400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Ancient Olympic Games in Greece 776 BC - 393 AD
Roman Republic 753 BCE - 27 CE 780
Illyrian Kingdom 700 - 167
   
Classical Period
Late Classical
Hellenistic Age 330 - 30 300
 
 
Herodotus
 
Gk war
 
Greek City States
 
Cicero
 
 
Socrates
 
Mac
 
G & R
J Caesar
 
 
Sophicles
 
Aristotle
1st
 
2nd
 
3rd
< Punic Wars
 
Hippocrates
 
6rgil
 
   
200s Évora Temple Portugal
 
Roman Province of Lusitania
24 BC - 298 AD
322
@ Emerita Augusta (Mérida, Spain), Scalabis Iulia (Santarém, Portugal) & Pax Iulia (Beja, Portugal)
000s Mérida Aqueduct Bridge
000s Segovia Aqueduct Bridge
   
Roman Province of
Hispania Citerior

197 - 27 170
-
Roman Province of
Hispania Ulterior

197 - 27 170
-
187 Aemilia Road Bologna
118 Domitia Road Bridge
Roman Province of
Hispania Citerior

197 - 27 170
-
Roman Province of
Hispania Ulterior

197 - 27 170
-
Roman Province of
Hispania Tarraconensis

27 BC - 293 AD 320
@ Tarraco (Tarragona)
Roman Province of Baetica
14 BC - 400's
400's
@ Conventus Gaditanus (Gades, Cádiz), Cordubensis (Cordoba), Astigitanus (Astigi, Écija), Hispalensis (Hispalis, Seville).
27 Carthago Nova Amphitheater Cartagena
27 BC - 14 AD Tarragona Aqueduct Bridge
27 BC - 14 AD Ferreres Aqueduct
25 Emerita Augusta Amphitheater Merida
19 Hispania Roads
19 6c Temple
Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556
437 death of Volumnius, Etruscan ruler, in Veii
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Patrician Era
509 - 367
142
499 T. Aebutius Elva
498 Q. Cloelius Siculus
497 A. Sempronius Atratinus
496 A. Postumius Albus Regillensis
1st Dictator for Battle of Lake Regillus Lucius Postumus
496 Battle of Lake Regillus: A legendary early Roman Victory, won over either Etruscans or Latins.Rome defeats Leono & Phippy Etruscan-led Latin League at battle of Lake Regillus
495 Appius Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis Censor
495 Rome invades Volscia but they give 300 hostages for peace
494 A. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus
494 Two tribunes of plebs & two plebeian aediles are elected for first time in Rome: office of tribunate is established.
493 Post. Cominius Auruncus 2
493 Coriolanus captures Volscian town of Corioli for Rome.
492 T. Geganius Macerinus
491 M. Minucius Augurinus 2
490 Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
489 C. Iulius Iullus
488 Sp. Nautius Rutilus
488 Corioli Recaptured by Volsci w/ help from Coriolanus
488 Lavinium Recaptured by Volsci lead by Coriolanus
487 T. Sicinius (Sabinus?)
486 Sp. Cassius Vscellinus3
485 Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
484 L. Aemilius Mamercus
483 - 79 4 M. Fabius Vbulanus
480 Roman troops march against Veientines.
480 Battle of Himera Carthaginians under Hamilcar defeated by Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon
478 L. Aemilius Mamercus2
477 C. Horatius Pulvillus
476 A. Verginius Tricostus Rutilus
475 P. Valerius Poplicola
474 L. Furius Medullinus
474 Aragonese Castle
473 L. Aemilius Mamercus3
472 L. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus
471 Ap. Claudius Sabinus
471 Plebeians allowed to organize by Tribe, reorganization of Plebeian Council from Curia to Tribe.
470 L. Valerius Potitus2
469 T. Numicius Priscus
468 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus2
468 Antium captured by Roman forces.
467 Ti. Aemilius Mamercus2
466 Q. Servilius (Structus) Priscus2
465 Q. Fabius 6bulanus2
464 A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
463 P. Servilius Priscus
462 L. Lucretius Tricipitinus
461 P. Volumnius Amintinus Gallus
460 P. Valerius Poplicola2
459 Q. Fabius 6bulanus3
459 college of tribune of Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes
458 C. Nautius Rutilus2
458 Cincinnatus named dictator of Roman Republic in order to defend it against Aequi. Sixteen days later, after defeating invaders at Battle of Mons Algidus, he resigns & returns to his farm.
457 C. Horatius Pulvillus2
456 M. Valerius Maximus Lactuca
455 T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus
454 Sp. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus
453 Sex. Quinctilius
452 T. Menenius Lanatus
451 Ap. Claudius Crassinus Inregillensis Sabinus
451 12 Tables of Law
451 death of Verginia, legendary Victim of decemviri
451 Decemviri:
450 Decemviri:
449 Decemviri:
449 L. Valerius Potitus
449 suicide of Appius Claudius, former decemviri
449 suicide of Spurius Oppius, former decemviri
449 Plebeian Council resolutions ("plebiscites") given full force of law over Plebeians & Patricians, but still subject to Senate veto; Decemviri publish Twelve Tables of Roman law
448 Lars (or Sp.) Herminius Coritinesanus
447 M. Geganius Macerinus
447 Tribal Assembly created: two quaestors elected for first time
446 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus 4
445 M. Genucius Augurinus
445 Marriage between patricians & plebeians allowed
444 Consular Tribunes
444 L. Papirius Mugillanus
443 M. Geganius Macerinus2
443 office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribune with consular powers, Tribuni militum consulari potestate for this year.
443 Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.
442 M. Fabius 6bulanus
441 C. Furius Pacilus Fusus
440 Proc. Geganius Macerinus
439 Agrippa Menenius Lanatus
439 Cincinnatus again becomes dictator of Roman Republic; during his term he defeats Volsci.
439 According to legend, Gaius Servilius Ahala saves Rome from Spurius Maelius.
438 Consular Tribunes: Mam. Aemilius Macerinus & L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
437 M. Geganius Macerinus3
436 L. Papirius Crassus
435 - 4 2 C. Iulius Iullus2
434 Consular Tribunes: Ser. Cornelius Cossus & M. Manlius Capitolinus
432 Consular Tribunes: L. Pinarius Mamercus & L. Furius Medullinus
431 T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus
430 C. (or L.) Papirius Crassus (II?)
429 Hostus Lucretius Tricipitinus
428 A. Cornelius Cossus
427 C. Servilius Ahala
426 Consular Tribunes: T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus & C. Furius Pacilus Fusus
425 Consular Tribunes:
424 Consular Tribunes:
423
422 Consular Tribunes:
421
421 Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians
420 Consular Tribunes:
419 Consular Tribunes:
418 Consular Tribunes:
417 Consular Tribunes:
416 Consular Tribunes:
415 Consular Tribunes:
414 Consular Tribunes:
413 A. Cornelius Cossus2
412 Q. Fabius 6bulanus Ambustus
411 M. Papirius Mugillanus (or Atratinus?)
410 M'. Aemilius Mamercinus
410 - 340 70 2nd Sicilian War
409 Cn. Cornelius Cossus
408 - 394 Consular Tribunes:
408
407
406
406 Soldiers first paid in Rome.
405
404
403
402
401
400
491 death of Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela
491 - 78 13 Gelo becomes Tyrant of Gela.
458 Oresteia Greek playwright Aeschylus completes the, a trilogy that tells story of a family blood feud. plays will have a great influence on future writers. Gela
480 1st Sicilian War
428 Mytilene rebels against Athens but is crushed.
428 Greek colony of Cumae in Italy falls to Samnites.
427 Athenians intervene in Sicily to blockade Sparta from island.
424 Sicily withdraws from war & expels every foreign power. Thus, Athens is forced to withdraw from island.
454 Hostilities between Segesta & Selinunte, two Greek cities on Sicily.
409 Carthaginians invade Sicily.
406 Carthaginians once again invade Sicily & return to Carthage with spoils of war, but also with plague.
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
522
Tyrants
491 - 212 279
491 - 78 13 Gelon 1
478 - 66 12 Hiero 1
466 - 5 1 Thrasybulus
465 - 05 60 Democracy
405 - 367 38 Dionysius 1, Elder
405 Dionysius Elder rises to power in Syracuse, Sicily. He signs a peace with Carthage & starts consolidating & expanding his influence.

