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8 Funding
400s
300s
Ancient - 500A 200s Future
100s
000s
Callaeci 500? - 25 475?
Lusitania
24 BC -
Celtici 500? - 219 261?  
Celtici 500? - 219 261?  
Lusitani 500? - 219 261?  
  Callaeci 450 - 260 190  
Astures 500? - 25 475?  
Turdetani 530 - 219 291  
Turduli 530 - 219 291  
Bastenati 500 - 219 261  
Celtibiri 500s - 219 300?  
Contestani 500? - 219 261?  
Edetani 500? - 219 261?  
Ilercavones 500? - 219 261?  
Oretani 500? - 219 261?  
  Autrigones 400 - 25 375  
  Berones 400 - 25 375  
  Cantabri 350? - 25 325  
  Caristii 350? - 25 325  
  Lacetani 350? - 25 325?  
  Llergetae 350? - 25 325?  
  Turmodigi 290 - 25 265  
  Vacaei 290 - 25 265  
  Vascones 290 - 25 265  
  Verdulii 290 - 25 265  
  Vettones 290 - 25 265  
  Carpetani
250 - 219
31
 
 
Roman Province of Hispania Citerior 197 - 27 170
 
 
Roman Province of Hispania Ulterior 197 - 27 170
 
B
 
Etruscan Confederation 800 - 264 556
Arretium 0 - 0 0
Caisra 0 - 0 0
Clevsin 0 - 0 0
Curtun 0 - 0 0
Parusia 0 - 0 0
Pupluna 0 - 0 0
Terracina 0 - 0 0
Veii 0 - 0 0
Vetluna 0 - 0 0
Volterra 0 - 0 0
Velzna 0 - 0 0
Velch 0 - 0 0
 
502
20 20 20 20 24 20 20 20 20 26
Rome in Latium 509 - 387 122
14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 16
Expansion in Italy 387 - 272 115
16
Peace 72-64
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 16
Punic Wars & expansion in Mediterranean
264 - 146
118
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 12
Social troubles & 1st civil war
146 - 60 86
3 3
Triumvirates
60 - 27 33
Roman Republic 509 BCE - 27 CE 482
Augustus
Empire
27 BC - 475 502
Latin League 650 - 338 312
 
Umbria 500s - 260 300
Aequi 0 - 0 0
Hernicii 0 - 0 0
Marsi 0 - 0 0
Sabines 0 - 0 0
Sevines 0 - 0 0
Peligni 0 - 0 0
Praetulii 0 - 0 0
Umbrians 0 - 0 0
Vestini 0 - 0 0
Volsci 0 - 0 0
 
Messapia 500s - 260 300
Dauni 0 - 0 0
Messapians 0 - 0 0
Peucetti 0 - 0 0
 
Venetia 500s - 260 300
Carni 0 - 0 0
Histri 0 - 0 0
Liburnia 0 - 0 0
Seceuses 0 - 0 0
West 0 - 0 0
South 0 - 0 0
East 0 - 0 0
Peucetti 0 - 0 0
   
Iolian Islands
   
Liguria
   
South Picente
   
Oscia
Aurunci
Brutium
Bruttii
Crotone
Oenotria
Reggio
Scolacium
Campanians 500s - 260 300
Frentani
Lucania
Attenani 0 - 0 0
Bantini 0 - 0 0
Eburini 0 - 0 0
Grumentini 0 - 0 0
Numestrani 0 - 0 0
Potentini 0 - 0 0
Sontini 0 - 0 0
Sirini 0 - 0 0
Ursentini 0 - 0 0
Volcentani 0 - 0 0
Marucini
Samnia
Caraceni
Caudini
Hirpinia
Pentri
Sidicinia
 
Sardinia
Balari
Euthicani
Giddilitani
Lucuidonenses
Nuretani
Corsi
Iolei
Aconiti
Æchilenenses
Æsaronenses
Beronicensi
Carenses
Celsitani
Coracenses 0 - 0 0
Corpisenses 0 - 0 0
Cunusitani 0 - 0 0
Galillenses 0 - 0 0
Lucuidonenses 0 - 0 0
Maltamonenses 0 - 0 0
Moddoli 0 - 0 0
Neapolitani 0 - 0 0
Noritani 0 - 0 0
Nurenses 0 - 0 0
Parati 0 - 0 0
Rucensi 0 - 0 0
Salcitani 0 - 0 0
Scapitani 0 - 0 0
Semilitenses 0 - 0 0
Siculesi 0 - 0 0
Solcitani 0 - 0 0
Sossitani 0 - 0 0
Tibulati 0 - 0 0
Uddadhaddari 0 - 0 0
Valentini 0 - 0 0
Lestrigoni
   
Sicelia 0 - 0 0
Elymia 0 - 0 0
Sicani 0 - 0 0
Sicels 0 - 0 0
Longonensi
   
 
   
North Picente
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
Illyrian Kingdom 700 - 167 533
   
Epirus
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
Macedonia
   
Rise to Power
508 - 448
60
Hegem.
448-30 48
Pel-War
431-04
P 2nd Ath. League
395 - 55 40
Leag Cor, LWar
355 - 22 33
Hellenistic Period 322 - 86 236 Roman Athens
86 - 330 416
Athens
Kingdom of Sparta 1490 - 146 1344
 
Eleans, W Peloponesus
   
Messenians, W Peloponesus
   
Argolis, W Peloponesus
   
Thessaly , Thessalonica
   
Locrians
   
Phocis
   
Boetia
   
Arcadia
   
Laconia
   
Euboa
   
Acarnania
   
Aetolia
   
Crete
   
Sporades Islands
   
Cyclades Islands
   
Arcadia
   
Lesbos Island
   
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
   
200s Évora Temple Portugal
 
Roman Province of Lusitania
24 BC - 298 AD
322
@ Emerita Augusta (Mérida, Spain), Scalabis Iulia (Santarém, Portugal) & Pax Iulia (Beja, Portugal)
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
000s Mérida Aqueduct Bridge
000s Segovia Aqueduct Bridge
Balaric Islands
 
219 Battle of Saguntum
215 Battle of Dertosa Hannibal famously crushed Roman legions at the.
Roman Province of
Hispania Citerior

197 - 27 170
-
187 Aemilia Road Bologna
118 Domitia Road Bridge
Roman Province of
Hispania Citerior

197 - 27 170
-
80 Battle of Baetis River
Roman Province of
Hispania Tarraconensis

27 BC - 293 AD 320
@ Tarraco (Tarragona)
27 Carthago Nova Amphitheater Cartagena
27 BC - 14 AD Tarragona Aqueduct Bridge
27 BC - 14 AD Ferreres Aqueduct
25 Emerita Augusta Amphitheater Merida
19 Hispania Roads
19 6c Temple
49 Battle of Llerda
45 Battle of Munda
     
Roman Province of
Hispania Ulterior

197 - 27 170
-
Roman Province of
Hispania Ulterior

197 - 27 170
-
Roman Province of Baetica
14 BC - 400s
400s
@ Conventus Gaditanus (Gades, Cádiz), Cordubensis (Cordoba), Astigitanus (Astigi, Écija), Hispalensis (Hispalis, Seville).
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
         
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556
474 Battle of Cumae Syracusans under Hiero 1 defeat Etruscans & end Etruscan expansion in southern Italy.
437 death of Volumnius, Etruscan ruler, in Veii
Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556
300s Romans conquer Abruzzi region, decline of Etruscan civilization.
396 Rome captures & sacks Etruscan city of Veii after a 10-year siege, final assault was conducted by Marcus Furius Camillus


