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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
600s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  700s  
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
800s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
900s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Early Byzantine Empire 330 - 843 513
Middle Byzantine 843 - 1260 417
 
Vaspurakan Kingdom
908 - 1021
113
 
 
Emirate of Tbilisi 736 - 1080 344
   
Kingdom of Abkhazia 780s - 1008 228
 
 
 
 
Umayyad Lebanon
660 - 750
90
Abbasid Lebanon 750 - 1258 508
 
 
 
Umayyad Caliphate 661 - 750 89
 
 
Muhammad SA
Rashidun
Umayyad 661 - 750 89
Abassid Caliphate 750 - 1258 508
 
 
 
 
Rashidun Caliphate 632 - 61 29
 
 
 
 
   
Bagratuni Kingdom 845 - 1045 200
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1454 1324
502 - 6 4 Anastasian War against Persians
510s Archangel Michael panel of a dyptich probably from court workshop at Constantinople, is made. It is now kept at British Museum, London.
518 - 27 9 Justin 1
522 Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs & begin silkworm cultivation. Protected palace industry
526 - 32 6 Iberian War between East Romans & Persians over Caucasian Iberia
527 - 65 38 Justinian 1X82
Last Roman 1968
541 - 62 21 Lazic War between East Romans & Persians over Lazica
500 - 48 48 Theodora
Teodora Imparatrice Di Bisanzio 1954
532 Nika riots in Constantinople; cathedral is destroyed. They are put down a sennight later by Belisarius & Mundus; up to 30,000 people are killed in Hippodrome.
Byzantine Province of Cappadocia
535 - 53
18
Caesarea (Kayseri)
535 Formed with union of Cappadocia Primera & Secunda & ended in 53 with split again until Sassanians took it over in 600s
539 - 62 23 War Byzantium Vs Persia
541 - 2 1 1st Plague (Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople & rest of Empire
543 - 4 1 3Chapter Controversy One of Justinians edict leads to the
551 Getica by Jordanes, Byzantine author
553 2nd Council of Constantinople
500 - 65 65 Belisarius General
500 - 65 65 Procopius Historian
565 - 78 13 Justin 2
572 - 91 19 RomanPersian War
578 - 82 4 Tiberius 2 Constantine
582 - 602 20 Maurice
583 MonemvasiaDe wit 1680 monemvasia
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1454 1324
602 - 10 8 Phocas
610 Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows East Roman Emperor Phocas & becomes Emperor. His first major act is to change official language of East Roman Empire from Latin to Greek (already language of vast majority of population).
610 - 41 31 Heraclius
615 Battle of Thessalonica
626 Avars & Persians jointly besiege but fail to capture Constantinople.
627 Emperor Heraclius defeats Persians, ending RomanPersian Wars.
632 - 7745 ByzantineArab Wars
629 ByzantineArab Wars begin. Much of Roman Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn alWalid.
641 Constantine 3
641 Heraclianus
641 - 68 27 Constans 2
668 - 69 1 Mezezius
652 - 85 35 Constantine 4
674 - 8 4 1st Arab Siege of Constantinople
670s Greek Fire invented in Constantinople.
674 - 9 5 1st siege of Constantinopole
680 - 1355 675 ByzantineBulgarian Wars
685 - 95 10 Justinian 2
688 Emperor Justinian 2 of Byzantine Empire defeats Bulgars
695 - 98 3 Leontios
698 - 705 7 Tiberios 3
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1454 1324
705 - 11 6 Justinian 2
711 - 13 2 Phillipikos
713 - 15 2 Anastasios 2
715 - 17 2 Theodosios 3
717 - 41 24 Leo 3 Isaurian
717 - 8 1 2nd Siege of Constantinople Bulgarians come to aide of Byzantines & defeat army of invading Arabs, thus completely neutralizing their advance towards Europe. In decisive battle, Bulgarian army slaughtered between 20,000 & 32,000 Arabs.
726 Byzantine Emperor Leo III Isaurian destroys icon of Christ above Chalke Gate in capital city of Constantinople, beginning first phase of Byzantine Iconoclasm.
741 - 75 4 Constantine 5
741 - 43 2 Artapasdos
751 - 80 29 Leo 4 Khazar
776 - 97 21 Constantine 6
787 Empress Irene of Athens convenes Seventh Ecumenical Council, ending first phase of Byzantine Iconoclasm.
797 - 802 5 Irene of Athens

