property in and belonging to the Executive Residence at the White House, showing when purchased, its cost, condition, and final disposition. This inventory shall be submitted to the President for his approval, and shall then be kept for reference in the office of the Director of the National Park Service, which shall furnish a copy thereof to the steward, housekeeper, or other employee responsible for the property.

June 25, 1948,  June 6, 1972Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 10 Furniture for the Executive Residence at the White House

All furniture purchased for the use of the Executive Residence at the White House shall be, as far as practicable, of domestic manufacture. With a view to conserving in the Executive Residence at the White House the best specimens of the early American furniture and furnishings, and for the purpose of maintaining the interior of the Executive Residence at the White House in keeping with its original design, the Director of the National Park Service is authorized and directed, with the approval of the President, to accept donations of furniture and furnishings for use in the Executive Residence at the White House, all such articles thus donated to become the property of the United States and to be accounted for as such. The said Director of the National Park Service is further authorized and directed, with the approval of the President, to appoint a temporary committee composed of one representative of the American Federation of Arts, one representative of the National Commission of Fine Arts, one representative of the National Academy of Design, one member of the American Institute of Architects, and five members representing the public at large; the said committee to have full power to select and pass on the articles in question and to recommend the same for acceptance.

June 25, 1948, Nov. 2, 1978,
1 - 1 - 11 Expense allowance of Vice President

There shall be paid to the Vice President in equal monthly installments an expense allowance of $20,000 per annum to assist in defraying expenses relating to or resulting from the discharge of his official duties, for which no accounting, other than for income tax purposes, shall be made by him.

Jan. 19, 1949, Oct. 20, 1951, Feb. 20, 2003,
1 - 1 - 12 Detail of employees of executive departments
The head of any department, agency, or independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government may detail, from time to time, employees of such department, agency, or establishment to the White House Office, the Executive Residence at the White House, the Office of the Vice President, the Domestic Policy Staff, and the Office of Administration. Any such office to which an employee has been detailed for service to such office shall reimburse the detailing department, agency, or establishment for the pay of each employee thereof—
(1)
who is so detailed, and
(2)
who is performing services which have been or would otherwise be performed by an employee of such office,
for any period occurring during any fiscal year after 180 calendar days after the employee is detailed in such year.
 Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 13 Personnel report
(a)
The President shall transmit to each House of the Congress, and make available to the public, reports containing information described in subsection (b) for each fiscal year beginning on or after the effective date of this section. Each such report shall be transmitted no later than 60 days after the close of the fiscal year covered by such report and shall contain a statement of such information for such year.
(b)Each report required under subsection (a) shall contain—
(1)
the number of employees who are paid at a rate of basic pay equal to or greater than the rate of basic pay then currently paid for level V of the Executive Schedule of section 5316 of title 5 and who are employed in the White House Office, the Executive Residence at the White House, the Office of the Vice President, the Domestic Policy Staff, or the Office of Administration, and the aggregate amount paid to such employees;
(2)
the number of employees employed in such offices who are paid at a rate of basic pay which is equal to or greater than the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5 but which is less than the rate then currently paid for level V of the Executive Schedule of section 5316 of title V [1] and the aggregate amount paid to such employees;
(3)
the number of employees employed in such offices who are paid at a rate of basic pay which is less than the minimum rate then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title V 1, and the aggregate amount paid to such employees;
(4)
the number of individuals detailed under section 112 of this title for more than 30 days to each such office, the number of days in excess of 30 each individual was detailed, and the aggregate amount of reimbursement made as provided by the provisions of section 112 of this title; and
(5)
the number of individuals whose services as experts or consultants are procured under this chapter for service in any such office, the total number of days employed, and the aggregate amount paid to procure such services.
The information required under this subsection to be in any report shall be shown both in the aggregate and by office involved.
Nov. 2, 1978
1 - 1 - 14 General pay limitation

Notwithstanding any provision of law, other than the provisions of this chapter, no employee of the White House Office, the Executive Residence at the White House, the Domestic Policy Staff, or the Office of Administration, nor any employee under the Vice President appointed under section 106 of this title, may be paid at a rate of basic pay in excess of the minimum rate of basic pay then currently paid for GS–16 of the General Schedule of section 5332 of title 5.