Etruscan Confederation
800 - 264
556



 
Cicalpine Gaul of Strabo

Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Patrician Era
509 - 367
142
400s She-wolf suckles Romulus & Remus
400s Apollo Temple Sosianus Rome
499 T. Aebutius Elva
498 Q. Cloelius Siculus
497 A. Sempronius Atratinus
497 Saturn Temple Rome
496 A. Postumius Albus Regillensis
1st Dictator for Battle of Lake Regillus Lucius Postumus
496 Battle of Lake Regillus: A legendary early Roman Victory, won over either Etruscans or Latins.Rome defeats Leono & Phippy Etruscan-led Latin League at battle of Lake Regillus
495 Castor & Pollux Temple Rome
495 Rome invades Volscia but they give 300 hostages for peace
494 Two tribunes of plebs & two plebeian aediles are elected for first time in Rome: office of tribunate is established.
493 Coriolanus captures Volscian town of Corioli for Rome.
492 T. Geganius Macerinus
491 M. Minucius Augurinus 2
490 Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
489 C. Iulius Iullus
488 Sp. Nautius Rutilus
488 Corioli Recaptured by Volsci w/ help from Coriolanus
488 Lavinium Recaptured by Volsci lead by Coriolanus
487 T. Sicinius (Sabinus?)
486 Sp. Cassius Vscellinus3
485 Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
484 L. Aemilius Mamercus
483 - 79 4 M. Fabius Vbulanus
480 Roman troops march against Veientines.
480 Battle of Himera Carthaginians under Hamilcar defeated by Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon
478 L. Aemilius Mamercus2
477 C. Horatius Pulvillus
476 A. Verginius Tricostus Rutilus
475 P. Valerius Poplicola
474 L. Furius Medullinus
474 Aragonese Castle
473 L. Aemilius Mamercus3
472 L. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus
471 Ap. Claudius Sabinus
471 Plebeians allowed to organize by Tribe, reorganization of Plebeian Council from Curia to Tribe.
470 L. Valerius Potitus2
469 T. Numicius Priscus
468 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus2
468 Antium captured by Roman forces.
467 Ti. Aemilius Mamercus2
466 Q. Servilius (Structus) Priscus2
465 Q. Fabius 6bulanus2
464 A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
463 P. Servilius Priscus
462 L. Lucretius Tricipitinus
461 P. Volumnius Amintinus Gallus
460 P. Valerius Poplicola2
480 - 60 Crotone Coin
459 Q. Fabius 6bulanus3
459 college of tribune of Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes
458 C. Nautius Rutilus2
458 Cincinnatus named dictator of Roman Republic in order to defend it against Aequi. Sixteen days later, after defeating invaders at Battle of Mons Algidus , he resigns & returns to his farm.
457 C. Horatius Pulvillus2
456 M. Valerius Maximus Lactuca
455 T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus
454 Sp. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus
453 Sex. Quinctilius
452 T. Menenius Lanatus
451 Ap. Claudius Crassinus Inregillensis Sabinus
451 12 Tables of Law
451 death of Verginia, legendary Victim of decemviri
451 Decemviri:
450 Decemviri:
450 Morgantina
449 Decemviri:
449 L. Valerius Potitus
449 suicide of Appius Claudius, former decemviri
449 suicide of Spurius Oppius, former decemviri
449 Plebeian Council resolutions ("plebiscites") given full force of law over Plebeians & Patricians, but still subject to Senate veto; Decemviri publish Twelve Tables of Roman law
445 M. Genucius Augurinus
445 Marriage between patricians & plebeians allowed
444 Consular Tribunes
444 L. Papirius Mugillanus
443 M. Geganius Macerinus2
443 office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribune with consular powers, Tribuni militum consulari potestate for this year.
443 Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.
442 M. Fabius 6bulanus
441 C. Furius Pacilus Fusus
440 Proc. Geganius Macerinus
439 Agrippa Menenius Lanatus
439 Cincinnatus again becomes dictator of Roman Republic; during his term he defeats Volsci.
439 According to legend, Gaius Servilius Ahala saves Rome from Spurius Maelius.
438 Consular Tribunes: Mam. Aemilius Macerinus & L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
437 M. Geganius Macerinus3
436 L. Papirius Crassus
435 - 4 2 C. Iulius Iullus2
434 Consular Tribunes: Ser. Cornelius Cossus & M. Manlius Capitolinus
432 Consular Tribunes: L. Pinarius Mamercus & L. Furius Medullinus
431 T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus
421 Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians
420 Consular Tribunes:
419 Consular Tribunes:
418 Consular Tribunes:
417 Consular Tribunes:
416 Consular Tribunes:
415 Consular Tribunes:
414 Consular Tribunes:
413 A. Cornelius Cossus2
412 Q. Fabius 6bulanus Ambustus
411 M. Papirius Mugillanus (or Atratinus?)
410 M. Aemilius Mamercinus
410 - 340 70 2nd Sicilian War
409 Cn. Cornelius Cossus
409 Battle of Himera Carthaginians under Hamilcar defeated by Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon
409 Battle of Selinus
408 - 394 Consular Tribunes:
408
406 Soldiers first paid in Rome.
405
405 Battle of Gela
405 Sack of Camarina
404
403
402
401
400
428 Greek colony of Cumae in Italy falls to Samnites.
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Patrician Era
509 - 367
142
399
398
398 Siege of Motya: A legendary early Roman Victory, won over either Etruscans or Latins.Rome defeats Leono & Phippy Etruscan-led Latin League at battle of Lake Regillus
397
397 Battle of Messene: A legendary early Roman Victory, won over either Etruscans or Latins.Rome defeats Leono & Phippy Etruscan-led Latin League at battle of Lake Regillus
396
396 1st Salary for Soldiers
390s Labicana Road Arco di Gallieno Rome
395
394
393 L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola
392 L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola 2
391 - 76 15 Consular Tribunes
391 Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul
389 Battle of Elleporus River Gauls defeat Roman army at the; sack of Rome by Gauls
387 Battle of Allia Gauls defeat Roman army at the; sack of Rome by Gauls
389 o
388 o
387 o
386 o
386 Siege of Rhegium Gauls defeat Roman army at the; sack of Rome by Gauls
385 o
384 o
383 o
383 Sutrium Amphitheater Sutri Italy
382 o
381 o
381 BC - 1191 Tusculum Annexxed to Rome to abandomment
380 o
379 o
378 o
377 o
376 o
375 - 1 4 Anarchy years: no magistrates elected
400 - 375 6lla Romana del Casale Bikinimaedchen
370 - 67 3 Consular Tribunes
370 o
369 o
368 o
367 o
End of Conflict of Orders
367 - 287
80
300s Concord Temple Rome
367 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time.
366 L. Aemilius Mamercinus
366 Patricians agree to allow Plebeian Consuls to be elected (the first being Lucius Sextius Sextinus). By this, Plebeians acquire de facto right to be elected Censor or appointed Dictator. As a concession, Plebeians allow Patricians to create offices of Praetor & Curule Aedile, & allow only Patricians to run for these offices.
365 L. Genucius Aventinensis
364 C. Sulpicius Peticus
363 Cn. Genucius Aventinensis
362 Q. Servilius Ahala2
361 C. Licinius Stolo
360 M. Fabius Ambustus
360 Theater of Tholos Epidauros
343 - 1 2 1st Samnite War Rome withdraws from conflict with Samnites
342 Q. Servilius Ahala3
342 Lex Genucia passed: no man can hold same office before 10 years have elapsed from first election
342 2nd Law passed, disallowing any man from holding two offices at once.
341 C. Plautius Venno (or Venox)2
340 T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus3
340 - 38 2 2nd Latin War on side of Samnites.
340 Battle of Trifanum
340 Battle of Vesuvius
339 Battle of Mount Gaurus
339 Battle of Suessula
339 Battle of Crimissus River
339 Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus
339 Law passed (the lex Publilia) which requires election of one Plebeian censor for each five year term.
338 L. Furius Camillus
338 End of Latin War. Latin League dissolved, & territory placed under Roman control.
337 C. Sulpicius Longus
337 Elected first non-patrician Praetor (Q. Publilius Philo).
336 L. Papirius Crassus
335 M. Atilius Regulus Calenus
334 Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus
333 Dictator: P. Cornelius Rufinus
332 Cn. Domitius Calvinus
331 C. Valerius Potitus
331 Battle of Pandosia
330 L. Papirius Crassus2
329 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas2
328 P. Plautius Proculus
327 L. Cornelius Lentulus
327 - 04 23 2nd Samnite War
327 Capture of Neapolis
326 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus 3
325 L. Furius Camillus 2
324 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor
323 C. Sulpicius Longus 2
322 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus
321 T. Veturius Calvinus 2
320 L. Papirius Cursor 2
319 L. Papirius Cursor 3
318 M. Folius Flaccinator
317 C. Iunius Bubulcus Brutus
316 Sp. Nautius Rutilus
315 L. Papirius Cursor 4
315 - 07 8 3rd Sicilian War
314 M. Poetelius Libo
313 L. Papirius Cursor 5
312 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus
312 1st Roman military road "Appian Way" 350 mile long Appius Claudius
312 Lazio - 6a Appia Antica
312 Appia Aqueduct
312 Appian Road Brindisi Colonna end
311 C. Iunius Bubulcus Brutus3
311 Etruscans join Samnites against Rome.
311 Battle of Himera Carthaginians under Hamilcar defeated by Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon
311 Arretium Amphitheater Italy Conquered by Rome
310 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus2
309 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor
308 P. Decius Mus2
307 Ap. Claudius Caecus
306 Q. Marcius Tremulus
306 Hernici Revolt against Rome (Livy ix. 42).
305 L. Postumius Megellus
308 - 4 4 2nd Samnite war escalates when Umbrians, Picentini, & Marsians join war- against Rome. Rome establishes many new colonies & gains control over much of central & southern Italy.
305 Battle of Bovianum ends with Samnite defeat & end of main Samnite resistance.
304 P. Sempronius Sophus
304 Aequi defeated.
300 Lex Ogulnia passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Conflict of Orders
367 - 287
80
298 - 90 8 3rd Samnite War Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on Lombard plain, start third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul & Sabine & Etruscan allies to help them.
298 L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus
298 Roman armies penetrate into heart of Samnite territory & then capture Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus & Aufidena
298 Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists Italian Greeks against Bruttians & supported Greeks against Romans.
298 Ptolemy gives his stepdaughter Theoxena in marriage to Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse (in south-eastern Sicily).
298 Romans capture Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus & Aufidena.
297 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus 4
297 Consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats Samnites near Tifernum (Liv. 10.14).
296 L. Volumnius Flamma 6olens2
296 Bellona Temple Rome
295 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus V
295 Suasa Founded
295 Suasa Amphitheater
294 L. Postumius Megellus2
294 Rusellae Amphitheater Captured by Romans
293 L. Papirius Cursor
293 Time 1st divided into hours by a sundial of L. Papirius, Cursor at Rome.
292 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges
291 L. Postumius Megellus3
291 Romans storm Samnite city of Venusia
290 P. Cornelius Rufinus
Supremacy of New Nobility
287 - 133
154
289 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus2
288 Q. Marcius Tremulus2
287 M. Claudius Marcellus
287 Last Plebeian Secession; Senate loses veto power over Plebeian Council (through Lex Hortensia), Conflict of Orders ends.
286 M. Valerius Maximus (Corvus3 or Potitus?)
286 di Porta Cappuccina Bridge Becomes Fedrated City in Rome
286 Tiburtina Bridge Lucano 1850
285 C. Claudius Canina
284 C. Servilius Tucca
284 Battle of Arretium Rome defeats Etruscans & Boii (a Gallic tribe) in
283 P. Cornelius Dolabella
283 Battle of Lake Vadimo Rome defeats Etruscans & Boii (a Gallic tribe) in
282 C. Fabricius Luscinus
282 Battle of Populonia Rome defeats Etruscans & Boii (a Gallic tribe) in
281 L. Aemilius Barbula
281 Mounting tensions between Rome & Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid.
280 P. Valerius Laevinus
280 Italy dell'Abbadia Bridge Conquered Etruscans
280 - 72 8 Pyrrhic War Pyrrhus lands army in Italy. Beginning of the.Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus, end of Pyrrhic War. King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate Romans & bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself.
279 P. Sulpicius Saverrio
278 C. Fabricius Luscinus 2
277 P. Cornelius Rufinus 2
276 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges 2
275 M'. Curius Dentatus 2
274 M'. Curius Dentatus 3
273 C. Fabius Licinus
273 Paestum Amphitheater City Founded
272 L. Papirius Cursor2
272 Tarentum surrenders to Rome
260 1st Roman fleet built.
260 Segesta Conquered by Rome
246 - 1 5 1st Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, & annexes Sicily & Corsica
- Hannibal 1960
- Scipio Africanus: Defeat of Hannibal 1939
- Cabiria 1910

