1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
 
Crusades 1095 - 1291 196
Serbian
 
MA
 
Kingdom of Castille 1037 - 1230 193
 
Kingdom of Majorca
1262 - 1349
87
 
Spanish Empire
   
Kingdom of Valencia 1237 - 1707 471
Age of Roman Catholic Religious Omnipower 755 - 1529 774
 
Taifa of Murcia S Spain 1011 - 1266 255
 
Kingdom of Naples South Italy 1285 - 1816 531
 
Kingdom of Toledo C Spain 1065 1492 427
 
   
Hauteville
1130 - 98
68
Hohenstaufen
1194 - 1266
70
Capetian Anjou 1266 - 82 16
Barcelona 1282 - 1409 127
Trastámara 1409 - 1516 107
Kingdom of Sicily 1130 1816 686
 
                 
Burgundy 1143 - 1383 240
           
Aviz 1385 - 1495 100
ab
Kingdom of Portugal 1139 - 1910 771
 
Aquinas
 
C Cord
 
Marco Polo 1254 - 1324 70
 
Portuguese Empire
 
Duklja
 
 
Raph
Bul
 
The
 
Nasrid 1230 - 1492 262
Emirate of Granada 1238 - 1492 254
 
 
Latin
 
Kings
Lords
Dukes
Albania
1272 - 1368 96
 
Drac
 
 
Jiménez
1035 - 1164
129
Barcelona
1164 - 1410
246
Trastámara 1412 - 1516 104
Kingdom of Aragon 1035 - 1707 672
Kingdom of Navarre 824 - 1620 976
m
m
C
Th
Macedonian
       
Dou
Alexios
John
m
a
a
Komnenid 1081 - 1185 104
I
A
I
n
Angel
c
Th
John
t
j
Laskarid
Middle Byzantinium 843 - 1260 417
M8
And2
M9
And3
j5
j6
m
j5
J7
Man2
a5
J8
c11
Palaiologan 1261 - 1453 192
Late Byzantinium 1261 - 1453 192
 
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1095 - 1112 17 Portugal gained strength during the 17year rule of Count Henry. Portugal underwent the same changes as Spain after the fall of Rome. The Goths and then the Saracens overran Portugal.
1066 - 1112 46 Henry, Count of Portugal
1065 independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal under the rule of Garcia
Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
House of Burgundy
1143 - 1383
240
1128 Portugal gains independence from the kingdom of León at the Battle of São Mamede; (recognised by León in 1143).
1139 - 85 46 Afonso 1 The Founder ^ Henry, Count of Portugal
1139 Battle of Ourique Portuguese defeat the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf in the ; Prince Afonso Henriques is acclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers.
1143 Treaty of Zamora recognizes Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León and Castile. Portugal also recognizes the suzerainty of the pope.
1143 Afonso Henriques is proclaimed King of Portugal by the cortes.
1147 Siege of Lisbon successfully brings the city under definitive Portuguese control, expelling the Moorish overlords.
1170 Treaty of Sahagún is signed by Alfonso 8 of Castile and Afonso 1 of Portugal. Based on the terms of the accord, Alfonso 8 agrees to give Afonso I three hostages in order to be used as tribute payments owed by Ibn Mardanīš of Valencia and Murcia.
1185 - 1211 26 Sancho 1 the Populator ^
1100 MontemoroVelho Castle
1117 Santa Maria da Feira Castle
1129 Almourol Castle
1148 Óbidos Castle Portugal
1160 Evoramonte Castle
1164 Penela Castle
1170s Paderne Castle
1110 - 1737 627 Oporto Cathedral
1147 - 1910s 763 Lisbon Cathedral
1184 - 1746 562 Évora Cathedral
1199 - 1540 341 Guarda Cathedral
Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
House of Burgundy
1143 - 1383
240
1211 - 23 12 Afonso 2 the Fat ^
1223 - 48 25 Sancho 2 the Pious, Piteous ^
1248 - 79 31 Afonso 3 the Bolognian <
1249 End of the Portuguese Reconquista against Moors when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve.
1200s Elvas Castle

 

Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
House of Burgundy
1143 - 1383
240
1279 - 1325 46 Dinis the Farmer PoetKing TroubadourKing ^
1325 - 57 32 Afonso 4 the Brave ^
1357 - 67 10 Pedro 1 the Just Cruel Vengeful ^
1367 - 83 16 Fernando 1 the Handsom BeautifulFickleReckless
House of Aviz (Joannine)
1385
- 1495
100
1385 - 1433 48 João 1 <H

 

Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
House of Aviz (Joannine)
1385
- 1495
100
1385 - 1433 48 João 1 <H
1433 - 8 5 Duarte the Eloquent PhilosopherKing
1438 - 77 39 Afonso 5 the African^Abdicated in favor of his son, who has assumed the duties of a regent of the kingdom.
1441 Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.
1477 João 2 Perfect Prince the Tyrant ^ Acclaimed King by the Cortes of Santarém, only to abdicate and return the throne to his father.
1477 - 81 4 Afonso 5 restored
1481 - 95 14 João 2 restored
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Spain and Portugal sign the and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves.
1497 1st to sail around Cape of Good Hope 1469 1524 55 Vasco da Gama, Portuguese navigator.
1497 - 9 2 1st voyage from Europe to India and back by Vasco da Gama
1450 - 1500 50 Bartolomeu Dias Portuguese explorer. He sailed from Portugal and reached the Cape of Good Hope.
Portuguese Empire
1415 - 1975 584
Portugal Lisbon, Rio de Janeiro 1815 - 21 Was the earliest and longest lived of the colonial Western European empires. See also United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
1415 Henry the Navigator leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire.
1490s - 1600s Braga Cathedral
1492 - 1518 Funchal Cathedral
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620
976
Pamplona
Basque, Occitan,
NavarroAragonese
Jiménez
905 - 1234
329
994 - 1004 10 García Sánchez 2 ^ 4 ch
1004 - 35 31 Sancho 3 the Great ^ 4 ch
1035 - 54 21 García Sánchez 3 ^ 9 ch
1054 the Battle of Atapuerca is fought between García V of Navarre and Ferdinand I of León
1054 - 76 22 Sancho 4 Garcés ^ 3 ch Assasinated & Navarre invaded by his cousins Alfonso 6 of Castile and Sancho Ramirez of Aragon
Aragonese control
1076 - 1134
58
1076 - 94 18 Sancho 5 Ramirez ^ Ramiro 1 of Aragon = Isabel of Urgel 1 ch & Felicia of Roucy 3 ch X 52
1094 - 1104 10 Peter ^ & Isabella = Agnes of Aquitaine
2 ch & Bertha of Aragon
0 ch X 36
Kingdom of León
910 - 1037
127
@ León
Latin, Leonese,
Castilian, Mozarabic, GalicianPortuguese, AsturLeonese
Roman Catholic,
Islam, Judaism
Absolute Monarchy
999 - 1027 28 Alfonso 5 the Noble
1027 - 37 10 Bermudo 3 Upon his death Leon becomes Castile
1037 Ferdinand 1 of León conquered the Kingdom of Galicia.
976 - 1009 33 Hisham 2 alHakam
1000 AlTasrif written by the Andalusian physician and scientist Abu alQasim alZahrawi (Abulcasis).
1000 Abu alQasim alZahrawi (Abulcasis) of alAndalus, considered a "father of modern surgery", publishes his influential 30volume Arabic medical encyclopedia, the AlTasrif,
1009 1 Muhammad 2
1009 - 10 1 Sulayman ibn alHakam
1010 - 3 3 restored 13 Hisham 2 alHakam
936 - 1013 77 Abu alQasim (Abulcasis), Arab physician and surgeon from AlAndalus
1013 - 6 3 restored 3 Sulayman ibn alHakam
1020 Geared Mechanical Astrolabe by Ibn Samh of AlAndalus Analog computer
1021 - 2 1 Abd arRahman 4
1022 - 3 1 Abd arRahman 5
1023 - 4 1 Muhammad 3
1027 - 31 4

Hisham 3
1031 Divided into Cordove, Granada, Seville, etc.
1066 Granada Massacre killed Joseph ibn Naghrela, Jewish vizier of Andalusia, Spain.
Taifa of Murcia
1011 - 1266 255
S Spain passed successively under the rule of Almería, Toledo and Seville. 1011 to 1014, from 1065 to 1078, in 1145, from 1147 to 1172 and finally from 1228 to 1266 when it was absorbed by Castile.
1165 - 1240 75 Ibn Arabi Philosopher
Taifa of Albarracín
1012 - 1104 91
Albarracín, currently in Teruel, Aragón, Spain.
Arabic, Mozarabic , Hebrew, Berber
Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism
1012 - 45 23 Hudayl Djalaf Izz adDawla
1045 - 1103 58 Abu Marwan Abd alMalik
1103 4 1 Yahya Husam adDawla
Kingdom of Aragon
1035 - 1707
672
Aragon
1035 - 1410
75
With the death of Sancho 3 of Navarre, Aragon fell to his son Ramiro, who quickly elevated it into an autonomous state.
1035 - 63 28 Ramiro 1 ^Sancho 3 of Navarre & Sancha de Aybar =Ermesinde of Bigorre 5C X57
1063 - 94 31 Sancho Ramírez *Navarre 1076 ^ =Isabel of Urgel 1S & Felicie de Roucy 3C X48
1094 - 1104 10 Peter 1 *Navarre ^Isabel =Agnes of Aquitaine 2C & Bertha of Italy 0C X36
Kingdom of Castile
1037 - 1516
479
1037 - 65 28 Ferdinand 1 The Greatalso King of León
1065 - 72 7 Sancho 2 The Strong
1067 - 8 1 War of the 3 Sanchos between three Spanish kingdoms
1072 Battle of Golpejera is fought between Sancho II of Castile and Alfonso VI of Castile
1072 - 1109 37 Alfonso 6 The Bravealso King of León
1086 Battle of azZallaqah between the Almoravids and Castilians
1028 - 87 59 Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm alZarqālī (Arzachel) builds the equatorium and universal latitudeindependent astrolabe
1043 - 99 56 El Cid (Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar), Castilian nobleman
1081 - 1492 411 Spanish Reconquista
1097 Battle of Consuegra Diego Rodriguez, a son of El Cid, dies Almoravid victory
2nd Kingdom of Galicia
1065 - 72
7
1065 - 72 7 García 2 Reigned in Galicia and Portugal until deposed in 1072, after which he lived imprisoned in a monastery until his death in 1090. When he is deposed Galicia is merged with Castile & Leon.
Kingdom of Toledo
1065 - 1492
127
C Spain
1085 Toledo Captured by Alfonso 6 of Castile
993 - 1056 63 Samuel ibn Naghrela Jewish scholar, grammarian, philologist, soldier, politician, patron of the arts, Poet

1029 - 87 58 Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm alZarqālī (a.k.a. Arzachel), Arab mathematician and astronomer from AlAndalus, Spain.

