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270 - 264
264 - 258
500 Fut 258 - 252 BC AD
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Views PHP Hits Count
30M
270 - 240 M
6M
PHP Hits Count Visitors
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2nd Galactic year 500 - 250 250
1st Galactic year 250 to present
Roa
Age

273 - 269 4.15
Eotitanosuchus 267
Wordian Age
268.8 - 265.1
3.7
    Scaloposaurus 259 - 254 5  
    Diictodon 259.8 - 254.1 5.7  
  Lystrosaurus 255 - 50 5  
Hindeodus 345.3 - 251.3 94 
      Chaohusaurus 251.3 - 47.2 4.1
Capitanian Age 265.1 - 251.9 13.2
Guadalupian Epoch 272.3 - 259.1 20.4
Wuchiapingian Stage
259.1 -
254.14  4.96
Ch
2.2
Lopingian Epoch 259.1 - 251.902 7.198
Permian Period 298.9 - 251.9 47
Paleozoic Era 541 - 251.9 289
Prolacerta 252 - 47 5  
Proterosuchus 252 - 50 2  
  Ichthyosaurs 250 - 90 60
 

Erythrosuchus 250 - 237.2 12.8

  Suchia 249.7 - Present
  Utatsusaurus 248 - 5 3  
  Askeptosaurus 247 - 225 22
Proterosuchidae 252 - 47 5
Galesaurus 252.17 - 47.2 4.97
Induan.9-.2
Thrinaxodon 251 - 247 4
 Olenekian 251.2 - 247.2 4
Early Triassic Period
251.9 - 247.2 4.7
Cynognathus 247 - 37 10
Cherninia 247 - 2 5

Exilisuchus 247.3 - 5 2.3

 
  Sarmatosuchus
247 - 5 2
  Nyas
243
Cere
242
 Anisian 247.2 - 242 5.2
 Ladinian
242 - 37 5
Middle Triassic Period 247.2 - 237 10.2
Triassic Period 251.9 - 206 45.9
Mesozoic Era (Middle Life) 251.9 - 65
270 - 264
264 - 258
500 Fut 258 - 252 BC AD
252 - 246
246 - 240
Paleozoic Era 541 - 251.9 289
Permian Period 298.9 - 251.9 47
Guadalupian Epoch 272.3 - 251.9 20.4
Roadian Age 272.95 - 268.8 4.15
300 - 290 10 Phlegethontia linearis, Phlegethontia, Phlegethontiidae, Aistopoda, Amphibia, Chordata 1871 N America and Europe
270 Prionosuchus plummeri "Saw crocodile" †Prionosuchus, †Archegosauridae, †Temnospondyli, Chordata 1948 NE Brazil
Steppesaurus  basal Eupelycosauria genus of Sphenacodontidae San Angelo Formation of Texas.
270 - 260 10 Brachyprosopus dicynodont therapsid  Genus Karoo Basin, S Africa.
270 Sinophoneus dinocephalian therapsids  Anteosauridae. 1 skull  Xidagou Formation of China.
Reiszia therapsids  European Russia  Nikkasauridae.
270 - 240 30 Microgomphodon  therocephalian therapsid genus S Africa and Namibia. 1 species
M. oligocynus
 Cynognathus Assemblage Zone (CAZ) of the Burgersdorp Formation in South Africa and Omingonde Formation of Namibia one of the most geographically and temporally widespread therocephalian species.
270 - 260 10 Brachyprosopus    dicynodont therapsid  Karoo Basin, South Africa
270 - 252 18 Broomisaurus  genus of Gorgonopsia.
270 Biseridens "two rows of teeth" most basal anomodont genera. 1 skull  Xidagou Formation, Gansu, China 2009
270 Brithopus priscus, Brithopus, Brithopodidae, Dinocephalia, Therapsida, Chordata 1 species,  known from fragmentary remains found in the Copper Sandstones near Isheevo, Russia.  
270 - 268 2 Platyoposaurus watsoni, Platyoposaurus, Archegosauridae, Temnospondyli, Amphibia, Chordata 1880 "Flat-faced lizard" Russia 
268 - 247 21 Beaufort Group 3rd subdivisions of Karoo Supergroup S Africa. lower Adelaide Subgroup and an upper Tarkastad Subgroup.  follows conformably  Ecca Group & unconformably Stormberg Group
268 - 252 16 Suminia is a relatively recently discovered, extinct genus of basal anomodont  youngest of the known anomodonts that are not Dicynodonts   Kirov region in Russia.
267 Eotitanosuchus olsoni, †Eotitanosuchus, †Eotitanosuchidae, †Biarmosuchia, Therapsida, Chordata 1960 "Dawn giant crocodile" Krai Russia  
267 Biarmosuchus tener Bjarmaland crocodile Russia  
267 Microurania genus of therapsids  single partial skull   OrenburgRussia. skull of about 5 cm in length. omnivorous.
167 Tapinocaninus therapsids Tapinocephalidae, most basal member. 1Sp, Tapinocaninus pamelae "Pam's humble canine". 3m/120" long, 1,000kg/2,200lb  herbivore or omnivore.  heterodont dentition, incisors, canines and postcanines. canine teeth lack  crushing heel.
267 Mnemeiosaurus   genus of dinocephalian therapsids.
267 - 45 22 Eodicynodon  dicynodont therapsids, highly diverse & widespread group of herbivorous synapsids 
? Brachyuraniscus    non-mammalian synapsid.
? Broilius non-mammalian synapsid.
? Rubidgea atrox is a  gorgonopsid from the upper Permian of South Africa and Tanzania.
Wordian Age 268.8 - 265.1 3.7
268 - 265 3 Titanophoneus Titanic murderer potens Isheevo, Russia
268 - 265 3 Titanophoneus  dinocephalian therapsid     family Anteosauridae Isheevo, Russia
 
