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Views PHP Hits Count 1000s
1100s
Ancient - 500A 1200s Future
1300s
1400s PHP Hits Count Visitors
m
m
C
Th
Macedonian
       
Dou
Alexios
John
m
a
a
Komnenid 1081 - 1185 104
I
A
I
n
Angel
c
Th
John
t
j
Laskarid
Middle Byzantinium 843 - 1260 417
M8
And2
M9
And3
j5
j6
m
j5
J7
Man2
a5
J8
c11
Palaiologan 1261 - 1453 192
Late Byzantinium 1261 - 1453 192
 
       
Ottoman Empire Turkey 1281 - 1923 642
 
 
 
 
Lords/Princes
Kings/Queens
Kingdom of Cilicia Armenia 1080 - 1375 295
 
Imereti
 
 
Kingdom of Cyprus 1192 - 1489 297
 
 
 
 
 
Arab Empire, Abassid Caliphate Iraq 630 - 1258 628
 
 
       
Jalayirids Iraq
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   
 
 
Mughulistan 1227 - 1363 136
   
 
Blue
 
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
C Africa
Chad Country FlagCameroon Country FlagCentral African Republic Country FlagSao Tome & Principe Country FlagGabon Country Flag
Congo Country FlagDemocratic Republic of Congo Country FlagRwanda Country FlagBurundi Country FlagAngola Country Flag
S Africa
Zambia Country FlagNamibia Country FlagCountry FlagZimbabwe Country Flag
Mozambique Country FlagMadagascar Country FlagSouth Africa Country FlagLesotho Country FlagSwaziland Country Flag
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453
1123
Macedonian 867 - 1056 189
1002 18 16 Emperor Basil 2 campaigns annually against Bulgarians, with object of annihilating Bulgar state.
1011 - 2 1 Main Hosios Loukas Monastery sees completion (Katholikon) Earliest extant domedoctagon church from.
1014 Battle of Kleidion Byzantine armies of Basil 2 are victorious over Samuil of Bulgaria in .
1018 Battle of C? Byzantine armies of Basil Boioannes are victorious at against Lombards under Melus of Bari.
1025 Death of Basil 2 & Decline of Byzantine Empire begins.
1025 - 41 16 Michale 4 Paphlagonian X31
1021 - 42 21 ByzantineGeorgian wars
1028 - 34 6 John Eunuch chief court eunuch under Byzantine emperor Romanos 3
1041 - 2 1 Micheal 5 X27
1042 Queen Theodora & Queen Zoe 978 1050 72
1042 - 55 13 Consantine 9Monomachos X55
1043 Naval Confrontation Byzantine Empire & Kievan Rus engage in a although a later treaty is signed between two parties that included marriage alliance of Vsevolod I of Kiev to a princess daughter of Constantine IX Monomachos.
1043 Byzantine General George Maniaces, who had served in Sicily back in 1038, was proclaimed emperor by his troops while he was catepan of Italy; he led an unsuccessful rebellion against Constantine IX Monomachos & was killed in battle in Macedonia during his march towards Constantinople.
1043 - 4 1 Rus'Byzantine War unsuccessful naval raid against Constantinople instigated by Yaroslav I of Kiev & led by his eldest son, Vladimir of Novgorod
1055 - 6 21 Queen Theodora X72
Nondynastic
1056
- 7
1
1056 - 7 1 Michael 6
Komnenid
1057
- 9
2
1057 - 9 2 Isaac 1 Komnenos
1000 - 59 59 Michael 1 Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople who was involved in EastWest Schism
Doukid
1059
- 81
22
1059 - 67 8 Constantinte 10Doukas X61
1126 - 1200 74 John Doukas, Caesar, younger brother & counsellor to Constantine 10 of Byzantium
1067 - 78 11 Michael 7 Doukas X40 1090
1071 Battle of Manzikert Defeat of Byzantine Empireby Seljuk army of Alp Arslan, ending three centuries of a Byzantine military & economic Golden Age. Anatolia opened to Muslim settlement
1073 Capture of Ankara Seljuk Turks VS Byzantines.
1074 Capture of Jerusalem Seljuk Turks from Byzantines, & cut pilgrim transit.
1078 Revolt of Nikephoros 3 against Byzantine ruler Michael 7
1067 - 71 4 Romanos 4 Diogenes X39
1078 - 81 3 Nikephoros 3 Botaneiates X80
Komnenid
1081
- 1185
104
1081 - 1118 37 Alexios 1 Komnenos X70
1081 - 1180 99 Restoration of Byzantine Empire
? 1082 John Italus Philosopher in Constantinople.
1091 Battle of Levounion
1093 Battle of Alnwick
1017 - 96 79 Michael Psellos Byzantine writer, philosopher, official, & historian
1097 Siege of Nicaea, Iznik, Turkey. during First Crusade
1098 Crusaders capture Edessa
1098 Siege of Antioch during First Crusade
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453
1123
Komnenid 1081 - 1185 104
1081 - 1118 37 Alexios 1 Komnenos X70
1040s - 1101 60s John Skylitzes Byzantine historian in Greece.
1108 Treaty of Devol, signed in September, Bohemond I of Antioch has to submit to Byzantine Empire, becoming vassal of Alexius I.
1058 - 1111 53 Bohemond 1 of Antioch, Prince, Crusader commander from Calabria
1116 Byzantine army defeats Turks at Philomelion.
1118 - 43 25 John 2 Komnenos X57
1097 - 1176 79 Byzantine armies recapture coasts of Asia Minor from Turks, & push east towards central Anatolia; Crusader Principality of Antioch becomes Byzantine protectorate
1143 - 80 37 Manuel 1 Komnenos X62
1100s Icon Theotokos of Vladimir is made, probably in Constantinople. Everything but faces will later be retouched, & icon will end up in Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli composes his epic poem Knight in Panther's Skin. Shahab alDin Suhrawardi founds his "school of illumination".