1000s Aristotle & Muslim scientists translated into Latin from Arabic, shortly before the Latin translations of the 1100s
1068 Book of Roads & Kingdoms written by Abū Ubayd Abd Allāh alBakrī
1094 Valencia conquered by El Cid
1040 - 95 55 Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid, Spain. last Abbadid ruler
1403 Beginning of Spanish Empire w/ settlement of the Canary Islands signals the .
1282 - 1349 67 Juan Manuel Prince of Villena Author
1440 - 98 58 Bartolomé Bermejo Painter who adopted Dutch painting
1380 - 1444 64 Joseph Albo Jewish philosopher and rabbi, author of Sefer haIkkarim (Book of Principles)
1400s Age of Discovery begins
1055 - 1138 83 Moses ibn Ezra Jewish Philosopher, Poet, Linguist
1066 Granada massacre Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and many others killed
1038 - 89 51 Isaac ibn Ghiyyat Rabbi
1000s Alcazaba of Málaga Castle
1000s Alcazar of Jerez de la Frontera Castle
1000s Cuéllar Castle
1000s Loarre Castle
1000s Muralla urbana de Marbella Castle
1070s Aljafería Castle
1078 Quermançó Castle
1088 San Servando Castle
1096 Montearagón Castle
1015 - 38 Girona Cathedral
1073 León Cathedral Consecrated. 1800s Reconstructed.
1075 - 1211 Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
1077 - 11 Jaca Cathedral
1091 - 1475 Ávila Cathedral
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620
976
Pamplona
Basque, Occitan,
NavarroAragonese
Aragonese control
1076 - 1134
58
1104 - 34 30 Aflonso 1 the Battler ^ Sancho Ramirez & Felicia = Urraca of Castile X 61 His death caused a succession crisis in Aragon so Navarre reestablished independence crowning ^^< of Sancho 4
Jiménez
1134 - 1234
100
1134 - 50 16 García Ramírez the Restorer = Marguerite de lAigle 4 ch &
Urraca of Castile 2 ch
1150 - 94 44 Sancho 6 the Wise ^ & Marguerite Sancha of Castile 6 ch
Kingdom of Aragon
1035 - 1707
672
Aragon
1035 - 1410
75
1104 - 34 30 Alfonso 1 the Battler *Navarre < =Urraca of Castile 0C X61
1134 - 37 3 Ramiro 2 the Monk < =Agnes of Aquitaine X82
1137 - 64 27 Petronila ^ =Ramon Berenguer 4 of Barcelona 5C X38
1065 - 1145 80 Abraham bar Hiyya, Jewish philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician from Catalonia.
1151 The Treaty of Tudilén (or Treaty of Tudején) is signed by Alfonso VII of León and Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona, recognising the Aragonese conquests south of the Júcar and the right to expand in and annex the Kingdom of Murcia.
1164 - 96 32 Alfonso 2 the Troubadour ^ =Sancha of Castile 7C X44
Kingdom of Castile
1037 - 1516
479

1109 - 26 17 Queen Urracaalso of León. The follow dynasts are descendants, in the male line, of Urracas first husband, Raymond of Burgundy.
Burgundy
1126
- 1369
243
1126 - 57 31 Alfonso 7 The Emperoralso King of León
1157 - 8 1 Sancho 3 The Desired
1158 - 1214 56 Alfonso 8 The Noble
1179 Treaty of Cazola (Cazorla) is signed by Alfonso II of Aragon and Alfonso VIII of Castile, dividing Andalusia into separate zones of conquest for the two kingdoms, so that the work of the Reconquista would not be stymied by internecine feuding.
Morrocan Almohad Caliphates
Territory in Spain

1146 - 1212 66
1126 - 98 72 Averroes Ibn Rushd, Spanish Islamic polymath
1135 - 1204 69 Maimonides, Jewish philosopher B Spain D Egypt
1146 - 73 27 Almohads conquer Almoravids
1147 A new Berber dynasty, the Almohads, led by Emir Abd alMumin, takes North Africa from the Almoravides and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula. The Almohads began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities.
1184 Giralda Tower erected
1195 Battle of Alarcos
1060 - 1137 77 Olegarius Saint, Archbishop of Tarragona Barcelona
? - 1163 Raymond of Fitero Saint, founder of the Order of Calatrava Toledo
1150s - 1190s 40s Palace of Aljafería Zaragoza AlAndalus period.
? - 1008 Maslamah Ibn Ahmad alMajriti Astronomer, Chemist, Mathematician, Scholar
1100s Biar Castle
1100s Soutomaior Castle
1100s Alcazaba of Badajoz Castle
1100s Torres do Oeste Castle
1114 Dosrius Castle
1120 Alcázar of Segovia Castle
1157 Ucero Castle
1172 Atalaya Castle
11 - 1300s Old Cathedral, Salamanca
1100s - 1232 Tarazona Cathedral
1100s Santo Domingo de la Calzada Cathedral Dedicated
1116 Santa Maria dUrgell Cathedral
1129 - 1273 Lugo Cathedral
1140 - 1318 La Seo Cathedral
1144 Sigüenza Cathedral Founded
1154 - 1331 Tarragona Cathedral
1171 - 1587 Teruel Cathedral
1187 - 1300 Santander Cathedral
1196 - 1257 Cuenca Cathedral










Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620
976
Pamplona
Basque, Occitan,
NavarroAragonese
Jiménez
1134 - 1234
100
1194 - 1234 40 Sancho 7 the Strong ^ = Constance of Toulouse 6 ch When he died his Sister Countess of Champagnes son became King
Champagne
1234
- 84
50
1234 - 53 19 Theobald 1 the Postumous Gertrude of Dagsburg 0 ch, Agnes of Beaujeu 1 ch, Margaret of Bourbon 6 ch X 54
1253 - 70 17 Theobald 2 the Young ^ & Margaret Isabelle of France 0 ch X 32
1270 - 4 4 Henry 1 the Fat < Blanche of Artois 2 ch X 30
1274 - 1305 31 ^ Philip 4 of France 7 ch X 34
Kingdom of Aragon
1035 - 1707
672
Aragon
1035 - 1410
75
1196 - 1213 17 Peter 2 the Catholic ^ =Marie of Montpellier 2C X35 @Battle of Muret
1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Iberia sees the beginning of a rapid Christian reconquest of the southern half of the Iberian peninsula, mainly from 1230 48 18, with the defeat of Moorish forces.
1213 - 76 63 James 1 the Conqueror ^ =Leanor of Castile & Violant of Hungary 10C & Teresa Gil de Vidaure 2C X68
1175 - 1275 100 Raymond of Peñafort, Spanish Saint, canon lawyer
1276 - 85 9 Peter 3 the Great ^Violant =Constantia of Sicily 6C X45
1285 - 91 6 Alfonso 3 the Liberal ^ =Eleanor of England 0C X27
Kingdom of Castile
1037 - 1516
479
1214 - 7 3 Henry 1
1217 Berengaria The Great abdicated in favor of her son, Ferdinand 3 ; died 1246
1217 - 52 35 Ferdinand 3 The Saintalso King of León from 1230; all later kings were King of León as well
1252 - 84 32 Alfonso 10 The Wiseelected King of the Romans in 1257, a title which he claimed until he renounced it in 1275
1284 - 95 11 Sancho 4 The Brave
Morrocan Almohad Caliphates
Territory in Spain

1146 1212 66
1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
Nasrid Sultanate
1232 - 1492
260
@Granada
1238 - 72 34 Muhammed 1 ibn Nasr
1273 - 1302 29 Muhammed 2 alFaqih
Kingdom of Valencia
1237 - 1707
470
Spain
Aragon
1238 - 1410
472
1238 - 76 38 James 1 ^Peter 2 of Aragon & Marie of Montpellier =Eleanor 1C & Violant of Hungary 10C & Teresa Gil de Vidaure 2C X68
1276 - 85 9 Peter 1 ^Violant (Yolanda) =Constantia of Sicily 6C X45
1285 - 91 6 Alfonso 1 ^ =Eleanor of England 0C X27
Kingdom of Majorca
1262 - 1349
87
East Spain
Barcelona
1262 - 1410
148
1231 - 76 45 James 1 ^Peter 2 of Aragon and Marie of Montpellier =Eleanor 1C & Violant of Hungary 10C & Teresa Gil de Vidaure 2C X68
1276 - 86 10 James 2 ^Violant
1200 Santa Àgueda Castle
1200s 1300s Palacio Real de Olite Castle
1217 Calatrava la Nueva Castle
1220s Torre del Oro Castle
1236 Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos Castle
1236 Bermeo Castle
1250s Peralada Castle
1294 Montgrí Castle
1221 1567 Burgos Cathedral
1227 1493 Toledo Cathedral
1229 1601 Palma Cathedral
1230 76 Badajoz Cathedral
1232 1874 Burgo de Osma Cathedral
1239 1579 Saint Mary Major Cocathedral Mérida
1249 1724 Jaén Cathedral
1262 1459 Valencia Cathedral
1294 1520s Huesca Cathedral
1298 1448 Santa Eulalia Cathedral
1283 1939 Diable Bridge







Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620
976
Pamplona
Basque, Occitan,
NavarroAragonese
Capet
1284
- 1349
65
1305 16 11 Louis 2 the Quarreller ^ Philip 4 of France & Joan 1 of Navarre = Margaret of Burgundy 1 ch & Clementia of Hungary
1 ch X 26
1316 John 1 the Posthumous ^ Louis X of France & Clementia of Hungary Lived 5 days
1316 22 6 Phillip 2 the Tall ^ Philip 4 of France & Joan 1 of Navarre = Joan 2, Countess of Burgundy 7 ch X 29
1322 8 6 Charles 1 the Fair ^ = Blanche of Burgundy 2 ch Marie of Luxembourg 4 ch X 34
1328 49 21 Joan 2 ^ Louis X of France & Margaret of Burgundy = Philip 3 of Navarre 8 ch X 37
Évreux
1328
- 1441
103
1328 43 15 Philip 3 of Navarre ^ Louis count of Evreux & Margaret of Artois = Joan 2 of Navarre
8 ch X 37
1349 87 38 Charles 2 the Bad ^ Joan of France
7 ch X 54
Kingdom of Aragon
1035 - 1707
672
Aragon
1035 - 1410
75
1291 - 1327 36 James 2 the Just < =Isabella of Castile 0C & Blanche of Anjou 10C & Marie de Lusignan 0C & Elisenda de Montcada 0C X60
1327 - 36 9 Alfonso 4 the Kind ^Blanche =Teresa dEntença 7C & Eleanor of Castile 2C X37
1336 - 87 51 Peter 4 the Ceremonious ^Teresa =Maria of Navarre 2C & Leonor of Portugal 0C & Eleanor of Sicily 4C X68
1387 - 96 9 John 1 the Hunter ^Eleanor =Martha of Armagnac 1C & Yolande of Bar 3C X46
Kingdom of Castile
1037 - 1516
479
1295 1312 17 Ferdinand 4 The Summoned
1312 50 38 Alfonso 11 The Just
1350 69 19 Peter The Cruel
1369 79 10 Henry 2 ^ Alfonso 11 the Bastard
1379 90 11 John 1
1390 1406 16 Henry 3 The Infirm
Nasrid Sultanate
1232 1492
260
1302 - 9 7 Muhammed 3
1309 - 14 5 Nasr
1314 - 25 11 Ismail 1
1325 - 33 8 Muhammed 4
1333 - 54 21 Yusuf 1
1354 - 9 5 Muhammed 5
1362 - 91 29 Muhammed 5
1359 - 60 1 Ismail 2
1360 - 2 2 Muhammed 6
1391 - 2 1 Yusuf 2
1392 - 1408 16 Muhammed 7
Kingdom of Valencia
1237 - 1707
470
Aragon
1238 - 1410
472
1291 - 1327 36 James 2 < =Isabella of Castile 0C & Blanche of Anjou 10C & Marie de Lusignan 0C & Elisenda de Montcada 0C X60
1327 - 36 9 Alfonso 2 ^Blanche =Teresa dEntença 7C & Eleanor of Castile 2C X37
1336 - 87 51 Peter 2 ^Teresa =Maria of Navarre & Leonor of Portugal 0C & Eleanor of Sicily 4C X68
1387 - 96 9 John 1^Eleanor =Martha of Armagnac 1C & Yolande of Bar 3C X46
Kingdom of Majorca
1262 - 1349
87
Barcelona
1262 - 1410
148
1295 - 1311 16 James 2 2X < =Esclaramunda of Foix 6C X68
1311 - 24 13 Sancho ^ =Maria of Naples X48
1232 - 1315 83 Ramon Llull Philosopher
1324 - 44 20 James 3 ^Ferdinand of Majorca and Isabelle of Sabran =Constance of Aragon 2C & Violant of Vilaragut 1C X34 1349
Alfonso 3 of Aragon conquered the island of Majorca in 1285 and Ibiza in 1286 from James 2 of Majorca, and effectively recovered Minorca from Moorish rule. By the Treaty of Anagni of 1295 however, these island territories were yielded to James. The continental territories, however, remained under Alfonsos control.
1286 - 91 5 Alfonso 1 ^Peter 3 of Aragon & Constantia of Sicily =0 X27
1291 - 5 4 James 2 of Aragon < =Isabella of Castile 0C & Blanche of Anjou 10C & Marie de Lusignan 0C & Elisenda de Montcada 0C X60
1344 - 87 33 Peter 1 ^Alfonso 4 & Teresa dEntença =Maria of Navarre 2C & Leonor of Portugal 0C & Eleanor of Sicily 4C X68
Pretenders to the throne
Peter 4 of Aragon annexed the kingdom in 1344 and the title was part of the Crown of Aragon, though disputed by pretenders.
1349 - 75 26 James 4 ^James 3 of Majorca & Constance of Aragon =Joan 1 of Naples 0C X40
1375 - 1403 28 Isabella ^ =John 2 of Montferrat 5C & Konrad of Reischach 1C X69 Isabels descendants did not continue the pretension.
Barcelona
1262 - 1410
148
1387 - 96 9 John 1 ^Eleanor =Martha of Armagnac 1C & Yolande of Bar 3C X46
1308 Cannons were used at Gibraltar.
1321 Inquisition burns last Cathar
1300s Alcazaba of Antequera Castle
1311 Bellver Castle
1350s Alhambra Castle
1358 Miranda de Ebro Castle
1392 Portillo Castle
1300 - 1362 Minorca Cathedral
1300 - 1400s St. James Cathedral Bilbao
1321 - 1504 Palencia Cathedral
1388 - 1528 San Salvador Cathedral Oviedo
1394 - 1467 Murcia Cathedral
1394 - 1501 Pamplona Cathedral





Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620
976
Pamplona
Basque, Occitan,
NavarroAragonese
Évreux
1328
- 1441
103
1387 - 1425 38 Charles 3 the Noble ^ Eleanor of Castile 8 ch X 64
1425 - 41 16 Blanche 1 ^ Martin 1 of Sicily 1 ch &
John 2 of Aragon 4 ch 56
Trastámara
1425
- 79
54
1425 - 79 54 John 2 the Great ^ Ferdinand 1 & Eleanor of Alburquerque = Blanche 1 of Navarre 4 ch & Juana Enríquez
2 ch X 81
1479 Eleanor ^ Blanche = Gaston 4 Count of Foix
11 ch X 54
Foix
1479
- 1518
39
1479 - 83 4 Frances Phoebus Gaston of Foix, Prince of Viana & Magdalena of Valois X 16
1483 - 1517 34 Catherine < John 3 of Navarre 13 ch X 49 John 3 was defeated by Ferdinand 2 of Aragon in 1512, who then conquered southern Navarre for the Crown of Aragon and was crowned king. See the List of Aragonese and Spanish monarchs for this line. The monarchs of Navarre after 1512 thus only reigned over Lower Navarre, the part of Navarre north of the Pyrenees.
Kingdom of Aragon
1035 - 1707
672
Aragon
1035 - 1410
75
1396 - 1410 14 Martin 1 the Elder < =Maria de Luna 4C & Margarita of AragonPrades 0C X54
Martin was last direct descendant of Wilfred 1 the Hairy, Count of Barcelona to rule; died without legitimate heirs.
Interregnum
1410 - 2
2
Trastámara
1412 - 1516
104
1412 - 6 4 Ferdinand 1 the Honest ^John I of Castile & Eleanor of Aragon =Eleanor of Alburquerque 8C X36
1452 - 1516 64 Ferdinand II of Aragon, coruler of Spain with Isabella I of Castile and responsible with her for the unification of Spain
1416 - 58 42 Alfonso 5 the Magnanimous ^ =Maria of Castile 0C X52
1458 - 79 21 John 2 the Great < =Blanche 1 of Navarre 4C & Juana Enriquez 2C X81
1479 - 1516 37 Ferdinand 2 the Catholic ^Juana =Isabella 1 of Castile 5C & Germaine of Foix 0C X63
After Ferdinand dies Aragon Merged with Castile and formed the Kingdom of Spain.
Kingdom of Castile
1037 - 1516
479
1406 - 54 48 John 2
1454 - 74 20 Henry 4 The Impotent
1469 The marriage of Ferdinand 2 of Aragon and Isabella 1 of Castile leads to the unification of Spain.
1474 - 1504 30 Isabella 1 The Catholicreigned jointly with her husband, Ferdinand 5
1474 - 1504 30 Ferdinand 5 The Catholicjure uxoris king, jointly with his wife Isabella 1
1475 - 9 4 War of the Castilian Succession
1481 Spanish Inquisition begins in practice with the first auto de fé.
1487 Spanish forces capture Malaga from the Moors
1492 Spanish Inquisition begun
1492 Boabdils surrender of Granada marks the end of the Spanish Reconquista and AlAndalus.
1492 Christians expel Muslims and Jews from Spain
1492 Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas from Spain.
1499 Francisco Jimenez forces the mass conversion of Moors in Spain despite the earlier agreement of Ferdinand and Isabella that Muslims would be allowed to keep their religion and their mosques.
1498 Columbus discovered the main continent
Nasrid Sultanate
1232 - 1492
260

1392 - 1408 16 Muhammed 7
1408 - 17 9 Yusuf 3
1417 - 9 2 Muhammed 8
1427 - 9 2 Muhammed 8
1419 - 27 8 Muhammed 9
1430 - 1 1 Muhammed 9
1432 - 45 13 Muhammed 9
1448 - 53 5 Muhammed 9
1432 Yusuf 4
1445 - 6 1 Yusuf 5
1462 Yusuf 5
1446 - 8 2 Muhammed 10
1453 - 4 1 Muhammed 11
1454 - 64 10 Said
1464 - 82 18 Abu lHasan Ali(Muley Hacén)
1483 - 5 2 Abu lHasan Ali (Muley Hacén)
1482 - 3 1 Abu abd Allah Muhammed 12 (Boabdil)
1486 - 92 6 Abu abd Allah Muhammed 12 (Boabdil)
1485 - 6 1 Abū `Abd Allāh Muhammed 13 (El Zagal)

