1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
       
Ottoman Empire Turkey 1281 - 1923 642
 
 
 
 
Lords/Princes
Kings/Queens
Kingdom of Cilicia Armenia 1080 - 1375 295
 
Imereti
 
 
Kingdom of Cyprus 1192 - 1489 297
 
 
 
 
 
Arab Empire, Abassid Caliphate Iraq 630 - 1258 628
 
 
       
Jalayirids Iraq
 
 
 
 
Caliphs of Baghdad Iraq 750 - 1258 508
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   
Khwarezmid 1077 - 1221 144
 
 
Mughulistan 1227 - 1363 136
   
 
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1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
1021 Battle of Shirimni
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
@ Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1060 - 4 4 Kutalmish Contended with Alp Arslan for succession to Great Seljuq throne.
1075 - 7 2 Suleiman ibn Qutulmish de facto rules Turkmen around İznik and İzmit; 1077 86 9 recognised Rum Sultan by Malik 1 Founder of Anatolian Seljuq Sultanate with capital in İznik
1092 - 1107 15 Kilij Arslan 1 First sultan in Konya
1096 Battle of Civetot
1097 Battle of Nicaea
1097 Battle of Dorylaeum
1097 Siege of Antioch
10 - 1100s 100 Yilanli Kale Castle Turkey
Sultanate of Rum
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1092 - 1107 15 Kilij Arslan 1 First sultan in Konya
1101 Battle of Mersivan
1101 Battle of Hereclea
1107 - 16 9 Malik Shah
1116 - 56 40 Masud 1
1144 Siege of Edessa
1047 Battle of Dorylaeum
1156 - 92 36 'Izz alDin Kilij Arslan 2
1176 Battle of Myriokephalon
1192 - 6 4 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 1 1stX
1196 - 1204 8 Rukn alDin Suleiman 2
1144 Capture of Edessa by Zangi Turkey from the Crusaders
1157 The death of Sultan Sanjar, resulting in the breakup of the remaining Seljuq Sultanate.
1194 The death of Tüghril III, the last Persian Seljuq ruler, resulting in the end of Seljuq power in Iran and the rise of the Turkic Khwarezmians in Transoxiana.
1100s Lampron Castle Turkey
1153 Bagras Castle
1100s House of the Virgin Mary
Sultanate of Rum
1077 - 1307
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1196 - 1204 8 Rukn alDin Suleiman 2
1202 Battle of Basian
1204 - 5 1 Kilij Arslan 3
1205 - 11 6 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 1 2ndX
1211 - 20 9 'Izz alDin Kayka'us 11220 - 37 17 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 1
1237 - 46 9 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 2
1246 - 60 14 'Izz alDin Kayka'us 2 After his death, sultanate split until 1260 when Kilij Arslan 4 remained the sole ruler
1248 - 65 17 Rukn alDin Kilij Arslan 4
1249 - 57 8 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 2
1265 84 19 Giyath alDin Kaykhusraw 3
1284 - 96 12 Giyath alDin Masud 2 1stX
1298 - 1302 4 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 3
1205 Battle of Adrianople
1211 Battle of Rhyndacus River
1224 Battle of Poimanenon
1230 Battle of Yassicemen
1207 - 73 66 Jalal alDin Rumi (Mevlana) Poet, Jurist, Theologian, Sufi Mystic B Afghanistan, D Turkey
1204 Capture of Constantinople
1220 - 60 40 Mongols invade Islamic lands
1243 Battle of Kösedagh Mongols defeat Seljuqs
1254 Battle of Adrianople
1260 Siege of Constantinople
1299 - 1300 1 Seljuq Sultanate Breaks Up into smaller principalities, to be succeeded by the Ottoman Turk Emirate, founded by Osman 1 (ruled 1290 1326).
1220 Alanya Castle
1200s Corycus Fortress
Sultanate of Rum
230
Nicaea, Iconium
Persian (official), Turkish (popular)
1298 - 1302 4 'Ala alDin Kayqubad 3
1303 - 8 5 Giyath alDin Masud 2 2ndX
First Ottoman campaign in Europe
1375 Selcuk Castle Turkey
1394 Anadoluhisarı Castle
1302 Battle of Bapheus
1303 Battle of Dimbos
1329 Battle of Pelekanon
1330 Battle of Posada
1365 Battle of Adrianople
Eastern Moghulistan
1462 – 1680s 220
1402 Bodrum Castle
1450 Yoros Castle
1451 1 Rumelihisarı Castle
1458 Eyüp Sultan Mosque Turkey
1481 Battle of Yenisehir
   