1144 Edessa Conquered to Atabeg Zengi.
1145 - 8 3 2nd Crusade is launched in response to fall of County of Edessa.
1161 Kilij Arslan 2, Sultan of Rum, makes peace with Byzantine Empire, recognizing emperor's primacy.
1167 Battle of Sirmium Byzantine armies win decisive victory over Hungarians at ; Hungary becomes Byzantine client state.
1176 Battle of Myriokephalon Manuel 1 Komnenos attempts to capture Konya, capital of Seljuk Turks; is forced to withdraw after destruction of his siege equipment. End of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau.
1180 Death of Manuel 1 Komnenos. Decline of Byzantine Empire recommences.
1180 - 3 3 Alexios 2 Komnenos X42
1182 People's Revolt in Constantinople against Latins, whom they massacre, proclaiming Andronicus I Comnenus coemperor.
1183 Alexius 2 Comnenus Strangled by Andronicus 1 Comnenus has his nephew
1183 - 5 2 Andronikos 1 Komnenos X67
Deposed & Executed Because of Norman Massacre of Greeks
1185 Norman massacre of Greeks of Thessalonika
Angelid 1185 - 1204 19
1185 - 95 10 Isaac 2 Angelos
1185 Battle of Demetritzes
1091 Battle of Levounion Byzantine Empire under Alexios I Komnenos & his Cuman allies defeat Pechenegs at
1195 - 1203 8 Alexios 2 Angelos
1153 - 98 45 Nerses of Lambron, Saint, Archbishop of Tarsus, Turkey. theologian
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453
1123
1203 - 04 1 Isaac 2 Angelos
1204 Capture of Zara 4th Crusade 1202 4 2for Venice & sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating Latin Empire.
1204 1 Alexios 4 Angelos
1204 1 Nikolaos Kanabos
1204 1 Alexios 5 Doukas
Laskarid Nicaea 1204 - 61 57
1204 - 05 1 Constantine Laskaris
1205 - 21 16 Theodore 1 Laskaris
1221 - 54 33 John 3 Doukas Vatatzes
1254 - 8 4 Theodore 2 Laksaris
1258 Battle of Karydi
1258 - 61 3 John 4 Laskaris
Palaiologan 1261 - 1453 192
Restored to Constantinople
1259 - 82 23 Michael 8 Palaiologos X59
1261 Byzantines retake Constantinople from Crusaders & Venice.
1268 Fall of Antioch Crusader State of , Turkey to Mamelukes.
1261 - 1328 67 Andronikos 2Palolaiogos X73 1332
1281 - 1320 39 Michael 9Palaiologos X43
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453
1123
1311 Battle of Halmyros
1321 - 41 20 Andronikos 3 Palaiologos X44
1326 Capture of Bursa Ottomans take from Byzantines
1341 - 47 6 John 5 Palaiologos X59 1391
1341 - 54 13 John 6 Kantakozenos X91 1383
1347 Black death reaches Constantinople & Egypt; reaches Europe following year
1353 - 57 4 Matthew Kantakozenos X66 1391
1347 - 76 29 John 5 Palaiologos X59 1391
1352 - 79 27 Andronikos 4 Palaiologos
1379 - 90 12 John 5 Palaiologos X59
Ottoman Turks are asked for help by John Cantacuzene against a rival for Byzantine throne. John would become John VI & gives his sixteenyearold daughter Theodora to Orkhan I as a wife. This is first time Muslim Turks crossed Dardanelles into Europe.
1376 - 90 14 John 7 Palaiologos X38 1408
1373 - 1425 52 Manuel 2 Palaiologos X75
1380 last holdings of Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor are captured by Turks.
1391 - 8 7 1st Siege of Constantinople Ottoman
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1453
1123
1373 - 1425 52 Manuel 2 Palaiologos X75
1403 - 07 4 Andronikos 5 Palaiologos X7
1422 - 30 8 Siege of Thessalonica
1422 2nd Siege of Constantinople Ottoman
1425 Death of Manuel 2 Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor. Shortly before dying Manuel is forced by Ottoman Turks to begin paying them a yearly tribute.
1425 - 48 23 John 8 Palaiologos X56
1449 - 53 4 Constantine 11 Palaiologos X48
1453 Fall of Constantinople marks end of Byzantine Empire & beginning of Growth of Ottoman Empire. King dies.
Palaiologan claimants in exile 1453 - 1502 49
1453 - 60 7 Demetrios Palaiologos
1453 - 6512 Thomas Palaiologos
1465 - 1502 37 Andreas Palaiologos
1472 Sophia Palaeologus, niece of Constantine 11 Palaeologus, last Byzantine Emperor, marries Ivan II of Moscow.
1021 Battle of Shirimni
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
@ Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1060 - 4 4 Kutalmish Contended with Alp Arslan for succession to Great Seljuq throne.
1075 - 7 2 Suleiman ibn Qutulmish de facto rules Turkmen around İznik & İzmit; 1077 86 9 recognised Rum Sultan by Malik 1 Founder of Anatolian Seljuq Sultanate with capital in İznik
1092 - 1107 15 Kilij Arslan 1 First sultan in Konya
1096 Battle of Civetot
1097 Battle of Nicaea
1097 Battle of Dorylaeum
1097 Siege of Antioch
10 - 1100s 100 Yilanli Kale Castle Turkey
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1092 - 1107 15 Kilij Arslan 1 First sultan in Konya
1101 Battle of Mersivan
1101 Battle of Hereclea
1107 - 16 9 Malik Shah
1116 - 56 40 Masud 1
1144 Siege of Edessa
1047 Battle of Dorylaeum
1156 - 92 36 'Izz alDin Kilij Arslan 2
1176 Battle of Myriokephalon
1192 - 6 4 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 1 1stX
1196 - 1204 8 Rukn alDin Suleiman 2