Spanish Empire
1402 - 1975
573
Iberian Peninsula Madrid Was founded with the recapture of the Canary Islands from the Moors. Was one of the first global empires.
1075 Cathedral Santiago de Compostela began
1475 Manzanares el Real Castle
1490s Jadraque Castle
1401 - 1507 Seville Cathedral
1471 - 1700s Astorga Cathedral
         
Republic of Venice
697 1797
1100

991 - 1009 18 Pietro II Orseolo
1009 - 26 17 Otto Orseolo
1026 - 32 6 Pietro Barbolano
1032 - 43 11 Domenico Flabanico
1043 - 71 28 Domenico Contarini
1071 - 84 13 Domenico Selvo
1084 - 96 12 Vitale Faliero
1096 - 1102 6 Vitale I Michiel
1063 St Marks Basilica rebuilt Venice
HRES March of Tuscany
846 1197 351
Lucca
1072 San Pietro in Vinculis began Pisa
Kingdom of Italy within the
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686
Ottonian (Saxon)
962 - 1024
62
996 - 1002 Otto 3
1002 - 14 12 Arduin 1 of Ivrea
1004 - 24
20 Henry 2
1027 - 39 12 Conrad 2
1046 - 56 10 Henry 3
1048 - 1105 57 Henry 4
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1797
792
1282 Aragon acquires Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers.
1087 African Mahdia campaign Genoa and Pisa
1092 Norman complete conquest of Sicily from Muslims
1400s Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art.
1400s Noon Bell in the Catholic world.
1054 Large Supernova Observed the remnants of which would form the Crab Nebula.
1096 - 1176 80 Galdino della Sala Saint, Archbishop of Milan
1059 Florence Baptistry Florence
Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
1095 Basilica of SantAbbondio completed Lombardy
1009 - 10 1 the Lombard known as Melus of Bari led an insurrection against the Byzantine Catepan of Italy, John Curcuas, as the latter was killed in battle and replaced by Basil Mesardonites, who brought Byzantine reinforcements.
1077 Constantine the African introduces ancient Greek medicine to the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, Italy.
1042 the Normans establish Melfi as the capital of southern Italy.
1061 - 91 30 Norman conquest of Sicily
1070 Sassovivo Abbey began Foligno
1090s Rotonda di San Lorenzo is built in Mantua, Lombardy, Italy, during the late 11th century.
1080 Ponte della Maddalena bridge began Province of Lucca
1080 San Liberatore a MaiellaReconstruction began
1007 - 72 65 Peter Damian cardinal, Doctor of the Church
1015 - 85 70 Robert Guiscard Norman conqueror of Southern Italy & Sicily
1007 Fruttuaria of San Benigno Canavese, Italy is completed in .
1059 Parma Cathedral began
? 1020 Melus of Bari Lombard Nobleman
1021 - 58 37 Solomon ibn Gabirol Jewish philosopher and poet from Spanish AlAndalus
991 - 1050 59 Guido of Arezzo Music Theorist
1088 University of Bologna
Horizontal Loom operated by foottreadles makes weaving faster and more efficient.
1000s SantAniceto Castle
1072 Normanno Paternò Castle
1000 - 1932 Alatri Cathedral
1000s - 1400s Sorrento Cathedral
1000s Cortona Cathedral
1011 - 1796 La Trinità della Cava Cathedral
1028 - 1466 Fiesole Cathedral Consecration to Rebuilding
1029 Susa Cathedral
1058 - 1964 Monte Cassino Cathedral
1059 - 1178 Parma Cathedral
1063 - 1484 Lucca Cathedral
1064 - 1595 Piazza dei Miracoli Cathedral
1064 - 1595 Piazza dei MiracoliPisa Baptistry Cathedral
1064 - 1595 Piazza dei MiracoliPise Duomo Cathedral
1067 Acqui Cathedral Consecrated
1076 - 80 Salerno Cathedral
1080 - 1200s Acerenza Cathedral
1087 - 97 San Nicola Basilica Built
1099 - 1319 Modena Cathedral
1099 Agrigento Cathedral Consecrated





Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1096 - 1102 6 Vitale I Michiel
1102 - 17 15 Ordelafo Faliero
1117 - 30 13 Domenico Michele
1130 - 48 18 Pietro Polani
1148 - 56 8 Domenico Morosini
1156 - 72 16 Vital II Michele
1172 - 8 6 Sebastiano Ziani
1178 - 92 14 Orio Mastropiero
1192 - 1205 13 Enrico Dandolo
1104 Venice Arsenal Founded. It employed some 16000 people for the mass production of sailing ships in large assembly lines, hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution.
1159 - 76 17 War of the Lombard League
HRES March of Tuscany
846 - 1197 351
Lucca
1046 - 1115 69 Matilda of Tuscany Countess
Kingdom of Italy within the
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686
Salian (Frankish)
1027 - 1125
98
1048 - 1105 57 Henry 4
1111 - 25 14 Henry 5
Staufen (Hohenstaufen)
1128 - 97
39
1128 - 35 7 Conrad 3
1154 - 90 36 Frederick 1
1191 - 7 6 Henry 6
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1797
792
1st Republic of Florence
1115 - 85
70
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
Roger 2 received royal investiture from Antipope Anacletus 2 in 1130 and recognition from Pope Innocent 2 in 1139. Sicily, which by then comprised not only the island, but also the southern third of the Italian peninsula, rapidly expanded itself to include Malta and the Mahdia, the latter if only briefly.
Hauteville
1130 - 98 68
1130 - 54 24 Roger 2 ^Roger 1 of Sicily & Adelaide del Vasto =Elvira of Castile 6C & Sibyl of Burgundy 2C & Beatrix of Rethel 1C X58
1154 - 66 12 William 1 the Bad ^Elvira =Margaret of Navarre 4C X35
1166 - 89 23 William 2 the Good ^ =Joan of England 1C X34
1189 - 94 5 Tancred 1 ^ =Sibylla of Acerra 6C X56
1193 Roger 3 ^ =Irene Angelina 0C X18
1194 William 3 < =0 X8
1194 - 8 4 Constance ^ Roger 2 and Beatrix of Rethel =Henry 6, Holy Roman Emperor 1C X44 Constance was married to the Emperor Henry 6 and he pressed his claim to the kingdom from William IIs death, but only succeeded in displacing his wifes family in 1194.
Hohenstaufen
1194
- 1266
72
1194 - 7 3 Henry 1 ^Frederick 1, Holy Roman Emperor & Beatrix of Burgundy =Constance 1 1C X32
2nd Republic of Florence
1197 - 1532
335
Florence
1154 Leaning Tower of Pisa built. Reached 188 feet. A cathedral was built nearby.
1157 Bank of Venice established
Europe undergoes the Renaissance of the 12th century.
1130 On Christmas Day, Roger 2 is crowned King of Sicily, the royal title being given to him by the Antipope Anacletus 2.
1170 - 1221 51 Dominic de Guzmán Saint, founded Order of Preachers Bologna
1182 - 1226 44 Francis of Assisi Saint, founded Franciscan order (Order of Friars Minor)
1186 future Emperor Henry 6 marries Constance of Sicily, the heiress to the Sicilian throne.
1100 Pietra Castle
1100 Racconigi Castle
1100s Capuano Castle
1100s Manta Castle
1100s Melfi Castle
1100s Reifenstein Castle
1100s Zisa Castle Palermo
1140 Magione Castle
1140 Tyrol Castle
1169 Poppi Castle
1177 Dolceacqua Castle
1182 Borgo Fornari Castle
11 - 1200s Dolianova Cathedral
1100 Albenga Cathedral Mainly Built
1100s - 1473 Prato Cathedral
1100s Bitonto Cathedral
1107 - 1348 Cremona Cathedral
1110s - 1906 Santa Giusta Cathedral
1122 - 1233 Piacenza Cathedral
1131 - 1267 Cefalù Cathedral
1133 - 1513 Foligno Cathedral
1135 - 1600s Ferrara Cathedral Consecration to Completion
1140 - 1253 Assisi Cathedral
1158 - 76 Teramo Cathedral
1171 - 1210s San Pietro di Sorres Cathedral
1173 - 1319 Leaning Tower of Pisa
1174 - 1700s Monreale Cathedral
1185 - 1210 Civita Castellana Cathedral
1185 - 1340 Crema Cathedral
1185 - 1801 Palermo Cathedral
1187 Verona Cathedral




Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1192 - 1205 13 Enrico Dandolo
1205 - 29 24 Pietro Ziani
1221 Trade treaty with the Mongols
1229 - 49 20 Jacopo Tiepolo
1249 - 52 3 Marino Morosini
1252 - 68 6 Reniero Zeno
1268 - 75 7 Lorenzo Tiepolo
1275 - 80 5 Jacopo Contarini
1280 - 9 9 Giovanni Dandolo
1280s Eyeglasses
1289 - 1311 22 Pietro Gradenigo
1295 Ice Cream by Marco Polo
Kingdom of Italy within the
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686