Byzantine Empire
330 - 1454 1324

802 - 11 9 Nikephoros 1
809 17 8 Byzantine empire VS Bulgar War
811 Staurakios
811 - 13 2 Michael 1 Rangabe
813 - 20 7 Leo 5 Armenian
& Constantine
820 - 9 9 Michael 2
813 - 29 26 Theophilos
840 - 42 2 Michael 3
811 - 67 55 Basil 1 Macedonian 811 86 75
866 - 86 20 Leo 6 Wise
870 - 912 42 Alexander 3
904 Battle of Thessalonica
905 - 08 3 Constantine 7Porphyrogennetos
870 - 920 50 Romanos 1 Lekopenos

826 - 85 51 Saints Cyril & Methodius of Thessoloniki
Byzantine Empire
330 - 1454 1324
900s Byzantine empire reaches height of its military & economic strength
911 - 2 Byzantinean Fleet Destroyed off Chios
938- 59 21 Romanos 2 Porphyrogennetos
941 Siege of Constantinople by Igor of Kyiv
912 - 3 1 Alexander
912 - 63 51 Nikephoros 2 Phokas
925 - 69 44 John 1 Tzimiskes
958 - 76 18 Basil 2 Bulgar Slayer
960 - 1025 65 Constantine 8
978 - 1018 40 Zoe
968 - 1028 60 Romanos 3 Argyros

500 Karamagara Bridge turkey
500 Makestos Bridge turkey
500s Arapsu Bridge turkey
562 Turkey Sangarius Bridge
530 Battle of Dara
530 Battle of Satala
586 Battle of Solachon
588 Battle of Martyropolis
613 Battle of Antioch
625 Battle of Sarus
626 Siege of Constantinople
637 Battle of Iron Bridge
Abydos 670
707 - 8 1 Siege of Tyana
727 Siege of Nicaea
740Battle of Akrionon
766 Battle Kamacha
788 Battle of Kopidnadon
Basil 1 Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (), ruled 867 - 86
822 Battle of Kedouktos
838 Battle of Anzen
838 Sack of Amorium
863 Battle of Lalakaon
878 Battle of Bathys Ryax
878 Battle of Kalinirmac Pass
896 Battle of Boulgarophygon
904 Battle of Marash
Vaspurakan Kingdom
908 - 1021
113
@ Van
960 Battle of Andrasos
970 Battle of Arcadiopolis
979 Battle of Pankalaia
867 Onward Revival of Byzantine Empire under Macedonian dynasty.
915 - 21 Armenian Holy Cross Cathedral Akdamar IslandAkdamar kirche

500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Caucasian Iberia
302 BC - 502 AD
804
-
447 - 502 55 Vakhtang 1
 
775 Battle of Bagrevand
   
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
580 - 637 57 Adarnase 1 also prince of Iberia since 627.
540 - 62 22 Nokalakevi

Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
637 - 50 13 Stephanus 1, also prince of Iberia
650 - 84 34 Adarnase 2, prince of Iberia
685 - 736 51 Stephanus 2
692 Battle of Sebastopolis
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
685 - 736 51 Stephanus 2
736 - 41 5 Mihr
736 - 86 50 Archil “the Martyr”
786 - 90 4 Ioanne
786 - 807 21 Juansher
700s - 50 Vani Ancient gold objects from Vani, Georgia
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
786 - 827 41 Grigol
827 - 39 12 Vache Kvabulidze
839 - 61 22 Samuel, Donauri
861 - 81 20 Gabriel, Donauri
881 - 93 12 Padla 1 Arevmaneli
800s - 1486 686 Dmanissi
Principality of Kakheti
580 - 1039 959
Kvirikid
893 - 1039
146
893 - 918 25 Kvirike 1
918 - 29 11 Padla 2
929 - 76 47 Kvirike 2
976 - 1010 34 David
1st Kingdom of Georgia
978 - 1238
460
   
Emirate of Tbilisi
736 - 1080
344
Shuabid emirs of Tbilisi
736 - 880 144
736 - 813 77 Ismail b. Shuab
Emirate of Tbilisi
736 - 1080 344
813 - 29 13 Mohammed b. Atab
829 - 33 4 Ali b. Shuab
833 - 53 20 Ishaq b. Ismail b. Shuab
853 - 70 17 Shaybanid emirs of Tbilisi
870 - 6 6 Mohammed b. Khalil
Isa
b. ashSheikh ashShayban
876 - 8 2 Ibrahim
878 - 80 2 Gabuloc
Jaffarid Emirs of Tbilisi
880 - 1080 200
880 - 914 34 Jaffar 1 b. Ali
Emirate of Tbilisi
736 - 1080 344
880 - 914 34 Jaffar 1 b. Ali
914 - 52 38 Mansur b. Jaffar
952 - 81 29 Jaffar 2 b. Mansur
981 - 1032 51 Ali b. Jaffar
1032 - 46 14 Jaffar 3 b. Ali
1046 - 54 8 Mansur b. Jaffar
1054 - 62 8 AbulHaija b. Jaffar (the last known emir)
   
Kingdom of Abkhazia
780s - 1008 228
Georgia
Anosids
767 - 811 44
(Achba/Anchabadze)
Leon 2,
Kingdom of Abkhazia
780s - 1008 228
811 - 37 26 Theodosius 2
837 - 72 35 Demetrius 2
872 - 8 6 George 1 of Aghtsepi
Shavliani
878 - 87 9
878 - 80 2 John Shavliani
880 - 7 7 Adarnase Shavliani
Anosids
887 - 978 91
887 - 98 11 (Achba/Anchabadze)
Bagrat 1
Kingdom of Abkhazia
780s - 1008 228
898 - 916 18 Constantine 3
916 60 44 George 2
960 - 9 9 Leon 3
969 - 76 7 Demetrius 3
976 - 8 2 Theodosius 3
Bagrationi
978
978 - 1014 34 Bagrat 2
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
531 Battle of Callinicum
653 Zvartnots Cathedral
639 Muslim conquest of Armenia.
600 - 50 50 Teishebaini Castle
715 Umayyad Mosque Syria
735 13 22 Ishkanaberd Castle
782 Arin Berd Castle
1878 Butrón Castle Armenia
8 - 900s Bjni Fortress
8 - 900s Smbataberd Castle

Bagratuni
845 - 1045 200

914 -  29 15 Ashot 2 Iron
928 - 53 35 Abas 1
953 - 77 24 Ashot 3 
977 - 89 22 Smbat 2
989 - 1017 28 Gagik 1
Armenia
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
   
700s Gelersen gerersen Castle Azerbaijan
   
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
 
647 Arabs under Muawiya invaded & occupied Cyprus.
683 Arab garrison was withdrawn after its defeat athands of Constantine 4.
688 Emperor Justinian 2 & Caliph alMalik signed a treaty under whose terms no garrisons were to be stationed inisland, & all taxes collected were to be divided betweenArabs andEmperor.
   