1144 Capture of Edessa by Zangi Turkey from Crusaders
1157 death of Sultan Sanjar, resulting in breakup of remaining Seljuq Sultanate.
1194 death of Tüghril III, last Persian Seljuq ruler, resulting in end of Seljuq power in Iran & rise of Turkic Khwarezmians in Transoxiana.
1100s Lampron Castle Turkey
1153 Bagras Castle
1100s House of Virgin Mary
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1196 - 1204 8 Rukn alDin Suleiman 2
1202 Battle of Basian
1204 - 5 1 Kilij Arslan 3
1205 - 11 6 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 1 2ndX
1211 - 20 9 'Izz alDin Kayka'us 11220 - 37 17 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 1
1237 - 46 9 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 2
1246 - 60 14 'Izz alDin Kayka'us 2 After his death, sultanate split until 1260 when Kilij Arslan 4 remained sole ruler
1248 - 65 17 Rukn alDin Kilij Arslan 4
1249 - 57 8 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 2
1265 84 19 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 3
1284 - 96 12 Giyath alDin Masud 2 1stX
1298 - 1302 4 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 3
1205 Battle of Adrianople
1211 Battle of Rhyndacus River
1224 Battle of Poimanenon
1230 Battle of Yassicemen
1207 - 73 66 Jalal alDin Rumi (Mevlana) Poet, Jurist, Theologian, Sufi Mystic B Afghanistan, D Turkey
1204 Capture of Constantinople
1220 - 60 40 Mongols invade Islamic lands
1243 Battle of Kösedagh Mongols defeat Seljuqs
1254 Battle of Adrianople
1260 Siege of Constantinople
1299 - 1300 1 Seljuq Sultanate Breaks Up into smaller principalities, to be succeeded by Ottoman Turk Emirate, founded by Osman 1 (ruled 1290 1326).
1220 Alanya Castle
1200s Corycus Fortress
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1298 - 1302 4 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 3
1303 - 8 5 Giyath alDin Masud 2 2ndX
First Ottoman campaign in Europe
1375 Selcuk Castle Turkey
1394 Anadoluhisarı Castle
1302 Battle of Bapheus
1303 Battle of Dimbos
1329 Battle of Pelekanon
1330 Battle of Posada
1365 Battle of Adrianople
1402 Bodrum Castle
1450 Yoros Castle
1451 1 Rumelihisarı Castle
1458 Eyüp Sultan Mosque Turkey
1481 Battle of Yenisehir
   
Trebizond Empire
1204 - 1461
257
NE Turkey. Successor state of Byzantine Empire.
   
   
Latin (Nicaean) Empire
1204 - 61
57
Thrace, Turkey. Constantinople See also Latinokratia.Empire of Nicaea Bithynia Nicaea 57 Successor state of Byzantine Empire.
   