Welf
1208 12
4
1208 - 12 4 Otto 4
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1797
792
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
Hohenstaufen
1194
- 1266
72
1198 - 1250 52 Frederick 1^ =Constance of Aragon 1C & Yolande of Jerusalem 2C & Isabella of England 4C X55
1212 - 7 5 Henry 2 ^Constance =Margaret 2C X30
1250 - 4 4 Conrad 1 ^Yolanda =Elisabeth of Bavaria 1C X26
1254 - 68 14 Conrad 2 the Younger ^ =0 X16X
1258 - 66 8 Manfred ^I Frederick 1 =Beatrice of Savoy 1C & Helena Angelina Doukaina 5C X34 @Battle of Benevento
Manfred was regent of Sicily for his nephew, the child Conrad 2, but took the crown in 1258, and continued to fight to keep the kingdom under the Hohenstaufen. In 1254 the pope, having declared the kingdom a papal possession, offered the crown to the King of Englands son, Edmund Crouchback, but the English never succeeded in taking the kingdom. In 1262 the pope reversed his previous decision and granted the kingdom to the King of Frances brother, Charles of Anjou, who succeeded in dispossessing Manfred in 1266. Conradin continued his claim to the throne until his death by decapitation perpetrated by Charles of Anjou in 1268.
Plantagenet
1254 - 63
9
1254 - 63 9 Edmund ^Henry 3 of England & Eleanor of Provence =Aveline de Forz 1C & Blanche of Artois 4C X51
Edmunds claim to Sicily, though taken very seriously by both him and his father, was completely ineffectual.
Angevin
1266
- 82
16
1266 - 82 16 Charles 1 ^Louis 8 of France & Blanche of Castile =Beatrice of Provence 7C & Margaret of Burgundy 1C X58
1266 - 8 2 French conquest of Sicily
Aragonese (Trinacria)
1282 - 1409
127
1282 - 5 3 Peter 1 the Great ^James 1 of Aragon and Yolanda of Hungary =Constantia of Sicily 6C X45
1284 - 1302 18 War of the Sicilian Vespers
1285 - 96 11 James 1 the Just ^ =Isabella of Castile 0C & Blanche of Anjou 10C & Marie de Lusignan 0C & Elisenda de Montcada 0C X60
2nd Republic of Florence
1197 - 1532
335
Florence
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816
531
South Italy
Anjou
1266 - 1382
116
1266 - 85 19 Charles 1 ^Louis 8 of France =Beatrice of Provence 7C & Margaret of Burgundy 1C X59 Won the crown of Sicily as a papal fief and by conquest from the Hohenstaufen dynasty
1285 - 1309 24 Charles 2 ^ =Maria of Hungary 14C X54
Papal Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Popes
1297 - 1335 38
1297 - 1304 7 Boniface 8
1200s Pecia System of copying books develops in Italian universitytowns and was taken up by the University of Paris in the middle of the century.
1221 - 74 53 Bonaventure Franciscan Theologian, Philosopher
1265 - 1321 56 Dante Alighieri Writer
1267 - 1337 70 Giotto di 12 1300s Bari CathedralBondone Painter
1268 Andrea of Grosseto translated the Moral Treaties of Albertanus of Brescia from Latin into vernacular. Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy
1284 - 1344 60 Simone Martini
1200 Prösels Castle
1200 Rocca Flea
1200s Monte Castle Apulia
1200s Buonconsiglio Castle
1200s Todi Castle
1233 Lucera Castle
1240 Imperatore Castle
1242 Fénis Castle
1250 Schloss Brunnenburg Castle
1260 Ursino Castle
1266 Nuovo Castle
1267 Lucertola Castle
1275 SantElmo Castle
12 - 1300s Bari Cathedral
12 - 1800s Osimo Cathedral
1200 - 1800s Massa Marittima Cathedral
1200s - 1930s Cagliari Cathedral Consecrated
1203 - 70 Matera Cathedral
1204 - 1474 Sarzana Cathedral
1215 - 63 Siena Cathedral
1223 - 1387 Pietrasanta Cathedral
1232 - 1700s Altamura Cathedral
1236 - 1735 Udine Cathedral
1270 - 1960s Manfredonia Cathedral
1290 - 1591 Orvieto Cathedral
1282 Porta schiavonia Cathedral
1200s delle Torri aqueduct Bridge






Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1289 - 1311 22 Pietro Gradenigo
1311 - 2 1 Marino Zorzi
1312 - 28 16 Giovanni Soranzo
1254 - 1324 70 Marco Polo
The Adventures of Marco Polo 1938
Marco Polo 1962
Marco Polo 1998

1328 - 39 11 Francesco Dandolo
1339 - 42 3 Bartolomeo Gradenigo
1342 - 54 12 Andrea Dandolo
1354 - 5 1 Marino Faliero
1355 - 6 1 Giovanni Gradenigo
1356 - 61 5 Giovanni Dolfin
1361 - 5 4 Lorenzo Celsi
1365 - 7 2 Marco Cornaro
1367 - 82 5 Andrea Contarini
1382 Michele Morosini
1382 - 1400 18 Antonio Venier
1254 - 1324 70 Marco Polo Trader, Explorer
HREs Kingdom of Italy
962 - 1648 686
Luxembourg
1311 - 3
2
1311 - 3 2 Henry 7
Wittelsbach
1327 - 47
20
1327 - 47 20 Louis 4
Luxembourg
1355 - 1437
82
1355 - 78 23 Charles 4
1378 - 1410 32 Wenceslaus 1
Republic of Genoa
792

1339 - 44 1 Simone Boccanegra
1344 - 50 6 Giovanni I di Murta
1350 - 3 3 Giovanni II Valente
1356 - 63 7 Simone Boccanegra
1363 - 70 7 Gabriele Adorno
1370 - 8 8 Domenico di Campofregoso
1378 Antoniotto Adorno
1378 - 83 5 Nicolò Guarco (or Guasco)
1383 Antonio I Adorno, 2nd time
1383 Federico di Pagana
1383 - 5 2 Leonardo Montaldo
1385 - 90 5 Antoniotto I Adorno
1390 - 1 1 Giacomo Fregoso
1391 - 2 1 Antoniotto I Adorno
1392 - 3 1 Antoniotto Montaldo
1393 Pietro Fregoso
1393 Clemente Promontorio
1393 Francesco Guistiniano di Garibaldo
1393 - 4 1 Antoniotto Montaldo 2ndX
1394 Niccolo Zoagli
1394 Antonio Guarco
1394 - 5 2 Antoniotto I Adorno
1396 - 1413 17 Genoa held by the French, Dogeship remains vacant.
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
Aragonese (Trinacria)
1282 - 1409
127
1296 - 1336 40 Frederick 2 < =Eleanor of Anjou 9C X65
1300 Last Muslims in Sicily Forcibly Converted to Christianity
1337 - 42 5 Peter 2 ^ =Elisabeth of Carinthia 9C X37
1342 - 55 13 Louis 1 ^ =0 X18
1355 - 77 22 Frederick 3 the Simple < =Constança of Aragon 1C & Antonia of Balzo 0C X36
1377 - 1401 24 Mary 1 ^Constança =Martin 1 of Sicily 1C X35
1395 - 1409 14 Martin 1 the Younger ^Martin 1 of Aragon & Maria of Luna =Mary of Sicily 1C X35
Martin 1 died heirless and the kingdom was inherited by his father who united it to the Crown of Aragon
2nd Republic of Florence
1197 - 1532
335
Florence
1240 - 1302 62 Cimabue Painter
1265 - 1321 56 Dante Alighieri Poet, Writer Florence
1326 1st Handgun
1266 - 1337 71 Giotto di Bondone Painter
1304 - 74 70 Francesco Petrarch Poet, Writer Arezzo
1313 - 75 62 Giovanni Boccaccio Author
1375 Coluccio Salutati
1378 Ciompi Revolt
Monestary life
Der Name der Rose (The Name of the Rose) 1986
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816
531
Naples
Anjou
1266 - 1382
116
1309 - 43 34 Robert ^ =Yolanda of Aragon 2C & Sancha of Majorca 0C X66 Inherited the crown in the absence of his nephew, Charles Martel, who was busy claiming Hungary.
1343 - 82 39 Joan 1 ^^ =Andrew, Duke of Calabria 1C & Louis 1 of Naples 2C & James 4 of Majorca 0C & Otto, Duke of BrunswickGrubenhagen 0C Dethroned by Pope Urban 6 in 1381, conquered by her cousin, Charles, Duke of Durazzo, and eventually strangled in prison X54
1352 - 62 10 Louis 1 =Joan 1 of Naples 2C ^^Charles 2 =Joan 1 Proclaimed king in right of his wife X42
AnjouDurazzo 1
1382 - 1435
53
1382 - 6 4 Charles 3 ^a Joan 1 ^Louis =Margaret of Durazzo 3C Conquered Joan and eventually had her strangled in prison. His rule was contested by Louis 1 of Anjou. Inheriting the Hungary, he was eventually murdered at Visegrá X41
1386 - 9 3 Ladislaus 1stX ^ =Constance of Clermon 0C & Marie of Lusignan 0C & Mary of Enghien 0C Deposed by Louis 2

ValoisAnjou
1382/1426 - 1442
60/16
The rule of the House of Durazzo was contested, as Joan I had appointed Louis I, Duke of Anjou, as her heir. The Dukes of Anjou led several military expeditions into the kingdom and reached an agreement with the House of Durazzo in 1426, succeeding them in 1435.
1389 - 99 10 Louis 2 ^Louis 1 =Yolande of Aragon 5C & X40 Continued his fathers claim and drove Ladislaus from Naples in 1389. He was ousted again in 1399.
Papal Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Popes
1297 - 1335 38
1304 - 14 10 Clement 5
1314 - 16 2 year vacancy in the papacy.
1316 - 35 19 John 12
Counts of Barcelona
1324 - 7 3 James 2 of Aragon
1327 - 36 11 Alfonso 4 of Aragon
1336 - 87 51 Peter 4 of Aragon
1387 - 96 9 John 1 of Aragon
1396 - 1410 14 Martin of Aragon
HREs Duchy of Milan
1395 - 1797 402
Milan
1350 The Renaissance begins in Italy.
1300 Issogne Castle
1300s Castelbuono Bevagna
1300s Verrès Castle
1316 Castelbuono
1360 Visconti Castle
1376 Castelvecchio Verona
1300 - 1911 Grosseto Cathedral
1300s - 1930 Adria Cathedral
1309 Naples Cathedral Completed
1319 - 1772 Territorial Abbey of Monte Oliveto Maggiore
1385 - 1404 Cesena Cathedral
1386 - 1965 Milan Cathedral
1395 - 1761 Mantua Cathedral
1396 - 1498 Como Cathedral
1396 - 1840 Montefiascone Cathedral
1283 - 1939 Diable Bridge Spain








Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1400 - 13 13 Michele Steno
1413 - 23 10 Tommaso Mocenigo
1423 - 57 34 Francesco Foscari
1457 - 62 5 Pasquale Malipiero
1462 - 71 9 Cristoforo Moro
1471 - 3 2 Nicolo Tron
1473 - 4 1 Nicolo Marcello
1474 - 6 2 Pietro Mocenigo
1476 - 8 2 Andrea Vendramin
1478 - 85 7 Giovanni Mocenigo
1485 - 6 1 Marco Barbarigo
1486 - 1501 5 Agostino Barbarigo
1499 Battle of Zonchio Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the .
Kingdom of Italy within the
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686
Luxembourg
1355 - 1437
82
1378 - 1410 32 Wenceslaus 1
1410 - 37 27 Sigismund
Habsburg
1437 - 1556
119
1437 - 9 2 Albert 2
1452 - 93 41 Frederick 3
1493 - 1519 26 Maximilian 1
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1797
792

