1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
 
Warsangali Sultanate Somalia 1290s - 1884 590s
 
Ajuuraan State Somalia 1300s - 1600s 300
Shewa Sultanate Ethiopia 896 - 1285 389
 
 
Zagwe Dynasty Ethiopia 1137 - 1270 133
 
Ifat Sult
   
 
Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia 1137 - 1975 838
     
Abyssinian Empire Ethiopia 1270 - 1974 704
 
Adal Sult Ethiopia
 
Buganda Kingdom Uganda
 
Kitara Kingdom Uganda 1300s - 1500s 200
Kilwa Sultanate Tanzania 900s - 1505 600s
 
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Warsangali
1290s - 1884 606
@ Las Khorey, Somalia. Islam_Flag
Ajuuraan
1300s - 1600s
300
Adal
1415 - 1555
140

Shewa Sultanate
896 - 1285 391

Ethiopian Empire
1137 - 1975
38

Addis Ababa 837

Zagwe
1137 - 1270
133

Ethiopia

1270 Solomonic Dynasty of Ethiopia

Imperial revival in Ethiopia
1270 - 1478
208
Abyssinian
1270 - 1974
704
Ifat
1285 - 1332 47
Islam_Flag
Kaffa
1390 - 1897 507
@ Anderaccha, Ethiopia. Kaffa
Janjero
1400s - 1894 494
Ethiopia
     
Buganda
1380s - 1894 514
Lake Victoria area
Kitara
1300s - 1500s 200
Lake Victoria area
 
Kilwa Sultinate
957 - 1506
549
Tanzania

Shirazi Era

1003 Dawud ibn Ali ^ deposed after four years by Matata Mandalima, king of Changa/Xanga. Dawud fled to Mafia island, where he died.
Khalid ibn Bakr ('Ali Bonebaquer'; said to be nephew of Matata Mandalima), installed as ruler of Kilwa by Changa. Ruled only two years, deposed in uprising by Persian colonists.
1005 alHassan ibn Suleiman ibn Ali (nephew of late Dawud) installed by Persian colonists after uprising against Changa puppet, ruled 16 years
1042 - 1102 60 Ali ibn Dawud 1 (son of Dawud, nephew of alHassan)
Ali ibn Daud II (grandson of Ali ibn Dawud) ruled 6 years, a deranged tyrant, deposed by people of Kilwa, and condemned to die in a well.
Kilwa Sultinate
957 - 1506
549

Shirazi Era

1102 - 6 4 alHassan ibn Dawud (brother of Ali ibn Daud II) elevated by people of Kilwa, to replace his despised brother. Ruled 24 years.
1106 - 29 23 Suleiman (of royal lineage) deposed and beheaded by people of Kilwa after only two years.
1129 - 31 2 Dawud ibn Suleiman ^, made his fortune in Sofala, before being called to Kilwa) ruled 40 years.
1131 - 70 39 Suleiman ibn alHassan ibn Daud ^, one of greatest of Kilwa sultans, credited for conquering much of Swahili Coast, bringing Sofala, Pemba, and Zanzibar under Kilwa's rule; responsible for erecting many buildings in Kilwa itself, including its stone fortress and palaces, transforming city into a veritable metropolis. Ruled 18 years.
1170 - 89 19 Dawud ibn Suleiman ^ ruled 2 years.
1189 - 90 1 Talut ibn Suleiman <
1190 - 1 1 Hussein ibn Suleiman < ruled 25 years. 0C
1100 - 1500 500 Bantu, Arab, and Indian cultures blend in Swahili civilization along eastern coast.
Kilwa Sultinate
957 - 1506
549
Tanzania

Shirazi Era

1191 - 1215 24 Khalid ibn Suleiman ('Ali Bonij' brother of previous) ruled 10 years
1215 - 25 10 ibn Suleiman ('Bone Soleiman', nephew of previous, son of ?) ruled 40 years
1263 - 7 4 Ali ibn Dawud (uncertain connection) ruled 14 years.
End of Persian Shirazi dynasty, beginning of Mahdali dynasty of Yemeni Arab sharifs, or what Zanzibar chronicle calls 'family of Abu alMawahib'