965 Cyprus was restored to Byzantine rule by Nicepheros Phokas
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
500s Madaba Map Jordan
614 Siege of Jerusalem
615 Sassanid Empire under Shah Chosroes 2 sacks Jerusalem, taking away relic of True cross.
638 Muslims conquer Jerusalem
634 Battle of Ajnadayn
635 Battle of Fahl
692 Dome of Rock Mosque begun in Jerusalem
661 - 760 99 David Tower Israel
638 Muslim conquest of Palestine
705 AlAqsa Mosque Israel
885 Battle of Tawahin
900s Kantara Castle Built, 1191 Captured, 1228 Destroyed & Rebuilt
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
 
634 - 6 2 Arab conquest of Lebanon
Umayyads control Lebanon
660 - 750 90
Damascus, Syria
Umayyads control Lebanon
660 - 750 90
Damascus, Syria
Abbasids Control Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Bagdhad, Iraq
714 Anjar, Lebanon Founded
Abbasids Control Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Bagdhad, Iraq
Abbasids Control Lebanon
750 - 1258 508
Bagdhad, Iraq
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
 
Nabatean People
586 - 84
200s
@ Petra, Jordan.
312 3rd War of Diadochi. Nabateans attacked by Petra.
629 Battle of Mu'tah
Nabatean People
586 - 84 200s
700 Qasr Kharana Castle
705 Qasr Amra Castle
715 Damascus Umayyad Mosque Syria
Nabatean People
586 - 84 200s
Nabatean People
586 - 84 200s
85 Aretas 3 * became lord of Damascus & Coele Syria.
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
510s Page with Rebecca at Well, from "Book of Genesis", probably made in Syria or Palestine, is made. It is now kept at Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.
527 - 65 38 Qasr ibn Wardan Castle Syria
Umayyad Caliphate
661 - 750
89
Damascus
Arabic (official) – Coptic, Greek, Persian (official in certain regions until reign of Abd alMalik) – Aramaic, Armenian, Berber language, African Romance, Georgian, Hebrew, Turkic, Kurdish
Muslim conquests extended through Iran acrss Northen Africa
origin of SunniShiite split in Islam.
Córdoba (Capitalinexile) 89 Successor of Rashidun Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
657 Battle of Siffin
661 Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib is assassinated. He is succeeded by Hasan ibn Ali but abdicated Caliph to Muawiyah I. This was foundation of Umayyad caliphate.
661 - 80 19 Muawiyah 1 Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abu Sofyan cousin of Holy Prophet
600s Masyaf Castle
680 - 3 3 Yazid 1 Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Muawiyah I
683 - 4 1 Muawiya 2 Abu Abd orRahman, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Yazid IAbdicated (?)
684 - 5 1 Marwan 1 Abu Abd olMalik, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah 1 Killed by his wife
685 - 705 20 Abd olMalik ibn Malwan Ab olWalid, Caliph, Amir alMuminin ^ Marwan 1
? - 700 Isaac of Nineveh Nestorian theologian
Umayyad Caliphate
661 - 750 89
Damascus, Syria. Then Cordoba
705 - 15 10 Walid 1 Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abd olMalik
695 - 715 20 Muhammad bin Qasim, Syrian Arab general who conquered Sindh & Punjab
705 - 15 10 Great Mosque of Damascus
715 - 7 2 Sulayman ibn Abd alMalik Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abd olMalik
717 - 20 3 Umar 2 Abu Hafş, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abd olAziz ^ Marwan 1
720 - 4 4 Yazid 2 Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abd olMalik