1396 - 1413 17 Genoa held by the French, Dogeship remains vacant.
1413 - 5 2 Giorgio Adorno
1415 Barnaba Guarco
1415 - 21 6 Tomaso di Campofregoso
1421 - 36 15 Milan controls Genoa, dogeship is vacant.
1436 Isnardo Guarco
1436 - 7 1 Tomaso di Campofregoso
1437 Batista Fegoso few hours
1437 - 42 5 Tomaso di Campofregoso
1443 - 7 4 Rafaele Adorno
1447 Barnaba Adorno
1447 - 8 1 Giano I di Campofregoso
1448 - 50 2 Lodovico di Campofregoso
1450 - 8 8 Pietro di Campofregoso
1458 - 61 3 French occupation, dogeship remains vacant.
1461 Prospero Adorno
1461 Spinetta di Campofregoso
1461 - 2 1 Lodovico di Campofregoso
1462 Paolo Fregoso served simultaneously as archbishop of Genoa.
1462 Lodovico di Campofregoso 3rdX
1462 - 3 1 Paolo Fregoso 2ndX
1463 - 77 14 Francesco Sforza, no doge
1477 Prospero Adorno
1477 - 8 1 Paolo Fregoso 3rdX
1488 - 1507 19 dogeship is vacant, Sforza rule Genoa
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816 686
Aragonese Sicily
1409
- 1516
107
2nd Republic of Florence
1197 - 1532
335
Florence
1410 Leonardo Bruni
1444 - 53 9 Carlo Marsuppini
1377 - 1446 69 Filippo Brunelleschi invents onepoint perspective, leads innovation in Italian architecture.
1453 - 9 6 Poggio Bracciolini
1378 - 1455 78 Lorenzo Ghiberti Sculpture, Metalworker
1459 Benedetto Accolti
1465 - 97 32 Bartolomeo Scala
1498 - ? Niccolò Machiavelli
1474 - 1563 91 Michael Angelo architect of "St. Peters Cathedral," and celebrated painter.
1483 - 1520 37 Raphael Painter
Northern provinces of Italy devise their own systems of government. Venice becomes a merchant oligarchy; Milan ruled by dynastic despotism; and Florence becomes a republic ruled by the rich. The three cities expand and conquer most of Northern Italy.
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816 531
Naples
AnjouDurazzo 2
1382 - 1435
53
1399 - 1414 15 Ladislaus 2ndX ^ =Constance of Clermon 0C & Marie of Lusignan 0C & Mary of Enghien 0C Deposed by Louis 2
1414 - 35 21 Joan 2 ^Charles 3 =William, Duke of Austria 0C & James 2, Count of La Marche 0C X58

ValoisAnjou
1435 - 1501 66
1435 - 42 7 René 1 ^Louis 3 =Isabelle of Lorraine 10C & Jeanne de Laval 0C X71 After his brothers death, he was recognised as heir by Joan 2 and succeeded her upon her death. His rule was contested by Alfonso of Aragon, whom Joan 2 had previously appointed her heir and who conquered the kingdom in 1442, forcing René to flee. Upon Renés death, the claim to Naples was inherited by either his grandson, René 2 of Lorraine, or his nephew, Charles 4 of Anjou, who died in 1481, leaving his claims to Louis 11 of France.
1442 - 58 16 Alfonso 1 ^Ferdinand 1 of Aragon =Maria of Castile 0C X62 Appointed heir by Joan 2 in 1421, during her conflict with Louis 3 and persisted in his claim after falling out with Joan in 1423. He invaded the kingdom in 1436 and forced René to flee in 1442.
1458 - 94 36 Ferdinand 1 ^ =Isabella of Taranto 6C & Joanna of Aragon 2C X71 Illegitimate son of Alfonso 1 and iraldona Carlino. Appointed heir by father but Due to his illegitimate birth, his claim was controversial and contested by Renés son John, Duke of Lorraine 14601464 and Charles 8 of France, who took up the Angevine claims, after 1493.
1494 - 5 1 Alfonso 2 ^ =Ippolita Maria Sforza 3C & Trogia Gazzela 2C X47 Abdicated in face of the invasion of Charles 8 of France and retreated to a monastery
1494 - 8 4 Italian War
1495 - 6 1 Ferdinand 2 ^ =Joan of Naples 0C X27 Contested by Charles 8 of France
1496 - 1501 5 Frederick ^Ferdinand 1 =Anne of Savoy 1C & Isabella del Balzo 5C Conquered by Louis 12 of France & Ferdinand 2 of Aragon & died in exile at Tours.

Kingdom of Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Counts of Barcelona
1396 - 1410 14
1396 - 1410 14 Martin of Aragon

Trastámara of Castile
1412
1412 - 6 4 Ferdinand 1 of Aragon
1416 - 58 42 Alfonso 1 of Aragon
1458 - 79 21 John 2 of Aragon
1479 - 1516 37 Ferdinand 2 of Aragon