Trebizond Empire
1204 - 1461
257
NE Turkey. Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
   
   
Latin (Nicaean) Empire
1204 - 61
57
Thrace, Turkey. Constantinople See also Latinokratia.Empire of Nicaea Bithynia Nicaea 57 Successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
   
     
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1922
623
Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, Constantinople, Turkey.
1300s Expand into Balkans
1299 - 1324 25 Osman 1 GHAZI Othman (The Warrior) BEY (The Esquire) KARA (lit. The Land or The Black) for his bravery ^Ertuğrul Ghazi =Mal Hatun. Founder of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. He defeats the Seljuks.
1317 Osman 1, founder of the Ottoman Empire, lays siege to the Christian city of Bursa, Turkey.
1324 - 61 37 Orhan 1 Ghazi ^ =Nilüfer Hatun
Bursa made capital and the growth of the Ottoman Empire is marked.
1331 Nicaea Captured The Ottoman Turks and rename it Iznik.
1340 96 56 BulgarianOttoman Wars
1360 - 89 29 Murad 1 The Godlike One = Gülçiçek Hatun X the terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against the Balkans and tripling the size of the Ottoman Empire.
1373 The Ottoman Turks force the Byzantine Empire into vassalage.
1389 Battle of Kosovo
1389 Death of Orhan 1, son of Osman. Orhan's son, Murad 1, takes over the Ottoman Empire. Murad becomes the terror of Christian Europe, sending large military forces against the Balkans and tripling the size of the Ottoman Empire.
1389 - 1402 13 Bayezid 1 The Thunderbolt ^ =Devlet Hatun Xcaptivity
1396 Battle of Nicopolis Ottomans defeat Venice, Hungary, Byzantium and Crusaders at
1396 Battle of Nicopolis Ottoman Turks conquer Bulgaria. Thousands of French knights and soldiers set out from the Burgundian capital Dijon to aid the Hungarians against the Ottoman Turks. Battle of Nicopolis: A Crusader army of around 60,000 men and made up of from the Hungarian army of Sigismund of Luxembourg along with French, German, Polish, Italian, and English forces enter Ottoman Turkish territory and lay siege to Nicopolis in Bulgaria. The Ottoman sultan, Bajazet, gathers together a massive army of his own and relieves the besieged city, defeating the Crusaders. Bulgaria becomes a vassal state and, like Serbia, would remain one until 1878.
1402 Battle of Ankara Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid 1.
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1922
623
Interregnum
1402 - 13 11
1402 Battle of Ankara: The Ottoman sultan Bajazet, greatgrandson of Osman I, is defeated and taken prisoner by Mongol warlord Timur at Ankara.
1413 - 21 8 Mehmed 1 The AffableBowstring Maker ^ =Emine Hatun
1402 - 13 11 Mahomet, son of Bajazet, becomes Ottoman sultan Mahomet I after defeating his three brothers in a civil war that had lasted over 10 years.
1413 Unification of Territories
1421 - 44 23 Murad 2 The Great ^ =Hüma Hatun Abdicated
1425 - 30 5 OttomanVenetian war
1444 Battle of Varna An army of at least 100,000 Turks under sultan Murad II defeats Polish and Hungarian Crusaders numbering around 30,000 under Ladislaus III of Poland and John Hunyadi.
1444 - 6 2 Mehmed 2 The Conqueror ^ =Sitti Mükrime Khātûn Abdicated
1446 - 51 5 Murad 2 2ndX Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence
1448 2nd Battle of Kosovo Ottomans defeat Hungarians
1451 - 81 30 Mehmed 2 2ndX Conquered Constantinople in 1453
1461 Capture of Trabzon
1462 Night Attack Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad 3 Dracula at .
1463 - 79 OttomanVenetian war
1473 Battle of Otlukbeli
1453 Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the beginning of the Growth of the Ottoman Empire. King dies.
1481 - 1512 31 Bayezid 2 The Saint ^ =GülBahār Sultan
     