268 - 265 3 Biarmosuchoides is a genus of biarmosuchian therapsid found in Dubovka I in Russia.
267 Venjukovia genus of therapsids
267 Estemmenoshuchus mirabilis Crowned crocodile Perm Russia Permian  
267 Eotitanosuchus
267 Admetophoneus is a dubious genus 
267? Archaeosyodon  genus of dinocephalian therapsids. It was medium-sized, reaching about 1.5-2m/4-5'
267 Estemmenosuchus   omnivorous therapsids.  3m/10' skull long and massive, 65cm/26"
267 Biarmosuchus    biarmosuchian therapsids  Russia. 1st specimen channel sandstone  flood waters young Ural Mountains.  predator, large dog, 1.5–2m skull 15-21cm. lightly built,  agile  fed on smaller tetrapods. legs  long,  agile in spite of their size. large opening for the eye and a small temple opening common in primitive stem-mammals, this lends to a weak bite but how it ate is pure speculation. 
266 - 260 6 Anteosaurus magnificus Antaeus lizard South Africa
 
266 - 243 23 Akidnognathus    therocephalians. extinct suborder of eutheriodont therapsids  Karoo of South Africa, but have also been found in Russia, China, and Antarctica
266 - 60 6  Anteosaurus South Africa hunted rather like crocodiles, pulling land animals into the water. s perhaps the largest known carnivorous non-mammalian synapsid, estimated at 5–6 m (16–20 ft) in length and 500 to 600 kg (1,100 to 1,300 lb
265.8 - 260.4 5.4 Styracocephalus platyrhynchus 'spike head'    tapinocephalian  therapsids Guadalupian. head ornament meant it could be recognised from a distance. most striking feature   are the large backward-protruding tabular horns. crest upwards and backwards, variation in shape,  changed throughout life  & sexually dimorphic.   herbivore fully terrestrial or partly aquatic like the   hippopotamus. It may have evolved from  estemmenosuchids. S Africa 1.8m/5' 11" 
Capitanian Age 265.1 - 259.1 6
265.1 - 254.17 Cynosaurus    cynodonts. Remains have been found from the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone in South Africa
265 - 260 5 Ulemosaurus svijagensis Ulema river lizard Isheevo Russia Middle Permian
265 - 260 5 Struthiocephalus whaitsi Ostrich head S Africa  
265 - 260 5 Moschops capensis Calf face Karoo S Africa Permian
265 - 260 5 Jonkeria truculenta Jonker's one Karoo S Africa
265 - 252 13 Pareiasaurs (meaning "cheek lizards") were a clade of parareptiles comprising the family Pareiasauridae. They were large herbivores that flourished during the Permian period. Parareptiles form a sister clade to reptiles and birds.
265 - 253 12 Chthonosaurus    therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian Kutulukskaya Formation of Russia. It belongs to the family Akidnognathidae. The type species Chthonosaurus velocidens was named in 1955

265 Titanosuchus ferox "Fierce Titan crocodile" dinocephalian therapsids S Africa 2.5m long. might have eaten  Jonkeria and Moschop

265 - 260 5 Struthiocephalus "Ostrich Head"  dinocephalian therapsids S Africa. largest head of any tapinocephalid. fed in or near water, soft vegetation, bone around  nostril for closing off the nostril under water.
265 - 260 5 Robertia  genus of small herbivorous dicynodonts from the Middle to Late Permian of South Africa, between 260 and 265 million years ago monospecific genus,[1] consisting of the type-species R. broomiana
265 - 260 5 Lycosuchus ("wolf crocodile") is an extinct  carnivorous therocephalians medium-sized predator, reaching 1.2 m (3.8 ft) in length with a skull 23 cm long S Africa 
265 - 252.3  Inostrancevia is an extinct  carnivorous therapsids, containing the largest members of the family Gorgonopsidae, predators characterized by long, saber-tooth-like canines. The various species inhabited northern Russia  3.5 m (11.5 ft) and long, narrow skulls up to 60 cm (24 in) long. This animal had an average mass of 300 kg (661.3 lbs).
265 - 260 5 Moschops genus  of therapsids Karoo region of South Africa
265 - 260 5 Jonkeria  genus of dinocephalians. Species were very large and omnivorous (although there is some dispute to this, e.g. Colbert 1969 p. 136), from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone, Lower Beaufort Group, of the South African Karroo.  4 or 5 metres (13.1 or 16.4 
265 Australosyodon  genus of dinocephalian therapsids from the middle Permian of South Africa. The first fossil was discovered in the 1980s near the village of Prince Albert Road in the Karoo region of South Africa.   earliest example of an anteosaurid Dinocephalia outside of Russia.Eodicynodon Assemblage Zone, the lowest bank of the South African Beaufort Group, indicating the presence of primitive early therapsids in the southern hemisphere. medium-sized dinocephalian. The skull was high and narrow, with a length of 26 cm, indicating a total body length of approximately 1.8 m (6 f
265 - 254 11 Scutosaurus "Shield lizard" parareptiles. armor-covered pareiasaur Russia
265 - 251.9 Rubidgea atrox gorgonopsid S Africa & Tanzania
265 - 260 5 Ulemosaurus   dinocephalian therapsids Isheevo in Russian Tatarstan. tapinocephalid, bulky herbivores 
265 - 260 5 Struthiocephalus ("Ostrich Head") genus of dinocephalian therapsids from the Permian of South Africa.
265 Ulemica    venjukoviid therapsids. It was a basal member of the suborder Anomodontia

