000s
100s
200s
300s
400s
 
 
Rom
V1
V
g
Th
Ar
Th2
p
m
V - Theodosian
Le1
l2
z
b
z
a
Leonid
Early Byzantine Empire 330 - 843
Jesus
 
Gnosticism
 
Modalism 150 - 250
 
m
o
v
Arta 2
t
c
G2
Vol1
Vol2
Os1
v3
V4
v5
V6
Parthian Empire 227 BCE - 224 CE 551
Ard
Shap
b1
Ba2
N
h
Shapur 2
B
Ya1
B
Ya2
Per
K
Sassanian Empire 224 - 651 427
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Kingdom of Commagene
163 BC - 72 AD 235
- Samosata
- Greek, Persian, Armenian
163 - 30 33
Ptolemaeus
130 - 09 21 Sames 2 Theosebes Dikaios
109 - 70 39 Mithridates 1 Callinicus
70 - 38 32 Antiochus 1 Theos of Commagene
38 - 20 18 Mithridates 2 of Commagene
20 - 12 8 Mithridates 3 of Commagene
12 BC - 17 AD 29 Antiochus 3 of Commagene
Roman Control
17 - 38 21
38 - 72 34 Antiochus 4
72 Antiochus deposed by Rome and Commagene re-annexed into Syria.
Kingdom of Corduene
189 BCE - 000s CE
250s
- Pinik
- 14,707 km2
Roman Province of Asia
188 BCE - 395 CE
583
- Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
Kingdom of Osroene
132 BCE - 244 CE
376
- Edessa
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BCE - 395 CE
469
@ Nicomedia
Roman Province of Syria
64 BCE - 135 CE
199
@ Antioch
Roman Province of Galatia
25 BCE - 297 CE
322
@ Ancyra (Ankara)
Roman Province of Cappadocia
18 - 600s
600ish
@ Caesarea (Kayseri)
Roman Province of Thracia
46 - 395
249
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
Kingdom of Bospora
68 - 341
273
- Ukraine Turkey
Roman Province of
Lycia et Pamphylia

70s - 297
220s
69 - 155 86 Polycarp bishop of Smyrna, Turkey.
15 - 100 85 Apollonius of Tyana Turkey Greek Neopythagorean philosopher
35 - 110 75 Ignatius third bishop of Antioch, author of letters Turkey
000s Tripolis (Phrygia) Tripolis in Phrygia Buldan Denizli
100s Elaiussa Sebaste
Roman Province of Asia
188 BCE - 395 CE
583
@ Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
Kingdom of Osroene
132 BC - 244 AD
376
- Edessa
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BC - 395 AD
469
@ Nicomedia
Roman Province of Syria
64 BC - 135 AD
199
@ Antioch
Roman Province of Galatia
25 BC - 297 AD
322
@ Ancyra (Ankara)
Roman Province of Thracia
46 - 395
249
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
Roman Province of
Lycia et Pamphylia

70s - 297
220s
Roman Province of Cappadocia
18 - 600s
600ish
@ Caesarea (Kayseri)
190s Montanus Founder of Monatism Christian heretic from Phrygia, Turkey.
100s Hıdırlık Tower at Antalya marina2
100s Ulpiana City
100s Eurymedon Bridge
100s Penkalas Bridge
110 - 35 Library of Celsus Ephesus
117 - 38 Pergamon Bridge
138 - 161 Patara Theater
155 Aspendos Theater
155 Aspendus aqueduct Bridge
200 Aphrodite Temple Aphrodisias







Roman Province of Asia
188 BCE - 395 CE
583
@ Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
- 200s Jonah Swallowed & Jonah Cast Up, two statuettes of a group from eastern Mediterranean, probably Asia Minor, are made. They are now kept at Cleveland Museum of Art.
Kingdom of Osroene
132 BC - 244 AD
376
- Edessa
Roman Province of Osroene
244 - 314
70
- Edessa
Roman Diocese of East
314 - 95
81
@ Antioch
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BC - 395 AD
469
@ Nicomedia
Roman Province of Galatia
25 BC - 297 AD
322
@ Ancyra (Ankara)
Roman Province of Cappadocia
18 - 600s
600ish
@ Caesarea (Kayseri)
Roman Province of Thracia
46 - 395
249
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
Roman Province of
Lycia et Pamphylia

