400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
 
Kingdom of Bithynia 297 - 74 223
 
 
Pergamon Kingdom 241 - 133 108
 
 
Kingdom of Corduene 189 - 1 189
 
 
Roman Province of Asia 188 BC - 330 AD 518
 
Kingdom of Osroene 132 BC - 244 AD 376
 
Roman B et P
74 BCE - 330 CE
404
 
Roman Syria
64 BCE - 135 CE
199
Mysia
 
N Shore of Propontis
 
Taurus 0
 
Cappadocia
   
Cataonia
   
Meliten
   
Pontus
   
Paphlagonia
   
Lesser Armenia
   
Bithnia
   
Galatia
   
Lyconia
   
Pisidia
   
Pergamum
   
Sardis
   
Katakekaumene
   
Hierapolis
   
Ionia
   
Caria
   
Lycia
   
Pamphylia
   
Cicilia
   
Commagene
   
 
Caucasian Iberia 302 BC - 502 AD 804
Troad
   
Satrapy of Armenia 500s - 100s 400
   
 
Kingdom of Lesser Armenia 331 - 72 259
 
 
Kingdom of Sophene 200's - 94 100s
 
 
 
Kingdom of Commagene 163 BCE - 72 CE 235
 
Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC - 428 AD 618
Asian Iberia
   
Cyprus
   
Ezra
 
Hasmonean 140 - 37 103
 
Coelesyria (Palestine)
   
Kingdom of Phoenicia 1550 - 300 1250
   
 
Darius I
 
Parth
 
Syria
   
Achaemenid Empire (Persia) 550 - 330 220
Part of Macedonian Empire 330 - 12 18
Seleucia
   
Kuwait Country Flag Kuwait
Bahrain Country Flad Bahrain
Qatar Country Flag Qatar
Saudi-Arabia Country Flag Saudi Arabia
United-Arab-Emirates Country Flag UAE
Oman Country Flag Oman
     
Awsan 110s BCE - 00s CE 120s
   
Himyarite 110 BCE - 520s CE 630s
 
me
 
 
Xerx
 
Seleucid Empire 323 - 60 263
 
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
472 BC Sardis 1st Mentioned. Gymnasium
498 Battle of Ephesus
494 Battle of Lade
479 Battle of Mycale
466 Battle of Eurymedon River
411 Battle of Cynossema
411 Battle of Abydos
410 Battle of Cyzicus
406 Battle of Notium
406 Battle of Mytilene
406 Battle of Arginusae
405 Battle of Aegospotame
300s Priene, Western Turkey is rebuilt.
350 Lydia becomes a tributary of Macedon after Persia is conquered by Alexander Great
300s BC - 400s AD Termessos Tombs
300s Knidos Town
306 Alexandria Troas Founded Thermae
316 - 01 Smyrna
399 BC - 1357 Pergamon City 1st mentioned to taken by Ottomans
394 Battle of Canidus,
334 Battle of Granicus River
333 Battle of Issus
333 Battle of Gordium
Kingdom of Bithynia
297 - 74 223
- Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius, Apamea, Nicaea
200s Antioch, Pisidia
281 Battle of Corupedium Rome defeats Etruscans & Boii (a Gallic tribe) in
277 Battle of Lycimachia
201 Battle of Lade
Kingdom of Bithynia
297 - 74 223
- Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius, Apamea, Nicaea
100s BC Olympos (Lycia) Bath
386 AD -1840 Sümela Monastery Construction
Kingdom of Bithynia
297 - 74 223
- Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius, Apamea, Nicaea
- 53 - 1 2 Battle of Carrhae Crasus invaded Parthia, Parthians defeat Romansin.
25 - 20 bc Monumentum Temple Ancyranum Turkey
89 Battle of Mount Scorobas
72 Battle of Cabira
69 Battle of Tigranocerta
67 Battle of Korakesion
66 Battle of Lycus River
48 Battle of Nicopolis
47 Battle of Zela
   