490 - 30 60 Zeno of Elea South Italy, Philosopher
497 Saturn Temple Rome
495 Castor & Pollux Temple Rome
480 - 60 Crotone Coin
450 Morgantina
400s She-wolf suckles Romulus & Remus
400s Apollo Temple Sosianus Rome

Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556
300s Romans conquer Abruzzi region, decline of Etruscan civilization.
396 Rome captures & sacks Etruscan city of Veii after a 10-year siege, final assault was conducted by Marcus Furius Camillus
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Patrician Era
509 - 367
142
399
398
397
396
396 1st Salary for Soldiers
395
394
393 L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola
392 L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola 2
391 - 76 15 Consular Tribunes
391 Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul
390 Battle of Allia Gauls defeat Roman army at the; sack of Rome by Gauls
389 o
388 o
387 o
386 o
385 o
384 o
383 o
382 o
381 o
380 o
379 o
378 o
377 o
376 o
375 - 1 4 Anarchy years: no magistrates elected
370 - 67 3 Consular Tribunes
370 o
369 o
368 o
367 o
End of Conflict of Orders
367 - 287
80
367 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time.
366 L. Aemilius Mamercinus
366 Patricians agree to allow Plebeian Consuls to be elected (the first being Lucius Sextius Sextinus). By this, Plebeians acquire de facto right to be elected Censor or appointed Dictator. As a concession, Plebeians allow Patricians to create offices of Praetor & Curule Aedile, & allow only Patricians to run for these offices.
365 L. Genucius Aventinensis
364 C. Sulpicius Peticus
363 Cn. Genucius Aventinensis
362 Q. Servilius Ahala2
361 C. Licinius Stolo
360 M. Fabius Ambustus
360 Theater of Tholos Epidauros
359 M. Popillius Laenas
358 C. Fabius Ambustus
357 C. Marcius Rutilus
356 M. Fabius Ambustus2
355 C. Sulpicius Peticus3
354 M. Fabius Ambustus3
353 C. Sulpicius Peticus 4
352 P. Valerius Poplicola
351 C. Sulpicius Peticus V
351 Elected first non-patrician Dictator
350 M. Popillius Laenas3 (IV?)
349 L. Furius Camillus
348 M. Valerius Corvus
347 C. Plautius Venno (or Venox)
346 M. Valerius Corvus2
345 M. Fabius Dorsuo
344 C. Marcius Rutilus3
343 M. Valerius Corvus3
343 - 1 2 1st Samnite War Rome withdraws from conflict with Samnites
342 Q. Servilius Ahala3
342 Lex Genucia passed: no man can hold same office before 10 years have elapsed from first election
342 2nd Law passed, disallowing any man from holding two offices at once.
341 C. Plautius Venno (or Venox)2
340 T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus3
339 Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus
339 Law passed (the lex Publilia) which requires election of one Plebeian censor for each five year term.
338 L. Furius Camillus
- 338 End of Latin War. Latin League dissolved, & territory placed under Roman control.
337 C. Sulpicius Longus
337 Elected first non-patrician Praetor (Q. Publilius Philo).
336 L. Papirius Crassus
335 M. Atilius Regulus Calenus
334 Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus
333 Dictator: P. Cornelius Rufinus
332 Cn. Domitius Calvinus
331 C. Valerius Potitus
330 L. Papirius Crassus2
329 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas2
328 P. Plautius Proculus
327 L. Cornelius Lentulus
327 - 04 23 2nd Samnite War
326 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus 3
325 L. Furius Camillus 2
324 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor
323 C. Sulpicius Longus 2
322 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus
321 T. Veturius Calvinus 2
320 L. Papirius Cursor 2
319 L. Papirius Cursor 3
318 M. Folius Flaccinator
317 C. Iunius Bubulcus Brutus
316 Sp. Nautius Rutilus
315 L. Papirius Cursor 4
315 - 07 8 3rd Sicilian War
314 M. Poetelius Libo
313 L. Papirius Cursor 5
312 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus
312 1st Roman military road "Appian Way" 350 mile long Appius Claudius
311 C. Iunius Bubulcus Brutus3
311 Etruscans join Samnites against Rome.
310 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus2
309 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor
308 P. Decius Mus2
307 Ap. Claudius Caecus
306 Q. Marcius Tremulus
306 Hernici Revolt against Rome (Livy ix. 42).
305 L. Postumius Megellus
308 - 4 4 2nd Samnite war escalates when Umbrians, Picentini, & Marsians join war- against Rome. Rome establishes many new colonies & gains control over much of central & southern Italy.
305 Battle of Bovianum ends with Samnite defeat & end of main Samnite resistance.
304 P. Sempronius Sophus
303 Ser. Cornelius Lentulus
302 M. Livius Denter
301 Dictator: M. Valerius Maximus Corvus
300 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus V
304 Aequi defeated.
300 Lex Ogulnia passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
522
Tyrants
491 - 212 279
405 - 367 38 Dionysius 1, Elder X65
367 - 357 10 Dionysius 2, Younger
357 - 4 3 Dion
354 - 2 2 Calippus
352 - 1 1 Hipparinus
352 - 50 2 Aretaeus
350 - 46 4 Nysaeos
346 - 4 2 Dionysius 2, Younger restored
345 - 37 8 Timoleon
337 - 17 20 Oligarchy
317 - 289 28 Agathocles of Syracuse
Samnite Tribal Confederation
300s? - 290 ?
-
400 - 375 6lla Romana del Casale Bikinimaedchen
390s Labicana Road Arco di Gallieno Rome
383 Sutrium Amphitheater Sutri Italy
381 BC - 1191 Tusculum Annexxed to Rome to abandomment
312 Lazio - 6a Appia Antica
312 Appia Aqueduct
311 Arretium Amphitheater Italy Conquered by Rome
312 Appian Road Brindisi Colonna end
300s Concord Temple Rome










Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Conflict of Orders
367 - 287
80
299 M. Fulvius Paetinus
298 - 90 8 3rd Samnite War Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on Lombard plain, start third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul & Sabine & Etruscan allies to help them.
298 L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus
298 Roman armies penetrate into heart of Samnite territory & then capture Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus & Aufidena
298 Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists Italian Greeks against Bruttians & supported Greeks against Romans.
298 Ptolemy gives his stepdaughter Theoxena in marriage to Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse (in south-eastern Sicily).
298 Romans capture Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus & Aufidena.
297 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus 4
297 Consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats Samnites near Tifernum (Liv. 10.14).
296 L. Volumnius Flamma 6olens2
295 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus V
294 L. Postumius Megellus2
294 Battle of Luceria Samnite 6ctory
293 L. Papirius Cursor
293 Time 1st divided into hours by a sundial of L. Papirius, Cursor at Rome.
292 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges
291 L. Postumius Megellus3
291 Romans storm Samnite city of Venusia
290 P. Cornelius Rufinus
Supremacy of New Nobility
287 - 133
154
289 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus2
288 Q. Marcius Tremulus2
287 M. Claudius Marcellus
287 Last Plebeian Secession; Senate loses veto power over Plebeian Council (through Lex Hortensia), Conflict of Orders ends.
286 M. Valerius Maximus (Corvus3 or Potitus?)
285 C. Claudius Canina
284 C. Servilius Tucca
283 P. Cornelius Dolabella
283 Battle of Lake Vadimo Rome defeats Etruscans & Boii (a Gallic tribe) in
282 C. Fabricius Luscinus
281 L. Aemilius Barbula
281 Mounting tensions between Rome & Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid.
280 P. Valerius Laevinus
280 - 72 8 Pyrrhic War Pyrrhus lands army in Italy. Beginning of the.Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus, end of Pyrrhic War. King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate Romans & bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself.
279 P. Sulpicius Saverrio
278 C. Fabricius Luscinus 2
277 P. Cornelius Rufinus 2
276 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges 2
275 M'. Curius Dentatus 2
274 M'. Curius Dentatus 3
273 C. Fabius Licinus
272 L. Papirius Cursor2
272 Tarentum surrenders to Rome
271 K. Quinctius Claudus
270 C. Genucius Clepsina2
270s After failing to decisively defeat Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy.
269 Q. Ogulnius Gallus
268 P. Sempronius Sophus
267 M. Atilius Regulus
267 Number of quaestors raised from 4 to 6
266 D. Iunius Pera
265 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges
264 Ap. Claudius Caudex
263 M'. Valerius Maximus Mesalla
262 L. Postumius Megellus
261 L. Valerius Flaccus
260 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina
260 1st Roman fleet built.
259 L. Cornelius Scipio
258 A. Atilius Calatinus
257 C. Atilius Regulus
256 L. Manlius Vulso Longus
255 Ser. Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior
254 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina 2
253 Cn. Servilius Caepio
252 C. Aurelius Cotta
251 L. Caecilius Metellus
250 C. Atilius Regulus 2
249 P. Claudius Pulcher
248 C. Aurelius Cotta 2
247 L. Caecilius Metellus 2
246 M'. Otacilius Crassus 2
246 - 1 5 1st Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, & annexes Sicily & Corsica
- Hannibal 1960
- Scipio Africanus: Defeat of Hannibal 1939
- Cabiria 1910