70s - 297
220s
Kingdom of Sophene
200s - 94
80ish
- Karkathiokerta
- Armenian
- ? Zareh
- 200s Independant of Acheminid Empire
200 Kemer Bridge
200s Selge Theater
200s Limyra Bridge
210s Severan Bridge
212 to 214 Edessa, Mesopotamia-Urfac Castle by Romans as a Colony




Roman Province of Thracia
46 - 330
284
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
Roman Province of Osroene
244 - 314
70
- Edessa
- 314 Incorporated into Roman Diocese of East
Roman Diocese of East
314 - 95
81
- Antioch
- 395 Constantinople takes over from Rome
Byzantine Diocese of East
395 - 630s
230s
@ Antioch
Byzantine Province of Thracia
395 - 600s
300s
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
Roman Province of Asia
188 BCE - 395 CE
583
@ Mysia, Troad, Aeolis, Lydia, Ionia, Caria
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BCE - 330 CE
404
@ Nicomedia
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453 1123
Early Byzantine Empire
330 - 843 513
Roman Control
305 - 63 58
- "Eastern" or "Byzantine" Empire lasted 1058 years, from 395 A.D. to 1453 A.D. and was ruled by about 90 emperors.
Province of Thracia
330 - 600s
250s
@ Adrianopole, Serdica (Sofia), then Constantinople
305 - 71 66 Chlorus 1 Constantius "Constantine Great"
330 - 600s 250s Byzantine Province of Bithynia et Pontus
325 1st Council of Nicaea to pacify Christianity in grip of Arian controversy.
Roman Province of Cappadocia
18 - 600s
600ish
- @ Caesarea (Kayseri)
Province of Armenia Prima
330 - 600s
250s
- @ ?
Province of Armenia Secunda
330 - 600s 250s Caesarea (Kayseri)
@ ?
337 Constantine 1 Baptized on Death Bed
337 - 61 24 Constantius 2 second son of Constantine 1 died of illness on campaign
361 - 3
2 Julian "the Apostate"
Non Dynastic
363 - 4 1 Jovian
Valentinian - Theodosian House
364 - 457
93
364 - 375 11 Valentinian 1 Officer under Julian and Jovian
Province of Cappadocia Primera
371 - 535
164
- Caesarea Kayseri
Province of Cappadocia Secunda
371 - 535
164
- Tyana
364 - 378 14 Valens brother of Valentinian 1 Killed Battle of Adrianople
378 - 79
1 Gratian Son of Valentinian 1
330 - 79 49 Basil Great Christian theologian, bishop in Cappadocia
379 - 95 16 Theodosius 1 "the Great" brother-in-law of Gratian
381 1st Council of Constantinople reaffirms Christian doctrine of Trinity by adding to creed of Nicaea.
395 - 408 13 Arcadius Son of Theodosius 1
-
Eastern Roman Empire (Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria and Italy) Constantinople Term conventionally used since 19th century to describe Greek-speaking Roman Empire during Middle Ages.
310 - 83 73 Ulfilas Arian priest and translator of Bible into Gothic Capadocia, Turkey.
390s Book of Steps Syriac religious discourses. Turkey.
329 - 90 61 Gregory of Nazianzus Turkey. Christian theologian, bishop
300s Aesepus Bridge turkey
317 - 61 Misis Bridge turkey
368 Valens Aqueduct Istanbul Turkey
384 Turkey Stone Bridge
Kingdom of Sophene
200s - 94
100s
@ Karkathiokerta
94 Conquered by Kingdom of Greater Armenia
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453 1123
Early Byzantine Empire
330 - 843 513
347 - 407 60 John Chrysostom Patriarch of Constantinople
408 - 50 42 Theodosius 2 Son of Arcadius D riding accident
380 - ? Socrates Scholasticus Byzantine Church historian
450 - 53 3 Queen Pulcheria Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius 2
450 - 57
7 Marcian Soldier, politician, husband of Pulcheria D Gangrene contracted on a journey
Leonid
457 - 518 61
457 - 74 17 Leo 1 "the Thracian" Soldier Died of dysentery
474 1 Leo 2
474 - 75 1 & 76 - 91 1 & 15 Zeno
475 - 76 2 Basiliscus
491 - 518 27 Anastasius 1
Roman Province of
Bithynia et Pontus