 
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
Telavi, Georgia 11.38 K KM
1003 Bagrati Cathedral Construction begins
Kvirikid
893 - 1039
146
1010 - 29 19 Kvirike 3
1014 Nikortsminda Cathedral of Georgia is completed
1022 Battle of Svindax
1029 Svetitskhoveli Cathedral Renewed
1029 - 39 10 Annexed by the Kingdom of Georgia
1000s Bagrati Cathedral
11 - 1300s 200 Tsalenjikha Cathedral
1121 Battle of Didgori
   
Kingdom of Imereti
1455 - 1810 355
Georgia
1st Imereti
1258 - 1463
205
1258 - 93 35 David 1
1293 - 1326 33 Constantine 1
1326 - 9 3 Michael
1329 - 30 1 Bagrat 1
Alexandre 1
George 1
Constantin 2
Demetre 1
Demetre 2
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1463 - 78 15 Bagrat 2
1478 - 1510 32 Alexander 2
 
Duchy of Kldekari
876 - 1103 227
Bagvashi
876 ? Liparit 1
940 - 60 20 Liparit 2
960 - 88 28 Rati 1
988 - 1005 17 Liparit 3
1005 - 1021 16 Rati 2
1021 - 59 38 Liparit 4
1059 - 74 15 John (Ioane)
1074 - 95 21 Liparit 5
1095 - 1102 7 Rati 3
     
1st Kingdom of Georgia
978 - 1238
460

978 - 1014 36 Bagrat 3
1014 - 1027 13 Giorgi 1
=Mariam of Vaspurakan
1027 - 72 45 Bagrat 4
1072 - 89 17 Giorgi 2
1st Kingdom of Georgia
978 - 1238
460
Bagrationi
978 - 1238
460
1089 - 1125 36 David 4 the Builder
? Giorgi MtcignobartuxucesTchkondideli Political, Ecclesiastical figure
1099 Discontinued Tribute after building considerable strength, David 4 of Georgia discontinues tribute payments to the Seljuk Turks.
1101 - 3 2 Incorporation of Kakheti, Hereti & Georgia David the Builder
1103 - 4 1 Church Council convened by King David the Builder in Urbnisi to reorganize the Georgian Orthodox Church.
1106 Gelati Monestary Completed Kutaisi
1100s Opizars, Beshqen & Beqa Goldsmiths
1121 Battle of Didgori , the greatest military victory of Georgia, King David the Builder with 40,000 Georgians, 15,000 Kipchak auxiliaries, 500 Alan mercenaries and 300 French Crusaders defeats a Seljukled Muslim coalition army of 400,000.
1115 Occupation of Rustavi Georgian army in the war to free Georgia from the Muslims.
1122 Capture of Tbilisi After a fourhundredyear supremacy of Arabs, King David the Builder captures Tbilisi and declares it the capital city of Georgia.
1223 - 45 22 Queen Rusudan 1194 1245 51
1125 - 55 30 Demetre 1
1155 - 6 1 David 5
1156 - 84 28 Giorgi 3
1161 Siege of Ani, Georgian troops take over control of city, only to have it sold for the second time to the Shaddadids, a Kurdish dynasty.
1184 - 1213 29 Tamar of Georgia =David Soslani ? 1207 sole ruler after reigning with her father, George 3, for six years.
1st Kingdom of Georgia
978 1238
460
Bagrationi
978 1238
460
1184 - 1213 29 Tamar of Georgia
1184 - 1213 29 Chakhrukhadze Poet
1213 - 23 10 Giorgi 4 Lasha
1223 - 45 22 Rusudan
1245 - 93 48 David 6 Narin
1247 - 70 23 David 7 Ulu
1271 - 89 18 Demetre 2
1289 - 93 4 Vakhtang 2
1293 - 9 6 David 8
1300 - 8 8 David 8
1299 Giorgi 5
1314 - 46 32 Giorgi 5
1308 - 13 5 Giorgi 6
1346 - 60 14 David 9
1360 - 93 33 Bagrat 5
1393 - 1407 14 Giorgi 7
1407 - 11 4 Konstantine 1
1412 - 42 30 Alexander 1 the Great
1442 - 6 4 Vakhtang 4
1446 - 66 20 Giorgi 8
2nd Kingdom of Georgia
1327 - 1466
139
 