Pergamon Kingdom
241 - 133 108
-
   
     
Kingdom of Corduene
189 - 1
188
@ Pinik
Artaxiad
189 - 1
188
189 - 59 30 Artaxias 1 = Satenik
159 - 15 44 Artavasdes 1 ^
115 - 95 20 Tigranes 1 ^
95 - 55 40 Tigranes 2 Great <
55 - 34 21 Artavasdes 2 ^
34 - 20 14 Artaxias 2 ^ Deposed
20 - 8 12 Tigranes 3 <
12 - 1 11 Tigranes 4 ^
Roman
1 BCE -
1 BC - 4 AD 5 Gaius Caesar ^^^ Augustus Caesar
Kingdom of Corduene
189 BC - 000's AD
250's
@ Pinik
     
Roman Province of Asia
188 BC - 330 AD
518
- Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
Roman Province of Asia
188 BC - 330 AD
518
@ Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
     
Kingdom of Osroene
132 BC - 244 AD
376
- Edessa
Kingdom of Osroene
132 BC - 244 AD
376
- Edessa
       
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BCE - 330 CE
404
- Nicomedia
73 Siege of Cyzicus
       
Roman Province of Galatia
25 BC - 297 AD
322
- Ancyra (Ankara)
Caucasian Iberia
302 BC - 502 AD
804
- Armazi, Mtskheta, Tbilisi
- Georgian
-
Paganism, Hellenism, Christianity
290 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi)
Caucasian Iberia
302 BC - 502 AD
804
-
Pharnabazids
299 - 159 140
299 - 34 Pharnavaz 1 of Iberia,
234 - 159 Saurmag 1 of Iberia (son)
Caucasian Iberia
302 BC - 502 AD
804
-
234 - 159 Saurmag 1 of Iberia (son)
159 - 09 Mirian 1 of Iberia (son-in-law & adopted son),
109 - 90 Parnajom of Iberia (son),
Caucasian Iberia
302 BC - 502 AD
804
-
109 - 90 Parnajom of Iberia (son),
90 - 30 60 ?
30 - 20 10 Mirian 2 of Iberia (son)
20 BCE - CE 1 21 Arshak 2 of Iberia (son),
000s Armazi Palace Georgia
Satrapy of Armenia
570 - 100s 400s
- Armavir, Yervandashat
- Armenian & Urantian?
- Zoroastrianism
Orontid
570 - 323
447
500 - 475 25 Hidarnes 2
475 - 50 25 Hidarnes 3
450 - 401 49 Ardashir
401 - 344 57 Orontes
Satrapy of Armenia
570 - 100s 400s
- Armavir, Yervandashat
- Armenian & Urantian?
- Zoroastrianism
Orontid
570 - 323
447
401 - 344 57 Orontes
344 - 36 8 Darius Codomannus
336 - 1 5 Orontes 2
331 - 23 8 Mithranes
Non-dynastic
323 - 1
2
323 Perdiccas
323 - 1 2 Neoptolemus
321 Eumenes
Orontid
321 - 163
158
321 - 17 4 Mihran
317 - 260 57 Orontes 3
Satrapy of Armenia
570 - 100s 400s
- Armavir, Yervandashat
- Armenian & Urantian?
- Zoroastrianism
Orontid
321 - 163
158
317 - 260 57 Orontes 3
260 Sames of Sophene (Unknown previous tenure as Satrap of Sophene)
260 - 28 42 Arsames 1 (Armenia, Sophene, & Commagene)
228 - 12 16 Xerxes (Sophene & Commagene)
212 - 200 12 Abdissares (Sophene & Commagene)
228 - 200 28 Orontes 4 (Armenia) Deposed by Antiochus 3
201 - 163 38 Ptolemaeus (Commagene)
Satrapy of Armenia
570 - 100s 400s
- Armavir, Yervandashat
- Armenian & Urantian?
- Zoroastrianism
Orontid
321 - 163
158
201 - 163 38 Ptolemaeus of Commagene
163 Annexed by Commagene
51 Tigranes Great, king of Armenia
00s Roman Armenia
68 Battle of Artaxata
 
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BC - 428 AD
759
- Yervandashat 201 - 185 16
- Artashat 185 - 77 108 & 60 - 120 60
- Tigranakert, Turkey 77 - 69 8
- Vagharshapat120- 330 110
- Dvin 336 - 428 92
- Armenian
- Paganism, Hellenism: 200's BCE - 301 CE 500's, Christianity 301 -
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BC - 428 AD
759
-
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BC - 428 AD
759
-
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BC - 428 AD
759
-
 