Nov. 2, 1978,
1 - 1 - 15 Veterans’ preference
(a)
Subject to subsection (b), appointments under sections 105, 106, and 107 shall be made in accordance with section 2108, and sections 3309 through 3312, of title 5.
(b)Subsection (a) shall not apply to any appointment to a position the rate of basic pay for which is at least equal to the minimum rate established for positions in the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5 and the duties of which are comparable to those described in section 3132(a)(2) of such title or to any other position if, with respect to such position, the President makes certification—
(1)that such position is—
(A)
a confidential or policy-making position; or
(B)
a position for which political affiliation or political philosophy is otherwise an important qualification; and
(2)
that any individual selected for such position is expected to vacate the position at or before the end of the President’s term (or terms) of office.
Each individual appointed to a position described in the preceding sentence as to which the expectation described in paragraph (2) applies shall be notified as to such expectation, in writing, at the time of appointment to such position.
Oct. 31, 1998
 
3 - 3 DELEGATION OF FUNCTIONS (§§ 301 to 303)
1 - 1 - 1 General authorization to delegate functions; publication of delegations

The President of the United States is authorized to designate and empower the head of any department or agency in the executive branch, or any official thereof who is required to be appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to perform without approval, ratification, or other action by the President (1) any function which is vested in the President by law, or (2) any function which such officer is required or authorized by law to perform only with or subject to the approval, ratification, or other action of the President: Provided, That nothing contained herein shall relieve the President of his responsibility in office for the acts of any such head or other official designated by him to perform such functions. Such designation and authorization shall be in writing, shall be published in the Federal Register, shall be subject to such terms, conditions, and limitations as the President may deem advisable, and shall be revocable at any time by the President in whole or in part.

(Added ch. 655, § 10, 65 Stat. 712.)

Oct. 31, 1951,
1 - 1 - 2  Scope of delegation of functions

The authority conferred by this chapter shall apply to any function vested in the President by law if such law does not affirmatively prohibit delegation of the performance of such function as herein provided for, or specifically designate the officer or officers to whom it may be delegated. This chapter shall not be deemed to limit or derogate from any existing or inherent right of the President to delegate the performance of functions vested in him by law, and nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President.

Oct. 31, 1951,
1 - 1 - 3  Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term “function” embraces any duty, power, responsibility, authority, or discretion vested in the President or other officer concerned, and the terms “perform” and “performance” may be construed to mean “exercise”.

Oct. 31, 1951,
 
3 - 4 EXTENSION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS TO PRESIDENTIAL OFFICES (§§ 401 to 471)
1 - 1 - 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS (§§ 401 to 402)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Definitions
(a)In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, as used in this chapter:
(1)Board.—
The term “Board” means the Merit Systems Protection Board under chapter 12 of title 5.
(2)Covered employee.—
The term “covered employee” means any employee of an employing office.
(3)Employee.—
The term “employee” includes an applicant for employment and a former employee.
(4)Employing office.—The term “employing office” means—
(A)
each office, agency, or other component of the Executive Office of the President;
(B)
the Executive Residence at the White House; and
(C)
the official residence (temporary or otherwise) of the Vice President.
(b)Definitions Relating to Certain Matters.—For purposes of applying this chapter with respect to any practice or other matter—
(1)
to which section 411 relates, the terms “employing office” and “covered employee” shall each be considered to have the meaning given to the term by such section;
(2)
to which section 412 relates, the term “covered employee” means a covered employee described in section 412(a)(2)(B);
(3)
to which section 413 relates, the term “covered employee” excludes interns and volunteers, as described in section 413(a)(2); and
(4)
to which section 416 relates, the term “covered employee” means a covered employee described in section 416(a)(2).
 Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 2  Application of laws

The following laws shall apply, as prescribed by this chapter, to all employing offices (including employing offices within the meaning of section 411, to the extent prescribed therein):