245 M. Fabius Buteo
244 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus
243 C. Fundanius Fundulus
242 C. Lutatius Catulus
242 Office of Praetor peregrinus created
241 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus 2
241 Following defeat of Carthage, Sicily becomes first Roman province
241 BCE - 476 CE 227 Roman Province of Sicilia @ Siracusa, Sicily.
240 C. Claudius Centho
239 C. Mamilius Turrinus
238 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
238 "Truceless War" with Carthage
238 - 456 694 Provinces of Corsica & Sardinia.
237 L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
236 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
235 T. Manlius Torquatus
234 L. Postumius Albinus
233 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
232 M. Aemilius Lepidus
231 M. Pomponius Matho
230 M. Aemilius Barbula
229 L. Postumius Albinus2
228 Sp. Carvilius Maximus Ruga2
227 P. Valerius Flaccus
227 Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8; number of praetors raised from 2 to 4
226 M. Valerius Maximus Messalla
225 L. Aemilius Papus
225 Battle of Telamon Large Gallic army defeated by Romans at.
224 T. Manlius Torquatus2
224 Battle of Telamon Rome defeats invading Gallic army at the
223 C. Flaminius
223 Rome defeats Gauls in Cisalpine Gaul
222 M. Claudius Marcellus
221 P. Cornelius Scipio Asina
221 Hannibal of Carthage defeated Romans.
220 M. Valerius Laevinus
219 L. Aemilius Paullus
218 P. Cornelius Scipio
218 - 02 16 2nd Punic War
- Hannibal 1960
- Scipio Africanus: Defeat of Hannibal 1939
- Cabiria 1910
218 Battle of River Trebia Rome is defeated at .
217 Cn. Servilius Geminus
216 C. Terentius Varro
216 Battle of Cannae Hannibal famously crushed Roman legions at the.

215 M. Claudius Marcellus2
214 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus 4

214 - 05 9 1st Macedonian War Romans unsuccessful

213 Q. Fabius Maximus

213 - 1 2 Siege of Syracuse, Rome captures city

212 Q. Fulvius Flaccus3
211 Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus
210 M. Claudius Marcellus 4
209 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus V
208 M. Claudius Marcellus V
207 C. Claudius Nero
206 L. Veturius Philo
205 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus
204 M. Cornelius Cethegus

204 - 2 2 Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa
203 Cn. Servilius Caepio
202 M. Servilius Pulex Geminus
202 Battle of Zama Hannibal recalled & defeated in thein
202 Carthage's territories reduced to city itself, & crippling reparations are demanded by Rome.
201 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
200 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus2
Samnite Tribal Confederation
300s? - 290 ?
-
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
Tyrants
491 - 212 279
317 - 289 28 Agathocles of Syracuse
289 - 80 9 Hicetas
280 Toinon
280 - 77 3 Sosistratus
277 - 5 2 Epirus
275 - 15 60 Hiero 2 of Syracuse
240 - 16 24 Gelo 2
215 - 4 1 Hieronymus
214 Adranodoros
213 - 2 1 Hippocrates
213 - 2 1 Epicydes
287 - 212 75 Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, & engineerInvented Water Screw, Lever

296 Bellona Temple Rome
295 Suasa Founded
295 Suasa Amphitheater
294 Rusellae Amphitheater Captured by Romans
286 di Porta Cappuccina Bridge Becomes Fedrated City in Rome
286 Tiburtina Bridge Lucano 1850
280 Italy dell'Abbadia Bridge Conquered Etruscans
273 Paestum Amphitheater City Founded
263 Catăna Amphitheater Catĭna Becomes Roman
260 Segesta Conquered by Rome
238 Cagliari Amphitheater Caralis Under Roman Rule
238 Tibur Amphitheater Roman Citizens
220 Flaminia Road Carsulae San Damiano
220 Flaminia Cagli Bridge Mallio Marche
212 Syracuse Amphitheater Conquered by Rome
200s Lupiae Amphitheater Lecce
200 Veiovis Temple Rome

Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Supremacy of New Nobility
287 - 133
154
199 L. Cornelius Lentulus
198 Sex. Aelius Paetus Catus
197 C. Cornelius Cethegus
196 L. Furius Purpureo
195 L. Valerius Flaccus
194 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus2
193 L. Cornelius Merula
192 L. Quinctius Flamininus
191 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica
191 - 88 3 Roman-Syrian War
190 L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus
189 M. Fulvius Nobilior
188 M. Valerius Messalla
187 M. Aemilius Lepidus
186 Sp. Postumius Albinus
185 Ap. Claudius Pulcher
184 P. Claudius Pulcher
183 M. Claudius Marcellus
182 Cn. Baebius Tamphilus
181 P. Cornelius Cethegus
180 A. Postumius Albinus Luscus
179 Q. Fulvius Flaccus
178 M. Iunius Brutus
177 C. Claudius Pulcher
176 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispallus
175 P. Mucius Scaevola
174 Sp. Postumius Albinus Paullulus
174 Streets of Rome Paved
173 Lucius Postumius Albinus
172 Gaius Popillius Laenas
171 Publius Licinius Crassus
170 Aulus Hostilius Mancinus
170 1st Public Bakery
169 Q. Marcius Philippus2
168 L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus2
167 Q. Aelius Paetus
167 Rome takes Illyria
166 M. Claudius Marcellus
165 T. Manlius Torquatus
164 A. Manlius Torquatus
163 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus2
162 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum
161 M. Valerius Messalla
161 Jews signed a treaty with Romans. first treaty with Jews on record.
160 L. Anicius Gallus
159 Cn. Cornelius Dolabella
158 M. Aemilius Lepidus
157 Sex. Iulius Caesar
156 L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus
155 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum 2
154 Q. Opimius
153 Q. Fulvius Nobilior
152 M. Claudius Marcellus 3
151 L. Licinius Lucullus
150 Q. Fulvius Nobilior
150 - 100 50 Germans meet Romans - hate at first sight.
149 L. Marcius Censorinus
149 - 6 3 3rd Punic War
- Carthage in Flames 1959
148 Sp. Postumius Albinus Magnus
147 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus
146 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
146 Carthiage was taken by Scipio & became a part of Rome.
145 Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus
148 Macedonia becomes a Roman providence.
146 Corinth destroyed by Romans.
146 Greece became a Province under name of Athens.
146 Greek city-states become part of Roman Empire.
144 Ser. Sulpicius Galba
143 Ap. Claudius Pulcher
142 L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus
141 Cn. Servilius Caepio
140 C. Laelius (Sapiens)
139 Cn. Calpurnius Piso
138 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio
137 M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina
136 L. Furius Philus
135 Ser. Fulvius Flaccus
135 - 2 3 1st Servile War
134 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus2
From Gracchi to Caesar
133 - 49
86
133 P. Mucius Scaevola
133 Spain became a Roman province. Pergamus became a Roman province.
132 P. Popillius Laenas
131 P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus
130 L. Cornelius Lentulus
129 C. Sempronius Tuditanus
128 Cn. Octavius
127 L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla
126 M. Aemilius Lepidus
125 M. Plautius Hypsaeus
124 C. Cassius Longinus
123 Q. Caecilius Metellus Balearicus
122 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
122 - 05 17 Jugurthine War
121 L. Opimius
120 P. Manilius
119 L. Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus
118 M. Porcius Cato
117 L. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus
116 C. Licinius Geta
115 M. Aemilius Scaurus
114 M'. Acilius Balbus
113 C. Caecilius Metellus Caprarius
113 - 101
Cimbrian War between Roman Republic & Proto-Germanic tribes of Cimbri & Teutons (Teutones), who migrated from northern Europe into Roman controlled territory
112 M. Livius Drusus
111 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio
110 M. Minucius Rufus
109 Q. Caecilius Metellus (Numidicus)
108 Ser. Sulpicius Galba
107 L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla
107 Roman consul Gaius Marius passes Marian Reforms, which remove all ownership restrictions for joining Roman Army.
106 Q. Servilius Caepio
105 P. Rutilius Rufus
104 - 00 4 C. Marius 2
106 - 43 Cicero Roman orator & philosopher
138 - 78 60 Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Roman general & politician
157 - 86 71 Gaius Marius General, Politician
120s Temple perhaps dedicated to Portunes, Forum Boarium, Rome, is built.
110s Aulus Metellus, found near Perugia, is made. It is now kept at Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
35 Segestani attacked by Romans
104 - 100 4 2nd Servile War
197 Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12; number of praetors raised from 4 to 6
180 Lex 6llia annalis: established minimum ages for cursus honorum offices; established an interval of two years between offices
149 A permanent extortion court is established by Lex Calpurnia
146 Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Scipio Africanus Younger) puts an end to Punic & Achaean threat by destroying cities of Carthage & Corinth; Macedonia & Africa are annexed as provinces
133 tribune Tiberius Gracchus is murdered after securing an agrarian reform
121 Rome acquires province of Transalpine Gaul (south of modern France) & a safe land route to Hispania
121 Senate approves first Senatus consultum de re publica defenda to deal with threat of 6olence started by tribune Gaius Gracchus
112 - 5 7 Jugurthine War against king Jughurta of Numidia begins. ends with capture of Jughurta.
107 Gaius Marius elected consul based on election promise to end war in one year.
107 Marian reforms of Roman Legions put into effect.
106 Gaius Marius elected consul a second time, & in absentia, to continue Jugurthine War.
105 Battle of Arausio invading tribe of Cimbri inflict a major defeat on Roman army in the
104 - 2 2 Gaius Marius elected consul for three years in a row
102 Battle of Aquae Sextiae Consular armies under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons in the
100 Gaius Marius elected consul for a 6th time.
100 Political scandal surrounding Lucius Appuleius Saturninus forces Gaius Marius to retire from public life.
180 Lucca Amphitheater
167 Concord Temple Rome
148 Postumia Road Italy reconstructed
144 - 40 Marcia Aqueduct
144 - 40 Rome aqueduct bridge 1 part of Aqua marcia
142 BC - 1598 Aemilius Bridge rome Life
126 Tepula Aqueduct
115 Mulvius Bridge rome
100 BC - 1874 AD Salario Bridge
100 BC - 1957 Pietra Bridge Construction
100s Hercules Temple 6ctor Rome
100 BC - 300 AD Mithraeum Temple London England
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
From Gracchi to Caesar
133 - 49
86
99 M. Antonius
98 Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos
97 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
96 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
95 L. Licinius Crassus
94 C. Coelius Caldus
93 C. Valerius Flaccus
92 C. Claudius Pulcher
92 Lucullus invades Armeniasetting off centuries long Roman-Persian Wars.
91 L. Marcius Philippus
91 - 88 3 Social wars, last rebellion of Italian nations against Rome
90 L. Iulius Caesar
89 Cn. Pompeius Strabo
89 - 5 4 1st Mithridatic War against Mithridates 6 of Pontus
88 L. Cornelius Sulla Felix
88 - 7 1 Sulla's 1st civil war
88 Sulla crosses pomerium with his legions & invades Rome
87 Cn. Octavius
86 L. Cornelius Cinna2
85 L. Cornelius Cinna3
84 Cn. Papirius Carbo2
84 Britain first known to be an island by Romans who sailed around it.
83 L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus
83 - 2 1 2nd Mithridatic War Sulla returns to Rome & is nominated dictator
83 - 2 1 1st Roman civil war between Sulla & popular faction; Sulla wins & becomes dictator; censor office abolished (to be recreated in 70 BC)
82 C. Marius
82 - 72 10 Sertorius, last Marian general continues civil war in Hispania
82 - 1 1 Sulla's 2nd civil war
81 M. Tullius Decula
81 Sulla appointed dictator of Rome brings major reforms.
80 L. Cornelius Sulla Felix2
79 P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus
78 M. Aemilius Lepidus
77 D. Iunius Brutus
76 Cn. Octavius
75 L. Octavius
74 L. Licinius Lucullus
73 M. Terentius Varro Lucullus
73 - 1 2 3rd Servile War or Spartacist Rebellion Sparticus's slave revolt 3rd Servile War.
- Spartacus 1960 
- Spartacus 2004
- Sins of Rome 1954