HREs Duchy of Milan
1395 - 1797 402
Milan
1454 Wars in Lombardy Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan
1394 - 1460 66 Henry the Navigator Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu infante (prince) of the Portuguese House of Aviz and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations.
1395 - 1469 74 Niccolò Da Conti Venetian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia.
1400s Public banks
1410 - 5 5 Linear Perspective drawing perfected by Italian Filippo Brunelleschi
1401 - 28 27 Masaccio Painter
1404 - 72 68 Leon Battista Alberti Author, artist, architect, poet, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer, and general Renaissance humanist polymath.
1415 Jan Hus burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance.
1416 - 70 54 Pal Engjëlli was an Albanian Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Durrës and Cardinal of Albania who in 1462 wrote the first known sentence in Albanian.
1450 Harpsichord Invented
1463 - 94 31 Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Philosopher. He is famed for the events of 1486, when at the age of twentythree, he wrote the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance", and a key text of Renaissance humanism.
1494 - 1559 65 Italian Wars lead to the downfall of the Italian citystates.
1450 - 99 49 John Cabot Italian explorer for England. Discovered Newfoundland and claimed it for the Kingdom of England.
1467 - 1520 53 Pedro Álvares Cabral Portuguese navigator and explorer.
1433 - 81 48 Marsilio Ficino Significant Italian translator of Platos works
1400s Maniace Castle
1400s Palazzo Madama Castle , Turin
1400s Rocca Sanvitale Castle
1433 degli Orsini Castle
1438 Sismondo Castle
1420 - 36 Florence Cathedral Dome
1488 - 1930s Pavia Cathedral
1490 Perugia Cathedral
1491 1 Turin Cathedral
Papal States
754 - 1870
1116
1000 - 04 4 Sylvestor 2
French Astronomer, Mathematician, Orator, Musician, Philosopher
1000s Title Invented in the Bible.
1003 Pope Sylvester II, born Gerbert dAurillac, dies; however, his teaching continued to influence those of the 11th century; his works included a book on arithmetic, a study of the HinduArabic numeral system, a hydraulicpowered organ,the reintroduction of the abacus to Europe, and a possible treatise on the astrolabe that was edited by Hermann of Reichenau five decades later. The contemporary monk Richer from Rheims described Gerberts contributions in reintroducing the armillary sphere that was lost to European science after the GrecoRoman era; from Richers description, Gerberts placement of the tropics was nearly exact and his placement of the equator was exact He reintroduced the liberal arts education system of trivium and quadrivium, which he had borrowed from the educational institution of Islamic Córdoba gerbert also studied and taught Islamic medicine
1004 - 09 5 John 18
1009 - 12 3 Bergius 4
1012 - 24 12 Benedict 8
1024 - 33 9 John 19
1033 - 45 12 Benedict 9
1045 - 51 6 Leo 9
1053 Battle of Civitate Norman commander Humphrey of Hauteville is victorious in the against the Lombards and the papal coalition led by Rudolf of Benevento; Pope Leo IX himself is captured by the Normans.
1054 - 57 3 Viotor 2
1054 Great Schism in which the Western (Roman Catholic) and Eastern Orthodox churches separated from each other. Similar schisms in the past had been later repaired, but this one continues after nearly 1000 years.
1057 - 61 3 Nicholas 2
1061 - 73 12 Alexander 2
1073 - 85 12 Gregory 7
1075 Investiture Controversy is sparked when Pope Gregory 7 asserted in the Dictatus papae extended rights granted to the pope (disturbing the balance of power) and new interpretation of Gods role in founding the Church itself.
1085 - 8 3 Victor 3
1088 - 1100 12 Urban 2
1095 Pope Urban 2 calls upon Western Europeans to take up the cross and reclaim the Holy Lands, officially commencing the First Crusade.
1096 - 9 3 1st Crusade. Eight Crusades were conducted. 300,000 men were blessed by Pope Urban II and commanded by King Godfrey.
1098 Siege of Capua Pope Urban 2 makes an appearance at the , Italy.
Papal States
754 1870
1116
1099 1117 18 Pascal 2
1118 9th Council 1st Lateran. The Right of Investiture was settled by treaty between Pope Calixtus 2 and Emperor Henry 5.
1117 18 Ceiastus 2 1
1047 1123 76 Bruno of Segni Saint, Bishop in Rome
1124 30 6 Honorius 2
1130 10th Council
1130 44 14 Innocent 2
1130 8 8 Papal schism, Pope Innocent 2 vs. Antipope Anacletus 2.
1139 Treaty of Mignano Pope Innocent 2 confirms Roger 2 as King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia, and Prince of Capua and invests him with his titles.
1139 2nd Lateran Council ends the papal schism
1143 Celestine 2 1
1144 Eugenius 3 8
1147 49 2nd Crusade preached by St. Bernard and headed by Conrad 2 and Louis 7
1153 59 6 Adrian 4
1156 Treaty of Benevento is entered into by Pope Adrian IV and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. After years of turbulent relations, the popes finally settled down to a peace with the Hauteville kings. The kingship of William I is recognised over all Sicily, Apulia, Calabria, and Campania, as well as Capua. The tribute to the pope of 600 schifati agreed upon by Roger II in 1139 at Mignano was affirmed and another 400 schifati was added for the new lands.
1159 81 22 Alexander 3
1177 Treaty of Venice is signed by the Papacy and its allies and Frederick 1, Holy Roman Emperor. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily also takes part in negotiations and the treaty thereby determines the political course of all Italy for the next several years.
1181 85 4 Lucius 3
1183 Peace of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa, the pope, and the Lombard towns is signed, confirming the Peace of Venice of 1177.
1185 87 2 Gregory 8
Crusades
1147 9 2 2nd Crusade preached by St. Bernard and headed by Conrad 2 and Louis 7
1191 98 7 Celestini 3
1198 99 1 Innocent 3
1199 Pope writes to Kaloyan, inviting him to unite the Bulgarian Church with the Roman Catholic Church.
Papal States
754 1870
1116
1201 04 3 4th Crusade
1215 12th Council 4th Lateran
1216 27 11 Honorius 3
1218 21 3 5th Crusade Baldwin, Count of Flanders, took Constantinople.
1227 Bible divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo
1227 41 14 Gregory 9
1228 9 1 6th Crusade by Frederick 2 took Jerusalem into a truce for 10 years.
1241 54 13 Innocent 4
1245 13th Council Lyons
1248 54 6 7th Crusade Louis 9 defeated & taken prisoner.
1254 Alexander 4 7
1261 64 3 Urban 4
1264 69 5 Clement 4
1269 71 2 year Papal vacancy
1270 8th Crusade Louis 9 died at Carthage. Edward 1 followed him.
1271 76 5 Gregory 10
1274 14th Council at Lyon. Temporary union of Greek and Latin churches.
1276 80 4 Four Popes in 4 yrs
1280 85 5 Martin 4
1285 87 2 Honorius 4
1287 92 5 Nicholas 4
1291 Christians driven out of Syria
1294 96 2 Celestine 5
1296 1304 8 Boniface 8
Papal States
754 1870
1116
1304 14 10 Clement 5
1311 2 1 15th Council Vienna
1314 16 2 year vacancy in the papacy.
1316 35 19 John 12
1335 1 Benedict 12
1342 52 10 Clement 6
1352 62 10 Innocent 6
1362 70 8 Urban 5
1370 78 8 Gregory 11
1375 8 3 War of the 8 Saints Pope Gregory 11 and a coalition of Italian citystates led by Florence
1378 Great Schism of the West begins in, eventually leading to 3 simultaneous popes.
1278 89 11 Urban 6
1383 5 2 Crisis
1389 1504 15 Boniface 9
1300s The Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes from Italy to France
Papal States
754 1870
1116
1404 1 Innocent 7
1406 10 2 in 4 yrs.
1409 16th Council Pisa
1410 16 6 John 23
1414 18 17th Council Constance
1416 31 15 Martin 5
1423 24 18th Council Siena
1431 Eugenius 4 1447 55 8 Nicholas 5
1455 58 3 Calixtus 3
1458 64 6 Pius 2
1464 73 7 Paul 2
1471 84 13 Sixtus 4
1482 4 2 War of Ferrara duke of Ferrara, and the Papal forces
1484 92 8 Innocent 8
1489 1500 11 Alexander 6
870 - 1090 Arab rule.
1048 First Byzantine attempts to regain islands.
1090 - 1194 104 Norman conquest.
1091 Normans from the Duchy of Normandy take control of Malta and surrounding islands.
1122 Arab uprising.
1144 Second Byzantine attempt to regain islands.
1154 John made Bishop of Palermo and Malta.
1154 - 1205 51 Genoese influence.
1194 - 1266 72 Swabian rule.
1224 Final expulsion of Arabs from Sicily and Malta.
1266 - 83 17 Angevin rule.Creation of the University
1282 Sicilian Vespers.
1283 - 1412 29 CatalanAragonese rule.
1350 Establishment of Maltese Nobility.
1350 - 7 7 First incorporation into Royal Domain.
1393 - 7 4 Time of the Tyrants.
1397 - 1420 23 Second incorporation into Royal Domain.
1397 Università established. Petitions to Sicily.
1412 - 1530 118 CatalanAragonese and Castilian rule.
1420 Feudal possession of Don Antonio Cardona.
1425 Revolt against Don Consalvo de Monroy.
1429 Tunisian Saracens attempt capture of islands.
1428 - 1530 102 Last incorporation into Royal Domain.
1004 Bled Castle Slovenia
1100s Maribor Cathedral
1200s Ljubljana Castle
1274 Predjama Castle
   
1093 Zagreb Cathedral Started Croatia 1100 Split Cathedral Bell Tower  
1300s Hvar Cathedral
1433 41 Šibenik Cathedral
 
Banate of Bosnia
1154 - 1377 223
Hungary
Banate of Bosnia
1154 - 1377 223
Hungary
Banate of Bosnia
1154 - 1377 223
Hungary
Kingdom of Bosnia
1377 - 1463 86
@ Old town of Visoki, Jajce
Catholic Church, Bosnian Church (Bogomilism), Eastern Orthodox Church
1377 - 91 14 Stephen Tvrtko 1 (1338 91 53) ^ Vladislav Kotromanić & Jelena Šubić =Dorothea of Bulgaria
1391 - 5 4 Stephen Dabiša (1339 95 46) < =Jelena Gruba
1395 - 8 3 Jelena Gruba =Stephen Dabiša 1D
1398 - 1404 6 Stephen Ostoja ^ Tvrtko 1 = 1) Vitača 0C 2) Kujava 1S 3) Jelena Nelipčić 0C
Kingdom of Bosnia
1377 - 1463 86
1398 - 1404 6 Stephen Ostoja
1404 - 9 5 Tvrtko 2 ^Tvrtko 1 =Dorothy Garai
1409 - 18 9 Stephen Ostoja 2ndx
1418 - 21 3 Stephen Ostojić ^Stephen Ostoja & Kujava 0=
1421 - 43 22 Tvrtko 2 2ndx
1432 - 5 3 Radivoj Rival ^ Stephen Ostoja =Catherine of Velika 3S
1443 - 61 18 Stephen Thomas ^ Stephen Ostojić =1) Vojača 1s 2) Katarina Kosača 2C
1461 - 3 2 Stephen Tomašević ^=Jelena Branković 0C. Beheaded
Ottoman Bosnia
1463 - 1898 435
Kingdom of Croatia
925 - 1097
172
1000 - 30 30 Krešimir 3 <
1000 - 20 20 Gojslav <
1030 - 58 28 Stjepan 1 ^Krešimir 3
1058 - 74 16 Peter Krešimir 4 the Great ^ Croatian Kingdom reached its peak.
1075 - 89 14 Demetrius Zvonimir << =Helena Ilona ^*King Bela 1 of Hungary
1089 - 90 1 Stjepan 2 ^<Krešimir
1090 - 1 1 Jelena the Beautiful =Zvonimir ^* King Bela 1
1090 - 3 3 Slavac Dalmatian rival.
1091 - 2 1 Ladislaus 1 of Hungary ^*King Bela 1
1091 - 3 2 Duke Álmos ^<
Svačić
1093 - 7
4
1093 - 7 4 Petar Svačić Elected by Croatian nobles.
1097 Merged into Hungary
 
1200s Mirabella Castle
1200s Stari Grad Zrinski Castle
1200s Zrin Castle
1200s Zrinski Castle
1244 Ozalj Castle
1249 54 5 Medvedgrad Castle
1260 4 4 Samobor Castle
1288 Drinevik Castle
1300s Erdut Castle
1300s Kastel Castle
1334 Trakoscan Castle 1st Mention
1334 Cetin Castle
1345 Dvigrad Castle
1373 Dvorac Banfi Castle
1386 Novigrad Castle
1400 Prozor Castle
1400s DobovacKarlovac Castle
1400s Hreljin Castle
1450s Kamerlengo Castle
1480 Frankopan Castle
1488 Djurdjevac Castle
1488 Gvozdansko Castle
   
1210s Doboj Fortress
1300s Jajce Castle
1333 Srebrenik Castle
1355 Visoki Maketa Castle
1383 Pocitelj Castle
1467 Herzegovina conquered by the Turks
 