Paleozoic Era 541 - 251.9 289
Permian Period 298.9 - 251.9 47
Guadalupian Epoch 272.3 - 259.1 30.2
 Capitanian Age 265.1 - 259.1 6
265.1 - 259.1 6 Pristerognathus, Scylacosauridae,  Therocephalia, Therapsida,  Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group S African  25cm/9.8" skull  1.5m/4'11". dog-sized, long, narrow skulls, large canines. woodlands, preyed on smaller therapsids and millerettids
Criocephalosaurus  genus of tapinocephalian therapsids S Africa
272.3 - 259.1 30.2 Mormosaurus "Mormo's Lizard") tapinocephalid dinocephalian therapsid  South Africa.
263 Eriphostoma genus of gorgonopsian therapsids Tapinocephalus Assemblage ZoneSouth Africa
263 Keratocephalus "horned head" genus of tapinocephalian therapsids from the early Capitanian age of South Africa
262 Deuterosaurus dinocephalian therapsids,  non-mammalian synapsids   80cm/2'6"
260 - 254 6 Gorgonops torvus Gorgon eye S Africa
260 Thrinaxodontidae, Epicynodontia, Cynodontia, Therapsida, Chordata 1956   cynodonts
260.9 - 254 6.9 Aelurognathus  gorgonopsian therapsids from the Permian of South Africa.
260.4 - 253.8 6.6 Theriognathus  genus of therocephalian therapsid belonging to the family Whaitsiidae, from South Africa and Tanzania.  56 species
260.4 - 253.8 6.6 Procynosuchus delaharpeae Procynosuchus, Procynosuchidae, Cynodontia, Therapsida, Chordata 1931 2Sp "Before dog crocodile" S Africa, Zambia & Germany
260.4 - 251 9.4 Aphaneramma gavialimimus, Aphaneramma, Lonchorhynchinae, Trematosauridae, Trematosauroidea, Temnospondyli, Amphibia, Chordata 1904 N America
260.4 - 251 9.4 Peltobatrachus pustulatus, †Peltobatrachus, †Peltobatrachidae, †Stereospondyli, †Temnospondyli, Chordata 1959 "Shied frog" Tansania 
260 Suminia getmanovi, †Suminia, †Otsheridae, Therapsida, Chordata 1994 Kotelnich Russia 
Alopecorhinus, †Scylacosauridae,  †Therocephalia, Therapsids. 1912
260 - 254 6 Gorgonops †Gorgonopsinae, †Gorgonopsidae, Therapsida, Chordata 3Sp 3m long. 1876
260 - 252 8 Pareiasaurus, †Pareiasauridae, Procolophonomorpha, Reptilia, Chordata 3Sp 1876 anapsid reptile 
260 - 0 Epicynodontia cynodont therapsids  most cynodonts, such as galesauridsthrinaxodontids, and Eucynodontia (including mammals).  stem-based taxon  2001 most inclusive clade containing Mammalia and excluding Procynosuchus
260 Scullya   genus of titanosuchian therapsids.
260 Zion Nat Park yellowish-gray limestone of the fossil-rich Kaibab Limestone was laid down as a limy ooze in a tropical climate. During this time, sponges, such as Actinocoelia meandrina, proliferated, only to be buried in lime mud and their internal silica needles (spicules) dissolved and recrystallized to form discontinuous layers of light-colored chert.
Emeishan Traps began 260 volcanos
260 Angonisaurus   genus of kannemeyeriiform dicynodont from the Middle Triassic of Africa
262? Archaeosuchus   genus of titanosuchian therapsids. The type specimen is so poorly preserved that no diagnosis can be made. The specimen being indeterminable, the name is a nomen dubium. Fossils were found for example in the Ecca Group.
? Arctosuchus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
260 Anomocephalus is an extinct genus of primitive anomodonts and belongs to the clade Anomocephaloidea
260 - 254 6 Inostrancevia alexandri Aleksandr Inosstrantsev's one Russia Late Permian
260 - 258 2 Tropidostoma is a medium-sized herbivorous oudenodontid dicynodont therapsid that lived during the Late Permian (Lopingian) period in South Africa.
259.8 - 254.1 5.7 Cistecephalus   microrhinus Box head  genus of dicynodont therapsid small, specialised, burrowing dicynodont, possibly with habits similar to a modern mole.  S Africa & Zambia 60cm/24"
Diictodon 259.8 - 254.1 5.7 feliceps & palustris Two weasel toothed Africa & S Asia
259.1 - 251.902 7.2 Burnetia mirabilis James Burnet's one S Africa Late Permian
259.1 - 251.902 7.2 Pantylus cordatus N America   
259.1 - 251.902 7.2 Cyonosaurus longiceps Dog lizard S Africa
Scaloposaurus 259 - 254 5

Riebeeckosaurus  genus of tapinocephalian therapsids lower Beaufort Beds of the Karoo, in South Africa. Only two skulls are known from the type genus. herbivorous,  2.5m/8'2" 500/1,100

 dinocephalian, with a very long, slender snout and a narrow intertemporal region with a narrow sagittal crest.
260 - 0 Cynodonts sub-group of therapsids, evolved more mammal-like characteristics.
jaws of cynodonts resemble modern mammal jaws more closely & their teeth are multi-cusped & differentiated down jaw. Cynodonts are direct ancestors of all modern mammals.
Lopingian Epoch 259.1 - 251.902 7.198
Wuchiapingian Stage 259.1 - 254.14 4.96
259.1 - 251.902 7.2 Oudenodon bainii S Africa, Zambia & Madagascar Late Permian
259.1 - 251.902 7.2 Daptocephalus leoniceps Karoo S Africa Late Permian 
259 - 254 5 Ictidosuchoides   genus of ictidosuchid therocephaliansFossils have been found from the Karoo Basin in South Africa. The genus is known to have been one of the few therocephalians to have survived the Permian-Triassic extinction event in this area, although its numbers were quite low after the extinction

259 - 254 Herpetoskylax  biarmosuchians S Africa.   Herpetoskylax hopsoni. ‘reptile-puppy’, as therapsids are transitional. 1 skull