245 M. Fabius Buteo
244 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus
243 C. Fundanius Fundulus
242 C. Lutatius Catulus
242 Office of Praetor peregrinus created
241 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus 2
241 Egadi Islands
241 Following defeat of Carthage, Sicily becomes first Roman province
241 BCE - 476 CE 227 Roman Province of Sicilia @ Siracusa, Sicily.
240 C. Claudius Centho
239 C. Mamilius Turrinus
238 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
238 Tibur Amphitheater Roman Citizens
238 Cagliari Amphitheater Caralis Under Roman Rule
238 "Truceless War" with Carthage
238 - 456 694 Provinces of Corsica & Sardinia.
237 L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
236 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
235 T. Manlius Torquatus
234 L. Postumius Albinus
233 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
232 M. Aemilius Lepidus
231 M. Pomponius Matho
230 M. Aemilius Barbula
200s Lupiae Amphitheater Lecce
229 L. Postumius Albinus2
228 Sp. Carvilius Maximus Ruga2
227 P. Valerius Flaccus
227 Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8; number of praetors raised from 2 to 4
226 M. Valerius Maximus Messalla
225 L. Aemilius Papus
225 Battle of Faesulae
225 Battle of Telamon Rome defeats invading Gallic army
221 Hannibal of Carthage defeated Romans.
220 M. Valerius Laevinus
220 Flaminia Road Carsulae San Damiano
220 Flaminia Cagli Bridge Mallio Marche
219 L. Aemilius Paullus
218 P. Cornelius Scipio
218 Battle of Cissa
218 - 02 16 2nd Punic War
- Hannibal 1960
- Scipio Africanus: Defeat of Hannibal 1939
- Cabiria 1910
218 Battle of River Trebia Rome is defeated at .
218 Battle of Ticinus Rome is defeated at .
218 Battle of Lilybaeum
217 Cn. Servilius Geminus
217 Battle of Ager Falernus
217 Battle of Geronium
217 Battle of Lake Trastimene
216 C. Terentius Varro
216 Battle of Cannae Hannibal famously crushed Roman legions at the.
215 M. Claudius Marcellus 2
215 Battle of Cornus Hannibal famously crushed Roman legions at the.
215 2nd Battle of Nola Hannibal famously crushed Roman legions at the.
214 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus 4
214 - 05 9 1st Macedonian War Romans unsuccessful
213 Q. Fabius Maximus
214 - 2 2 Siege of Syracuse, Rome captures city
212 Q. Fulvius Flaccus3
212 Syracuse Amphitheater Conquered by Rome
211 Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus
210 M. Claudius Marcellus 4
209 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus V
208 M. Claudius Marcellus V
207 C. Claudius Nero
206 L. Veturius Philo
205 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus
204 Battle of Crotona
204 M. Cornelius Cethegus
204 - 2 2 Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa
203 Cn. Servilius Caepio
203 Po Valley Raid
202 M. Servilius Pulex Geminus
202 Battle of Zama Hannibal recalled & defeated in thein
202 Carthage's territories reduced to city itself, & crippling reparations are demanded by Rome.
201 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
200 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus 2
200 Battle of Cremona
200 Veiovis Temple Rome
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
Supremacy of New Nobility
287 - 133
154
174 Streets of Rome Paved
170 1st Public Bakery
167 Rome takes Illyria
167 Concord Temple Rome
161 Jews signed a treaty with Romans. first treaty with Jews on record.
150 - 100 50 Germans meet Romans - hate at first sight.
149 - 6 3 3rd Punic War
- Carthage in Flames 1959
148 Sp. Postumius Albinus Magnus
148 Postumia Road Italy reconstructed
147 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus
146 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
146 Carthiage was taken by Scipio & became a part of Rome.
148 Macedonia becomes a Roman providence.
146 Corinth destroyed by Romans.
146 Greece became a Province under name of Athens.
146 Greek city-states become part of Roman Empire.
135 - 2 3 1st Servile War
134 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus2
134 - 3 1 Battle of Numantia
From Gracchi to Caesar
133 - 49
86
106 - 43 Cicero Roman orator & philosopher
138 - 78 60 Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Roman general & politician
157 - 86 71 Gaius Marius General, Politician
120s Temple perhaps dedicated to Portunes, Forum Boarium, Rome, is built.
110s Aulus Metellus, found near Perugia, is made. It is now kept at Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
35 Segestani attacked by Romans
104 - 100 4 2nd Servile War
197 Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12; number of praetors raised from 4 to 6
180 Lex 6llia annalis: established minimum ages for cursus honorum offices; established an interval of two years between offices
149 A permanent extortion court is established by Lex Calpurnia
146 Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Scipio Africanus Younger) puts an end to Punic & Achaean threat by destroying cities of Carthage & Corinth; Macedonia & Africa are annexed as provinces
133 tribune Tiberius Gracchus is murdered after securing an agrarian reform
121 Rome acquires province of Transalpine Gaul (south of modern France) & a safe land route to Hispania
121 Senate approves first Senatus consultum de re publica defenda to deal with threat of 6olence started by tribune Gaius Gracchus
112 - 5 7 Jugurthine War against king Jughurta of Numidia begins. ends with capture of Jughurta.
107 Gaius Marius elected consul based on election promise to end war in one year.
107 Marian reforms of Roman Legions put into effect.
106 Gaius Marius elected consul a second time, & in absentia, to continue Jugurthine War.
105 Battle of Arausio invading tribe of Cimbri inflict a major defeat on Roman army in the
104 - 2 2 Gaius Marius elected consul for three years in a row
102 Battle of Aquae Sextiae Consular armies under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons in the
100 Gaius Marius elected consul for a 6th time.
100 Political scandal surrounding Lucius Appuleius Saturninus forces Gaius Marius to retire from public life.
100 BC - 300 AD Mithraeum Temple London England
100 BC - 1874 AD Salario Bridge
100 BC - 1957 Pietra Bridge Construction
100s Hercules Temple 6ctor Rome
Republic of Rome
509 - 27 482
From Gracchi to Caesar
133 - 49
86
99 M. Antonius
98 Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos
97 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
96 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
95 L. Licinius Crassus
94 C. Coelius Caldus
93 C. Valerius Flaccus
92 C. Claudius Pulcher
92 Lucullus invades Armeniasetting off centuries long Roman-Persian Wars.
90s Civitas Amphitheater Camunnorum Italy
91 L. Marcius Philippus
91 - 88 3 Social wars, last rebellion of Italian nations against Rome
90 L. Iulius Caesar
89 - 5 4 1st Mithridatic War against Mithridates 6 of Pontus
89 Cn. Pompeius Strabo
89 Battle of Fucine Lake
89 Battle of Asculum
89 Herculaneum Bathhouse Floor
88 L. Cornelius Sulla Felix
88 - 7 1 Sulla's 1st civil war
88 Battle of Amnias River
88 Sulla crosses pomerium with his legions & invades Rome
87 Cn. Octavius
86 L. Cornelius Cinna2
85 L. Cornelius Cinna3
84 Cn. Papirius Carbo2
84 Britain first known to be an island by Romans who sailed around it.
83 L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus
83 - 2 1 2nd Mithridatic War Sulla returns to Rome & is nominated dictator
83 Battle of Mount Tifata
83 - 2 1 1st Roman civil war between Sulla & popular faction; Sulla wins & becomes dictator; censor office abolished (to be recreated in 70 BC)
82 C. Marius
82 - 72 10 Sertorius, last Marian general continues civil war in Hispania
82 - 1 1 Sulla's 2nd civil war
82 Battle of Coline Gate
81 M. Tullius Decula
81 Sulla appointed dictator of Rome brings major reforms.
80 L. Cornelius Sulla Felix2
79 P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus
79 Munita Road at pompey
78 M. Aemilius Lepidus
77 D. Iunius Brutus
76 Cn. Octavius
75 L. Octavius
75 Portunus Temple Rome
74 L. Licinius Lucullus
73 M. Terentius Varro Lucullus
73 - 1 2 3rd Servile War or Spartacist Rebellion Sparticus's slave revolt 3rd Servile War.
- Spartacus 1960 
- Spartacus 2004
- Sins of Rome 1954