     
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1922
623
Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, Constantinople, Turkey.
1300s Expand into Balkans
1299 - 1324 25 Osman 1 GHAZI Othman (The Warrior) BEY (The Esquire) KARA (lit. Land or Black) for his bravery ^Ertuğrul Ghazi =Mal Hatun. Founder of Ottoman Turkish Empire. He defeats Seljuks.
1317 Osman 1, founder of Ottoman Empire, lays siege to Christian city of Bursa, Turkey.
1324 - 61 37 Orhan 1 Ghazi ^ =Nilüfer Hatun
Bursa made capital & growth of Ottoman Empire is marked.
1331 Nicaea Captured Ottoman Turks & rename it Iznik.
1340 96 56 BulgarianOttoman Wars
1360 - 89 29 Murad 1 The Godlike One = Gülçiçek Hatun X the terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against Balkans & tripling size of Ottoman Empire.
1373 Ottoman Turks force Byzantine Empire into vassalage.
1389 Battle of Kosovo
1389 Death of Orhan 1, ^ Osman. Orhan's son, Murad 1, takes over Ottoman Empire. Murad becomes terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against Balkans & tripling size of Ottoman Empire.
1389 - 1402 13 Bayezid 1 The Thunderbolt ^ =Devlet Hatun Xcaptivity
1396 Battle of Nicopolis Ottomans defeat Venice, Hungary, Byzantium & Crusaders at
1396 Battle of Nicopolis Ottoman Turks conquer Bulgaria. Thousands of French knights & soldiers set out from Burgundian capital Dijon to aid Hungarians against Ottoman Turks. Battle of Nicopolis: A Crusader army of around 60,000 men & made up of from Hungarian army of Sigismund of Luxembourg along with French, German, Polish, Italian, & English forces enter Ottoman Turkish territory & lay siege to Nicopolis in Bulgaria. Ottoman sultan, Bajazet, gathers together a massive army of his own & relieves besieged city, defeating Crusaders. Bulgaria becomes a vassal state and, like Serbia, would remain one until 1878.
1402 Battle of Ankara Ottoman & Timurid Empires fight at resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid 1.
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1922
623
Interregnum
1402 - 13 11
1402 Battle of Ankara: The Ottoman sultan Bajazet, greatgrandson of Osman I, is defeated & taken prisoner by Mongol warlord Timur at Ankara.
1413 - 21 8 Mehmed 1 AffableBowstring Maker ^ =Emine Hatun
1402 - 13 11 Mahomet, ^ Bajazet, becomes Ottoman sultan Mahomet I after defeating his three brothers in a civil war that had lasted over 10 years.
1413 Unification of Territories
1421 - 44 23 Murad 2 Great ^ =Hüma Hatun Abdicated
1425 - 30 5 OttomanVenetian war
1444 Battle of Varna An army of at least 100,000 Turks under sultan Murad II defeats Polish & Hungarian Crusaders numbering around 30,000 under Ladislaus III of Poland & John Hunyadi.
1444 - 6 2 Mehmed 2 Conqueror ^ =Sitti Mükrime Khātûn Abdicated
1446 - 51 5 Murad 2 2ndX Forced to return to throne following a Janissary insurgence
1448 2nd Battle of Kosovo Ottomans defeat Hungarians
1451 - 81 30 Mehmed 2 2ndX Conquered Constantinople in 1453
1461 Capture of Trabzon
1462 Night Attack Mehmed Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad 3 Dracula at .
1463 - 79 OttomanVenetian war
1473 Battle of Otlukbeli
1453 Fall of Constantinople marks end of Byzantine Empire & beginning of Growth of Ottoman Empire. King dies.
1481 - 1512 31 Bayezid 2 The Saint ^ =GülBahār Sultan
     
 
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
Telavi, Georgia 11.38 K KM
1003 Bagrati Cathedral Construction begins
Kvirikid
893 - 1039
146
1010 - 29 19 Kvirike 3
1014 Nikortsminda Cathedral of Georgia is completed
1022 Battle of Svindax
1029 Svetitskhoveli Cathedral Renewed
1029 - 39 10 Annexed by Kingdom of Georgia
1000s Bagrati Cathedral
11 - 1300s 200 Tsalenjikha Cathedral
1121 Battle of Didgori
   
Georgia
1st Imereti
1258 - 1463
205
1258 - 93 35 David 1
1293 - 1326 33 Constantine 1
1326 - 9 3 Michael
1329 - 30 1 Bagrat 1
Alexandre 1
George 1
Constantin 2
Demetre 1
Demetre 2
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1463 - 78 15 Bagrat 2
1478 - 1510 32 Alexander 2
Duchy of Kldekari
876 - 1103 227
Bagvashi
876 ? Liparit 1
940 - 60 20 Liparit 2
960 - 88 28 Rati 1
988 - 1005 17 Liparit 3
1005 - 1021 16 Rati 2
1021 - 59 38 Liparit 4
1059 - 74 15 John (Ioane)
1074 - 95 21 Liparit 5
1095 - 1102 7 Rati 3

Duchy of Kldekari
876 - 1103 227
     
Georgia 1
978 - 1238
460
978 - 1014 36 Bagrat 3
1014 - 1027 13 Giorgi 1
=Mariam of Vaspurakan
1027 - 72 45 Bagrat 4
1072 - 89 17 Giorgi 2