259 - 255 4 Myosauroides    non-mammalian synapsid. It is found only at Kleinfontein, Graaff-Reinet (Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone).
259 - 252 7 Moschorhinus therocephalian  Akidnognathidae,  M. kitchingi. carnivorous, lion-sized synapsis S African Karoo Supergroup. broad snout long, straight canines. replaced   gorgonopsids. hunted like a big cat.  survived a little after   Permian Extinction in stunted form.
260 - 251 9 Dicynodontoides is a  small to medium-bodied, herbivorous, emydopoid dicynodonts
259 - 2 54 Endothiodon named for the characteristic of the teeth being placed internally to the maxilla[1]) is an extinct  large dicynodont 
259 - 54 5 Rubidgina is a genus of Biarmosuchian therapsid from Patrysfontein, Wellwood, South Africa known from RC 55, a skull.
259 - 254 5 Clelandina  genus of rubidgeine gorgonopsian from the Late Permian of Africa. extraordinarily small sclerotic ring relative to the size of its orbit, which implies that it was diurnal.
259 - 254 5 Smilesaurus    gorgonopsian known from Africa
255 Cyonosaurus is a  gorgonopsian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa
Changhsingian Stage
254.14 - 251.902
2.238
Paleozoic Era 541 - 251.9 289
Permian Period 298.9 - 251.9 47
Lopingian Epoch 259.1 - 251.902 7.198
Wuchiapingian Stage 259.1 - 254.14  4.96