724 - 43 19 Hisham Ab olWalid, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Abd olMalik
727 Qasr alHayr alGharbi Castle
729 Qasr alHayr alSharqi Castle
743 - 4 1 Walid 2 Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Yazid 2
744 Yazid 3 Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir alMuminin ^ Walid 1 & Shahfarand daughter of Peroz 3 Killed
744 Ibrahim ibn alWalid Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Walid 1 Killed
744 - 50 6 Marwan 2 Abu Abd olMalik, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mohammad ^ Marwan 1 Ruled from Harran in Jazira. Killed by Saffah
746 Battle of Rupar Thutha
676 - 749 73 John of Damascus Syrian Christian monk, scholar
Buddhas life translated into Greek by Saint John of Damascus, & widely circulated to Christians as story of Barlaam & Josaphat.
750 Conquered by Abbasid Caliphate
800s Page from Koran (Surah II:286 & title Surah 3) in kufic script, from Syria, is made. It is now kept at Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
900s Salah EdDin Castle
994 Battle of Orontes River
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Sassanid Empire
224 - 651
427
499 - 531 32 Kavad 1 (restored)
531 - 79 48 Khusrau 1
550s Buddhist Jataka stories translated into Persianby order of Zoroastrian king Khosrau.
553 - 68 15 Turks & Sassanians ally to destroy Hephthalite Empire.
554 Battle of Yawm Halima
570 Battle of 'Ayn Ubagh
572 - 91 19 Turks & Byzantines ally against Sassanians.
575 Battle of Al-Hirah
579 - 90 11 Hormizd 4
588 1st PersoTurkic War
590 - 91 1 Bahram 6
570 - 632 62 Muhammad
Mohammed, Messenger of God 1977
Backgammon (nard) in Persia by Burzoe
Chess, as chaturanga, entered Persia from India & was modified to shatranj.
540 Taqi Kisra in AlMadain
Sassanid Empire
224 - 651 427
590 - 628 38 Khusrau 2
602 - 28 26 ByzantineSassanid War
627 Battle of Nineveh
628 Kravad 2
328 - 630 2 Ardashir 3
630Shahrbaraz
630 - 31 1 Boran
631 - 32 1 Azarmedukht
632 - 51 19 Yazdgard 3
633 - 51 18 Islamic Conquest of Sassanid Empire
633 Battle of Walaja
633 Battle of Ulais
633 Battle of Zumail
634 Battle of Firaz
636 Battle of alQādisiyyah Around this time Iraq. resulted in a decisive victory for Muslims in Islamic conquest of Persia, Persian Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas.
642 Battle of Nahavand Defeat of Sassanian dynasty of Persia
667 Arabs defeat Peroz, last Sassanian shah, & first cross Oxus River(Amu Darya).
656 Battle of Camel
680 Martyrdom of Ali’s Husayn at Kerbela, Iraq
680 Al Abbas Mosque Iraq
680 Imam Husayn Mosque Shrine Iraq
@ Bagdhad, Iraq. L Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Berber languages, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Middle Persian, Turkish, Kurdish. #50M 10M KM D5KM C34
701 Battle of Dayr al-Jamajim
715 end of Arab conquest of Transoxiana as a result of death of Qutaiba.
747 Abbasid revolt begins
749 Abbasids seize Caliphate from Umayyads & subsequently transfer capital to Baghdad.
750 last Umayyad Caliph Marwan 2 744 50 is overthrown & executed by first Abbasid Caliph, Abu alAbbas alSaffah. Caliphate is moved to Baghdad, within territory of former Persian Empire; this would prove to be a momentous event for Baghdad which developed into a centre of trade & culture. Ghana Empire begins.
750 - 4 4 AsSaffah Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mohammad ^ Ali ^ Abdollah, a cousin of Holy Prophet