72 L. Gellius Publicola
74 - 63 11 3rd Mithridatic War eventually won by Pompey
71 P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura
70 Cn. Pompeius Magnus
70 Pompeii Amphitheater
69 Q. Hortensius Hortalus
68 L. Caecilius Metellus
67 C. Calpurnius Piso
66 M'. Aemilius Lepidus
65 L. Aurelius Cotta
64 L. Iulius Caesar
63 M. Tullius Cicero
63 Catiline Conspiracy 111-105 B.C. by Sallust 86-34 184M
63 Jugurthine War 111-105 B.C. by Sallust 86-34 184M
63 consulship of Cicero; Catiline conspiracies
63 Fall of Jerusalem
62 D. Iunius Silanus
62 Fabricius Bridge Rome
62 - 27 Cestius Bridge Rome built
62 Battle of Pistoria
61 M. Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus
60 Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer
- 60 Pompey of Rome conquered Jerusalem.
59 C. Iulius Caesar
58 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
57 P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther
56 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
55 Cn. Pompeius Magnus2
54 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus
60 - 54 6 An informal coalition is formed by Gāius Jūlius Caesar, Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus & Marcus Licinius Crassus to govern Roman republic. This coalition is often referred to as First triumvirate, even though it did not have official sanction of law required for a legal triumvirate.
54 - 3 1 First campaign against Parthian Empire; Crassus utterly defeated & killed
53 Crasus invaded Parthia, defeated.
53 Cn. Domitius Calvinus
52 Cn. Pompeius Magnus3
51 Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
50 L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus
58 - 51 7 Caesar fights Gallic wars, acquiring province of Gallia Comata
6/58 Battle of Arrar
58 Battle of Bibracte
58 Battle of Vosges
57 Battle of Axona.
57 Battle of Sabis.
12/57-1/56 Battle of Octodurus.
54 Battle of Cenabum.
53 Battle of Carrhae
1/52 Battle of Vellaunodunum.
1/52 Siege of Avaricum.
52 Battle of Bovillae
52 Battle of Agendicum.
52 Battle of Gergovia.
52 Battle of Lutetia
52 Neung-sur-Beuvron
9/52 Battle of Alesia
51 Siege of Uxellodunum
58 - 51 BC Commentaries of Gallic Wars 199M 7;16;28
70 - 19 51 Virgil Poet
65 - 27 38 Horace Poet
period of transition
49 - 27 22
49 C. Claudius Marcellus Maior
000s BC - 547 AD Nomentano Bridge
000s Neronianus Bridge rome
000s Molino Bridge
49 - 5 4 Julius Caesar's 100 - 44 56 civil war
- Julius Caesar 1953
- Julius Caesar 2002
- Julius Caesar 1970
- Rome 2005
49 Caesar crosses Rubicon (alea iacta est) & begins Second Roman civil war against Optimates, conservative faction of senate, led by Pompey
4/49 Siege of Massilia
6/49 Battle of Ilerda
49 Battle of Utica
8/49 Battle of Bagradas River
48 C. Iulius Caesar 2
48 - 5 3 Caesar pursues & defeats Optimates in Greece & Africa
7/48 Battle of Dyrrhachium
8/48 Battle of Pharsalus
48 Syria became a part of Rome.
47 Q. Fufius Calenus
46 C. Iulius Caesar 3
46 BCE - 113 CE Roman Forum
46 Venus Genetrix Temple Rome
1/46 Battle of Ruspina
4/46 Battle of Thapsus
4/46 Battle of Anticato
45 C. Iulius Caesar 4
3/45 Battle of Munda
45 Patavium Padova Amphitheater Becomes Roman Municipum
44 C. Iulius Caesar V
44 - 30 14 Post-Caesarian civil wars
44 Caesar is assassinated on Ides of March
44 - 36 8 Sicilian Revolt
44 - 2 2 Liberators' Civil War between assassins of Caesar (led by Cassius & Brutus) & Caesar's heirs, Octavian & Mark Antony
43 C. 6bius Pansa Caetronianus
43 Battle of Forum Gallorum
43 Battle of Mutina
43 Philippics by Cicero 106 - 43 BC 170M 9;46;24
43 Octavius, Lepidus & Mark Antony formed second Triumvirate.
42 M. Aemilius Lepidus2
41 L. Antonius Pietas
41 - 40 1 Fulvia's Civil War
41 - 40 1 Battle of Perugia
40 Cn. Domitius Calvinus2
39 L. Marcius Censorinus
38 Ap. Claudius Pulcher
38 BC - 52 AD Claudia Aqueduct Bridge Rome
37 M. 6psanius Agrippa
37 Roman Senate appointed Herod, an Idumean Arab, King of Judea. He ruled for 34 years. Herod began construction of great Jewish Temple on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem.
36 L. Gellius Publicola
36 Battle of Naucholus
36 Antony's Parthian campaign ends in failure
36 Lepidus expelled from Triumvirate.
35 Sex. Pompeius
34 M. Antonius2
33 Imp. Caesar Divi f.2
32 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
32 - 30 2 Antony's Civil War
32 End of peaceful relations between Octavian & Antony
31M. Antonius3 (only in east)
30Imp. Caesar Divi f. 4
30 Egypt Became Roman Province Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide
29 Imp. Caesar Divi f. V
29 Caesar Temple
28 Apollo Temple Palatinus Rome
27 Augustus Forum Rome
27 BC - 14 AD Saint-Martin Bridge
27 d'Augusto at Narni Bridge
28 Imp. Caesar Divi f. 6
27 Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus 6I
27 End of Republic, beginning of Roman Empire: Octavian is now called Augustus Caesar & becomes sole ruler of Rome
000s Vesta Temple Tivoli
000s Minerva Temple Assisi
Roman Empire
27 BC - 476 AD
503
27 BC - 14 AD Octavius ruled 44 years as first Emperor of Rome. Golden Age of Rome started.
00s Catiline, attempted to overthrow Roman Republic
59 BCE - 17 CE 76 Livy (Titus Livisu), Roman historian
95 - 46 49 Cato Younger Politician, Statesmam
85 - 42 43 Marcus Junius Brutus, Caesar's adopted son, supposedly killed him
106 - 48 58 Pompey Magnus General, Politician
20 - 2 Augustus Forum Rome
19 Argo Aqueduct
19 BC - 530s AD Agrippa Bathhouse Rome
29 - 19 Aeneid by 6rgil 208M 7;35;41
28 - 4 4 Augustus' campaigns against Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis (see Cantabrian Wars)
25 BC Foundation of City V1 B1-2 by Livy 59 BC- 17 AD 111M 7;11;32
16 - 5 1 Augustus' campaigns against Alpine tribes
11 Augusta Praetoria Amphitheater Salassorum Semicolonne
15 On Architecture by Vitruvius 80 - 15 BC 250M 9;34;58
Roman Province of
Alpes Cottiae