(1)
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
(2)
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
(3)
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
(4)
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967.
(5)
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.
(6)
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
(7)
Chapter 71 (relating to Federal service labor-management relations) of title 5.
(8)
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.
(9)
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act.
(10)
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
(11)
Chapter 43 (relating to veterans’ employment and reemployment) of title 38.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 2  EXTENSION OF RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS (§§ 411 to 435)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Employment Discrimination, Family and Medical Leave, Fair Labor Standards, Employee Polygraph Protection, Worker Adjustment and Retraining, Employment and Reemployment of Veterans, and Intimidation (§§ 411 to 417)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Rights and protections under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
(a)Discriminatory Practices Prohibited.—All personnel actions affecting covered employees shall be made free from any discrimination based on—
(1)
race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, within the meaning of section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964;
(2)
age, within the meaning of section 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; or
(3)
disability, within the meaning of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and sections 102 through 104 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
(b)Remedy.—
(1)Civil rights.—The remedy for a violation of subsection (a)(1) shall be—
(A)
such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and
(B)
such compensatory damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 1977 of the Revised Statutes, or as would be appropriate if awarded under sections 1977A(a)(1), 1977A(b)(2), and, irrespective of the size of the employing office, 1977A(b)(3)(D) of the Revised Statutes.
(2)Age discrimination.—The remedy for a violation of subsection (a)(2) shall be—
(A)
such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 15(c) of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; and
(B)
such liquidated damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 7(b) of such Act.
In addition, the waiver provisions of section 7(f) of such Act shall apply to covered employees.
(3)Disabilities discrimination.—The remedy for a violation of subsection (a)(3) shall be—
(A)
such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 505(a)(1) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or section 107(a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; and
(B)
such compensatory damages as would be appropriate if awarded under sections 1977A(a)(2), 1977A(a)(3), 1977A(b)(2), and, irrespective of the size of the employing office, 1977A(b)(3)(D) of the Revised Statutes.
(c)Definitions.—Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, as used in this section:
(1)Covered employee.—The term “covered employee” means any employee of a unit of the executive branch, including the Executive Office of the President, whether appointed by the President or by any other appointing authority in the executive branch, who is not otherwise entitled to bring an action under any of the statutes referred to in subsection (a), but does not include any individual—
(A)
whose appointment is made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate;
(B)
who is appointed to an advisory committee, as defined in section 3(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act; or
(C)
who is a member of the uniformed services.
(2)Employing office.—
The term “employing office”, with respect to a covered employee, means the office, agency, or other entity in which the covered employee is employed (or sought employment or was employed in the case of an applicant or former employee, respectively).
(d)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement paragraphs (1) and (3) of subsection (a) and paragraphs (1) and (3) of subsection (b).
(2)Agency regulations.—The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the appropriate officer of an executive agencyto implement the statutory provisions referred to in paragraphs (1) and (3) of subsection (a) and paragraphs (1) and (3) of subsection (b)—
(A)
except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)except that the President or designee may, at the discretion of the President or designee, issue regulations to implement a provision of section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that applies to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government in lieu of an analogous statutory provision referred to in paragraph (1) or (3) of subsection (a) or paragraph (1) or (3) of subsection (b), if the issuance of such regulations—
(i)
would be equally effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(ii)
would promote uniformity in the application of Federal law to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(e)Applicability.—
Subsections (a) through (c), and section 417 (to the extent that it relates to any matter under this section), shall apply with respect to violations occurring on or after the effective date of this chapter.
(f)Effective Date.—
This section shall take effect on October 1, 1997.
 Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 Rights and protections under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
(a)Family and Medical Leave Rights and Protections Provided.—
(1)In general.—
The rights and protections established by sections 101 through 105 of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 shall apply to covered employees.
(2)Definitions.—For purposes of the application described in paragraph (1)—
(A)
the term “employer” as used in the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 means any employing office; and
(B)
the term “eligible employee” as used in the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 means a covered employee who has been employed in any employing office for 12 months and for at least 1,250 hours of employment during the previous 12 months.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such remedy, including liquidated damages, as would be appropriate if awarded under paragraph (1) of section 107(a) of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b)—
(A)
except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)except that the President or designee may, at the discretion of the President or designee, issue regulations to implement a provision of subchapter V of chapter 63 of title 5, United States Code, that applies to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government in lieu of an analogous statutory provision referred to in subsection (a) or (b), if the issuance of such regulations—
(i)
would be equally effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(ii)