72 L. Gellius Publicola
74 - 63 11 3rd Mithridatic War eventually won by Pompey
71 P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura
70 Cn. Pompeius Magnus
69 Q. Hortensius Hortalus
68 L. Caecilius Metellus
67 C. Calpurnius Piso
67 Pompey clears Mediterranean of pirates
66 M'. Aemilius Lepidus
65 L. Aurelius Cotta
64 L. Iulius Caesar
63 M. Tullius Cicero
63 Catiline Conspiracy & Jugurthine War 111-105 B.C. by Sallust 86-34 184M
63 consulship of Cicero; Catiline conspiracies
63 Fall of Jerusalem
62 D. Iunius Silanus
61 M. Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus
60 Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer
- 60 Pompey of Rome conquered Jerusalem.
59 C. Iulius Caesar
58 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
57 P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther
56 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
55 Cn. Pompeius Magnus2
54 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus
60 - 54 6 An informal coalition is formed by Gāius Jūlius Caesar, Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus & Marcus Licinius Crassus to govern Roman republic. This coalition is often referred to as First triumvirate, even though it did not have official sanction of law required for a legal triumvirate.
54 - 3 1 First campaign against Parthian Empire; Crassus utterly defeated & killed
53 Crasus invaded Parthia, defeated.
53 Cn. Domitius Calvinus
52 Cn. Pompeius Magnus3
51 Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
50 L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus
58 - 51 7 Caesar fights Gallic wars, acquiring province of Gallia Comata
6/58 Battle of Arrar
58 Battle of Bibracte
58 Battle of Vosges
57 Battle of Axona
57 Battle of Sabis
12/57-1/56 Battle of Octodurus
54 Battle of Cenabum
1/52 Battle of Vellaunodunum
1/52 Siege of Avaricum
52 Battle of Agendicum
52 Battle of Gergovia
52 Battle of Lutetia
52 Neung-sur-Beuvron
9/52 Battle of Alesia
51 Siege of Uxellodunum
58 - 51 BC Commentaries of Gallic Wars 199M 7;16;28
70 - 19 6rgil Poet
65 - 27 38 Horace Poet
period of transition
49 - 27 22
49 C. Claudius Marcellus Maior
49 - 5 4 Julius Caesar's 100 - 44 56 civil war
- Julius Caesar 1953
- Julius Caesar 2002
- Julius Caesar 1970
- Rome 2005
49 Caesar crosses Rubicon (alea iacta est) & begins Second Roman civil war against Optimates, conservative faction of senate, led by Pompey
4/49 Siege of Massilia
6/49 Battle of Ilerda
49 Battle of Utica
8/49 Battle of Bagradas River
48 C. Iulius Caesar 2
48 - 5 3 Caesar pursues & defeats Optimates in Greece & Africa
7/48 Battle of Dyrrhachium
8/48 Battle of Pharsalus
48 Syria became a part of Rome.
47 Q. Fufius Calenus
46 C. Iulius Caesar 3
1/46 Battle of Ruspina
4/46 Battle of Thapsus
4/46 Battle of Anticato
45 C. Iulius Caesar 4
3/45 Battle of Munda
44 C. Iulius Caesar V
44 - 30 14 Post-Caesarian civil wars
44 Caesar is assassinated on Ides of March
44 - 36 8 Sicilian Revolt
44 - 2 2 Liberators' Civil War between assassins of Caesar (led by Cassius & Brutus) & Caesar's heirs, Octavian & Mark Antony
43 C. 6bius Pansa Caetronianus
43 Philippics by Cicero 106 - 43 BC 170M 9;46;24
43 Octavius, Lepidus & Mark Antony formed second Triumvirate.
42 M. Aemilius Lepidus2
41 L. Antonius Pietas
41 - 40 1 Fulvia's Civil War
40 Cn. Domitius Calvinus2
39 L. Marcius Censorinus
38 Ap. Claudius Pulcher
37 M. 6psanius Agrippa
37 Roman Senate appointed Herod, an Idumean Arab, King of Judea. He ruled for 34 years. Herod began construction of great Jewish Temple on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem.
36 L. Gellius Publicola
36 Antony's Parthian campaign ends in failure
36 Lepidus expelled from Triumvirate.
35 Sex. Pompeius
34 M. Antonius2
33 Imp. Caesar Divi f.2
32 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
32 - 30 2 Antony's Civil War
32 End of peaceful relations between Octavian & Antony
31 M. Antonius3 (only in east)
30 Imp. Caesar Divi f. 4
30 Egypt Became Roman Province Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide
29 Imp. Caesar Divi f. V
29 - 19 Aeneid by 6rgil 208M 7;35;41
28 Imp. Caesar Divi f. 6
27 Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus 6I
27 End of Republic, beginning of Roman Empire: Octavian is now called Augustus Caesar & becomes sole ruler of Rome
Roman Empire
27 BC - 476 AD
503
27 BC - 14 AD Octavius ruled 44 years as first Emperor of Rome. Golden Age of Rome started.
00s Catiline, attempted to overthrow Roman Republic
59 BCE - 17 CE 76 Livy (Titus Livisu), Roman historian
95 - 46 49 Cato Younger Politician, Statesmam
85 - 42 43 Marcus Junius Brutus, Caesar's adopted son, supposedly killed him
106 - 48 58 Pompey Magnus General, Politician
28 - 4 4 Augustus' campaigns against Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis (see Cantabrian Wars)
25 BC Foundation of City V1 B1-2 by Livy 59 BC- 17 AD 111M 7;11;32
16 - 5 1 Augustus' campaigns against Alpine tribes
15 On Architecture by 6truvius 80 - 15 BC 250M 9;34;58
Roman Province of
Alpes Cottiae

14 BC - 400's
400s
@ Segusio (Susa)
Roman Province of
Alpes Poeninae

14 BC - 400's 400s
- Aosta Including Switzerland
12 - 7 5 Tiberius & Drusus conquer Pannonia & campaign against Germanic tribes
90s Civitas Amphitheater Camunnorum Italy
89 Herculaneum Bathhouse Floor
79 Munita Road at pompey
75 Portunus Temple Rome
70 Pompeii Amphitheater
62 Fabricius Bridge Rome
62 - 27 Cestius Bridge Rome built
46 BCE - 113 CE Roman Forum
46 Venus Genetrix Temple Rome
45 Patavium Padova Amphitheater Becomes Roman Municipum
38 BC - 52 AD Claudia Aqueduct Bridge Rome
29 Caesar Temple
28 Apollo Temple Palatinus Rome
27 Augustus Forum Rome
27 BC - 14 AD Saint-Martin Bridge
27 d'Augusto at Narni Bridge
20 - 2 Augustus Forum Rome
19 BC - 530s AD Agrippa Bathhouse Rome
19 6rgo Aqueduct
13 Porta Augusta Julia Augusta Road France
11 Augusta Praetoria Amphitheater Salassorum Semicolonne
000s Neronianus Bridge rome
000s Molino Bridge
000s BC - 547 AD Nomentano Bridge
3 Pont d'Aël Aqueduct
2 Alsietina Aqueduct
2 BCE - 4 CE Augustus Temple Rome
000s Vesta Temple Tivoli
000s Minerva Temple Assisi


400 Carthaginians occupy Malta.
800 - 480 320 Phoenician rule.
     
480 - 218 262 Carthaginian rule
264 - 146 118 Punic Wars
218 Roman rule begins
 
300s Dalmatae push Liburni west & Daorsi & Ardiaei east
279 Gallic invasion of Balkans
200s Klis Castle Croatia
Roman province of Illyricum
167 BC - 20 AD
187
- Salona (Solin)
Roman province of Illyricum
167 BC - 20 AD
187
- Salona (Solin)
32 BC - 600 CE Salonae Amphitheater Salona Croatia
27 BC - 68 AD Pula Amphitheater Croatia
Illyria
700 - 167
533
-
400-50 BC - 500 AD Phoenice
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
Dardani
385 - 370 15
- Illyria
385 - 58 27 Bardyllis
358 - ? Audata probably daughter of Bardyllis & wife of Philip 2 married to him after battle of 358.
- Cleitus <
- Bardyllis 2 ^
- Bircenna Queen ^
- Longarus
? - 370 Bato ^
Paeonian
370 - 250
120
370 - 359 Agis 
356 - 40 16 Lycceius
340 - 15 25 Patraus
315 - 285 30 Audoleon^
400 Butrint Amphitheater Albania
350 Byllis 1st Mentioned
370 Amantia Map of ancient Epirus & environs
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
Paeonian
370 - 250
120
229 Apollonia odeon is part of Epirus
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
181 - 68 13 Gentius of Ardiaeilast king
167 BCE Captured Shkoder-Rhozofa Castle
167 - 35 32 Ballaios perhaps ruled city of Rhizon
 
   
279 Singidunum & Taurunum, today's Belgrade & Zemun, is founded by Scordisci Celts.
 
75 Singidunum Roman Wall under Medieval wall
000s Golden Roman helmet Sirmium Conquered by Rome
27 BC - 441 CE 6minacium Amphitheater Serbia
 
300s Samuil's Fortress Ohrid1
350s - 150s Heraclea Lyncestis Ancientbitola
217 Phiulip 5 Annexes Stobi
181 Strumica Bathhouse Macedonia
100s Scupi capital of Darnadia Macedon
 