Kingdom of Kakheti and Hereti
1039 - 1105 66
The Bagratids (Bagratuni)
1039 - 58 19 Gagik
1058 - 84 26 Aghsartan 1
1065 1st Seljuk Invasion to Georgia under leadership of alp Arslan
1068 Seljuks destroyed Georgia for the 2nd time
1084 - 1102 18 Kvirike 4
1109 Otrok, khan of the Kipchaks Georgia fled to Georgia.
1195 Struggle of Shamqori Georgian forces annihilate the army of Abu Baqar.
1009 - 65 56 Giorgi Mtatsmindeli Elesiastic
Kingdom of Kakheti and Hereti
1039 - 1105 66
Bagratids (Bagratuni)
1084
1084 - 1102 18 Kvirike 4
1102 - 5 3 Aghsartan 2
1104 Battle of Ertcukhi King David the Builder defeats an army of Seljuks.
   
Kingdom of Kakheti
1465 - 1762 297
Bagratid
1465
1465 - 76 11 George 1
1476 - 1511 35 Alexander 1
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Kingdom of Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
Armenia
Rubenids
1080 - 1252
172
1080 - 95 15 Ruben 1 Prince
1095 - 1102 7 Constantine 1
1060 Mugni Gospels of Armenia written in illuminated manuscript form.
1003 St. Grigor's Church of Kecharis Monastery in Armenia is built in .
Kingdom of Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
Rubenids
1080 - 1252
172
1102 - 29 27 Thoros 1
1129 Constantine 2
1129 - 40 11 Leo 1
1140 - 69 29 Thoros 2
1169 - 70 1 Ruben 2
1170 - 5 5 Mleh
1175 - 87 12 Ruben 3
1100s Amberd Fortress
Kingdom of Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
Rubenids
1080 - 1252
172
1187 - 1219 42 Leo 1 Prince, then King 1st King
1219 - 52 33 Queen Isabella Queen and coruler
Hethumids
1226 - 1341
195
1226 - 70 44 Hethum 1
1270 - 89 19 Leo 2
1289 - 1307 4 Hethum 2
1293 - 8 5 Thoros 3
1297 - 9 2 Sempad
1299 Constantine 1
1200s Ertij Fort
Kingdom of Cilicia
1080 - 1375 295
Hethumids
1226 - 1341
195
1301 - 7 6 Leo 3
1307 - 20 13 Oshin
1320 - 9 9 Oshin of Korikos Regent
1320 - 41 21 Leo 4
Lusignan
1342 - 96
54
1342 - 4 2 Constantine 2
1344 - 62 18 Constantine 3
1362 - 73 11 Constantine 4
1374 - 96 22 Leo 5 King, then claimant
 
   
Kingdom of Zakarid Armenia
1201 - 1330s 130s
Vassal to * of Georgia
Ani
Armenian
Armenian Apostolic Church
Kingdom of Zakarid Armenia
1201 - 1330s 130s
Vassal to * of Georgia
Ani
Armenian
Armenian Apostolic Church
 