750 Battle of Zab River
754 - 75 21 AlMansur Abu Jafar, Caliph, Amir alMumininbrother of Saffah
762 Baghdad Founded New Capital (MadinatalSalam) as their new capital in Mesopotamia
763 Battle of Bakhamra
767 Abu Hanifa Founder of Hanafi school of law
775 - 85 10 AlMahdi Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mansur
785 - 6 1 AlHadi Abu Mohammd, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mahdi
786 - 809 23 Harun alRashid Abu Jafar, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mahdi later immortalized in 1001 Nights
Baghdad, Iraq. Islam Flag
809 - 134 AlAmin Mohammad Amin Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Rashid Killed by Mamun
813 - 33 20 AMamun Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMuminin ^ Rashid
780 - 823 43 Timothy Assyrian Church Patriarch of Baghdad, promoter of missions to China
830 House of Wisdom Translated manuscripts from Greek, Syriac, Persian & Sanskrit into Arabic
833 - 42 9 AlMutasim Mohammad Motasem Abu Ishaq, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Rashid
835 AlKadhimiya Mosque Tomb of Muhammad alJawad Kadhimiya Iraq
836 - 9 3 Abbasids move capital to Samarra, up river from Baghdad
842 - 7 7 AlWathiq Harun Wathiq Abu Jafar, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Motasem
847 - 61 14 AlMutawakkil Jafar Motevakkil Ab olFazl, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Motasem Killed by Montaser
852 Great Samarra Mosque Iraq
780 - 855 75  Ahmad ibn Hanbal Founder Hanbali school of law
861 - 2 1 AlMuntasir Mohammad Montaser Abu Jafar, Caliph, Amir alMuminin ^ Motevakkil
862 - 6 4 AlMustain Ahmad Mostain Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Mohammad ^ MotasemDeposed & later killed
866 - 9 3 AlMutazz Zobayr Motaz Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of MotevakkilDeposed & later killed
868 - 83 15 Zanj Rebellion in southern Iraq
869 - 70 1 AlMuhtadi Mohammad Mohtadi Abu Ishaq, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Wathiq
776 - 869 93 AlJahiz Prose Writer
810 - 70 60 alBukhari Edited Hadith Collections
870 - 92 22 Al Mutamid Ahmad Motamed Ab olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Motevakkil
873 al Kindi Philosopher
892 - 902 10 AlMutadid Ahmad MotazedAb olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Talhat elMovaffaq ^ Motevakkil
902 - 8 6 AlMuktafi Ali Moktafi Abu Mohammad, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Motazed
908 - 32 24 AlMuqtadir Jafar Moqtader Ab olFazl, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of MotazedKilled
932 - 4 2 AlQahir Mohammad Qaher Abu Mansur, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Motazed Deposed & blinded
934 - 40 6 ArRadi Mohammad RaziAb olAbbas, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Moqtader
940 - 4 4 AlMuttaqi Ebrahim Mottaqi Abu Ishaq, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Moqtade rDeposed & blinded
944 Al Askari Mosque Iraq
944 - 6 2 AlMustakfi Abdollah Mostakfi Ab olQasem, Caliph, Amir alMuminin ^ Moktafi Deposed & blinded by Moez odowleh
946 Battle of Baghdad
946 - 74 28 AlMuti
955 Battle of Lechfeld
958 Battle of Raban
974 - 91 17 AtTai
977 Imam Ali Mosque Iraq
990 proShiite Persian Buwayhids end political power of Abbasid Caliphate by seizing control of Iraq & much of Iran.
991 - 1031 40 AlQadir
       