1100s Gjirokaster Castle Albania
1200s Berat Castle


1400s Elbasan Castle
1400s Petrela Castle
1400s Zadrima Castle
1432 Kruja Castle
 
1166 Consecrated Kotor Cathedral Montenegro
     
 
Principality of Zeta
1185 - 1360
175
Shkodër (Scodra)
In Serbian Grand Principality
Nemanjić
1186 - 1355
169
1186 - 96 10 Grand Zhupan Stefan Nemanja
1196 - 1208 12 Vukan 2 Nemanjić of Duklja/Zeta and Dalmatia
1208 - 43 35 King Đorđe Nemanjić
1243 - 76 33 King Stefan Uroš 1
1276 - 1309 33 Queen Helene dAnjou (Widow of King Stefan Uroš 1)
1309 - 21 12 King Stefan Milutin Nemanjić
1309 - 21 12 King Stefan Uroš 3 Nemanjić (St. Stefan Dečanski)
1321 - 31 10 King Stefan Dečanski| Stefan Uroš 3 Nemanjić (St. Stefan Dečanski)
1321 - 31 10 King Stefan Dušan Uroš 4 Nemanjić
1331 - 55 24 King and Tsar Stefan Dušan Uroš 4 Nemanjić
Balšić
1356 - 60
4
1356 - 62 6 Balša 1
Principality of Arbanon
1190 - 1255 65
1190 - 8 8 Progon
1253 - 5 2 Golem
11 - 1200s Stari Grad, Užice Serbia
Principality of Zeta
1185 - 1360
175
Shkodër (Scodra)
In Serbian Grand Principality
Principality of Arbanon
1190 - 1255 65
1190 - 8 8 Progon
1253 - 5 2 Golem
Kingdom of Albania
1272 - 1368
96
Capetian Anjou
1272 - 1368 96
1272 - 85 13 Charles 1 ^
1285 - 94 9 Charles 2 ^
1294 - 1332 38 Philip ^
1200s Maglič Castle
Principality of Zeta
1185 - 1360
175
Shkodër (Scodra)
In Serbian Grand Principality
Kingdom of Albania
1272 - 1368
96
Capetian Anjou
1272 - 1368 96
1294 - 1332 38 Philip ^
1332 Robert ^
1332 Sold Kingdom to v< for 5000 ounces of gold because he didnt want to pay him homage.
1332 - 6 3 John v<
1336 - 48 12 Charles ^
1348 - 68 20 Joanna ^ =Louis
1366 - 8 2 Louis =Joanna
1368 Durazzo fell to Karl Thopia who was recognized by Venice as "Prince of Albania".
Principality of Valona and Kanina
1332 - 1417 85
Vlore
1346 - 63 17 John Komnenos Asen
1355 - 1417 62 Vassal to Venice
1414 - 7 3 Ruđina Balšić
1417 Conquered by Ottomans
Lordship of Berat
1335 - 1444
109
Berat
Albanian
Eastern Orthodox
1335 - 72 37 Andrea 2 Muzaka
1372 - 1389 17 Teodor 1 Muzaka
1389 - 1417 28 Teodor 2 Muzaka
Despotate of Angelokastron & Lepanto
1358 - 74 16
1358 - 74 16 Gjin Bua Shpata
Despotate of Arta
1358 74 16

1358 - 74 16 Peter Losha
1374 - 99 25 Gjin Bua Shpata
1400 - 1 1 Sguro Bua Shpata
1401 - 10 9 Muriq Bua Shpata
1410 - 6 6 Jakub Bua Shpata
Princedom of Albania
1368 - 92
24

1368 - 82 14 Karl Thopia
1382 - 5 3 Balsha 2
1385 - 7 2 Karl Thopia
1387 - 92 5 Gjergj Thopia
1392 Annexed by the Republic of Venice
1392 - 1428 36 Andrea 1 Thopia
Despotate of Angelokastron & Lepanto
1386 - 1418 32
Gjirokastër
Albanian, Greek
Eastern Orthodox
1386 - 1418 32 Gjon Zenebishi
Principality of Kastrioti
1389 - 1444 55
Krujë
Albanian
Catholic
1389 - 1417 28 Gjon Kastrioti
1443 - 4 1 George Kastrioti
Principality of Dukagjini
1387 - 1444 56
Lezha
Albanian
Catholic
1387 - 93 6 Pal Dukagjini & Leka 1 Dukagjini
1393 - 1413 20 Tanush Dukagjini
1413 - 38 25 Pal 2 Dukagjini
1438 - 44 6 Lekë 3 Dukagjini
1300s Golubac Fortress
Principality of Zeta
1185 - 1360
175

1392 1428 36 Andrea 1 Thopia
1428 44 16 Andrea 2 Thopia
League of Lezhë
1444 - 79 35
Lezha
Confederation
Kastrioti
1444 - 79 35
1444 68 24 Skanderbeg 1405 - 68 63
1444 Siege of Stelluzi
1444 1st Siege of Sfetigrad
1444 Battle of Torvioll
1445 Battle of Mokra
1446 Battle of Otonetë
1447 8 1 Albanian Venetian War
1448 Battle of the Drin
1448 Battle of Oranik
1449 2nd Siege of Sfetigrad
1450 1st Siege of Krujë
1452 Siege of Modrica
1453 Battle of Mokra
1455 Siege of Berat
1456 Battle of Oranik
1457 Battle of Albulena
1461 - 2 1 Skanderbegs Italian expedition
1462 Macedonian campaign
1463 Macedonian campaign
1464 Battle of Ochrida
1464 Battle of Vajkal
1465 Battle of Vajkal
1465 Battle of Kashari
1466 2nd Siege of Krujë
1467 3rd Siege of Krujë
1468 79 11 Lekë Dukagjini
1478 4th Siege of Krujë
1478 Siege of Shkodër
Ottoman Albania
1479 - ?
?
1430 Smederevo Fortress
1439 Vršac Castle
 
Kingdom of Duklja
1053 - 1100
47
Montenegro
1046 - 81 35 Grand Prince, King Mihailo 1 of Duklja
1081 - 1101 20 King Constantine Bodin of Duklja and Dalmatia
       
 
Serbian Grand Principality
1101 - 1217 116
Serbian Grand Principality
1101 - 1217 116
Kingdom of Serbia
1217 - 1346
129
@1282 Skoplje 1300 Prizren
1217 - 28 11 Stephen
1228 - 33 5 Stephen Radoslav ^
1233 - 43 10 Stephen Vladislav <
1174 - 1236 62 Sava Saint, organizer, liberator of the Serbian Orthodox Church
1243 - 76 33 Stephen Uroš 1 <
1276 - 82 6
Stephen Dragutin ^
1282 - 1321 39
Stephen Uroš 2 Milutin <
Kingdom of Serbia
1217 - 1346
129
1282 1321 39 Stephen Uroš 2 Milutin <
1321 - 31 10
Stephen Uroš 3 <
1331 - 46 Stephen Uroš 4 Dušan ^
Serbian Empire
1346 - 71 25
Skopje, Prizren
1346 - 55 9 Stefan Uroš 4 DušanDušan the Mighty
Fell into feudal disarray after his death.
1355 - 71 16 Stefan Uroš 5
Moravian Serbia
1371 - 1403
32
Kruševac
Serbian
Serbian Orthodox Church
Seriban Perper
1371 - 89 18 Lazar Hrebeljanović
1389 Battle of Kosovo in between Serbs and Ottoman Turks, Prince Lazar, sultan Murat I and Miloš Obilić were killed
1389 - 1403 14 Stefan Lazarević
Moravian Serbia
1371 - 1403
32
Serbian Despotate
1402 - 59
57
Belgrade & Smederevo
Serbian
Serbian Orthodox Christianity
Monarchy
Lazarević
1402 - 27 25
1402 - 27 25 Stefan Lazarević
Branković
1427 - 39 12
1427 - 39 12 Đurađ Branković (1375 - 1456 81)
1439 Grgur Branković (1416 - 59 13) coregent for Đurađ
1439 Thomas Kantakouzenos coregent for Đurađ
1439 - 43 4 IshakBeg (+1443) Turkish governor
1443 - 4 1 IsaBeg Turkish governor
1444 - 56 12 Đurađ Branković (1375 - 1456 81)
1456 Siege of Belgrade 1387 - 1456 69 John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary, halts the Ottomans advance into Europe.
Branković
1456 -
9 3
1456 - 8 2 Lazar Branković (1421 - 58 37)
1458 Mihailo Anđelović (+1464) coregent
1458 Jelena Paleolog (1432 - 73 51) coregent
1458 - 9 1 Stefan Branković (1420 - 76 56) coregent to March 1458
1459 Stjepan Tomašević (1438 - 63 25)
   
1214 Prosek Castle
1300s Church of Saint John the Theologian OhridJovan Kaneo
1395 Markovi Kuli Castle Macedonia
 
1090s Crucifixion mosaic in the north arm of the east wall, Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, is made.
1000 Lecythus fort Toroni
1000s Aptera monstery chapel
1071 - 1590s Angelokastro Capital of Corfu
1115 95 80 Eustathios of Thessalonike Saint, archbishop of Thessaloniki, Writer
Cephalonia and Zakynthos
1185 - 1479 294
Islands of Cephalonia & Zakynthos
Client to * of Sicily
Cephalonia and Zakynthos
1185 - 1479 294
Islands of Cephalonia & Zakynthos
Client to * of Sicily
Kingdom of Thessalonica
1204 - 24 20
Thessalonica
1204 - 7 3 Boniface 1 of Montferrat
1207 - 24 17 Demetrius of Montferrat (Demetrius)
Marquisate of Bodonitsa
1204 - 1414
210
Mendenitsa
Lordship of Negroponte
1204 - 1470 266
Chalkis (Negroponte)
Venetian officially,
Greek popularly
Roman Catholic officially,
Greek Orthodox popularly
Client state
Lordship of Salona
1205 - 1415 210
Salona (Amfissa)
Principality of Achaea
1205 - 1432 227
Andravida 1205 - 49 44
Mystras 1249 - 61 12
French officially,
Greek popularly
Roman Catholic,
Greek Orthodox popularly
Duchy of Athens
1205 - 1458 453
Athens
Catalan (from 1318)
Greek popularly
Roman Catholic,
Greek Orthodox popularly
Vassal
Duchy of the Archipelago (Naxos)
1207 - 1579 372
Naxos
Venetian officially,
Greek popularly
Roman Catholic,
Greek Orthodox popularly
1214 Angelokastro Castle korfu
121600s Ierapetra Venetian Wall
1200 Acrocorinth
1200 TrikalaAsclepieio, Trikala
1200s Mytilene Lesbos
1200s Pylos Festung 380
1249 Mystras palace Seat of Principality of Achaea
Cephalonia and Zakynthos
1185 - 1479 294
Islands of Cephalonia & Zakynthos
Client to * of Sicily
Principality of Achaea
1205 - 1432 227
Duchy of Athens
1205 - 1458 453
Athens French
Duchy of the Archipelago
1207 - 1579 372
Naxos
1309 Grandpalace rhodes
1300s Lemnos Mirina Wars
Cephalonia and Zakynthos
1185 - 1479 294
Islands of Cephalonia & Zakynthos
Client to * of Sicily
Principality of Achaea
1205 - 1432 227
Duchy of Athens
1205 - 1458 453
Athens French
1330 - 1523 193 Although not officially supported by the church hierarchy, the Hospitallers continue intermittent Crusading from their base in Rhodes.
1480 Siege of Rhodes
Duchy of the Archipelago
1207 - 1579 372
Naxos
1473 Bourtzi Nafplion Castle
1432 Kyparissia falls to Despotate of Morea