5 - 400s Eretria
Kingdom of Sparta
1490 - 146
1344
Agiad
498 - 54 44 Alexander 1
454 - 48 6 Alcetas 2
448 - 13 35 Perdiccas 2
429 King Sitalkes of Thrace invades Macedonia.
413 - 399 14 Archelaus
570 - 495 75 Pythagoras Greek philosopher & mathematician, on island of Samos.
499 - 48 51 Persian Wars
499 - 4 5 Ionian Revolt
499 Sardis destroyed by Athenian & Ionian troops.
497 Potidaea Tsunami
493 Piraeus, port town of Athens founded.
493 - 429 Pericles rules Athens. He solidifies Cleistenes' reforms & masterminds construction of Parthenon.
492 - 90 2 1st Persian invasion of Greece
490 Battle of Marathon, where Darius 1 of Persia is defeated by Athenians & Plataeans under Miltiades
490 Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce news of Greek 6ctory; origin of marathon long-distance race.
489 - ? Eudoxus of Cnidus, early mathematician & adherent of Pythagoras Dion, student of Plato & tyrant of Syracuse
489 Cities of Rhodes unite & start construction of new city of Rhodes.
485 Heraclitus of Ephesus flourishes. He teaches that reality is in a constant state of flux: "One cannot step into same river twice."
484 - 25 59 Herodotus of Halicarnasus father of history.
1st Athenian Empire
478 - 404 74
- Ancient Greece Delos island Also known as Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
500 - 400 100 Classical Period
500 - 499 1 Smyrus
499 - 8 1 Lacratides
498 - 7 1 Unknown
497 - 6 1 Archias
496 - 5 1 Hipparchus
495 - 4 1 Philippus
494 - 3 1 Pythocritus
493 - 2 1 Themistocles
492 - 1 1 Diognetus
491 - 0 1 Hybrilides
490 1st Persian invasion of Greece
490 Battle of Marathon Athens VS Persia
490 - 89 1 Phaenippus
489 - 8 1 Aristides Just
550 - 489 61 Miltiades Athenian general
488 - 7 1 Anchises
487 Athenian Archonship becomes elective by lot, an important milestone in move towards radical Athenian democracy.
487 Aegina - Athens War
487 - 6 1 Telesinus
486 - 5 1 Ceures
485 - 4 1 Philocrates
484 Poetry Prize won by AeschylusPlaywright
484 - 3 1 Leostratus
483 - 2 1 Nicodemus
482 - 1 1 Unknown
481 - 0 1 Hypsichides
480 - 04 76 Golden Age of Athens
480 - 79 1 2nd Persian invasion of Greece, Spartans are defeated at Thermopylae, Athens is occupied by Persians. Persians are finally defeated at Salamis.
480 Battle of Artemisium. Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with Greek allied fleet.
480 Battle of Salamis between Greece & Persia, leading to a Greek 6ctory. thanks to military genius of Themistocles, Athenians crush Xerxes & Persians at naval .
479 Battle of Plataea, Greeks defeat Persians, ending Persian Wars. death of Mardonius, Persian commander
480 - 79 1 Calliades
479 - 8 1 Xanthippus
478 - 7 1 Greek counterattack
478 - 7 1 Timosthenes
477 - 31 46 Delian League.
477 Construction on Parthenon begins under guidance of Pericles.
477 - 6 1 Adimantus
776 BC - 393 AD 1169 Ancient Olympic Games in Greece
476 - 5 1 Phaedon

476 - 49 27 Wars of Delian League
475 - 4 1 Dromoclides
474 - 3 1 Acestorides
473 - 2 1 Menon
472 - 1 1 Chares
472 Carystus in Euboea forced to join Delian League.
472 Playwright Aeschylus submits a Tragedy called Persians to annual drama competition in Athens. play tells story of Battle of Salamis from Persians' perspective.
471 - 0 1

Praxiergus
- 471 Athenian politician Themistocles ostracized
470 - 69 1 Demotion
469 - 8 1 Apsephion

468 Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for Athenian Prize.
530 - 468 62 Aristides Athenian Statesman
468 - 7 1 Theagenides
467 - 6 1 Lysistratus
466 - 5 1 Lysanias

466 Battle of Eurymedon Delian League defeats Persia at the.
465 - 4 1 Lysitheus
464 - 3 1 Archedemides
463 - 2 1 Tlepolemus
462 - 1 1 Conon
461 - 0 1 Euthippus

461 Ephialtes leader of radical democrats, assassinated.
461 - 29 32 Pericles in public life, democracy perfected & court system completed.
460 - 59 1 Phrasicles
459 - 8 1 Philocles
458 - 7 1 Habron

457 Battle of Tanagra Spartans defeat Athenians near Thebes.
457 Battle of Oenophyta Athenians defeat Thebans & take control of Boeotia.
457 - 6 1 Mnesitheides
456 - 5 1 Callias
455 - 4 1 Sosistratus

455 A thirty years' truce concluded between Athens & Lacedaemon.
454 - 3 1 Ariston
454 Delian League, a naval alliance of Athens & other city-states, is established through talks on isle of Delos.
454 Athens loses a fleet & possibly as many as 50,000 men in a failed attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia.
454 treasury of Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens.
453 - 2 1 Lysicrates
452 - 1 1 Chaerephanes
451 - 0 1 Antidotus
510 - 450 60 Cimon Politician ^Miltiades
450 - 49 1 Euthydemus

449 - 8 1 Pedieus
448 - 7 1 Philiscus
447 - 6 1 Timarchides
457 Athenian statesman Pericles' greatest reform, allowing common people to serve in any state office, inaugurates Golden Age of Ancient Athens.
447 - 38 9 Acropolis Ictinus & Callicrates finish construction of Parthenon, located on Athens'.
446 - 5 1 Callimachus
445 - 4 1 Lysimachides
444 - 3 1 Praxiteles
443 - 2 1 Lysanias
443 - 29 14 Pericles leader of Athens during Golden Age.
442 Antigone by Sophocles of Colonus
442 - 1 1 Diphilus
441 - 0 1 Timocles
440 - 39 1 Morychides
440 Samian War between Athens & Samos.
- 439 - 8 1 Glaucinus
438 - 7 1 Theodorus
437 - 6 1 Euthymenes
436 - 5 1 Lysimachus
435 - 4 1 Antiochides
434 Attept to Square Circle w/ Straight Edge & Compass by Anaxagoras
434 - 3 1 Crates
433 - 2 1 Apseudes

432 Battle of Potidaea Athens defeats Corinth
432 Athens adopts a 19-year cycle of synchronizing solar & lunar calendars.
432 - 1 1 Pythodorus

431 - 04 27 Peloponnesian War between Sparta & Athens & their allies.
430 Typhus Plague one third of Athens dies
431 - 0 1 Euthydemus
430 Oedipus King 1st performance by Sophocles
430 - 29 1 Apollodorus
429 Battle of Chalcis Chalcidians & allies defeat Athens
429 Battle of Naupactus - Phormio defeats Peloponnesian fleet.
429 - 8 1 Epameinon

428 Sparta attempts to crush a rebellion on Corcyra, but cancels effort when Athenians try to intercept them.
428 - 7 1 Diotimus
427 - 6 1 Eucles

427 Leaders of Mytilenian revolt executed.
427 Platea surrenders to Spartans, who execute over 200 prisoners & destroy city.
426 - 5 1 Euthynus

426 Leukas Seige Demosthenes unsuccessfully besieges Corinthian colony of Leukas.
426 When Ambracia invades Acarnania, they seek help from Spartans & Athenians respectively. Athenians then defeat Spartans in Battle of Olpae
425 - 4 1 Stratocles

425 Demosthenes captures port of Pylos in Peloponnesus.
425 Battle of Pylos Athenians invade Sphacteria & defeat Spartans in the.
424 - 3 1 Isarchus

424 Athenians try to capture Megara, but are defeated by Spartans.
424 Spartan general Brasidas captures Amphipolis, which is a setback for Athens. Thucydides is held responsible for Athenian failure & is ostracised. This gives him time to start writing his history book
423 - 2 1 Aminias

423 Athenians propose a cease-fire, which Spartan general Brasidas ignores.
422 - 1 1 Alcaeus

422 Battle of Amphipolis Spartans defeat Athenians in the, where Athenian Cleon & Spartan Brasidas are both killed.
421 - 0 1 Aristion

421 Peace of Nicias puts a temporary end to hostilities between Athens & Sparta.
420 - 19 1 Astyphilus

420 Alicibiades elected strategos of Athens & begins dominating Athenian politics.
419 - 8 1 Archias

419 Peace of Nicias is broken when Sparta defeats Argos.
418 - 7 1 Antiphon

418 Battle of Mantinea Spartans win a major 6ctory over Athenians in the, biggest land battle of Peloponnesian War.
417 - 6 1 Euphemus
416 - 5 1 Arimnestus