would promote uniformity in the application of Federal law to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(d)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 3 Rights and protections under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
(a)Fair Labor Standards.—
(1)In general.—
The rights and protections established by subsections (a)(1) and (d) of section 6, section 7, and section 12(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 shall apply to covered employees.
(2)Interns and volunteers.—
For the purposes of this section, the term “covered employee” does not include an intern or a volunteer as defined in regulations under subsection (c).
(3)Compensatory time.—
Except as provided in regulations under subsection (c)(3), covered employees may not receive compensatory time in lieu of overtime compensation.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such damages, including liquidated damages, as would be appropriate if awarded under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—
Except as provided in paragraph (3), the regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b) except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section.
(3)Irregular work schedules.—
The President or designee shall issue regulations for covered employees whose work schedules directly depend on the schedule of the President or the Vice President that shall be comparable to the provisions in the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 that apply to employees who have irregular work schedules.
(d)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 4 Rights and protections under the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988
(a)Polygraph Practices Prohibited.—
No employing office may require a covered employee to take a lie detector test where such a test would be prohibited if required by an employer under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 3 of the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988. In addition, the waiver provisions of section 6(d) of such Act shall apply to covered employees.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 6(c)(1) of the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—
The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b) except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section.
(d)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
 Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 5 Rights and protections under the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act
(a)Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Rights.—
(1)In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no employing office shall be closed or mass layoff ordered within the meaning of section 3 of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act until the end of a 60-day period after the employing office serves written notice of such prospective closing or layoff to representatives of covered employees or, if there are no representatives, to covered employees.
(2)Exception.—
(A)In general.—In the event that a President (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the “previous President”) is not elected to a successive term in office as a result of the election of a new President—
(i)
no notice or waiting period shall be required under paragraph (1) with respect to the separation of any individual described in subparagraph (B), if such separation occurs pursuant to a closure or mass layoff ordered after the term of the new President commences; and
(ii)
if any individual is separated from service, or begins a period of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, before such term commences, nothing in this chapter shall require reinstatement or restoration to employment of the individual after such term commences.
(B)Description of individuals.—An individual described in this subparagraph is any covered employee serving pursuant to an appointment made during—
(i)
the term of office of the previous President; or
(ii)
any term, earlier than the term referred to in clause (i), during which such previous President served as President or Vice President.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of section 5(a) of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—
The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b) except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section.
(d)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
 Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 6 Rights and protections relating to veterans’ employment and reemployment
(a)Employment and Reemployment Rights of Members of the Uniformed Services.—
(1)In general.—It shall be unlawful for an employing office to—
(A)
discriminate, within the meaning of subsections (a) and (b) of section 4311 of title 38, against an eligible employee;
(B)
deny to an eligible employee reemployment rights within the meaning of sections 4312 and 4313 of title 38; or
(C)
deny to an eligible employee benefits within the meaning of sections 43164317, and 4318 of title 38.
(2)Definition.—
For purposes of this section, the term “eligible employee” means a covered employee performing service in the uniformed services, within the meaning of section 4303(13) of title 38, whose service has not been terminated upon the occurrence of any of the events enumerated in section 4304 of such title.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 4323(d) of title 38.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b)—
(A)
except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)except that the President or designee may, at the discretion of the President or designee, issue regulations to implement a provision of section 4314 or 4324 of title 38, United States Code, that applies to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government in lieu of an analogous statutory provision referred to in subsection (a) or (b), if the issuance of such regulations—
(i)
would be equally effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(ii)
would promote uniformity in the application of Federal law to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(d)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
Oct. 26, 1996, Oct. 13, 2010
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 7 Prohibition of intimidation or reprisal
(a)In General.—
It shall be unlawful for an employing office to intimidate, take reprisal against, or otherwise discriminate against, any covered employee because the covered employee has opposed any practice made unlawful by this chapter, or because the covered employee has initiated proceedings, made a charge, or testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in a hearing or other proceeding under this chapter.
(b)Remedy.—
A violation of subsection (a) may be remedied by any legal remedy available to redress the practice opposed by the covered employee or other violation of law as to which the covered employee initiated proceedings, made a charge, or engaged in other conduct protected under subsection (a).
Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 2 Public Access Provisions Under the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (§ 421)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Rights and protections under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