Kingdom of Lesser Armenia
331 - 72
- Nikopolis
- Armenian
-
Kingdom of Lesser Armenia
331 - 72
- Nikopolis
- Armenian
-
Kingdom of Lesser Armenia
331 - 72
@ Nikopolis
- Armenian
-
Kingdom of Lesser Armenia
331 - 72
@ Nikopolis
- Armenian
-
   
Kingdom of Sophene
200's - 94
100s
- Armenia
- 200s Independant of Acheminid Empire
Kingdom of Sophene
200s - 94
180ish
- Karkathiokerta
- Armenian
- ? Zareh
Kingdom of Sophene
200s - 94
180ish
- Karkathiokerta
- Armenian
- ? Zareh
94 Conquered by Kingdom of Greater Armenia
     
Kingdom of Commagene
163 BCE - 72 CE
235
- Armenia
 
         
410 - 374 Salamis, Cyprus Salamis kyprou
- 334 - 262 72 Zeno of Citium, Cyprus founder of Stoicism
     
536 - 476 60 Book of Ezra
588 - 455 133 Kingdom of Judah post capture
483 Book of Esther
- Esther & King 1960
- Esther 1999
459 Ezra leads second body of Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem
445 Nehemiah sent to "restore & rebuild" walls of Jerusalem.
445Book of Nehemiah
433 Eliashib high priest in Jerusalem.
422 Destruction of Temple of Solomon. Book of Lamentations is about this
420 - 397 23 Book of Malachi
413 Joiada High Priest in Jerusalem.
484 Joiakim became High Priest in Jerusalem.

397 39 books of Old Testament ended. Four hundred years of Biblical silence started.
373 John High Priest in Jerusalem.
321 Onias became High Priest in Jerusalem.
332 Siege of Gaza
217 Simon high priest of Jerusalem
200 Emergence of Hsiung-nu (later known as Huns?) on western borders of China
275 end of history of Babylon.

Hasmonean Kingdom
140 - 37
103
- Jerusalem Koine Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic
198 Sanhedrin first mentioned.
175 Jason High Priest in Jerusalem.
165 Jud was vaascant in Jerusalem.
164 Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of Hasmonean family, restores Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by festival of Hanukkah.
161 Jews signed treaty with Romans. First treaty with Jews on record.
150 Simon High Priest & governor in Jerusalem.
147 Hasmonean victories restore autonomy to Judea.
136 Hyrcanus became High Priest in Jerusalem.
130 John Hyrcanus destroyed temple on Mount Gerizim.
107 Hyrcanus, High Priest of Jerusalem, took title "King of Jews."
106 Government of Maccabees began in Palestine.
106 Janneus became King of Jews
106 Judas Maccabeus, leader of Hasmonean rebellion & its first autonomous ruler of Judea
Hasmonean Kingdom
140 - 37
103
- Jerusalem Koine Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic
100s Hillel Elder, Jewish rabbi
79 Alexandra Janneus' widow, Queen of Jews.
74 - 4 70 Herod Great
- Herod Great 1960
69 Hyrcanus became ruler of Jews.
63 Pompey captures Jerusalem
57 Sanhedrin took over rulership of Jews.
57 Pompey of Rome conquered Jerusalem.
47 Antipater ruled Jews.
37 - 3 Roman Senate appointed Herod, an Idumean Arab, King of Judea. He ruled for 34 years. Began construction of great Jewish Temple on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem.
10 - 68 Apostle Peter
6/4 Jesus Christ born. John Baptist born.
57 Sanhedrin took over ruler ship of Jews. & Pompey were formed.
000s BC - 600s AD Avdat
63 Scythopolis Amphitheater Bet She'an Annexed by Rome
22 Caesarea aqueduct Bridge
Caesarea Maritima Aqueduct Israel
1550 - 300 1250 Phoenicia
332 Alexander 3 Great defeated city of Tyre.
     