416 Athenians capture island of Melos & treat inhabitants with great cruelty.
416 Athenians adheres a plea of help from Sicily & starts planning an invasion of island.
415 - 4 1 Charias

415 sacred Hermae busts in Athens are mutilated just before expedition to Sicily is sent away. One of culprits, Andocides, is captured & is forced to turn informer. He names other mutilators, among them Alcibiades, who are sentenced to death in their absence.
415 Alcibiades defects from Athens to Sparta after having learned about his death sentence.
414 - 3 1 Tisandrus

414 siege of Syracuse Athenians try to make a breakthrough in their but are defeated by Spartans.
413 - 2 1 Cleocritus

413 Demosthenes suggests Athenians leave Syracuse in order to return to Athens, where help is needed. However, Nicias refuses & they are again defeated in battle by Spartans. Both Demosthenes & Nicias are killed.
413 Caria allies itself with Sparta.
412 - 1 1 Callias Scambonides
411 - 10 1 Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus

411 Revolts in Athens
411 democracy in Athens is overthrown & replaced by oligarchic Council of Four Hundred. This council is itself soon defeated & order is almost restored, when Five Thousand start ruling. Early next year, they are also overthrown & old democracy is restored.
410 - 9 1 Glaucippus

410 Battle of Cyzicus Athens regains control over its 6tal grain route from Black Sea by defeating Sparta in the.
409 - 8 1 Diocles

409 Athens recaptures Byzantium, thereby putting an end to its revolt against Athens & taking control of whole Bosporus.
408 - 7 1 Euctemon

408 Alcibiades returns to Athens in triumph after an absence of seven years.
407 - 6 1 Antigenes

407 Battle of Notium Athenian fleet routed by Spartan one in, which gives Alcibiades' opponents a reason to strip him of command. He never returns to Athens again.
406 - 5 1 Callias Angelides

406 Battle of Arginusae Athens defeats Sparta in theand blockade of Conon is lifted.
406 Sparta sues for peace but Athens rejects this.
480 - 06 74 Euripides. Last of three great Greek Tradegidians. Wrote 95 plays.
405 - 4 1 Alexias

405 Siege to Athens Spartan king Pausanias lays , which makes city start starving.
495 - 05 90 Sophocles 2nd major playwright, author of Oedipus Rex & Antigone. Wrote 113 plays. 7 exist.
404 - 3 1 Pythodorus

404 Athens surrenders to Sparta, ending Peloponnesian War. Sparta introduces an oligarchic system, Thirty Tyrants, in Athens.
450 - 04 46 Alcibiades Athenian General, Politician
403 - 2 1 Eucleides
403 Battle of Piraeus Some exiled Athenians return to fight Thirty Tyrants & restore democracy in Athens. are, however, narrowly defeated by Spartans in the. After this, Spartan king Pausanias allows democracy to be restored in Athens.
403 Thrasybulus restores Athenian democracy & grants an almost general amnesty.
403 Ionian Alphabet Adopted by Athens
402 - 1 1 Micon
401 - 0 1 Xenaenetus

522 - 443 Pindar Thebes
475 Heraclitus Ephesus Philosopher
? - 469 Simonides of Ceos, Lyric Poet
466 Greek colony of Taras, in Magna Graecia, is defeated by Iapyges, a native population of ancient Apulia; Tarentine monarchy falls, with installation of a democracy & expulsion of Pythagoreans.
464 - 55 9 3rd Messenian War
460 - 45 15 1st Peloponnesian War
449 - 8 1 2nd Sacred War
448 Seige of Kirrha
440 2 Points of Solstice determined by Meron
440 Atoms Democritus proposes existence of indivisible particles he calls. Abdera, Thrace
435 Statue of Zeus at Olympia by Phidias, one of seven wonders of world, is completed.
434 Conflict occurs between Greek island of Kerkyra & its mother-city Corinth.
433 Battle of Sybota between Corcyra & Corinth.
432 Heraclea Greek colony of , Turkey is founded by Tarentum & Thurii.
431 Body has 4 Humors: Blood, Bile, Black Bile, Phlegm by Empedocles Physician, Philosopher Argento, Sicily
435 - 380 55 Philoxenus of Cythera, Greek dithyrambic poet
490 - 30 60 Empedocles Philosopher
480 - 30 60 Phidias Sculptor who made Statue of Zeus
455 Euripides presents his first known tragedy, Peliades, in Athenian festival of Dionysia.
460 - 370 90 Hippocrates of Cos, Father of Medicine
448 Peace with Persians
409 Rhodes City founded
480 Cimon & his friends burn horse-bridles as an offering to Athena & join marines.
404 History of Peloponnesian War 431-04 BC by Thucydides
528M 20;57;35
495 - 29 Athens Acropolis from a top Philopappos Hill
480 - 06 Euripides Louvre
476 Naxos (island)-Demeter Temple Attepts to leave Delian League
472 - 56 Zeus Temple
450 - 400 Apollo Temple of Bassae Detail
440 Posiedon Temple of Sounion Cape Sounion AC
431 - 04 Piraeus-Eetioneia Gate Piraeus
423 Heraion of Argos Destroyed & rebuilt by fire
418 Orchomenos Battle of Mantinea
410s Amphiareion
400s Tylissos Ancient Tylissos
400s Nea Anchialos-Basilica Martyrion Detail of a mosaic pavement
400s Dion, Pieria-Dion site, Greece - statue
400s Aigeira Amphitheater
4 - 200 Lato, Crete

Kingdom of Sparta
1490 - 146
1344
-
Peloponesian League
500s - 300s 200ish
Agiad
399 Craterus
399 - 6 3 Orestes & Aeropus 2
396 - 3 3 Archelaus 2
393 Amyntas 2
393 Pausanias 2
393 Amyntas 3
393 - 2 1 Argaeus 2
392 - 70 22 Amyntas 3
370 - 68 2 Alexander 2
368 - 59 9 Perdiccas 3
368 - 5 3 Ptolemy of Aloros 2 Regent of Macedon
359 - 6 3 Amyntas 4
359 - 36 23 Philip 2
=1 Olympias, 2 Cleopatra
338 Battle of Chaeronea Philip of Macedon conquered Greek City States.
338 League of Corinth created. Lead by Macedon.
League of Corinth
338 - 22 16
348 - 6 2 Philip 2
336 - 23 13 Alexander 3 Great
X32
336 - 32 Alexander greats conquerings.
330 - 30 270 Hellenistic Age
334 - 23 11 Antipater Regent of Macedon
323 - 148 175 Greek City States remain relatively independent. Frequent warfare continues between rival leagues.
323 - 17 6 Philip 3 ArrhidaeusFeeble-minded half-brother of Alexander 3 Great
2nd Kingdom of Macedon
322 - 168 154
322 - 17 5 Philip 3 ArrhidaeusFeeble-minded half-brother of Alexander 3 Great
323 - 10 13 Alexander 4 ^ Alexander 3 Great
323 - 1 2 Perdiccas 2 Regent of Macedon Empire
321 - 19 2 Antipater Regent of Macedon Empire
319 - 7 2 Polyperchon 2 Regent of Macedon Empire
317 - 05 12 Cassander Regent of Macedon
305 - 297 8 Cassander
384 - 22 62 Aristotle

- Ancient Greece Athens primarily for self-defense against growth of Sparta & Persian Empire.