259 - 251 8 Ictidognathus

Hofmeyria   genus of therocephalians
259 - 254 5  Cistecephaloides  genus of dicynodont therapsids Cistecephalus Assemblage ZoneBeaufort Group of South Africa
259 - 254 5 Scylacops meaning "face that tears" genus of Gorgonopsia. 2 Species. South Africa and Zambia.
bigendens,
S. capensis
259 - 254 5 Clelandina  genus of rubidgeine gorgonopsian from the Late Permian of Africa.
259 - 254 5 Dinogorgon  gorgonopsid S Africa and Tanzania.  one of the smaller species of rubidgeinae,  2m/6.6'.  predator, preyed on reptiles and smaller therapsids
259 - 252.3 6.7 Sycosaurus,  Rubidgeine Gorgonopsians, Therapsida, Chordata. 1924  1.2m
258 - 252 6 Sigillaria elegans, Sigillaria, Sigillariaceae, Lepidodendrales, Lycopodiopsida, Lycophytes, Tracheophytes, Plantae 1828 S hemisphere
257.5 - 254.5 3 Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone   tetrapod  zone  Adelaide Subgroup  Beaufort Group,  Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. one of eight biozones found in the Beaufort Group
257 - 252 5 Compsodon   genus of dicynodont belonging to the superfamily Emydopoidea. Fossils have been found in South Africa and Zambia.
256 Viatkosuchus   genus of therocephalians.
Invertebrate marine life is rich & diverse at beginning of Permian period.
256 Phtinosuchus, Therapsid. Shortly after appearance of first reptiles, two branches split off. One is Synapsida: they had a pair of holes in their skulls behind eyes, which were used to increase space for jaw muscles. other branch is Diapsida.
255 Aloposaurus A. gracilis Broom, Aloposaurus, Gorgonopsia, Therapsida,    gorgonopsian therapsids  S Africa   60-70cm/2.0-2.3'
255 - 250 5 Lycaenops ornatus "Shovel lizard" †Lycaenops, †Gorgonopsidae, Therapsida, Chordata 1925
250 Lystrosaurus 'shovel lizard';  herbivorous  dicynodont therapsids,  AntarcticaIndiaChinaMongoliaEuropean Russia and South Africa .4 - 6 species 1930s - 1970s number of species thought to be much higher. ranged  from  small dog to 2.5 meters 
Extensive glaciation persists in what is now India, Australia, & Antarctica.
Ferns & conifers persist in cooler air.
From synapsids came Therapsida, direct ancestor of mammals. They are often called mammal-like reptiles.
Pelycosaurs 1st mammal-like reptilian are . 1st animals temporal fenestra.  not Therapsida but soon they gave rise to them. therapsids have temporal fenestrae larger & more mammal-like than pelycosaurs, their teeth show more serial differentiation; & later forms had evolved a secondary palate. A secondary palate enables animal to eat & breathe at same time & is a sign of a more active, perhaps warm-blooded, way of life.
Hot, dry conditions prevail elsewhere on Pangaea, & deserts become widespread.
Biologic - first sailback reptiles such as Dimetrodon appeared.
Toward end of this period, mass extinctions occur among large groups of corals, bryozoans, arthropods, & other invertebrates. 99% of all life perishes.
On land, insects evolve into their modern forms; dragonflies & beetles appear.
Amphibians decline in number, but reptiles undergo a spectacular evolutionary development of carnivorous & herbivorous, terrestrial & aquatic forms.
? Angonisaurus   genus of kannemeyeriiform dicynodont from the Middle Triassic of Africa
Galepus  genus of anomodont therapsids.
Paraburnetia  genus of biarmosuchian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa
? Arnognathus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Glanosuchus is a genus of scylacosaurid therocephalian  South Africamiddle ear structure that was intermediate between that of early therapsids and mammals. Ridges in the nasal cavity of Glanosuchus suggest it had an at least partially endothermic metabolism similar to modern mammals.  12 inches (30 cm) long.[1] Glanosuchus probably grew to around 6 feet (1.8 m) 
Pelanomodon  genus of dicynodont therapsids that lived in the Late Permian period. Fossil evidence of this genus is principally found in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, in the Dicynodon Assemblage Zon
Rhachiocephalus   genus of dicynodont therapsid.
Rhigosaurus is a genus of therocephalian therapsids.
Changhsingian Stage
254.14 - 251.902
2.238
254.14 - 251.902 Rubidgeinae  subfamily of gorgonopsid therapsids known only from Africa. They were among the largest gorgonopsians, and their fossils are common in the Cistecephalus and Daptocephalus assemblage zones of the Karoo Basin.  of six genera and 17 species
Rubidgea atrox is a genus of gorgonopsid from the upper Permian of South Africa and Tanzania.[
254 Dvinia  genus of cynodonts of the family Dviniidae found in Sokolki on the Northern Dvina River near Kotlas in Arkhangelsk OblastRussia. Its fossil remains date from the Late Permian and were found with InostranceviaScutosaurus and Vivaxosaurus. The species was small omnivore containing an extremely large temporal opening typical of advanced therapsids, with a thin bone separating the eye and muscle attachment. It is very close in the evolutionary line to mammals, but more analysis of the Cynodontia is needed. The teeth contain small incisors followed by 2 canines and 10-14 molar teeth following.
254 Arctops  extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsids known from the Late Permian of South Africa. It measured up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in length and its skull was 30 centimetres (12 in) long
254 Njalila is an informal name for a genus of gorgonopsian therapsids from the Late Permian of southern Africa. Fossils have been found from MalawiZambia, and Tanzania.
253.8 - 251 Dicynodon lacerticeps ("two dog-teeth") is a type of dicynodont therapsid that flourished during the Upper Permian period. Like all dicynodonts, it was herbivorous. This animal was toothless, except for prominent tusks, hence the name. It probably cropped vegetation with a horny beak, much like a tortoise, while the tusks may have been used for digging up roots and tubers. Two dog-teeth 160+ species Africa, Europe & Russia 
253 Moschowhaitsia  genus of therocephalian theriodonts.[1] It was among the larger carnivores in the faunal assemblages it occurred in.
253 Alopecognathus   genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa
252.17 - 251.2 .97 Progalesaurus  genus of galesaurid cynodont  mammal-like creature, with the skull of its holotype measuring 9.35 cm
254 Ruhuhucerberus  genus of very large, extinct gorgonopsian therapsids which existed in Tanzania during the Late Permian.[1] Its fossils are found in the Penman Kawinga Formation of the Ruhuhu Basin. It existed sympatrically with the even larger Rubidgea
254 Leontosaurus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids. It contains the single species L. vanderhorsti.
Bolotridon   genus of epicynodontian cynodont. I
Bullacephalus   genus of biarmosuchian therapsids belonging to the family Burnetiidae
Burnetia  genus of biarmosuchian therapsids in the family Burnetiidae, from the Late Permian of South AfricaBurnetia is known so far from a single holotype skull lacking the lower jaws
Calleonasus   genus of non-mammalian synapsid.
Cerataelurus   genus of non-mammalian synapsid.
Cerdodon   genus of gorgonopsian therapsids.
Cerdorhinus   genus of gorgonopsian therapsids from the Permian of South Africa
Lemurosaurus is a genus of extinct biarmosuchian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa.
Charassognathus (meaning 'notched jaw')  genus of Late Permian cynodonts. Described in 2007 from a locality near FraserburgSouth AfricaCharassognathus is the earliest and most basal cynodont. It is known only from the holotype
Turfanodon is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsid
Pristerodon   genus of dicynodont therapsid.
Pravoslavlevia therapsids Gorgonopsia. Sokolki subcomplex Russia skull 22cm/8.7' animal 1.4/4'7". 1 species P. parva
Proburnetia  biarmosuchian therapsids Burnetiidae, Russia. bumps and protrusions on 20 cm skull, length 1.5m
Prodicynodon   genus of dicynodont from the Late Permian of South Africa. Two species are known, the type species P. pearstonensis and P. beaufortensis, both known only from their respective holotypes.
255 - 245 10 Promoschorhynchus is a genus of akidnognathid therocephalians from the Late Permian and Early Triassic of South Africa. Unlike many other therapsids, Promoschorhynchus survived the Permian-Triassic extinction event
Pseudhipposaurus   genus of biarmosuchian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa.
Pseudanteosaurus   genus of dinocephalian therapsids.
Lobalopex   genus of biarmosuchian therapsids belonging to the family Burnetiidae
24 Batrachosuchus browni Frog crocodile S Africa and Australia Early Triassic 252.3 - 242 Ma
Lycaenodon   genus of biarmosuchian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa. It is known from a single species, Lycaenodon longiceps
Lophorhinus  genus of biarmosuchian therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa.
Oudenodon   genus of dicynodont. It was common throughout southern Africa 
Orthopus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Sauroctonus  genus of therapsidsSauroctonus progressus was a large (2 m long) gorgonopsid
Scalopolacerta   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Diaelurodon   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Myctosuchus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Rhachiocephalus   genus of dicynodont therapsid.
Chiwetasaurus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Cryptocynodon   genus of non-mammalian synapsid.
Chthomaloporus   genus of Anteosaurian therapsids.
Cerdorhinus   genus of gorgonopsian therapsids from the Permian of South Africa
Glochinodontoides   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Gordonia  dicynodont therapsid Scotland. Elgin sandstone of Cutties Hillock Quarry in Elgin, Moray. "Elgin Reptiles"
Haughtoniana   genus of non-mammalian synapsid.
251.902 Permian–Triassic extinction event; 57% biological families and 83% genera die. 96% sea life and 70% land life die.
Marine extinctions
Arthropoda
100% Eurypterids May have become extinct shortly before the P–Tr boundary
59% Ostracods
100% Trilobites In decline since the Devonian; only 2 genera living before the extinction
Brachiopods 96%Orthids and productids died out
Bryozoa  
Bryozoans 79%
Fenestrates, trepostomes, and cryptostomes died out
100% Acanthodians In decline since the Devonian, with only one living family
Cnidaria
96% Anthozoans
Tabulate and rugose corals died ou
Echinodermata
100% Blastoids May have become extinct shortly before the P–Tr boundary
 