(a)Rights and Protections.—
The rights and protections against discrimination in the provision of public services and accommodations established by sections 201, 202, and 204, and sections 302, 303, and 309, of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 shall apply, to the extent that public services, programs, or activities are provided, with respect to the White House and its appurtenant grounds and gardens, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building, the New Executive Office Buildings, and any other facility to the extent that offices are provided for employees of the Executive Office of the President.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be such remedy as would be appropriate if awarded under section 203 or 308 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as the case may be, except that, with respect to any claim of employment discrimination, the exclusive remedy shall be under section 411 of this title. A remedy under the preceding sentence shall be enforced in accordance with applicable provisions of such section 203 or 308, as the case may be.
(c)Definition.—
For purposes of the application under this section of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the term “public entity” as used in such Act, means, to the extent that public services, programs, or activities are provided, the White House and its appurtenant grounds and gardens, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building, the New Executive Office Buildings, and any other facility to the extent that offices are provided for employees of the Executive Office of the President.
(d)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the appropriate officer of an executive agencyto implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b)—
(A)
except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)except that the President or designee may, at the discretion of the President or designee, issue regulations to implement a provision of section 1, 2, 3, or 6 of the Act entitled “An Act to insure that certain buildings financed with Federal funds are so designed and constructed as to be accessible to the physically handicapped”, approved August 12, 1968 (commonly known as the “Architectural Barriers Act of 1968”) or section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that applies to agencies of the executive branch of the Federal Government in lieu of an analogous statutory provision referred to in subsection (a) or (b), if the issuance of such regulations—
(i)
would be equally effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(ii)
would promote uniformity in the application of Federal law to agencies of the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(e)Effective Date.—Subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (d); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
 Oct. 26, 1996,  Nov. 9, 1999,
1 - 1 - 1 - 3 Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (§ 425)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Rights and protections under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970; procedures for remedy of violations
(a)Occupational Safety and Health Protections.—
(1)In general.—
Each employing office and each covered employee shall comply with the provisions of section 5 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
(2)Definitions.—For purposes of the application under this section of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970—
(A)
the term “employer” as used in such Act means an employing office; and
(B)
the term “employee” as used in such Act means a covered employee.
(b)Remedy.—
The remedy for a violation of subsection (a) shall be an order to correct the violation, including such order as would be appropriate if issued under section 13(a) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
(c)Procedures.—
(1)Requests for inspections.—
Upon written request of any employing office or covered employee, the Secretary of Labor shall have the authority to inspect and investigate places of employment under the jurisdiction of employing offices in accordance with subsections (a), (d), (e), and (f) of section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
(2)Citations, notices, and notifications.—The Secretary of Labor shall have the authority, in accordance with sections 9 and 10 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, to issue—
(A)
a citation or notice to any employing office responsible for correcting a violation of subsection (a); or
(B)
a notification to any employing office that the Secretary of Labor believes has failed to correct a violation for which a citation has been issued within the period permitted for its correction.
(3)Hearings and review.—If after issuing a citation or notification, the Secretary of Labor determines that a violation has not been corrected—
(A)
the citation and notification shall be deemed a final order (within the meaning of section 10(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970) if the employer fails to notify the Secretary of Labor within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays) after receipt of the notice that the employer intends to contest the citation or notification; or
(B)
opportunity for a hearing before the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission shall be afforded in accordance with section 10(c) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, if the employer gives timely notice to the Secretary that he intends to contest the citation or notification.
(4)Variance procedures.—
An employing office may request from the Secretary of Labor an order granting a variance from a standard made applicable by this section, in accordance with sections 6(b)(6) and 6(d) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
(5)Judicial review.—
Any person or employing office aggrieved by a final decision of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission under paragraph (3) or the Secretary of Labor under paragraph (4) may file a petition for review with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit under section 1296 of title 28.
(6)Compliance date.—
If new appropriated funds are necessary to correct a violation of subsection (a) for which a citation is issued, or to comply with an order requiring correction of such a violation, correction or compliance shall take place as soon as possible, but not later than the end of the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the citation is issued or the order requiring correction becomes final and not subject to further review.
(d)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Labor to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsections (a) and (b)—
(A)
except to the extent that the President or designee may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)except that the President or designee may, at the discretion of the President or designee, issue regulations to implement a provision of section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 that applies to agencies or employees of the executive branch of the Federal Government in lieu of an analogous statutory provision referred to in subsection (a) or (b), if the issuance of such regulations—