Mahdali Era
1277 - 1495
218

1277 - 94 17 alHassan ibn Talut (grandson of Ali ibn Dawud) ruled 18 years; had a 'reputation as a great knight'.
Kilwa Sultinate
957 - 1506
549
@ Tanzania. Islam_Flag
Mahdali Era
1277 - 1495
218
1294 - 1308 14 Suleiman ibn Hassan (son of previous) ruled 14 years; murdered by conspirators upon leaving a mosque. Partisans proclaimed his son Hassan ibn Suleiman ruler, but as he was on pilgrimage in Mecca at time, throne was temporarily passed to Hassan's brother Dawud.
1308 - 10 2 Daud ibn Suleiman ^ Abdicated
1310 - 33 23 alHassan ibn Suleiman 'Abu alMawahib' < 0C
1333 - 56 23 Dawud ibn Suleiman (same as 21st, brother of previous) second time on throne, this time in his own right. Ruled 24 years
1356 Suleiman ibn Dawud ^ first time, ruled only 20 days. Deposed by his uncle, Hussein.
1356 - 62 6 Hussein ibn Suleiman alMat'un (uncle of previous) ruled 6 years. Died in battle against "Bantu Almuli" on mainland, without heirs.
1362 - 4 2 Talut ibn Dawud (nephew of previous, brother of earlier Suleiman) ruled only one year. Deposed by his brother, exking Suleiman
1364 - 6 2 Suleiman ibn Dawud (brother of previous) second time. 2 years and 4 months. Deposed by his uncle Suleiman
1366 - 89 23 Suleiman ibn Suleiman ibn Hussein (uncle of previous) ruled 24 years
Kilwa Sultinate
957 - 1506
549
Mahdali Era
1277 - 1495
218
1389 - 1433 44 Hussein ibn Suleiman ^ ruled 24 years
1412 - 21 9 Muhammad ibn Suleiman 'alMalik alAdil' (Ladil, brother of previous) ruled 9 years
1421 - 42 21 Suleiman ibn Muhammad (son of previous) ruled 22 years. Died without heirs. Said to have rebuilt mosque of Kilwa
1442 - 54 12 Ismail ibn Hussein (uncle of previous) ruled 14 years. Challenged by pretender Sa'id ibn Hassan, who secured support of Hassan ibn Abu Bakr, ruler of Zanzibar. Zanzibaris assembled a coalition to seize Kilwa by force. But Ismail's ministers, vizier Suleiman and Emir Muhammad managed to bribe key organizer of expedition, who withdrew Zanzibari troops and left pretender Sa'id stranded on beach of Kilwa with only a small body of attendants. Although pardoned by Ismail, Sa'id went into hiding.
1454 vizier Suleiman (vizier of previous) At death of sultan Ismail, in first known usurpation by ministers, vizier Suleiman and Emir Muhammad alMazlum launched a coup and seized power together, with Suleiman declaring himself Sultan. However, popular opinion was strongly against vizier, so he decided to pass throne over to more popular Emir Muhammad.
1454 - 5 1 Muhammad ibn alHussein ibn Muhammad ibn Suleiman alMazlum ('Emir Muhammad', noble coconspirator with previous) According to Zanzibar chronicle, after death of vizier Suleiman, Muhammad appointed old pretender Sa'id ibn Hassan to post as his own vizier. Muhammad died shortly after. Reigned for less than a year.(deposed, according to Barros).
1455 - 6 1 Ahmad ibn Suleiman (son of late vizier?), deposed within a year by partisans of old royal family. (Barros omits Ahmad, says partisans deposed Muhammad directly).
1456 - 66 10 alHassan ibn Ismail (son of 32nd sultan Ismail), installed by coup. Ruled ten years.
1466 - 76 10 Sa'id ibn alHassan/Hussein (son of previous, according to Barros; same old pretender (cf.32nd) according to Zanzibar chronicle) ruled 10 years, Upon his death, Kilwa Sultanate fell into disarray. There was another ministerial coup d'état.
1476 - 7 1 Suleiman ibn Muhammad ibn alHusayn ('Vizier Suleiman') vizier seized throne after death of Sa'id, declared himself sultan and elevated his own brother, Muhammad Kiwabi, to dignity of emir. But vizierturnedsultan Suleiman's rule lasted little over a year.
1477 - 8 1 Abdullah ibn alHassan (brother of 37th sultan Sa'id) elevated by people of Kilwa against usurping vizier Suleiman. Ruled one and half years.