98% Crinoids Inadunates and camerates died out
Mollusca  
97% Ammonites Goniatites died out
55% Bivalves
9 8% Gastropods
Retaria
97% Foraminiferans Fusulinids died out, but were almost extinct before the catastrophe
99% Radiolarians
Mesozoic Era (Middle Life) 251.9 - 65
Triassic Period 251.9 - 206 45.9
Early Triassic Period 251.9 - 247.2 4.7
Induan 251.901 - 251.2 .701
252.3 - 164.7 87.6 Saurichthys seefeldensis "Lizard fish"  †Saurichthys, †Saurichthyidae, †Saurichthyiformes, Actinopterygii,, Osteichthyes, Gnathostomata, Vertebrata, >50Sp 1834
251.902 - 237 14.902 Kannemeyeria erithrea Kanne's one SE Africa, India & Russia
251.901 - 250 Siberian Traps Volcano
Silphedosuchus therocephalian therapsids Russia.  Ericiolacerta    S Africa & Antarctica
Shaanbeikannemeyeria   genus of non-mammalian synapsid known from the Early Triassic of China.
Zorillodontops  therocephalian therapsids S Africa
Ampthill Clay is a Mesozoic geologic formation in southern England.
 Olenekian 251.2 - 247.2 4
251.3 - 221.5 30 Ceratites nodosus, eratites, Ceratinae, Ceratidae, Ceratitaceae, Ceratitida, Ammonoidea, Cephalopoda, Mollusca 1825 worldwide
251.902 - 247.2 4.7 Elephantosaurus jackimovitsch "Elephant lizard" Elephantosaurus, Kannemeyeriiformes, Dicynodontia, Therapsida, Chordata 1969 Russia 
251 - 0 Leach's Sea Star, Leiaster leachi, Pacific, Least Concern
251 - 0 Blue star, Linckia laevigata, Linckia, Ophidiasteridae, Valvatida, Asteroidea, Echinodermata 1758 Indo-Paific, Near threatened
251 - 0 Granulated sea star, Choriaster granulatus, Choriaster, Oreasteridae, Valvatida, Asteroidea, Echinodermata 1869 Indo-Pacific ocean,  Least Concern
251 - 0 Cushion star, Culcita novaeguina, Indo-Pacific ocean, Near threatened
251 - 0 Crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, Indo-Pacific ocean, Least Concern
251 - 0 Plazaster borealis, N Atlantic & Pacific,  Least Concern
251 - 0 Certonardoa semiregularis, Japanese sea,  Least Concern
251 - 0 Barreleye, Macropinna microstoma, N Pacific ocean, depths 300 - 800 m,  Status not evaluated
251 - 0 Pacific blackdragon, Indiacanthus antrosstomus, Pacific ocean, depths 500 - 2,000 m,  Least concern
251 - 0 Grammatostomias flagellibarba, N Atlantic, 300 - 3,000 m, Least concern
251 - 0 Highfin lizardfish, Bathysaurus mollis, Oceans worldwide, 1,550 - 4,900M,  Status not evauated
251 - 0 Telescopefish, Gigantura indica, Oceans worldwide, 500 - 3,000M Least concern
251 - 0 Pacific geoduck, Panopea genera, NE Pacific  Least concern
251 - 247 4 Thrinacodon liorhinus Trident tooth S Africa & Antarctica
251 - 249Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone
251 - 249 2 Platycraniellus genus  of non-mammalian synapsid. It is a cynodont from the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone.
P. elegans  South Africa.
251 Galesauridae   family of cynodonts. Along with the family Thrinaxodontidae and the large clade Eucynodontia (which includes the mammals), it makes up the unranked taxon called Epicynodontia. Galesaurids first appeared in the very latest Permian period, just a million years (or perhaps only a thousand years) before the greatest extinction of all time, the Permian-Triassic extinction event.
  250  Triadobatrachus massinoti Triple-frog Madagascar 
250 - 0 Horsehead grasshopper Pseudoproscopia scabra Amazonian basin
250 - 0 Chorotypus pusillus S Asia
250 - 170 80 Gomphodontia is a clade of cynognathian cynodonts that includes the families DiademodontidaeTrirachodontidae, and Traversodontidae. S Africa, Argentina and southern Brazil (Paleorrota geopark), eastern North America, Europe, China, and Antarctica.
250 Crurotarsi is a group of archosauriform reptiles that includes the archosaurs (represented today by birds and crocodilians) and the extinct, crocodile-like phytosaurs.
250 earth's crust started to rise due to tectonic shifts, and marine shales and sandstones were deposited. As the basin became isolated evaporite formations of salt and gypsum were deposited. Oxidation of the iron minerals in the sediments resulted in the red colors of some of the rocks. Deposition by streams and in swamp environments resulted in the formation of petrified wood in the area
Myosaurus  genus of dicynodont found primarily in Antarctica and South Africa.
Ericiolacerta  genus of small therocephalian therapsids from the early Triassic of South Africa and Antarctica. It was around 20 centimetres (7.9 in) 
Yikezhaogia   genus of therocephalian therapsids from the Early Triassic of Mongolia. It is known from a single fragmentary skull and associated postcranial bones representing the species Yikezhaogia megafenestrala.
251.2 Beishanodon   genus of eucynodonts from Lower Triassic of China. The type and only species is Beishanodon youngi.
251 - 246 5 Bauria  genus of the suborder Therocephalia 
251 - 247 4 Thrinaxodon   genus of cynodonts, most commonly regarded by its species T. liorhinus which lived in what are now South Africa and Antarctica   diet mostly on insects, small herbivores and invertebrates. Their unique secondary palate successfully separated the nasal passages from the rest of the mouth, allowing the Thrinaxodon to continue mastication without interrupting to breathe, an adaptation important for digestion.[c
250 One Galactic year ago
250 Pseudosuchia is one of two major divisions of Archosauria, including living crocodilians and all archosaurs more closely related to crocodilians than to birds.
250 - 75 175 Joshua Trea National Park.
250 - 0 Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes and are broadly classified as reptiles. The living representatives of this group consist of birds and crocodilians. This group also includes all extinct dinosaurspterosaurs, and extinct relatives of crocodilians. Archosauria, the archosaur clade, is a crown group that includes the most recent common ancestor of living birds and crocodilians and all of its descendants. It includes two main clades: Pseudosuchia, which includes crocodilians and their extinct relatives, and Avemetatarsalia, which includes birds and their extinct relatives (such as non-avian dinosaurs and pterosaurs).
250 - 180 70 Cynognathia ("dog jaw") is one of two major clades of cynodonts, the other being Probainognathia. Cynognathians included the large carnivorous genus Cynognathus and the herbivorous traversodontids. Cynognathians can be identified by several synapomorphies including a very deep zygomatic arch that extends above the middle of the orbit. The cynognathians are the longest-lived non-mammalian therapsid clade extending from Triassic to the Late Triassic.