74 BCE - 330 CE
404
@ Nicomedia
386 - 451 65 Nestorius, archbishop of Constantinople, father of Nestorian heresy
400 - 500s Lamas Aqueduct Turkey

 

     
300s - 1029 Svetitskhoveli Cathedral Georgia
400s - 1112 Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral
     
300s - 1100s Baghaberd Castle Armenia
300s Mother of Holy Etchmiadzin Cathedral
300s Kakavaberd Castle
 
32 Bel Palmyra Temple Syria
125-50 Bosra Theater Syria
150 Bacchus Temple Baalbeck Lebanon

273 Halabiye Captured by Rome Syria
325 Holy Sepulchre Cathedral Consecrated ?
 
Roman Province of Syria
64 BC - 135 AD
199
-
50 -100 Gnosticism
000s - 100s Harbaqa Dam Syria
Roman Province of Syria
64 BC - 135 AD
199
-
100 Harbaqa Dam Syria
Palmyrene Kingdom
260 - 273
13
- Palmyra, Syria Broke off from Roman Empire during Crisis of Third Century.
260 - 7 7 Septimius Odaenathus
267 - 71 4 Zenobia
272 - 274 Palmyrene War of Aurelian Syria
200s Eyeglasses A primitive form ofwere developed for a nearsighted princess in Syria.
200s Band-e Kaisar Iran
300 Nimreh Bridge syria
 
- 34 Conversion of Saint Paul in Lebanon.
       
Roman Province of Judaea
6 - 132
126
- Caesarea Maritima
- Jesus Christ 6 BCE - 33 CE 39
- Passion of Christ  2004
-
Jesus 1979
-
Mary and Joseph 1979
-
Jesus of Nazareth 1977
-
Greatest Story Ever Told 1965
-
King of Kings 1961
-
Barabbas 1961
-
Ben-Hur 1959
-
Robe 1953
6 Archelaus Coponius became Procurator of Jews.
9 Ambivius became Procurator of Jews.
13 Annius Rufus became Procurator of Jews.
15 Valerius Gratus became Procurator of Jews.
26 - 36 10 Pontius Pilate is 5th Prefect of Roman province of Judaea
26 - 30 4 Jesus Ministry
6 BCE - 33 CE 39 John Babtist
- Salome 1953
37 Agrippa became King of Jews.
44 Cuspius became Procurator of Jews.
44 Tiberius became Procurator of Jews.
44 Cumanus became Procurator of Jews.
50 1st Council of Christian Apostles at Jerusalem.
52 New Testament Began
52 Felix became ruler of Jews.
60 Portins Festus became ruler of Jews.
? - 62 James Just Bishop of Jerusalem.
66 - 70 4 1st Jewish-Roman War (Great Jewish Revolt)
? - 72 Thomas Apostle
70 Titus took Jerusalem with an army of 60,000. X1.1M. Men crucified until wood for crosses was no longer found.
- Masada 1981
70 Destruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem by Romans under Titus.
10 BC - 44 AD 54 Herod Agrippa
600s - 1000s 400 Masoretes adds vowel pointings to text of Tanakh, Hebrew Bible.
17 - 137 120 Akiba in Israel
28 - ? Berenice of Cilicia. Israel
65? - ? Elisha ben Abuyah Rabbi
110 BCE - 10 CE 120 Hillel Elder
37 - 100 63 Josephus Hagiographer
90s Jewish Council of Jamnia, Israel.
000s Mamshit Trading Post
000s Ramat Rachel
000s-800 Shivta
63 Annexed by Rome Beit Shean-Scythopolis Theater
70 Caesarea Maritima Games