Georgia 1
978 - 1238
460
Bagrationi
978 - 1238
460
1089 - 1125 36 David 4 Builder
? Giorgi MtcignobartuxucesTchkondideli Political, Ecclesiastical figure
1099 Discontinued Tribute after building considerable strength, David 4 of Georgia discontinues tribute payments to Seljuk Turks.
1101 - 3 2 Incorporation of Kakheti, Hereti & Georgia David Builder
1103 - 4 1 Church Council convened by King David Builder in Urbnisi to reorganize Georgian Orthodox Church.
1106 Gelati Monestary Completed Kutaisi
1100s Opizars, Beshqen & Beqa Goldsmiths
1121 Battle of Didgori , greatest military victory of Georgia, King David Builder with 40,000 Georgians, 15,000 Kipchak auxiliaries, 500 Alan mercenaries & 300 French Crusaders defeats a Seljukled Muslim coalition army of 400,000.
1115 Occupation of Rustavi Georgian army in war to free Georgia from Muslims.
1122 Capture of Tbilisi After a fourhundredyear supremacy of Arabs, King David Builder captures Tbilisi & declares it capital city of Georgia.
1223 - 45 22 Queen Rusudan 1194 1245 51
1125 - 55 30 Demetre 1
1155 - 6 1 David 5
1156 - 84 28 Giorgi 3
1161 Siege of Ani, Georgian troops take over control of city, only to have it sold for second time to Shaddadids, a Kurdish dynasty.
1184 - 1213 29 Tamar of Georgia =David Soslani ? 1207 sole ruler after reigning with her father, George 3, for six years.
Georgia 1
978 - 1238
460
Bagrationi
978 1238
460
1184 - 1213 29 Tamar of Georgia
1184 - 1213 29 Chakhrukhadze Poet
1213 - 23 10 Giorgi 4 Lasha
1223 - 45 22 Rusudan
1245 - 93 48 David 6 Narin
1247 - 70 23 David 7 Ulu
1271 - 89 18 Demetre 2
1289 - 93 4 Vakhtang 2
1293 - 9 6 David 8
1300 - 8 8 David 8
1299 Giorgi 5
1314 - 46 32 Giorgi 5
1308 - 13 5 Giorgi 6
1346 - 60 14 David 9
1360 - 93 33 Bagrat 5
1393 - 1407 14 Giorgi 7
1407 - 11 4 Konstantine 1
1412 - 42 30 Alexander 1 Great
1442 - 6 4 Vakhtang 4
1446 - 66 20 Giorgi 8
Georgia 2
1327 - 1466
139
Georgia 2
1327 - 1466
139
The Bagratids (Bagratuni)
1039 - 58 19 Gagik
1058 - 84 26 Aghsartan 1
1065 1st Seljuk Invasion to Georgia under leadership of alp Arslan
1068 Seljuks destroyed Georgia for 2nd time
1084 - 1102 18 Kvirike 4
1109 Otrok, khan of Kipchaks Georgia fled to Georgia.
1195 Struggle of Shamqori Georgian forces annihilate army of Abu Baqar.
1009 - 65 56 Giorgi Mtatsmindeli Elesiastic
Kakheti & Hereti
1039 - 1105 66
Bagratids (Bagratuni)
1084
1084 - 1102 18 Kvirike 4
1102 - 5 3 Aghsartan 2
1104 Battle of Ertcukhi King David Builder defeats an army of Seljuks.
   
Kakheti
1465 - 1762 297
Bagratid
1465
1465 - 76 11 George 1
1476 - 1511 35 Alexander 1
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Armenia
Rubenids
1080 - 1252
172
1080 - 95 15 Ruben 1 Prince
1095 - 1102 7 Constantine 1
1060 Mugni Gospels of Armenia written in illuminated manuscript form.
1003 St. Grigor's Church of Kecharis Monastery in Armenia is built in .
Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
1102 - 29 27 Thoros 1
1129 Constantine 2
1129 - 40 11 Leo 1
1140 - 69 29 Thoros 2
1169 - 70 1 Ruben 2
1170 - 5 5 Mleh
1175 - 87 12 Ruben 3
1100s Amberd Fortress
Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
1187 - 1219 42 Leo 1 Prince, then King 1st King
1219 - 52 33 Queen Isabella Queen & coruler
Hethumids
1226 - 1341
195
1226 - 70 44 Hethum 1
1270 - 89 19 Leo 2
1289 - 1307 4 Hethum 2
1293 - 8 5 Thoros 3
1297 - 9 2 Sempad
1299 Constantine 1
1200s Ertij Fort
Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
1301 - 7 6 Leo 3
1307 - 20 13 Oshin
1320 - 9 9 Oshin of Korikos Regent
1320 - 41 21 Leo 4
Lusignan
1342 - 96
54
1342 - 4 2 Constantine 2
1344 - 62 18 Constantine 3
1362 - 73 11 Constantine 4
1374 - 96 22 Leo 5 King, then claimant
 
