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30 - 24
24 - 18
500 Fut 18 - 12 BC AD
12 - 6
6 - 0 million years ago
30M
30 - 0 M
6M
Lives/Generations 900,000 - 1 180,000  900 Km 10,000/Block
900,000 - 720,000 180,000 900 Km
0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
720,000 - 540,000 180,000 720 Km
2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5
540,000 - 360,000 180,000 540 Km
4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7
360,000 - 180,000 180,000 360 Km
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9
180,000 - 1 180,000 180 Km
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
17°
2353
N
76
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23
A
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17°
2353
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76
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23
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18°
2353
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76
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17°
2352
N
76
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23
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17°
2353
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76
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23
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18°
2353
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76
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23
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19°
2353
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76
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23
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.92
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19°
2353
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76
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23
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18°
2354
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76
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23
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18°
2354
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76
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23
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18°
2354
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76
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18°
2355
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76
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19°
2355
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76
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19°
2355
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76
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23
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19°
2355
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76
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19°
2356
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76
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18°
2356
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77
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22
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18°
2356
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77
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17°
2356
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77
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22
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.92
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17°
2357
N
77
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22
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.92
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17°
2357
N
77
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22
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.92
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17°
2357
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77
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16°
2358
N
77
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22
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.92
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16°
2358
N
77
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22
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15°
2358
N
78
O
21
A
.92
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15°
2358
N
78
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21
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.92
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15°
2359
N
78
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21
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.92
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.03
 
15°
2359
N
78
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21
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.92
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.03
14°
2359
N
78
O
21
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.92
C
.03
10°
24
N
78
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21
A
.92
C
.03
Pole Shifts (100 of 122 shown)
S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N S N

1st Galactic year 250 to present
 
Gigantopithecus 9 - 100,000 7,900,000
 
  Gorilla & Orangatan 17
Chimpanzee 4 - P
  Bon
Paleolithic Age 3.3M -
Gibbon, Siamang & Gorilla-Human <> Catarrhine Monkeys 36 Gibbon & Siamang <> Gorilla, Oranatan, Chimp, Bonobo, Human 24 Gibbon <> Siamang
10.2
  Or.4   H
Humans Separate fm Apes 6.5 - P
Tertiary Period (Upper Tertiary, Late Tertiary) 66 - 2.58 63.42
Rupelian Age
33.9 - 27.82
6.08
Chattian Age
27.82 - 23.03
7.79
Oligocene Epoch 33.9 - 23.03 10.87
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 37.97
Aquitanian Age
23.03 - 20.44
2.59
Burdigalian Age
20.44 - 15.97
4.47
Langhian Age
15.97 - 13.82
2.15
Serravalian Age
13.82 - 11.63
2.19
Tortonian Age
11.63 - 7.246
4.384
Messinian Age
7.246 - 5.333
1.913
Miocene Epoch 23.03 - 5.333 17.697
Zanclean5.3 - 3.6
Piacenzian3.6 - 2.6
Pliocene Epoch
5.3 - 2.58
Neogene Period 23.03 - 2.58
       
Pl
     
Ho
Quaternary
2.58 - Present
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
30 - 24
24 - 18
500 Fut 18 - 12 BC AD
12 - 6
6 - 0 million years ago
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 37.97
Oligocene Epoch 33.9 - 23.03 10.87
Rupelian Age
33.9 - 27.82
6.08
30 Aegyptopithecus - Haplorrhini splits into infraorders Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. New World monkeys have prehensile tails & males are color blind. They migrated to South America Catarrhines mostly stayed in Africa as two continents drifted apart. Other ancient catarrhines include today's lemurs. Soon catarrhine males gain color vision but lose pheromone pathway.
Chattian Age
27.82 - 23.03
7.79
0 Paragloborotalia kugleri Extinct
0 Reticulofenestra bisecta Extinct
25 Proconsul Catarrhini splits into 2 superfamilies, Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) & apes (Hominoidea).
They had a mixture of Old World monkey & ape characteristics. Proconsul's monkey-like features include thin tooth enamel, a light build with a narrow chest & short forelimbs, & an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. Its ape-like features are its lack of a tail, ape-like elbows, & a slightly larger brain relative to body size.
23 - 14 9 Proconsul africanus is a possible ancestor of both great & lesser apes, & humans.
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 37.97
Oligocene Epoch 33.9 - 23.03 10.87
Chattian Age
27.82 - 23.03
7.79

- Tectonic plate movement is still very dynamic. Africa & Europe nearly collide, closing Tethys Sea & leaving as a remnant Mediterranean Sea. Volcanism & fragmentation of western North America is associated with emplacement of major ore deposits.

southeren ocean forms & climate is generally temperate. Glaciation begins in Antarctica.
Representatives of modern mammals become dominant vertebrate life form, including horses, pigs, true carnivores, rhinoceroses, elephants, & camels.
Oreodonts diversify in North America. Early primates appear in North America, & early apes appear in Egypt. Many archaic mammals become extinct.
53.5 Cetaceans (baleen & "toothed" whales)
Grasslands expand, & forests diminish.
Neogene Period 23.03 - 2.58
Miocene Epoch 23.03 - 5.333 17.697
Aquitanian Age
23.03 - 20.44
2.59
Burdigalian Age
20.44 - 15.97
4.47

Modern ocean currents are essentially established.