(i)
would be equally effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(ii)
would promote uniformity in the application of Federal law to employees in the executive branch of the Federal Government.
(3)Employing office responsible for correction.—
The regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall include a method of identifying, for purposes of this section and for different categories of violations of subsection (a), the employing office responsible for correction of a particular violation.
(e)Effective Date.—Subsections (a) through (c) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(1)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (d); or
(2)
October 1, 1998.
Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 4 Labor-Management Relations (§ 431)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 Application of chapter 71 of title 5, relating to Federal service labor-management relations; procedures for remedy of violations
(a)Labor-Management Rights.—
Subject to subsection (d), chapter 71 of title 5 shall apply to employing offices and to covered employees and representatives of those employees, except that covered employees shall not have a right to reinstatement pursuant to section 7118(a)(7)(C) or 7123 of title 5.
(b)Definition.—
For purposes of the application under this section of chapter 71 of title 5, the term “agency” as used in such chapter means an employing office.
(c)Regulations To Implement Section.—
(1)In general.—
The Federal Labor Relations Authority shall issue regulations to implement this section.
(2)Agency regulations.—Except as provided in subsection (d), the regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall be the same as substantive regulations promulgated by the Authority to implement the statutory provisions referred to in subsection (a), except—
(A)
to the extent the Authority may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; or
(B)
as the Authority may determine that a modification of such regulations is necessary to avoid a conflict of interest or appearance of a conflict of interest.
(d)Specific Regulations Regarding Applications to Certain Employing Offices.—
(1)Regulations required.—The Authority shall issue regulations on the manner and the extent to which the requirements and exemptions of chapter 71 of title 5 should apply to covered employees who are employed in the offices listed in paragraph (2). The regulations shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be consistent with the provisions and purposes of chapter 71 of title 5 and of this chapter, and shall be the same as the substantive regulations issued by the Authority under such chapter, except—
(A)
to the extent the Authority may determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the regulation, that a modification of such regulations would be more effective for the implementation of the rights and protections under this section; and
(B)that the Authority shall exclude from coverage under this section any covered employees who are employed in offices listed in paragraph (2) if the Authority determines that such exclusion is required because of—
(i)
a conflict of interest or appearance of a conflict of interest; or
(ii)
the President’s or Vice President’s constitutional responsibilities.
(2)Offices referred to.—The offices referred to in paragraph (1) include—
(A)
the White House Office;
(B)
the Executive Residence at the White House;
(C)
the Office of the Vice President;
(D)
the Office of Policy Development;
(E)
the Council of Economic Advisers;
(F)
the National Security Council;
(G)
the Office of Management and Budget; and
(H)
the Office of National Drug Control Policy.
(e)Effective Date.—
(1)In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the earlier of—
(A)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (c); or
(B)
October 1, 1998.
(2)Certain employing offices.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect, with respect to employing offices, and employees of employing offices, referred to in subsection (d)(2), on the earlier of—
(A)
the effective date of regulations issued under subsection (d); or
(B)
October 1, 1998.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 5 General (§ 435)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1  Generally applicable remedies and limitations
(a)Attorney’s Fees.—
If a covered employee, with respect to any claim under this chapter, or a qualified person with a disability, with respect to any claim under section 421, is a prevailing party in any proceeding under section 453(1), the administrative agency may award attorney’s fees, expert fees, and any other costs as would be appropriate if awarded under section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
(b)Interest.—
In any proceeding under section 453(1), the same interest to compensate for delay in payment shall be made available as would be appropriate if awarded under section 717(d) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
(c)Civil Penalties and Punitive Damages.—
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, no civil penalty or punitive damages may be awarded with respect to any claim under this chapter.
(d)Exclusive Procedure.—
(1)In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no person may commence an administrative or judicial proceeding to seek a remedy for the rights and protections afforded by this chapter except as provided in this chapter and in sections 1296 and 1346(g) and chapter 179 of title 28.
(2)Veterans.—
covered employee under section 416 may also utilize any provisions of chapter 43 of title 38 that are applicable to that employee.
(e)Scope of Remedy.—
Only a covered employee who has undertaken and completed the procedures described in section 452 may be granted a remedy under part A of this subchapter.
(f)Construction.—
(1)Definitions and exemptions.—
Except where inconsistent with definitions and exemptions provided in this chapter, the definitions and exemptions in the laws made applicable by this chapter shall apply under this chapter.
(2)Size limitations.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), provisions in the laws made applicable under this chapter (other than paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 2(a) of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act) determining coverage based on size, whether expressed in terms of numbers of employees, amount of business transacted, or other measure, shall not apply in determining coverage under this chapter.
(g)Political Affiliation.—
It shall not be a violation of any provision of this chapter to consider, or make any employment decision based on, the party affiliation, or political compatibility with the employing office, of an employee who is a covered employee.
 Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 3 ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCEDURES (§§ 451 to 456)
1 - 1 - 1 - 1  Procedure for consideration of alleged violations