14 BC - 400's
400s
@ Segusio (Susa)
Roman Province of
Alpes Poeninae

14 BC - 400's 400s
- Aosta Including Switzerland
13 Porta Augusta Julia Augusta Road France
12 - 7 5 Tiberius & Drusus conquer Pannonia & campaign against Germanic tribes
3 Pont d'Aël Aqueduct
2 Alsietina Aqueduct
2 BCE - 4 CE Augustus Temple Rome
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
522
Strabo Sicily
491 - 78 13 Gelon 1
478 - 66 12 Hiero 1
466 - 5 1 Thrasybulus
465 - 05 60 Democracy
454 Hostilities between Segesta & Selinunte, two Greek cities on Sicily.
427 Athenians intervene in Sicily to blockade Sparta from island.
424 Sicily withdraws from war & expels every foreign power. Thus, Athens is forced to withdraw from island.
415 1st Battle of Syracuse
414 2nd Battle of Syracuse
413 3rd Battle of Syracuse
409 Carthaginians invade Sicily.
406 Carthaginians once again invade Sicily & return to Carthage with spoils of war, but also with plague.
405 - 367 38 Dionysius 1, Elder
405 Dionysius Elder rises to power in Syracuse, Sicily. He signs a peace with Carthage & starts consolidating & expanding his influence.
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
522
405 - 367 38 Dionysius 1, Elder X65
367 - 357 10 Dionysius 2, Younger
357 - 4 3 Dion
354 - 2 2 Calippus
352 - 1 1 Hipparinus
352 - 50 2 Aretaeus
350 - 46 4 Nysaeos
346 - 4 2 Dionysius 2, Younger restored
345 - 37 8 Timoleon
337 - 17 20 Oligarchy
317 - 289 28 Agathocles of Syracuse
Kingdom of Syracuse
734 - 212
   
Kingdom of Gela
688 - 405 283
688 Founded by colonists from Rhodes & Crete.
491
death of Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela
491 - 78 13 Gelo becomes Tyrant of Gela.
458 Oresteia Greek playwright Aeschylus completes the, a trilogy that tells story of a family blood feud. plays will have a great influence on future writers. Gela
480 1st Sicilian War
478 Heiro < moves to Sicily.
478 - ? Polyzelos
? Democratic government.
405 Gela sacked & ruined

Samnite Tribal Confederation
300s? - 290 ?
-
Samnite Tribal Confederation
300s? - 290 ?
-
   
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
400 Carthaginians occupy Malta.
800 - 480 320 Phoenician rule.
     