1478 - 9 1 Ali ibn Hassan <. Ruled 1.5 years. Upon his death, Emir Muhammad Kiwabi (brother of late vizier Suleiman) seized power, and installed his nephew alHassan as sultan.
1479 - 85 6 alHassan ibn Suleiman (son of vizier Suleiman), first time, installed by his uncle, Emir Muhammad. But alHassan proved an unpopular sultan and was deposed by his own uncle after 6 years.
1485 - 6 1 Sabhat ibn Muhammad ibn Suleiman (Xumbo, a scion of royal lineage, son of 31st sultan, alAdil) installed by Emir Muhammad, after popular opposition to his first choice alHassan. Ruled one year, then died. According to Zanzibar chronicle, Emir Muhammad tried to install his nephew alHassan again.
1486 - 90 4 alHassan ibn Suleiman (second time) installed by uncle Emir Muhammad once again, but popular opposition proved too strong. Emir Muhammad decided to depose alHassan once again and look for a suitable sultan from royal dynasty.
1490 - 5 5 Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (brother of Sabhat, another son of alAdil) installed by Emir Muhammad to replace his nephew alHassan. But deposed alHassan ibn Suleiman launched a coup attempt to depose Ibrahim, that resulted in quite some bloodshed. In end, alHassan's ambitions were foiled by his uncle Emir Muhammad, who, seeking to restore order, declared unambiguously that Ibrahim, a descendant of kings, had precedence over alHassan, who was only of a family of viziers. alHassan driven into exile on mainland. Ibrahim ruled for two years, until Emir Muhammad decided to depose him himself.
1495 Muhammad ibn Kiwab ('Emir Muhammad Kiwabi', powerful emir) declared himself sultan, only very briefly, probably just to show he can or to satisfy his curiosity or perhaps just to forestall a renewed bid by his exiled nephew alHassan while he sorted through other candidates. In any case, Muhammad abdicated soon after, and installed another royal family member, alFudail.
1495 alFudail ibn Suleiman (Alfudail, nephew of Ibrahim, thus of royal blood) installed by Emir Muhammad, after his own abdication. This is 1495 AD (901 AH). Immediately after ascension, exiled exruler Hassan ibn Suleiman returned with a mixed army of Bantus and Kilwan exiles to reclaim throne. sheikh of Zanzibar offered to mediate, and, through his good offices, alFudail even contemplated ceding throne to Hassan and ending quarrel. But Emir Muhammad refused to allow it. Instead, he promised alHassan an amnesty, but only if he returned to private life in Kilwa. While awaiting Hassan's reply to this offer, great Emir Muhammad Kiwabi died rather suddenly. In confusion, pretender Hassan infiltrated troops into Kilwa city, under command of his own son Sa'id. Caught by city authorities, Sa'id invented a story about just 'preparing house' for his father's peaceful return to Kilwa as a private citizen. To allay suspicions, Sa'id finally proposed to lead a Kilwan embassy, escorted by a squad of city troops, to his father's encampment to confirm his story. Thinking crisis had been defused, at least until embassy returned from its investigation, Kilwa let its guard down. But embassy did not return. Rather, Sa'id led it to at trap, and it was massacred. army of alHassan attacked that very same night. surprised city rallied frantically to its defenses, and a great and bloody battle ensued outside gates of city. Kilwans defeated alHassan and put an end to perennial pretender. victorious Sultan alFudail appointed a certain Ibrahim ibn Suleiman as emir, to replace late Emir Muhammad. But this state of affairs only lasted a few years.
End of Mahdali dynasty, beginning of a series of usurpers and Portuguese puppets
       
Ngazidja
1480s - 1900s
420s
(Grande Comore)