   
Zakarid Armenia
1201 - 1360 159
Vassal to * of Georgia
Ani
Armenian
Armenian Apostolic Church
Zakarid Armenia
1201 - 1360 159
Vassal to * of Georgia
Ani
Armenian
Armenian Apostolic Church
 
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
   
1232 Mardakankrugbashnya Castle Azerbaijan
 
1400s Sheki krepost az Castle
1412 Battle of Chalagan
1467 Uzun Hasan defeats Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh. Azerbaijan.
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
1000s - 1300s Buffavento Castle Occupation Cyprus
1000s - 1400s Saint Hilarion Castle Occupied
1192 Famagusa Castle Cyprus
1185 Cyprus became an independent Empire under Isaak Comnenus.
1192 Isaak Comnenus ended his reign.Richard I of England captured Cyprus on his way to Acre.island was sold toTemplar Order, who in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan.Guy of Lusignan & his descendants began to rule Cyprus as an independent kingdom.
1193 Altheides of Cyprus,traveling philosopher, was born.
1489 descendants of Guy of Lusignan ended their rule of Cyprus. Cyprus became an overseas colony ofVenetian Republic after having been purchased fromlast member ofLusignan dynasty.
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
Jerusalem, Antioch. "Latin Kingdom".
1099 - 1100 1 Godfrey Protector of Holy Sepulchre 1060 1100 40 Eustace 2, Count of Boulogne & Ida of Lorraine =0
1099 Battle of Ascalon
1099 Crusaders Capture Jerusalem and gave Christians control of holy city.
1099 AlAqsa Mosque Made Residence of Kings
1009 alHakim orders destruction of church of Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
1030 - 48 18 Church of Holy Sepulcher rebuilt in Jerusalem
1096 - 9 3 1st Crusade 8 Crusades were conducted. 300,000 men were blessed by Pope Urban 2 & commanded by King Godfrey.
1096 Knights Templar Formed during early First Crusade in order to protect European Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem.
1000s Kolossi Castle Cyprus
Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
1099 - 1100 1 Godfrey Protector of Holy Sepulchre 1060 1100 40 Eustace 2, Count of Boulogne & Ida of Lorraine =0
1100 - 18 18 Baldwin 1 =Godehilde de Toeni 0C & Arda of Armenia 0C & Adelaide del Vasto 0C X60
1101 Battle of Ramla
1105 Battle of Ramla
1113 Battle of Al-Sanabra
1118 - 31 13 Baldwin 2 ^Count of Rethel & Melisende of Montlhéry =Morphia of Melitene 4D
1119 David Builder of Armenia & Baldwin 2 of Jerusalem meet
1119 - 1314 195 Knights Templar in Jerusalem
1120 Council of Nablus, a council of ecclesiastic & secular lords in crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, establishes first written laws for kingdom.
1125 Battle of Azaz , Crusader States, led by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, defeat Seljuk Turks.
1131 - 53 22 & 1105 Melisende ^King Baldwin 2 & Morphia of Melitene =Fulk 5, Count of Anjou 2S X56
1131 - 43 12 Fulk ^Fulk 4, Count of Anjou & Bertrade de Montfort =Ermengarde of Maine 4C & Melisende of Jerusalem 2S X52
1143 - 62 19 & 1130 Baldwin 3 ^ =Theodora Komnene 0C X32
1147 - 9 2 2nd Crusade
1153 Siege of Ascalon
1162 - 74 12 Amalric 1 < =Agnes of Courtenay 3C & Maria Komnene 2C X38
1174 - 85 11 Baldwin 4 Leprous ^ =0 X24
1177 Battle of Montgisard
1179 Battle of Jacob's Ford
1182 Battle of Belvoir Castle
1183 Battle of Al-Fule
1183 - 6 3 Baldwin 5 William of Montferrat & Sibylla of Jerusalem =0 X9
1186 - 90 4 Queen Sibylla ^Amalric 1 & Agnes =William of Montferrat, Count of Jaffa & Ascalon 1S & Guy of Lusignan 2D X40
1187 Battle of Cresson
1187 Battle of Hattin Saladin retakes Jerusalem defeating Franks at battle of Hattin in second crusade.
1187 Siege of Jerusalem
1186 - 90 4 Guy ^Hugh 8 of Lusignan & Bourgogne de Rançon =Sibylla X45
1189 - 92 3 3rd Crusade
Lion in Winter 1968
Lion in Winter 2003 TV 