480 - 218 262 Carthaginian rule
264 - 146 118 Punic Wars
218 Roman rule begins
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
 
300s Dalmatae push Liburni west & Daorsi & Ardiaei east
279 Gallic invasion of Balkans
200s Klis Castle Croatia
Roman province of Illyricum
167 BC - 20 AD
187
- Salona (Solin)
Roman province of Illyricum
167 BC - 20 AD
187
- Salona (Solin)
32 BC - 600 CE Salonae Amphitheater Salona Croatia
27 BC - 68 AD Pula Amphitheater Croatia
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
         
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
400-50 BC - 500 AD Phoenice
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
- Illyria
385 - 58 27 Bardyllis
358 - ? Audata probably daughter of Bardyllis & wife of Philip 2 married to him after battle of 358.
- Cleitus <
- Bardyllis 2 ^
- Queen Bircenna ^
- Longarus
? - 370 Bato ^
Paeonian
370 - 250
120
370 - 359 Agis 
370 Amantia Map of ancient Epirus & environs
356 - 40 16 Lycceius
350 Byllis 1st Mentioned
340 - 15 25 Patraus
315 - 285 30 Audoleon ^
400 Butrint Amphitheater Albania
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
Paeonian
370 - 250
120
Kingdom of Illyria
385 - 135
250
Ardiaei
278 - 135
143
198 Battle of Aous River
181 - 68 13 Gentius of Ardiaeilast king
167 BCE Captured Shkoder-Rhozofa Castle
167 - 35 32 Ballaios perhaps ruled city of Rhizon
48 Battle of Dyrrhachium
48 Battle of Pharsalus
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
         
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
   
279 Singidunum & Taurunum, today's Belgrade & Zemun, is founded by Scordisci Celts.
 
75 Singidunum Roman Wall under Medieval wall
000s Golden Roman helmet
000s Sirmium Conquered by Rome
27 BC - 441 CE Viminacium Amphitheater Serbia
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
         
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
 
300s Samuil's Fortress Ohrid1
350s - 150s Heraclea Lyncestis Ancientbitola
217 Phiulip 5 Annexes Stobi
181 Strumica Bathhouse Macedonia
100s Scupi capital of Darnadia Macedon
 