 
312 Petra Street of Facades, Petra Founded
 
63 Jerash Conquered by Rome
   
300 Apamea Castle
274 - 200 74 Syrian Wars
274 - 1 3 1st Syrian War
260 - 255 5 2nd Syrian War
245 - 1 4 3rd Syrian War
219 - 7 2 4th Syrian War
202 - 0 2 5th Syrian War
200 Battle of Panium
- 175 Antiochus 4 Epiphanes, took possession of Syrian throne, at murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter.
Roman Province of Syria
64 BCE - 135 CE
199
- Antioch
64 Afrin Bridge syria Took by Rome
48 Syria Anexed by Rome
64 Rome Conquers Syria w/ Pompey
40 - 37 3 Parthian invasion of Syria & Asia Minor

404 Battle of Cunaxa
331 Battle of Gaugamela
Part of Macedonian Empire
330 - 12 18
Argead
330 - 12 18
- All over.
330 - 23 7 Alexander 1 Great 356 - 323 son of Philip 2 of Macedonia *Macedonia 336- as Alexander 3
323 - 280 43 Wars of Diadochi
322 - 20 2 1st War of Diadochi
319 - 5 4 2nd War of Diadochi
314 - 11 3 3rd War of Diadochi
308 - 01 7 4th War of Diadochi
298 - 85 13 Struggle over Macedon
285 - 81 4 struggle of Lysimachus & Seleucus
280 - 75 5 Gallic invasions & consolidation
323 - 17 6 Philip son of Philip 1 of Macedonia King of Macedonia as Philip 3. X42 by Olympias
323 - 17 6 Alexander 2 Egus son of Alexander Great 323 - 309 King of Macedonia as Alexander 4 until 310 BC, X by Cassander ^Antipater
323 - 1 2 Perdiccas Regent,  ? - 321prince of Orestis
321 Peithon 355 - 314 son of Crateuas Regent
321 Arrhidaeus 
319 Regent
321 - 19 2 Antipater 398
319 son of Iollas Regent, Killed by Seleucus I
319 - 6 3 Polysperchon 394 - 303 son of Simmias Regent
317 - 6 1 Olympias 375 - 316 daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus & mother of Alexander I. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
316 - 2 4 Antigonus Monophthalmus 382
301 Antigonus 1 son of Philip of Elymiotis King of Anatolia, Syria & Macedonia until 301 BC. Killed by Seleucus I
311 - 09 2 Babylonian War
443 Sogdianus reigned Persia
334 Issus Alexander Great defeats Darius 3 of Persia
333 remants of Persian Empire fall to Alexander Great
330 Alexander Great conquers Persian Empire, decline & depopulation of Ancient Greece with large migrations towards conquered lands.
331 War Elephant 1stX Battle of Gaugamela iraq

100s-000s BC Hatra City fl
100 BC - 400 AD Samad al-Shan Oman
129 Battle of Ecbatana

 

 
 
Seleucid Empire
312 - 129
183
- Babylon 312 - 05 7
- Seleucia, Iraq 305 - 240 65, Antioch, Turkey 240 - 64 176
312 - 281 31 Seleucus Inicator X77 son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC. X by Ptolemy Ceraunus
Seleucid Empire
312 - 129
183
- Seleucia, Iraq 305 - 240 65, Antioch, Turkey 240 - 64 176
312 - 281 31 Seleucus Inicator X77 son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC. X by Ptolemy Ceraunus
281 - 61 20 Antiochus 1
Soter ^ co-ruler from 291
261 - 46 15 Antiochus 2 Theos ^ 286 - 246
246 - 25 21 Seleucus 2 Callinicus. Moves capital to Antioch
225 - 3 2 Seleucus 3 Alexander Ceraunus. X20
223 - 187 36 Antiochus 3 Megas X54
209 - 188 21 Parthian - Seleucid Wars
Seleucid Empire
312 - 129
183
- Seleucia, Iraq 305 - 240 65, Antioch, Turkey 240 - 64 176
187 - 75 12 Seleucus 4 Philopator
175 - 63 12 Antiochus 4 Epiphanes X48 Killed in Elymais last effective ruler of Seleucid Empire
163 - 1 2 Antiochus 5 Eupator 172 - 161
161 - 50 11 Demetrius 1 Soter 185 - 150
150 - 46 4 Alexander 3 Balas Seleucid king of Syria As Alexander 1
146 - 39 7 Demetrius 2 Nicator Defeated & captured by Parthians. He married to Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
139 - 29 10 Antiochus 7 Sidetes Killed in battle with Phraates 2

 
         
         
         
         
         
         
     
110 BC - 525 AD Zafar, Yemen Capital of Himyarite Confederation
 
     
Himyarite Kingdom
110 BCE - 520s CE
630s
- Zafar, San‘a’, Yemen
 
     
Awsan Kingdom
110s BCE - 00s
CE 120s
- Yemen