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
   
1232 Mardakankrugbashnya Castle Azerbaijan
 
1400s Sheki krepost az Castle
1412 Battle of Chalagan
1467 Uzun Hasan defeats the Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh. Azerbaijan.
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
1000s - 1300s Buffavento Castle Occupation Cyprus
1000s - 1400s Saint Hilarion Castle Occupied
1192 Famagusa Castle Cyprus
Kingdom of Cyprus
1192 - 1489
197
1285 - 1324 36 Henry 2
1306 - 10 4 Amalric of Tyre Regent and usurper
1324 - 59 35 Hugh 4
1347 Black Death
1359 - 69 10 Peter 1
1369 - 82 13 Peter 2 Perrin
1382 - 98 16 Larnaca Castle Cyprus
1382 - 98 16 James 1
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Kingdom of Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
Jerusalem, Antioch. "Latin Kingdom".
1099 - 1100 1 Godfrey Protector of the Holy Sepulchre 1060 1100 40 Eustace 2, Count of Boulogne & Ida of Lorraine =0
1099 Battle of Ascalon
1099 Crusaders Capture Jerusalem and gave Christians control of the holy city.
1099 AlAqsa Mosque Made Residence of Kings
1009 alHakim orders the destruction of the church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
1030 - 48 18 Church of the Holy Sepulcher rebuilt in Jerusalem
1096 - 9 3 1st Crusade 8 Crusades were conducted. 300,000 men were blessed by Pope Urban 2 and commanded by King Godfrey.
1096 Knights Templar Formed during the early First Crusade in order to protect European Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem.
1000s Buffavento Castle Cyprus
1000s Hilarion Cyrus Castle
1000s Kolossi Castle Cyprus
1062 Marqat Castle Syria
Kingdom of Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
1099 - 1100 1 Godfrey Protector of the Holy Sepulchre 1060 1100 40 Eustace 2, Count of Boulogne & Ida of Lorraine =0
1100 - 18 18 Baldwin 1 =Godehilde de Toeni 0C & Arda of Armenia 0C & Adelaide del Vasto 0C X60
1101 Battle of Ramla
1105 Battle of Ramla
1113 Battle of Al-Sanabra
1118 - 31 13 Baldwin 2 ^Count of Rethel & Melisende of Montlhéry =Morphia of Melitene 4D
1119 David the Builder of Armenia & Baldwin 2 of Jerusalem meet
1119 - 1314 195 Knights Templar in Jerusalem
1120 Council of Nablus, a council of ecclesiastic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, establishes the first written laws for the kingdom.
1125 Battle of Azaz , the Crusader States, led by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, defeat the Seljuk Turks.
1131 - 53 22 & 1105 Melisende ^King Baldwin 2 & Morphia of Melitene =Fulk 5, Count of Anjou 2S X56
1131 - 43 12 Fulk ^Fulk 4, Count of Anjou & Bertrade de Montfort =Ermengarde of Maine 4C & Melisende of Jerusalem 2S X52
1143 - 62 19 & 1130 Baldwin 3 ^ =Theodora Komnene 0C X32
1147 - 9 2 2nd Crusade
1153 Siege of Ascalon
1162 - 74 12 Amalric 1 < =Agnes of Courtenay 3C & Maria Komnene 2C X38
1174 - 85 11 Baldwin 4 the Leprous ^ =0 X24
1177 Battle of Montgisard
1179 Battle of Jacob's Ford
1182 Battle of Belvoir Castle
1183 Battle of Al-Fule
1183 - 6 3 Baldwin 5 William of Montferrat & Sibylla of Jerusalem =0 X9
1186 - 90 4 Queen Sibylla ^Amalric 1 & Agnes =William of Montferrat, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon 1S & Guy of Lusignan 2D X40
1187 Battle of Cresson
1187 Battle of Hattin Saladin retakes Jerusalem defeating Franks at the battle of Hattin in the second crusade.
1187 Siege of Jerusalem
1186 - 90 4 Guy ^Hugh 8 of Lusignan & Bourgogne de Rançon =Sibylla X45
1189 - 92 3 3rd Crusade
The Lion in Winter 1968
The Lion in Winter 2003 TV 
Becket 1964
Kingdom of Heaven 2004
LionHeart 1987 King Richard and the Crusaders 1954
1189 - 91 2 Siege of Acre
1191 Siege of Arsuf
1192 Siege of Jaffa
1190 - 1205 15 Queen Isabella 1 Amalric & Maria 1)=Humphrey 4 of Toron 0C 2)Conrad of Montferrat 1D 3)Henry 2, Count of Champagne 2D 4)Amalric of Lusignan 3C 1172 - 1205 33
1190 - 2 2 Conrad 1 William 5, Marquess of Montferrat & Judith of Babenberg 1)=? 0C 2) Theodora Angelina 0C 3) Isabella 1 of Jerusalem 1D 1157 - 92 45X
? - 1195 Berthold Saint, found of the Carmelite Order in Israel.
1191 Battle of Arsuf King Richard 1 the Lionheart of England VS Saladin
1192 Battle of Jaffa King Richard 1 the Lionheart of England VS Saladin
1192 Treaty of Ramla signed by Saladin & Richard the Lionheart. Under the terms of the agreement, Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, the city would be open to Christian pilgrimages. The Latin Kingdom is reduced to a geopolitical coastal strip that extended from Tyre to Jaffa.
1192 Conrad 1 of Montferrat is elected King of Jerusalem as Conrad I, then assassinated a few days later (April 28), before the coronation, by two Hashshashin.
1192 - 7 5 Henry 1 ^Henry 1, Count of Champagne & Marie of France =Isabella I of Jerusalem 2D X31
1198 Teutonic Knights formed. Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons Brethren of Crusader hospital in Acre raised to military order of knights
1100s Carsal del Plains Castle
1100s LeDestroit Castle Israel
1100s Arsuf Fortress Israel
1100s Ateret Castle Israel
1100s Maresha Castle Israel
1100s BeytShean Castle Israel
1100s MigdalAfek Castle Israel
1100s Carfalet Castle Israel
1100s Monfort Castle Israel
1100s Yehiam Castle Israel
1160 Miiliya Castle Israel
1168 Belvoir Castle Israel
1187 Latrun Castle Israel
1100s St. James Cathedral Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
1099 - 1291
192
1198 - 1205 7 Amalric 2 ^Hugh 8 of Lusignan & Bourgogne de Rançon =Éschive d'Ibelin 6C & Isabella 1 of Jerusalem 3C X60 1205 - 12 7 Maria ^Conrad 1 & Isabella =John of Brienne 1D X20
1210 - 2 2 John 1 ^Erard 2 of Brienne & Agnes de Montfaucon =Maria of Jerusalem 1D & Stephanie of Armenia 1S & Berengaria of León 4C X67
1212 - 28 16 Queen Isabella 2 Yolande ^Maria =Frederick 2, Holy Roman Emperor 2C X16
1149 - 1214 65 Albert of Jerusalem Saint, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
1218 Atlit Castle Israel
1228 - 54 26 Conrad 2 ^ =Elisabeth of Bavaria 1S X26
1228 - 9 1 6th Crusade excommunicated Frederick 2 Hohenstaufen returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States & took Jerusalem into truce for 10 yrs.
1244 Battle of La Forbie
1244 Jerusalem Captured A group of Khwarezmians, fleeing from the Mongols, from the Crusaders.
1248 - 54 6 7th Crusade
1250 Battle of Fariskur
1254 - 68 14 Conrad 3 ^ =0 X16
1260 Battle of 'Ayn Jalut Galilee Mamlukes VS Mongols
1268 - 84 16 Hugh ^Henry 1 & Isabella =Isabella of Ibelin 11C X49
1270 8th Crusade
1284 - 5 1 John 2 ^ =0 1268 85 17
1200 Sidna Ali Mosque Israel
1291 Siege of Acre
1344 Great Gaza Mosque Israel
1450s Caesaria Castle Israel
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Abbasid Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Abbasid Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
1109 Bertrand of Toulouse captures the County of Tripoli, Lebanon.
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
1100s Beaufort Castle Lebanon
1100s Byblos Castle Lebanon
1103 Raymond de SaintGilles Castle Lebanon
1103 Tzipori Castle Lebanon
1105 Toron Castle
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
1200s Sidon Sea Castle Lebanon
1228 Sidon Sea Castle
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
Mamluk Lebanon
1282 - 1516 234
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
 