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
1st Athenian Empire
478 - 404 74
- Ancient Greece Delos island Also known as Delian League. It was an association of Greek city-states.
Annual Archons
683 BCE - 275 CE
408
500 - 400 100 Classical Period
500 - 499 1 Smyrus
499 - 4 5 Ionian Revolt
499 Sardis destroyed by Athenian & Ionian troops.
499 Siege of Naxos
499 - 8 1 Lacratides
498 - 7 1 Unknown
497 Potidaea Tsunami
497 - 6 1 Archias
496 - 5 1 Hipparchus
570 - 495 75 Pythagoras Greek philosopher and mathematician, on island of Samos.
495 - 4 1 Philippus
498 Battle of Sepeia
494 - 3 1 Pythocritus
493 - 2 1 Themistocles
493 Piraeus, port town of Athens founded.
492 - 1 1 Diognetus
499 - 48 51 Persian Wars
492 - 90 2 1st Persian invasion of Greece
491 - 0 1 Hybrilides
490 - 89 1 Phaenippus
490 Battle of Marathon Athens VS Persia, where Darius 1 of Persia is defeated by Athenians & Plataeans under Miltiades
490 Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce news of Greek 6ctory; origin of marathon long-distance race.
490 Siege of Naxos
490 Siege of Eretria
489 - 8 1 Aristides Just
489 Cities of Rhodes unite & start construction of new city of Rhodes.
489 - ? Eudoxus of Cnidus, early mathematician & adherent of Pythagoras Dion, student of Plato & tyrant of Syracuse
550 - 489 61 Miltiades Athenian general
488 - 7 1 Anchises
487 Athenian Archonship becomes elective by lot, an important milestone in move towards radical Athenian democracy.
487 Aegina - Athens War
487 - 6 1 Telesinus
486 - 5 1 Ceures
485 Heraclitus of Ephesus flourishes. He teaches that reality is in a constant state of flux: "One cannot step into same river twice."
485 - 4 1 Philocrates
484 Poetry Prize won by AeschylusPlaywright
484 - 3 1 Leostratus
483 - 2 1 Nicodemus
482 - 1 1 Unknown
481 - 0 1 Hypsichides
480 Cimon & his friends burn horse-bridles as an offering to Athena & join marines.
480 - 04 76 Golden Age of Athens
480 - 79 1 2nd Persian invasion of Greece, Spartans are defeated at Thermopylae, Athens is occupied by Persians. Persians are finally defeated at Salamis.
480 Battle of Artemisium. Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with Greek allied fleet.
480 Battle of Salamis between Greece & Persia, leading to a Greek 6ctory. thanks to military genius of Themistocles, Athenians crush Xerxes & Persians at naval.
479 Battle of Plataea, Greeks defeat Persians, ending Persian Wars. death of Mardonius, Persian commander
480 - 79 1 Calliades
479 - 8 1 Xanthippus
478 - 7 1 Greek counterattack
478 - 7 1 Timosthenes
478 Siege of Byzantium
477 - 31 46 Delian League.
477 Construction on Parthenon begins under guidance of Pericles.
477 - 6 1 Adimantus
476 Naxos (island)-Demeter Temple Attepts to leave Delian League
776 BC - 393 AD 1169 Ancient Olympic Games in Greece
476 - 5 1 Phaedon
476 - 49 27 Wars of Delian League
475 - 4 1 Dromoclides
535 - 475 60 Heraclitus of Ephesus, Greek philosopher
475 Siege of Eion
474 - 3 1 Acestorides
473 - 2 1 Menon
472 - 1 1 Chares
472 Carystus in Euboea forced to join Delian League.
472 Playwright Aeschylus submits a Tragedy called Persians to annual drama competition in Athens. play tells story of Battle of Salamis from Persians' perspective.
471 - 0 1 Praxiergus
- 471 Athenian politician Themistocles ostracized
470 - 69 1 Demotion
? - 469 Simonides of Ceos, Lyric Poet
469 - 8 1 Apsephion
468 Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for Athenian Prize.
530 - 468 62 Aristides Athenian Statesman
556 - 468 Simonides of Ceos Poet
468 - 7 1 Theagenides
467 - 6 1 Lysistratus
466 - 5 1 Lysanias
466 Battle of Eurymedon Delian League defeats Persia at the.
466 Greek colony of Taras, in Magna Graecia, is defeated by Iapyges, a native population of ancient Apulia; Tarentine monarchy falls, with installation of a democracy & expulsion of Pythagoreans.
465 - 4 1 Lysitheus
464 - 55 9 3rd Messenian War
464 - 3 1 Archedemides
463 - 2 1 Tlepolemus
462 - 1 1 Conon
461 - 0 1 Euthippus
461 Ephialtes leader of radical democrats, assassinated.
461 - 29 32 Pericles in public life, democracy perfected & court system completed.
460 - 45 15 1st Peloponnesian War
460 - 59 1 Phrasicles
459 - 8 1 Philocles
458 - 7 1 Habron
457 Battle of Tanagra Spartans defeat Athenians near Thebes.
457 Battle of Oenophyta Athenians defeat Thebans & take control of Boeotia.
457 - 6 1 Mnesitheides
472 - 56 Zeus Temple
456 - 5 1 Callias
455 Euripides presents his first known tragedy, Peliades, in Athenian festival of Dionysia.
455 - 4 1 Sosistratus
455 A thirty years' truce concluded between Athens & Lacedaemon.
525 - 455 70 Aeschylus first of three ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived
454 - 3 1 Ariston
454 Delian League, a naval alliance of Athens & other city-states, is established through talks on isle of Delos.
454 Athens loses a fleet & possibly as many as 50,000 men in a failed attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia.
454 treasury of Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens.
453 - 2 1 Lysicrates
452 - 1 1 Chaerephanes
451 - 0 1 Antidotus
510 - 450 60 Cimon Politician ^Miltiades
450 - 49 1 Euthydemus
450 Battle of Salamis between Greece & Persia, leading to a Greek 6ctory. thanks to military genius of Themistocles, Athenians crush Xerxes & Persians at naval.
449 - 8 1 Pedieus
449 - 8 1 2nd Sacred War
448 Seige of Kirrha
448 - 7 1 Philiscus
448 Peace with Persians
447 - 6 1 Timarchides
457 Athenian statesman Pericles' greatest reform, allowing common people to serve in any state office, inaugurates Golden Age of Ancient Athens.
447 - 38 9 Acropolis Ictinus & Callicrates finish construction of Parthenon, located on Athens'.
446 - 5 1 Callimachus
515 - 445? 70 Parmenides of Elea, founder of Eleatic school that focused on metaphysics.
445 - 4 1 Lysimachides
444 - 3 1 Praxiteles
522 - 443 79 Pindar Greek lyric poet who is especially inspired by athletic victory.
443 - 2 1 Lysanias
443 - 29 14 Pericles leader of Athens during Golden Age.
442 Antigone by Sophocles of Colonus
442 - 1 1 Diphilus
441 - 0 1 Timocles
440 Posiedon Temple of Sounion Cape Sounion AC
440Atoms Democritus proposes existence of indivisible particles he calls. Abdera, Thrace
440 - 39 1 Morychides
440 2 Points of Solstice determined by Meron
440 Samian War between Athens & Samos.
480 - 40 40 Myron Greek sculpture
- 439 - 8 1 Glaucinus
438 - 7 1 Theodorus
437 - 6 1 Euthymenes
436 - 5 1 Lysimachus
435 Statue of Zeus at Olympia by Phidias, one of seven wonders of world, is completed.
435 - 4 1 Antiochides
434 Attept to Square Circle w/ Straight Edge & Compass by Anaxagoras
434 - 3 1 Crates
433 - 2 1 Apseudes
432 Battle of Potidaea Athens defeats Corinth
432 Athens adopts a 19-year cycle of synchronizing solar & lunar calendars.
432 - 1 1 Pythodorus
432 Heraclea Greek colony of , Turkey is founded by Tarentum & Thurii.
431 Body has 4 Humors: Blood, Bile, Black Bile, Phlegm by Empedocles Physician, Philosopher Argento, Sicily
431 - 04 27 Peloponnesian War between Sparta & Athens & their allies.
400s Tylissos Ancient Tylissos
400s Nea Anchialos-Basilica Martyrion Detail of a mosaic pavement
400s Aigeira Amphitheater
400s Dion, Pieria-Dion site, Greece - statue
430 Typhus Plague one third of Athens dies
431 - 0 1 Euthydemus
431 - 04 Piraeus-Eetioneia Gate Piraeus
430 Oedipus King 1st performance by Sophocles
430 - 29 1 Apollodorus
480 - 30 60 Phidias Sculptor who made Statue of Zeus
429 Battle of Rhium Chalcidians & allies defeat Athens
429 Battle of Chalcis Chalcidians & allies defeat Athens
429 Battle of Naupactus - Phormio defeats Peloponnesian fleet.
429 - 8 1 Epameinon
495 - 29 Athens Acropolis from a top Philopappos Hill
493 - 429 Pericles rules Athens. He solidifies Cleistenes' reforms & masterminds construction of Parthenon.
428 Sparta attempts to crush a rebellion on Corcyra, but cancels effort when Athenians try to intercept them.
428 - 7 1 Diotimus
428 Mytilene rebels against Athens but is crushed.
428 - 7 1 Mytilenian Revolt Chalcidians & allies defeat Athens
427 - 6 1 Eucles
427 Leaders of Mytilenian revolt executed.
427 Platea surrenders to Spartans, who execute over 200 prisoners & destroy city.
426 - 5 1 Euthynus
426 Leukas Seige Demosthenes unsuccessfully besieges Corinthian colony of Leukas.
426 When Ambracia invades Acarnania, they seek help from Spartans & Athenians respectively. Athenians then defeat Spartans in Battle of Olpae
484 - 25 59 Herodotus of Halicarnasus father of history.
425 - 4 1 Stratocles
425 Demosthenes captures port of Pylos in Peloponnesus.
425 Battle of Pylos Athenians invade Sphacteria & defeat Spartans in the.
425 Battle of Sphacteria Athenians invade Sphacteria & defeat Spartans in the.
424 - 3 1 Isarchus
424 Battle of Delium
424 Athenians try to capture Megara, but are defeated by Spartans.
424 Spartan general Brasidas captures Amphipolis, which is a setback for Athens. Thucydides is held responsible for Athenian failure & is ostracised. This gives him time to start writing his history book
423 - 2 1 Aminias
423 Athenians propose a cease-fire, which Spartan general Brasidas ignores.
423 Heraion of Argos Destroyed & rebuilt by fire
422 - 1 1 Alcaeus
422 Battle of Amphipolis Spartans defeat Athenians in the, where Athenian Cleon & Spartan Brasidas are both killed.
421 - 0 1 Aristion
421 Peace of Nicias puts a temporary end to hostilities between Athens & Sparta.
420 - 19 1 Astyphilus
420 Alicibiades elected strategos of Athens & begins dominating Athenian politics.
419 - 8 1 Archias
419 Peace of Nicias is broken when Sparta defeats Argos.
418 - 7 1 Antiphon
418 Orchomenos Battle of Mantinea
418 Battle of Mantinea Spartans win a major 6ctory over Athenians in the, biggest land battle of Peloponnesian War.
417 - 6 1 Euphemus
416 - 5 1 Arimnestus
416 Athenians capture island of Melos & treat inhabitants with great cruelty.
416 Athenians adheres a plea of help from Sicily & starts planning an invasion of island.
415 - 4 1 Charias
415 sacred Hermae busts in Athens are mutilated just before expedition to Sicily is sent away. One of culprits, Andocides, is captured & is forced to turn informer. He names other mutilators, among them Alcibiades, who are sentenced to death in their absence.
415 Alcibiades defects from Athens to Sparta after having learned about his death sentence.
414 - 3 1 Tisandrus
414 siege of Syracuse Athenians try to make a breakthrough in their but are defeated by Spartans.
413 - 2 1 Cleocritus
413 Demosthenes suggests Athenians leave Syracuse in order to return to Athens, where help is needed. However, Nicias refuses & they are again defeated in battle by Spartans. Both Demosthenes & Nicias are killed.
413 Caria allies itself with Sparta.
412 - 1 1 Callias Scambonides
411 Battle of Eretria
411 Battle of Syme
411 - 10 1 Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus
410s Amphiareion
411 Revolts in Athens
411 democracy in Athens is overthrown & replaced by oligarchic Council of Four Hundred. This council is itself soon defeated & order is almost restored, when Five Thousand start ruling. Early next year, they are also overthrown & old democracy is restored.
410 - 9 1 Glaucippus
410 Battle of Cyzicus Athens regains control over its 6tal grain route from Black Sea by defeating Sparta in the.
409 - 8 1 Diocles
409 Rhodes City founded
409 Athens recaptures Byzantium, thereby putting an end to its revolt against Athens & taking control of whole Bosporus.
408 - 7 1 Euctemon
408 Alcibiades returns to Athens in triumph after an absence of seven years.
407 - 6 1 Antigenes
407 Battle of Notium Athenian fleet routed by Spartan one in, which gives Alcibiades' opponents a reason to strip him of command. He never returns to Athens again.
406 - 5 1 Callias Angelides
406 Battle of Arginusae Athens defeats Sparta in theand blockade of Conon is lifted.
406 Sparta sues for peace but Athens rejects this.
480 - 06 74 Euripides. Last of three great Greek Tradegidians. Wrote 95 plays.
480 - 06 Euripides Louvre
405 - 4 1 Alexias
404 Siege of Athens Spartan king Pausanias lays , which makes city start starving.
495 - 05 90 Sophocles 2nd major playwright, author of Oedipus Rex & Antigone. Wrote 113 plays. 7 exist.
404 - 3 1 Pythodorus
404 Battle of Phyle
404 Battle of Munichia
404 Athens surrenders to Sparta, ending Peloponnesian War. Sparta introduces an oligarchic system, Thirty Tyrants, in Athens.
404 History of Peloponnesian War 431-04 BC by Thucydides
528M 20;57;35
450 - 04 46 Alcibiades Athenian General, Politician
403 - 2 1 Eucleides
403 Battle of Piraeus Some exiled Athenians return to fight Thirty Tyrants & restore democracy in Athens. are, however, narrowly defeated by Spartans in the. After this, Spartan king Pausanias allows democracy to be restored in Athens.
403 Thrasybulus restores Athenian democracy & grants an almost general amnesty.
403 Ionian Alphabet Adopted by Athens
402 - 1 1 Micon
401 - 0 1 Xenaenetus
450 - 400 Apollo Temple of Bassae Detail
4 - 200 Lato, Crete