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629 Battle of Chains
     
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570 birth of Muhammad.
525 - 608 83 Antara Ibn Shaddad, Arab poet Saudi Arabia
624 Battle of Badr
625 Battle of Uhud
627 Battle of Trench
629 Occupatin of Mecca
Rashidun Caliphate
632 - 61 29
@ Medina, Saudia Arabia, Kufa, Iraq. Islam Flag Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Berber languages, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Kurdish, Middle Persian #40.3M D4.5 9M KM later to Kufa Predecessor of Umayyad Caliphate, See also Islamic Empire.
632 Death of Prophet s.a.w
Abu Bakar r.a becomes first caliph
632 death of Muhammad & beginning of expansion of Arab Muslim Empire.
632 - 4 2 Abu Bakar
632 - 3 1 Ridda wars
632 Battle of Yamama
634 - 44 10 Umar
638 - 1571 Masjid alHaram mecca Mosque saudi arabia
639 - 41 2 Islamic conquest of Egypt
641 - 4 3 Umar 1590 644 Abu Hafş, AlFarouq, Caliph, Amir alMumininson of Khattab. Also he was father of Hafşa wife of Holy ProphetSecond caliph in Medina from 633 AD. Killed
644 - 56 12 Uthman Abu Amr, Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir alMuminin 579 656 ^ Affan of Umayyad clan of QuraishKilled
650 - 737 87 KhazarArab Wars
656 - 61 5 Ali Ab olHasan, AlMortaza, Caliph, Amir alMuminin, Great Imam 598 661son of Abu Talib. He was also soninlaw of Holy Prophet Killed
600 - 61 61 Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin of Muhammad, fourth caliph of Islam, first Shia Imam
656 - 61 5 1st Islamic civil war
661 - 84 23 HasanAbu Mohammad, AlMojtaba, Caliph, Amir alMuminin, Great Imam 625 670 ^ Imam Ali Abdicated
670 An Arab Muslim army under Uqba ibn Nafi entered region of Ifriqiya. Finally in late 670s conquest of North Africa has been completed.
677 Most of Arab fleet is destroyed by Greek fire; Persian crown prince fless to Tang court.
683 - 5 2 2nd Islamic civil war
684 - 92 8 Abdollah Caliph 624 692 ^ Zubayr ^ Safiah aunt of Holy Prophet killed by Hajjaj ibn Yusif
692 Battle of Mecca
610 Prophet Muhammad begins receiving revelations
613 Prophet Muhammad s.a.w begins public preaching in Mecca
555 - 619 64 Khadija bint Khuwaylid Prophet’s wife & uncle Abu Thalib, leaving Prophet without a protector.
549 - 619 70 Abu Talib ibn Abd alMuttalib Prophets Uncle
621 Muhammads first contact with Medina
622 Migration (Hijrah) of Prophet & his followers to Medina
622 1st year of Islamic calendar
624 - 27 3 Muslim VS Meccan War
630 Muhammads occupies Mecca, destroys idols in Kaaba.
619 Death of Prophet’s (s.a.w) wife Khadijah & uncle Abu Thalib, leaving Prophet s.a.w without a protector.
619 2nd PersoTurkic War
627 Battle of Nineveh 627, Third PersoTurkic War
621 Prophet’s (s.a.w) 1st contact with Medina
622 Hijra Muhammad & his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September.
624 - 7 3 Series of battles between Prophet (s.a.w) & his followers & Meccans
630 Prophet s.a.w occupies Mecca, destroys idols in Kaaba.
592 - 642 50 Khalid ibn alWalid, Muslim Arab military commander who defeated Roman & Persian empires in over eighty battles
622 - 1817 AlMasjid alNabawi Mosque saudi arabia
700s Buddhist Jataka stories are translated into Syriac & Arabic as Kalilag & Damnag.
711 - 95 84 Malik ibn Anas Founder of Maliki school of law
786 Battle of Fakhkh
851 Arab merchant Suleiman alTajir visits Chinese seaport at Guangzhou in southern China, & observes manufacturing of porcelain, Islamic mosque built at Guangzhou, granary system of city, & how its municipal administration functioned.
800s Arab merchant Shulama wrote that Chinese junk ships could carry 600 to 700 passengers aboard for sailing missions into Indian Ocean. He wrote that draft of Chinese ships was too deep for entering Euphrates River (modernday Iraq), which forced them to land small boats on banks of river for passengers & cargo instead.
 
Caliphate of Uthman
644 - 56 12
     
 
Caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib
656 - 61
5
Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w) cousin & soninlaw
     
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Himyarite Kingdom
110 BCE - 520s CE
630s
@ Zafar, San‘a’, Yemen
 510s - 525 15  Yusuf Ash'ar Dhu Nuwas
     
993 Arab maritime captain Abu Himyarite from Yemen toured Guangzhou port, & was an avid visitor to China
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