The procedure for consideration of alleged violations of part A of subchapter II consists of—

(1)
counseling and mediation as provided in section 452; and
(2)election, as provided in section 453, of either—
(A)
an administrative proceeding as provided in section 453(1) and judicial review as provided in section 1296 of title 28; or
(B)
a civil action in a district court of the United States as provided in section 1346(g) of title 28.
Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 2 Counseling and mediation
(a)In General.—
The President, or the designee of the President, shall by regulation establish procedures substantially similar to those under sections 402 and 403 of the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 for the counseling and mediation of alleged violations of a law made applicable under part A of subchapter II.
(b)Exhaustion Requirement.—
covered employee who has not exhausted counseling and mediation under subsection (a) shall be ineligible to make any election under section 453 or otherwise pursue any further form of relief under this subchapter.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 3 Election of proceeding

Not later than 90 days after a covered employee receives notice of the end of the period of mediation, but no sooner than 30 days after receipt of such notification, such covered employee may either—

(1)
file a complaint with the appropriate agency, as determined under section 454; or
(2)
file a civil action under section 1346(g) of title 28.
 Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 4 Appropriate agencies
(a)In General.—
Except as provided in subsection (b), the appropriate agency under this section with respect to an alleged violation of part A of subchapter II shall be the Board. The complaint in an action involving such an alleged violation shall be processed under the procedures specified by the President, or the designee of the President, in such regulations as the President or designee may issue.
(b)Exceptions.—
(1)Discrimination.—
For purposes of any action arising under section 411 (or any action alleging intimidation, reprisal, or discrimination under section 417 relating to any practice made unlawful under section 411), the appropriate agency shall be the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the complaint in any such action shall be processed under the same administrative procedures as any such complaint filed by any employee in the executive branch of the Federal Government (other than a covered employee).
(2)Mixed cases.—
In the case of any covered employee (within the meaning of section 411) who has been affected by an action which an employee of an executive agency may appeal to the Board and who alleges that a basis for the action was discrimination prohibited by section 411 (or any action alleging intimidation, reprisal, or discrimination under section 417 relating to any practice made unlawful under section 411), the initial appropriate agency shall be the Board, and such matter shall thereafter be processed in accordance with section 7702(a)–(d) (disregarding paragraph (2) of such subsection (a)) and (f) of title 5.
(3)Judicial review.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including any provision of law referenced in paragraph (1) or (2)), judicial review of any administrative decision under this subsection shall be by appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit under section 1296 of title 28.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 1 - 5 Effect of failure to issue regulations

In any proceeding under section 453(1), if the President, or the designee of the President, has not issued a regulation on a matter for which this chapter requires a regulation to be issued, the administrative agency shall apply, to the extent necessary and appropriate, the most relevant substantive executive agency regulation promulgated to implement the statutory provision at issue in the proceeding.

Oct. 26, 1996,
1 - 1 - 1 - 6 Confidentiality
(a)Counseling.—
All counseling under section 452 shall be strictly confidential, except that, with the consent of the covered employee, the employing office may be notified.
(b)Mediation.—
All mediation under section 452 shall be strictly confidential.
Oct. 26, 1996
1 - 1 - 4 EFFECTIVE DATE (§ 471)
(a)In General.—
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, this chapter shall take effect on October 1, 1997.
(b)Regulations.—
Sections 411(d), 412(c), 413(c), 414(c), 415(c), 416(c), 421(d), 425(d), 431(c), 431(d), 452(a), and 454(a) shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act.
Oct. 26, 1996,