Roman Province of Judaea
6 - 132
126
117 Adrian became Emperor of Rome. He rebuilt Jerusalem, placing Temple of Jupiter on site of Solomons Temple. He also visited Britain.
115 - 7 2 2nd Jewish-Roman War Trajan s invasion on Parthian Empire,
132 - 5 3 3rd Jewish-Roman War (aka Bar Kokhbas revolt)
100s Rabbi Yehuda haNasi Prince of Jewish people
100 - 65 65 Justin Martyr born at Sychar in Samaria, Israel.
17 - 137 120 Rabbi Akiva Head of all Jewish Sages
100s Eleutheropolis Amphitheater Beit Guvrin Israel
2 - 600s Hippos Cathedral
300s Capernaum Synagogue
400 - 50 50 Sozomen Christian church historian Palestein.
0 Al Khazneh Petra Mausoleum
000s Petra Roman Road jordan Gate
Roman Province of
Arabia Petraea

106 - 390
284
- Petra
150 Artemis Temple Jerash Jordan
Roman Province of
Arabia Petraea

106 - 390
284
- Petra
Roman Province of
Arabia Petraea

106 - 390
284
- Petra
 
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BCE - 428 CE
759
-
58 - 63 Roman-Parthian War over Armenia
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BCE - 428 CE
759
-
Roman Province of Armenia
114 - 8
4
- Tigranakert, Artashat
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BCE - 428 CE
759
-
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BCE - 428 CE
759
-
301 Armenia 1st to adopt Christianity as state religion followed by Ethiopia, circa 320, San Marino is founded as a republic
361 - 440 79 Saint Mesrob Armenian monk
Kingdom of Armenia
(Greater Armenia)

331 BCE - 428 CE
759
-
405 Armenian alphabet created by Mesrob Mashtots
Middle Persian Empire
247 BCE - 670 CE
917
-
Kingdom of Araba 100s
- Middle East 0*
Roman
Province of Mesopotamia

116 - 7
1
116 - 7 1 Trajan
Roman Province of Assyria
116 - 8
2
116 - 8 2 Trajan
Roman Province of Mesopotamia
198 - 330
132
-
Roman Province of Mesopotamia
198 - 330
132
-
Sassanid Empire
224 - 651
427
- Persia 4 @ Ardashir-Khwarrah &Ctesiphon, Iraq, Middle Persian, 7,400,000 km2
224 - 41
17 Ardashir 1
241 - 72
31 Shapur 1
240 Sapor became ruler of Persia. He defeated Romans and flayed Valerian.
272 - 3 1 Hormizd 1
273 - 6
3 Bahram 1
216 - 76 60 Mani (prophet) of Assyria, Iraq. founder of Manichaeism
276 - 93 17 Bahram 2
293
Bahram 3
293 - 302
9 Narseh
245 - 325 80 Iamblichus Assyrian Neoplatonist philosopher
Roman Province of Mesopotamia
198 - 330
132
-
Byzantine
Province of Mesopotamia

330 - 640
310
-
Sassanid Empire
224 - 651
427
302 - 9 7 Hormizd 2
309 - 79
70 Shapur 2
- 350 About this time Huns begin to invade Sassanid Empire.
379 - 83 4 Ardashir 2
383 - 8
5 Shapur 3
388 - 99
11 Bahram 4
399 - 420
41 Yazdgard 1
Byzantine
Province of Mesopotamia

330 - 640
310
-
Sassanid Empire
224 - 651
427
420 - 38 18 Bahram 5
438 - 57
19 Yazdgard 2
457 - 59
2 Hormizd 3
459 - 84
25 Peroz
484 - 8
Balash
488 - 97
9 Kavad 1
497 - 9
2 Zamasp
       
440 Hephthalites (White Huns, later known in West as Avars) move south from Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khurasan, and eastern Persia.