Cynognathian fossils are currently known from South AmericaAntarctica, and South Africa.

248 - 245 3 Microgomphodon     therocephalian therapsid S Africa and Namibia.   M. oligocynus  Cynognathus Assemblage Zone (CAZ)   Burgersdorp Formation S Africa and Omingonde Formation of Namibia 
247 - 237 10 Cynognathus  large cynodontian therapsids Cynognathus crateronotus 1.2m/3'11" predator closely related to mammals S hemispheric S AfricaArgentinaAntarctica, and Namibia.
247.2 - 201 46.2 Mastodonsaurus giganteus Breast tooth lizard N Europe and Russia 
Wangwosaurus   genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
Middle Triassic Period 247.2 - 237 10.2
247.2 - 242 5.2 Turfanosuchus is a  archosauriform reptile, likely a gracilisuchid NW China.
Cyamodus Extinct 247 - 35 12
247 - 237 10 Cynagnathus crateronotus Dog jaw Argentina, S Africa, Antarctica & India Middle Triassic
247 - 242 5 Asilisaurus  silesaurid archosaur. i
Cromptodon   genus of cynodonts from the Triassic of Cerro Bayo de Portrerillos, Cerro de las Cabras FormationArgentinaSouth America. It is known only from PVL 3858, a mandible. skull 2.7cm/1.1"
247.2 - 242 5.2 Sinokannemeyeria kannemeyeriid dicynodont  ShanxiChina. 1.8m/5.9' length 100kg/220lb in weight. short, stumpy legs slightly sprawling gait not a fast or agile  horn-covered beak, and there were two small tusks upper jaw. These tusks could have been used to dig up roots.  Compared to Kannemeyeria, it had broader snout, smaller temporal fenestrae and lower temporal crests.  indiscriminately seized and torn vegetation in contrast to the more selective cropping of Kannemeyeria.
247.2 - 242 5.2 Angonisaurus    kannemeyeriiform dicynodont from the Middle Triassic of Africa
247 - 235 12 Gyamodus rostratus, Germany
247 - 242 5 Antecosuchus  genus of bauriid therocephalians.
Early Triassic Euskelosaurus  South Africa and Lesotho
Dolichuranus is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsids from the Middle Triassic Omingonde Formation of Namibia and the Ntawere Formation of Zambia.
Pangaea covers nearly a quarter of Earth's surface. Triassic Period, unlike previous periods, is marked by few significant geologic events. Toward end of Triassic Period, continental rifting begins to break apart supercontinent.
general climate is warm, becoming semiarid to arid.
 Coelophosis Early dinosaurs evolve. Many are bipedal, fast, & relatively small. largest Triassic dinosaurs 20'/6m long
& mammals,
turtles,
crocodiles
& frogs appeared.
Life began to diversify after end-Permian extinction.
cycads,
ginkgoes,
& conifers
Mass extinctions end of Triassic Period, reducing some marine & terrestrial groups, such as ammonites, therapsids, early reptiles, & primitive amphibians 75%.
Marine reptiles evolve, such as ichthyosaurs & plesiosaurs.
Ferns,
Ordosiodon    therocephalian therapsids from the Early Triassic of China. 2Sp, 
O. lincheyuensis
O. youngi.
Mesozoic Era (Middle Life) 251.9 - 65
Triassic Period 251.9 - 206 45.9
Middle Triassic Period 247.2 - 237 10.2
 Anisian 247.2 - 242 5.2
245 - 35 210 Placodus gigas †Placodus, †Placodontidae, †Placodontia. †Sauropterygia, Reptilia, 2Sp Europe & China
245 Asilisaurus kongwe "Foundation lizard" †Asilisaurus, †Silesauridae, Dracohors, Tanzania, N American & W Europe
245 - 0 Dracohors is a clade of dinosauriform archosaurs  that includes dinosaurs and silesaurids. The oldest known dracohorsian is Asilisaurus, dating to about 245
245  - 0 Dinosauriformes archosaurian reptiles   dinosaurs & most immediate relatives. shortened forelimbs  perforated acetabulum,  hole in hip socket 1st is Asilisaurus
245 - 0 Dinosauromorpha is a clade of archosaurs that includes the clade Dinosauria (dinosaurs), and all animals more closely related to dinosaurs than to pterosaursBirds are the only surviving dinosauromorphs.
245 - 216 Prestosuchidae polyphyletic carnivorous archosaursapex predators, 2.5-7m 8.2-23'  succeeded   Erythrosuchidae as largest archosaurs resembling erythrosuchids but more advanced in their erect posture and crocodile-like ankle, for more efficient gait.  EuropeIndiaTanzaniaArgentina, Paleorrota in Brazil
245 - 230 15 Euparkeria "Parker's good animal", archosauriform S Africa. small reptile  close to Archosauria,
Dadadon  genus of traversodontid cynodonts which existed in Madagascar during the late Middle Triassic
 Dadadon isaloi.
247.2 - 242 5.2 Rhinodicynodon non-mammalian synapsid  Donguz FormationRussia.
Rhinocerocephalus   genus of dicynodont synapsid from the Middle Triassic of the Orenburg Oblast from Russia.
Shansiodon is a genus of dicynodont from Middle Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian) of China and South Africa
Andescynodon is a genus of traversodontid cynodonts from the Middle Triassic of Argentina.
245 - 0 Avemetatarsalia "bird metatarsals" is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodilians.[