Becket 1964
Kingdom of Heaven 2004
LionHeart 1987 King Richard & Crusaders 1954
1189 - 91 2 Siege of Acre
1191 Siege of Arsuf
1192 Siege of Jaffa
1190 - 1205 15 Queen Isabella 1 Amalric & Maria 1)=Humphrey 4 of Toron 0C 2)Conrad of Montferrat 1D 3)Henry 2, Count of Champagne 2D 4)Amalric of Lusignan 3C 1172 - 1205 33
1190 - 2 2 Conrad 1 William 5, Marquess of Montferrat & Judith of Babenberg 1)=? 0C 2) Theodora Angelina 0C 3) Isabella 1 of Jerusalem 1D 1157 - 92 45X
? - 1195 Berthold Saint, found of Carmelite Order in Israel.
1191 Battle of Arsuf King Richard 1 Lionheart of England VS Saladin
1192 Battle of Jaffa King Richard 1 Lionheart of England VS Saladin
1192 Treaty of Ramla signed by Saladin & Richard Lionheart. Under terms of agreement, Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, city would be open to Christian pilgrimages. Latin Kingdom is reduced to a geopolitical coastal strip that extended from Tyre to Jaffa.
1192 Conrad 1 of Montferrat is elected King of Jerusalem as Conrad I, then assassinated a few days later (April 28), before coronation, by two Hashshashin.
1192 - 7 5 Henry 1 ^Henry 1, Count of Champagne & Marie of France =Isabella I of Jerusalem 2D X31
1198 Teutonic Knights formed. Order of Knights of Hospital of St. Mary of Teutons Brethren of Crusader hospital in Acre raised to military order of knights
1100s Carsal del Plains Castle
1100s Le-Destroit Castle Israel
1100s Arsuf Fortress Israel
1100s Ateret Castle Israel
1100s Maresha Castle Israel
1100s BeytShean Castle Israel
1100s MigdalAfek Castle Israel
1100s Carfalet Castle Israel
1100s Monfort Castle Israel
1100s Yehiam Castle Israel
1160 Miiliya Castle Israel
1187 Latrun Castle Israel
1100s St. James Cathedral Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
1198 - 1205 7 Amalric 2 ^Hugh 8 of Lusignan & Bourgogne de Rançon =Éschive d'Ibelin 6C & Isabella 1 of Jerusalem 3C X60
1205 - 12 7 Maria ^Conrad 1 & Isabella =John of Brienne 1D X20
1210 - 2 2 John 1 ^Erard 2 of Brienne & Agnes de Montfaucon =Maria of Jerusalem 1D & Stephanie of Armenia 1S & Berengaria of León 4C X67
1212 - 28 16 Queen Isabella 2 Yolande ^Maria =Frederick 2, Holy Roman Emperor 2C X16
1149 - 1214 65 Albert of Jerusalem Saint, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
1218 Atlit Castle Israel
1228 - 54 26 Conrad 2 ^ =Elisabeth of Bavaria 1S X26
1228 - 9 1 6th Crusade excommunicated Frederick 2 Hohenstaufen returns Jerusalem to Crusader States & took Jerusalem into truce for 10 yrs.
1244 Battle of La Forbie
1244 Jerusalem Captured A group of Khwarezmians, fleeing from Mongols, from Crusaders.
1248 - 54 6 7th Crusade
1250 Battle of Fariskur
1254 - 68 14 Conrad 3 ^ =0 X16
1260 Battle of 'Ayn Jalut Galilee Mamlukes VS Mongols
1268 - 84 16 Hugh ^Henry 1 & Isabella =Isabella of Ibelin 11C X49
1270 8th Crusade
1284 - 5 1 John 2 ^ =0 1268 85 17
1200 Sidna Ali Mosque Israel
1291 Siege of Acre
1344 Great Gaza Mosque Israel
1450s Caesaria Castle Israel
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Abbasid Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Abbasid Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
1109 Bertrand of Toulouse captures County of Tripoli, Lebanon.
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
1100s Beaufort Castle Lebanon
1100s Byblos Castle Lebanon
1103 Raymond de SaintGilles Castle Lebanon
1103 Tzipori Castle Lebanon
1105 Toron Castle
Abbasid Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
1200s Sidon Sea Castle Lebanon
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
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1100s Montreal Castle Jordan
1142 Kerak Castle Jordan
1115 Montreal Crusader Castle Jordan
1260 Battle of Ain Jalut Mongols defeated for 1st time in Palestine (by Muslims, in the)
1237 Qasr Azraq Castle
   