1100s Montreal Castle Jordan
1142 Kerak Castle Jordan
1115 Montreal Crusader Castle Jordan
1260 Battle of Ain Jalut Mongols defeated for 1st time in Palestine (by Muslims, in the)
1237 Qasr Azraq Castle
   
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
1000s Bourzey Castle
1000s Mahalibeh Castle
1030 Battle of Azaz
1031 Krak des Chevaliers Castle
1047 Battle of Sasireti
1062 Margat Castle
1071 Battle of Manzikert
1076 Damascus Citadel

1104 Battle of Harran
1105 Battle of Artah
1111 Battle of Shaizar
1115 Battle of Sarmin
1119 Battle of Ager Sanguinis
1125 Battle of Azaz
1126 Battle of Marj al-Saffar
1148 Siege of Damascus
1149 Battle of Inab
1154 Nur alDin ibn Zangi captures Damascus
1164 Battle of Harim
1183 Siege of Kerak
Damascus Hama Islamic Empire
1138 Aleppo earthquake devastates much of northern Syria.
An account of Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by St John of Damascus and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular Buddha (under the name Josaphat) was made a Catholic saint.
1100s Blanc Castle Syria
1100s Our lady Cathedral Syria
1110s Saladin Castle Syria
1100s Aleika Castle
1100s Bani Qahtan Castle
1140s - 70 30 Crac des chevaliers Castle Syria
1153 Baghras Castle Syria
11 - 1200s Qal'at Najm Castle
1168 Qal'at Ja'bar Castle
1400 Timur defeats the Mamlukes in Syria.
636 - 51 15 Muslims conquer Syria, Persia and Egypt
1200s FakhralDin alMaani Castle
1229 Nimrod Fortress
1229 Shmemis Castle
1271 Chastel Blanc Castle
1281 2nd Battle of Homs
Niya
1300s BC
Syria
1303 Mongols are defeated near Damascus, thus ending the Mongol threat on Europe and the Middle East.
1303 The Mamlukes stop the last Mongol invasion of Syria.
1291 Christians driven out of Syria
1350s Bottle from Syria, is made. It is now kept at Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
1263 1328 65 Ibn Taymiyyah, famous Hanbali, Syrian Salafi Scholar of Islam
1401 Baghdad & Damascus Conquered by Timur.
1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Abbasid Caliphate
750 - 1258
508
991 - 1031 40 AlQadir