- Ancient Greece Athens primarily for self-defense against growth of Sparta & Persian Empire.
400 - 330 70 Late Classical Period
399 Pella House Atrium Founded
399 - 8 1 Aristocrates
470 - 399 71 Socrates
Famous philosopher of ethics. He leaves no written work himself, but is protagonist of Plato's dialogues. Socrates executed in Athens on charges of impiety & corrupting Athenian youth.
- Socrates 1970
- Barefoot in Athens 1966
398 - 7 1 Euthycles
397 - 6 1 Souniades
396 - 5 1 Phormion
395 - 4 1 Diophandus
395 Battle of Haliartus,
395 - 40 45 Warfare between rival Greek leagues.
390s Diadem, reputed to have been found in a tomb near Hellespont. It is now at Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
394 - 3 1 Ebulides
394 Battle of Coronea,
394 Battle of Nemea,
393 - 2 1 Demostratus
392 - 1 1 Philocles
391 - 0 1 Nicoteles
391 Battle of Lechaeum,
390 - 89 1 Demostratus
389 - 8 1 Antipatrus
388 - 7 1 Pyrgion
387 - 6 1 Theodotus
386 - 5 1 Mystichides
446 - 385 61 Aristophanes of Athens, playwright
385 - 4 1 Dexitheus
384 - 3 1 Dietrephes
383 - 2 1 Phanostratus
382 - 1 1 Evandrus
381 - 0 1 Demophilus
435 - 380 55 Philoxenus of Cythera, Greek dithyrambic poet
380 - 79 1 Pytheas
379 - 8 1 Nicon
378 - 7 1 Nausinicus
377 - 6 1 Calleas
376 - 5 1 Charisandrus
375 - 4 1 Hippodamas
374 - 3 1 Socratides
373 Greek city Helike sinks into sea killing entire population.
300s Hermes & infant Dionysos made. @ Archaeological Museum of Olympia. Discovered in rubble or ruined Temple of Hera at Olympia in 1875.
373 - 2 1 Asteius
372 - 1 1 Alcisthenes
371 - 0 1 Phrasicleides
460 - 370 90 Hippocrates of Cos, Father of Medicine
370 - 69 1 Dyscinitus
369 - 8 1 Lysistratus
368 - 7 1 Nausigenes
367 - 6 1 Polyzelus
366 Kos becomes capital
366 Asclepeion of Kos Democracy instituted
366 - 5 1 Ciphisodorus
365 - 4 1 Chion
364 - 3 1 Timocrates
363 - 2 1 Charicleides
362 - 1 1 Molon
361 - 0 1 Nicophemus
360 Theater of Epidauros
360 - 59 1 Callimides
359 - 8 1 Eucharistus
358 - 7 1 Ciphisodotus
357 - 5 2 Social War between Second Athenian Empire & allies of Chios, Rhodes, & Cos as well as Byzantium
357 - 6 1 Agathocles
356 - 46 10 3rd Sacred War
356 - 5 1 Elpines
356 BC - 1300s CE Philippi city center
355 - 4 1 Callistratus
354 - 3 1 Diotemus
353 - 2 1 Thudemus
352 - 1 1 Aristodemus
350s Skopas of Paros makes Panel from Amazon frieze, south side of Mausoleum at Halikarnassos. It is now kept at British Museum, London.
351 - 0 1 Theellus
350 - 49 1 Apollodorus
349 - 8 1 Callimachus
348 - 7 1 Theophilus
429 - 347 82 Plato Socrates' most distinguished student
347 - 6 1 Themistocles
346 - 5 1 Archias
345 - 4 1 Ebulus
344 - 3 1 Lyciscus
343 - 2 1 Pythodotus
342 - 1 1 Sosigenes
341 - 0 1 Nicomachus
340 - 39 1 Theophrastus
340 Battle of Byzantium
339 - 8 1 Lysimachides
338 Philip 2 erected Olympia’s Philippeion in Athens following his 6ctory at Chaeronea. round marble building was completed by his son, Alexander.
436 - 338 98 Isocrates Athenian Orator
338 Annexed by League of Corinth, controlled by Macedonia
370 - 10 60ish Praxiteles Invented nude female life sized statues makes . A Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical original is Athens
333 - 67 Phalasarna Round Tower Sea
332 - 09 23 Argead Dynasty
330 B - 167 Map of ancient Epirus & environs
315 Thessaloniki-landmarks
300 Lindos Church at acropolis of Lindos
300s Lycosoura 1st Evidence
290 Dodona
294 - 288 Aigosthena Fortress