400 - 330 70 Late Classical Period

399 - 8 1 Aristocrates

470 - 399 71 Socrates
Famous philosopher of ethics. He leaves no written work himself, but is protagonist of Plato's dialogues. Socrates executed in Athens on charges of impiety & corrupting Athenian youth.
- Socrates 1970
- Barefoot in Athens 1966
398 - 7 1 Euthycles
397 - 6 1 Souniades
396 - 5 1 Phormion
395 - 4 1 Diophandus

395 - 40 45 Warfare between rival Greek leagues.
390s Diadem, reputed to have been found in a tomb near Hellespont. It is now at Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
394 - 3 1 Ebulides
393 - 2 1 Demostratus
392 - 1 1 Philocles
391 - 0 1 Nicoteles
390 - 89 1 Demostratus
389 - 8 1 Antipatrus
388 - 7 1 Pyrgion
387 - 6 1 Theodotus
386 - 5 1 Mystichides

446 - 385 61 Aristophanes of Athens, playwright
385 - 4 1 Dexitheus
384 - 3 1 Dietrephes
383 - 2 1 Phanostratus
382 - 1 1 Evandrus
381 - 0 1 Demophilus
380 - 79 1 Pytheas
379 - 8 1 Nicon
378 - 7 1 Nausinicus
377 - 6 1 Calleas
376 - 5 1 Charisandrus
375 - 4 1 Hippodamas
374 - 3 1 Socratides

373 Greek city Helike sinks into sea killing entire population.
373 - 2 1 Asteius
372 - 1 1 Alcisthenes
371 - 0 1 Phrasicleides
370 - 69 1 Dyscinitus
369 - 8 1 Lysistratus
368 - 7 1 Nausigenes
367 - 6 1 Polyzelus
366 - 5 1 Ciphisodorus
365 - 4 1 Chion
364 - 3 1 Timocrates
363 - 2 1 Charicleides
362 - 1 1 Molon
361 - 0 1 Nicophemus
360 - 59 1 Callimides
359 - 8 1 Eucharistus
358 - 7 1 Ciphisodotus

357 - 5 2 Social War between Second Athenian Empire & allies of Chios, Rhodes, & Cos as well as Byzantium
357 - 6 1 Agathocles
356 - 5 1 Elpines
355 - 4 1 Callistratus
354 - 3 1 Diotemus
353 - 2 1 Thudemus
352 - 1 1 Aristodemus
351 - 0 1 Theellus
350 - 49 1 Apollodorus
349 - 8 1 Callimachus
348 - 7 1 Theophilus
347 - 6 1 Themistocles
346 - 5 1 Archias
345 - 4 1 Ebulus
344 - 3 1 Lyciscus
343 - 2 1 Pythodotus
342 - 1 1 Sosigenes
341 - 0 1 Nicomachus
340 - 39 1 Theophrastus
339 - 8 1 Lysimachides

436 - 338 98 Isocrates Athenian Orator
338 Annexed by League of Corinth, controlled by Macedonia
429 - 347 82 Plato Socrates' most distinguished student
371 Thebes defeats Sparta at Leuctra
358 - 38 20 Wars of Rise of Macedon
356 - 46 10 3rd Sacred War
338 Philip 2 erected Olympia’s Philippeion in Athens following his 6ctory at Chaeronea. round marble building was completed by his son, Alexander.
Macedonian Empire
334 - 323
11
- Hellenistic Greece Pella Founded by Alexander Great. Wars of Alexander Great
333 Hittite lands & 6llage known as Ancyra was conquered by Macedonians led by Alexander Great.
332 Alexander Great defeated city of Tyre.
332 Alexandria built, walls six miles in circumference residence of Ptolemies, Greek sovereigns of Egypt.
330 Persia fell to Alexander Great.
- Alexander Great 1956 2004
323 Death of Alexander. Macedonian empire divided into: Egypt under Ptolemy I Lagus (Reputed son of Philip, half brother of Alexander), Syria, under King of Phrygia, Anticonus; Cappadocia, Asia Minor, under Eumenes; Bithynia, under Bas; Pergamus, under Lysimachus; Greece, under Cassander; Thrace, under Lysimachus; & Macedon under, Philip Aridaeus3.
323 - 2 1 Lamian War Athenians & their Aetolian, Locrian, & Phocian allies against Macedonians in Thessaly
370 - 10 60ish Praxiteles Invented nude female life sized statues
300s Hermes & infant Dionysos made. @ Archaeological Museum of Olympia. Discovered in rubble or ruined Temple of Hera at Olympia in 1875.
makes . A Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical original is Athens
350s Skopas of Paros makes Panel from Amazon frieze, south side of Mausoleum at Halikarnassos. It is now kept at British Museum, London.
399 Pella House Atrium Founded
366 Kos becomes capital
366 Asclepeion of Kos Democracy instituted
360 Epidaurus Theater
356 BC - 1300s CE Philippi city center
333 - 67 Phalasarna Round Tower Sea
330 B - 167 Map of ancient Epirus & environs
300s Lycosoura 1st Evidence
315 Thessaloniki-landmarks
300 Lindos Church at acropolis of Lindos
Kingdom of Sparta
1490 - 146
1344
Agiad
309 - 265 44 Areus 1
265 - 2 3 Acrotatus 2
262 - 54 8 Areus 2
254 - 35 19 Leonidas 2
235 - 22 13 Cleomenes 3
222 Battle of Sellasia Following Cleomenes 3's defeat in theby Antigonus 3 Doson of Macedon & Achaean League, Spartan system began to break down.
Republic of Sparta
222 - 19 3
219 - 5 4 Agesipolis 3 (Agiad) last Agiad King of Sparta
Eurypontid
305 - 275 30 Archidamus 4
275 - 45 30 Eudamidas 2
245 - 1 4 Agis 4
241 - 28 13 Eudamidas 3
228 - 7 1 Archidamus 5
227 - 1 6 Eucleidas(Eucleidas was actually an Agiad - his brother Cleomenes 3 deposed his Eurypontid colleague & installed his brother as co-king)
219 - 10 4 Lycurgus (Eurypontid)
210 - 7 3 Machanidas
(tyrant)
210 - 6 4 Pelops (king) (Eurypontid) last king from either of old dynasties, opponent of Machanidas
2nd Kingdom of Macedon
322 - 168 154
290 - 80 10 Colossus of Rhodes Brass Statue
316 - 241 75 Arcesilaus, founder of new Academy Athens
270s Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace & Galatia
276 - 194 82 Eratosthenes of Cyrene Lybia. Greek mathematician, geographer & astronomer
262 - 190 72 Apollonius of Perga, Turkey. mathematician
360 Theater of Epidauros
294 - 288 Aigosthena Fortress
290 Dodona
226 Kameiros, ancient city ruins - Rhodes, Greece Destroyed by Earthquake
200s Lisos League of Oreians
200 BC - 400 CE Larissa Theatre
332 - 09 23 Argead Dynasty
Kingdom of Sparta
1490 - 146
1344
Usurpers
206 - 192 14 Nabis (an usurper)claimed descent from deposed Eurypontid king Demaratus
192 Achaean League annexed Sparta in
2nd Kingdom of Macedon
322 - 168 154
221 - 179 42 Philip 5
200 - 196 4 2nd Macedonian War 1st Roman 6ctories over Greece.
179 - 67 12 Perseus
171 - 68 3 3rd Macedonian War
168 Battle of Pydna
168 Annexed by Rome
New
149 - 8 1 Andriscus, last independent ruler of Macedon
Roman Province of Macedonia
146 BC - 330 AD
476
- Thessalonica & Stobi
Roman Province of Achaea
146 BC - 330 AD
476
- Athens
160 - 25 35 Hipparchus of Nicaea, Bithynia. laid foundations of Geographical & Astronomical Science.
262 - 190 72 Apollonius of Perga Geometer
290s - 46 50s Apollonius of Rhodes Author of Jason & Argonauts
168 Amphipolis Fortifications
146 Egnatia Road
Roman Province of Macedonia
146 BC - 330 AD
476
@ Thessalonica & Stobi
Roman Province of Achaea
146 BC - 330 AD
476
@ Athens
Roman Province of
Creta et Cyrenaica

20 BC - 297 AD
317
- Gortyn, Crete
100 Laocoön Hagesandros, Polydoros, Athanadoros of Rhodes make & his Sons. Perhaps original or a Roman copy of 1st century AD is discovered in 1506. It is now at Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Cortile Ottagono, Rome.
86 Athens sacked by Rome
79 Lesbos Aqueduct Greece
27 BC - 268 AD Edessa, Greece-Old Voden Has it's own mint