245 Microgomphodon   genus of therocephalian therapsid from the Middle Triassic of South Africa and Namibia
244.6 Zambiasaurus  non-mammalian synapsids  Ntawere Formation of Zambia large dicynodont, 1 juvenile Zambiasaurus subersus. Zambiasaurus submersus[4] is the type species of the genus Zambiasaurus.  first Stahleckeriid, & 1st  outside S America
243 Xiyukannemeyeria is a genus of dicynodont from Middle Triassic (Anisian) of China. Originally was named as Parakannemeyeria brevirostris by Sun in 1978. But if included in Parakannemeyeria, this genus will not be a monophyletic group.
243 Possible beginning of Dinosaurs
probainognathians are members of one of the two major clades of  infraorder Eucynodontia, the other being Cynognathians. 1st were carnivorous and insectivorous, then herbivors 1st  is LumkuiaS Africa. 3 groups survived  Triassic extinction: 1 Tritheledontidae 2 Tritylodontidae, Xenocretosuchus, 3 Mammaliaformes
245 - 216.5 28.5 Probelesodon   genus of chiniquodontid cynodontsFossils have been found from Argentina and Brazil
Protheriodon  genus of cynodonts which existed in the Santa Maria Formation of the Paraná Basin in southeastern Brazil during the middle Triassic period. It contains the species Protheriodon estudianti
243 Sinosaurosphargis yunguiensis, Sinosaurosphargis, Sinosaurosphargiidae, Reptilia, Chordata "leatherback turtle" Guanling formation, China
242 - 225? 17 Sangusaurus   genus of large, non-mammalian synapsid 
Protuberum   genus of traversodontid cynodonts known from a single species Protuberum cabralense,[1] from the Middle Triassic of Brazil.[2
Madysaurus (Madygen reptile) genus of cynodonts which existed in Kyrgyzstan.
Scalenodon   genus of traversodontid cynodonts from the Middle Triassic of Africa and possibly Russia
Diademodon   genus of cynodonts. It was about 2m/6'6"
 Ladinian 242 - 37 5
242 - 237 5 Prestosuchus (meaning “Prestes crocodile”) is an extinct  pseudosuchian in the group Loricata, which also includes Saurosuchus and Postosuchus. It has historically been referred to as a "rauisuchian" and was the defining member of the family Prestosuchidae, though the validity of both of these groups is questionable: Rauisuchia is now considered paraphyletic and Prestosuchidae is polyphyletic in its widest form
242 - 199 43 Phytosaurs are an extinct group of large, mostly semiaquatic Late Triassic archosauriform reptiles. Phytosaurs belong to the family Phytosauridae and the order Phytosauria. Phytosauria and Phytosauridae are often considered to be equivalent groupings containing the same species, but some studies have identified non-phytosaurid phytosaurians. Phytosaurs were long-snouted and heavily armoured, bearing a remarkable resemblance to modern crocodilians in size, appearance, and lifestyle, as an example of convergence or parallel evolution.
242 - 199.6 42.4 Phytosaurs are an extinct group of large, mostly semiaquatic Late Triassic archosauriform reptiles. Phytosaurs belong to the family Phytosauridae and the order Phytosauria. 
Nanogomphodon  genus of cynodonts which existed in Germany 
Lumkuia   genus of probainognathian cynodonts. It is the earliest and most basal known member of Probainognathia, with fossils being found from the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group in the South African Karoo Basin
242 - 222 40 Vinceria   genus of kannemeyeriiform dicynodont in the family Shansiodontidae. Fossils of the genus have been found in the Anisian Cerro de las Cabras Formation and Carnian Río Seco de la Quebrada Formation of Argentina.[1]
Diademodon   genus of cynodonts. It was about 2m/6.6'  Burgersdorp Formation of the Beaufort Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. 
Rechnisaurus   genus of non-mammalian synapsid from the Middle Triassic (AnisianYerrapalli Formation of India.
242 - 235 7 Dinodontosaurus  dicynodont therapsid. one of the largest herbivores of   Triassic 2.4m/7.9' long 400lbs  beak corneum Dinodontosaurus turpior most common species Rio Grande do Sul, in Rota Paleontológica.  Paleontological Site Chiniquá in São Pedro do Sul and Candelária, 10 pups together,  caring for their offspring.
Dinodontosaurus pedroanum paleorrota, Brazil 8 fossils & Argentina 2 fossils
242 Wadiasaurus is an extinct genus of dicynodont, the remains of which were found in Yerrapalli Formation, India.
201.3 - 174.1  27.2  Tritylodon longaevus Three cusped tooth Hanson formation Antarctica Early Jurassic
201.3 - 174.1 27.2 Bienotherium yuannanese Lufeng formation China Early Jurassic
201.3 - 174.1 27.2 Sinoconodon rigneyi Chinese spike tooth China Early Jurassic
240 Stahleckeria dicynodonts. Brazil and Namibia.  group Kannemeyeriiformes, like Kannemeyeria.  Stahleckeria potens, Santa Maria Formation  Paleorrota fossil site of Brazil. 
240 Rabidosaurus  genus of large herbivorous dicynodont of the family Kannemeyeriidae from Russia.
Lives/Generations 15 - 1 15
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