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1400s
1000s Bourzey Castle
1000s Mahalibeh Castle
1030 Battle of Azaz
1031 Krak des Chevaliers Castle
1047 Battle of Sasireti
1062 Margat Castle
1071 Battle of Manzikert
1076 Damascus Citadel

1104 Battle of Harran
1105 Battle of Artah
1111 Battle of Shaizar
1115 Battle of Sarmin
1119 Battle of Ager Sanguinis
1125 Battle of Azaz
1126 Battle of Marj al-Saffar
1148 Siege of Damascus
1149 Battle of Inab
1154 Nur alDin ibn Zangi captures Damascus
1164 Battle of Harim
1183 Siege of Kerak
Damascus Hama Islamic Empire
1138 Aleppo earthquake devastates much of northern Syria.
An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by St John of Damascus & widely circulated to Christians as story of Barlaam & Josaphat, became so popular Buddha (under name Josaphat) was made a Catholic saint.
1100s Blanc Castle Syria
1100s Our lady Cathedral Syria
1110s Saladin Castle Syria
1100s Aleika Castle
1100s Bani Qahtan Castle
1140s - 70 30 Crac des chevaliers Castle Syria
1153 Baghras Castle Syria
11 - 1200s Qal'at Najm Castle
1168 Qal'at Ja'bar Castle
1400 Timur defeats Mamlukes in Syria.
636 - 51 15 Muslims conquer Syria, Persia & Egypt
1200s Fakhr-al-Din al-Maani Castle
1229 Nimrod Fortress
1229 Shmemis Castle
1271 Chastel Blanc Castle
1281 2nd Battle of Homs
Niya
1300s BC
Syria
1303 Mongols are defeated near Damascus, thus ending Mongol threat on Europe & Middle East.
1303 Mamlukes stop last Mongol invasion of Syria.
1291 Christians driven out of Syria
1350s Bottle from Syria, is made. It is now kept at Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
1263 1328 65 Ibn Taymiyyah, famous Hanbali, Syrian Salafi Scholar of Islam
1401 Baghdad & Damascus Conquered by Timur.
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Abbasid Caliphate
750 - 1258
508
991 - 1031 40 AlQadir
1000s 1st Hospitals Bimaristans every city in Islamic world had , thein modern sense, after they began receiving funds from Waqf instititions, first charitable trusts
1000 Abu Sahl alQuhi Kuhi Bagdham Mathematician, Physicist, Astronomer
1000 Ammar ibn Ali alMawsili of Mosul
1011 - 21 10 Book of Optics Ibn alHaytham (Alhacen) of Basra, Iraq writes his influential from 1011 to 1021 (while he was under house arrest in Egypt),
1014 - 20 6 Book of Healing Philosophical & scientific encyclopaedia, by Avicenna (Abū 'Alī alHusayn ibn Sīnā) (980 1037 57 ), Persian scholar.
1027 Book of Healing by Avicenna.
1011 - 21 10 Ibn alHaytham (Alhacen), a famous Iraqi scientist working in Egypt, feigned madness in fear of angering Egyptian caliph AlHakim biAmr Allah, & was kept under house arrest from 1011 to 1021. During this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics.
1025 Canon of Medicine Medical encyclopedia, most influential medical text in both Islamic & Christian lands for over six centuriesby Avicenna, Persian Muslim scholar.
953 - 1029 76 AlKaraji Karkh Persian Mathematician & Engineer
1000 37 37 Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Avicenna
1031 - 75 44 AlQa'im
960 - 1036 76 Abu Nasr Mansur Mathematician
965 - 1040 75 Abu 'Ali alHasan ibn alHaytham Alhazen, Alhacen Polymath: Scientist, Physicist, Optical Researcher, Astronomer, Engineer, Inventor, Mathematician, Physician, Ophthalmologist, Islamic Philosopher, Psychologist, Islamic Theologian
1010 - 75 65 Alī ibn Ahmad alNasawī, Iraqi Persian mathematician who commented on Greek works by Archimedes
1075 - 94 19 AlMuqtadi
1180 - 1225 45 AnNasir
 
1220 - 60 40 Mongols invade Islamic lands
1225 - 6 1 AzZahir
1226 - 42 16 AlMustansir
1242 - 58 16 AlMusta'sim
1258 Sack of Baghdad Hulegu, Mongol chief
Bagdhad
1184 - 1283 99 Saadi Poet Bagdhad
1291 Fall of Acre last Crusader stronghold in Levant, to Mamluks
@ Iran
1395 Timur sacks Baghdad
1401 Timur destroys Baghdad.
989 - 1012 33 Firuz Baha odowleh Abunasr, Emir 970 1012 ^ Azad odowleh
1012 - 21 9 Soltan odowleh Abushoja', Emir992 1024 ^ Baha odowleh
1021 - 5 4 Hasan Mosharraf odowleh Abu Ali, Emir 1002 25 23 Baha odowleh
1025 Shirdel (or Firuzkhosrow) Jalal odowleh Abu Taher, Emir 994 1043 ^ Baha odowleh
1025 - 7 2 Marzban Emad odDin Abu Kalijar, Emir ? 1011 1048 ^ Soltan odowleh
1027 - 43 16 Shirdel (or Firuzkhosrow) Jalal odowleh Abu Taher, Emir 994 1043 ^ Baha odowleh
1043 - 8 5 Marzban Emad odDin Abu Kalijar, Emir ?1011 1048 ^ Soltan odowleh
1048 - 55 7 Khosrowfiruz Malek orRahim Abu Nasr, Emir ? 1058 ^ Emad odDin
1055 Conquered by Seljuqs, under Tüghral Beg, capture Baghdad, Abbasid capital, from Buwayhids, establish Seljuq Sultanate, & become official protectors of Caliphate.
       
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