1000s 1st Hospitals Bimaristans every city in the Islamic world had , thein the modern sense, after they began receiving funds from the Waqf instititions, the first charitable trusts
1000 Abu Sahl alQuhi Kuhi Bagdham Mathematician, Physicist, Astronomer
1000 Ammar ibn Ali alMawsili of Mosul
1011 - 21 10 Book of Optics Ibn alHaytham (Alhacen) of Basra, Iraq writes his influential from 1011 to 1021 (while he was under house arrest in Egypt),
1014 - 20 6 Book of Healing Philosophical & scientific encyclopaedia, by Avicenna (Abū 'Alī alHusayn ibn Sīnā) (980 1037 57 ), Persian scholar.
1027 Book of Healing by Avicenna.
1011 - 21 10 Ibn alHaytham (Alhacen), a famous Iraqi scientist working in Egypt, feigned madness in fear of angering the Egyptian caliph AlHakim biAmr Allah, and was kept under house arrest from 1011 to 1021. During this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics.
1025 Canon of Medicine Medical encyclopedia, most influential medical text in both Islamic & Christian lands for over six centuriesby Avicenna, Persian Muslim scholar.
953 - 1029 76 AlKaraji Karkh Persian Mathematician & Engineer
1000 37 37 Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Avicenna
1031 - 75 44 AlQa'im
960 - 1036 76 Abu Nasr Mansur Mathematician
965 - 1040 75 Abu 'Ali alHasan ibn alHaytham Alhazen, Alhacen Polymath: Scientist, Physicist, Optical Researcher, Astronomer, Engineer, Inventor, Mathematician, Physician, Ophthalmologist, Islamic Philosopher, Psychologist, Islamic Theologian
1010 - 75 65 Alī ibn Ahmad alNasawī, Iraqi Persian mathematician who commented on Greek works by Archimedes
1075 - 94 19 AlMuqtadi
Abbasid Caliphate
750 - 1258
508
1180 - 1225 45 AnNasir
1220 - 60 40 Mongols invade Islamic lands
1225 - 6 1 AzZahir
1226 - 42
16 AlMustansir
1242 - 58
16 AlMusta'sim
1258 Sack of Baghdad Hulegu, Mongol chief
Ilkanate
1258 - 1335
77
Bagdhad
1184 - 1283 99 Saadi Poet Bagdhad
1291 Fall of Acre last Crusader stronghold in Levant, to Mamluks

Ilkanate
1258 - 1335
77
@ Iran
1395 Timur sacks Baghdad
1401 Timur destroys Baghdad.
989 - 1012 33 Firuz Baha odowleh Abunasr, Emir 970 1012 ^ Azad odowleh
1012 - 21 9 Soltan odowleh Abushoja', Emir992 1024 son of Baha odowleh
1021 - 5 4 Hasan Mosharraf odowleh Abu Ali, Emir 1002 25 23 Baha odowleh
1025 Shirdel (or Firuzkhosrow) Jalal odowleh Abu Taher, Emir 994 1043 son of Baha odowleh
1025 - 7 2 Marzban Emad odDin Abu Kalijar, Emir ? 1011 1048 son of Soltan odowleh
1027 - 43 16 Shirdel (or Firuzkhosrow) Jalal odowleh Abu Taher, Emir 994 1043 son of Baha odowleh
1043 - 8 5 Marzban Emad odDin Abu Kalijar, Emir ?1011 1048 son of Soltan odowleh
1048 - 55 7 Khosrowfiruz Malek orRahim Abu Nasr, Emir ? 1058 son of Emad odDin

1055 Conquered by Seljuqs, under Tüghral Beg, capture Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, from the Buwayhids, establish the Seljuq Sultanate, and become the official protectors of the Caliphate.