A drop in sea level near end of Epoch isolates & dries up Mediterranean Sea, leaving evaporite deposits on its floor.
climate is generally cooler than Oligocene Epoch.
A cold transantarctic ocean current isolates waters around Antarctica, & continent becomes permanently frozen.
Mammal forms are essentially modern, & almost half of modern placental mammal families are present. ancestor of mastodons disperse into North America.
Almost all modern groups of whales are present, as well as early seals & walruses.
Many modern birds—herons, rails, ducks, eagles, hawks, crows, sparrows—are present in Europe & Asia.
Higher primates undergo substantial evolution; advanced primates, including apes, are present in southern Europe & Asia.
Carcharocles megalodon, largest predaceous shark ever to have lived, inhabits seas.
coasts are submerged & kelp forests develop. On land, grasslands replace forests over large areas on several continents.
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Neogene Period 23.03 - 2.58
Miocene Epoch 23.03 - 5.333 17.697
Burdigalian Age
20.44 - 15.97
4.47
Langhian Age
15.97 - 13.82
2.15
15 Human ancestors speciate from ancestors of gibbon (lesser apes).
Serravalian Age
13.82 - 11.63
2.19
13 Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Common ancestor of humans & great apes
13 Human ancestors >< ancestors of great apes.

- Plate tectonics & volcanic activity form Rockies in western North America.

Erosion fills basins. Continental collisions between India & Asia culminate in Alpine-Himalayan mountain system. Antarctica & Australia continue to separate & drift apart.
climate is subtropical & moist throughout North America & Europe.
Early forms of horse
rhinoceros
camel
bats
Creodonts  
ruminant ungulates
Archaic whales (archeocetes) >< terrestrial meat-eating ungulates.
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Neogene Period 23.03 - 2.58
Miocene Epoch 23.03 - 5.333 17.697
Serravalian Age
13.82 - 11.63
2.19
Tortonian Age
11.63 - 7.246
4.384
10 Human ancestors speciate from ancestors of gorillas.
Messinian Age
7.246 - 5.333
1.913
7 - 6.2 .8 Sahelanthropus tchadensis Human ancestors speciate from ancestors of chimpanzees.
6.1-5.7 .4 Orrorin
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Neogene Period 23.03 - 2.58
Miocene Epoch 23.03 - 5.333 17.697
Messinian Age
7.246 - 5.333
1.913
Pliocene Epoch 5.333 - 2.58 2.753
Zanclean Age 5.3 - 3.6 2.7
Piacenzian Age 3.6 - 2.6 1
Quaternary Period 2.58 - Present
Pleistocene Epoch 2.58 million - 11,700
Gelasian Age 2.58 - 1.8 .78
2.5 - P 2.5 Sirenians (dugongs & manatees) first evolve in shallow Tethys Sea.
Calabrian Age 1.8 - 781,000 1,019,000
Chibanian Age 781 - 126 655
Taran
Holocene Epoch
11,650 years ago to present
Greenlandian Age
11,650 - 6,236 5414
Northgrippian
- 2,250
 3986
Meghalayan Age
4,250 - Present
Pole Shifts: South Pole black North Pole White
29.7 - 29.6 100,000 South
29.6 - 29.3 300,000 North
29.3 - 28.7 600,000 South
28.7 - 28.5 200,000 North
28.5 - 28.4 100,000 South
28.4 - 28.2 200,000 North
28.2 - 27.9 300,000 South
27.9 - 27 900,000 North
27 - 26.5 500,000 South
26.5 - 26 500,000 North
26 - 25.9 100,000 South
25.9 - 25.8 100,000 North
25.8 - 25.7 100,000 South
25.7 - 25.5 200,000 North
25.5 - 25.2 300,000 South
25.2 - 24.9 300,000 North
24.9 - 24.8 South
24.8 - 24.7 North
24.7 - 24.1 South
24.1 - 24 North
24 - 23.8 South
23.8 - 23.7 North
23.7 - 23.6 South
23.6 - 23.4 North
23.4 - 23.1 South
23.1 - 22.9 North
22.9 - 22.8 South
22.8 - 22.7 North
22.7 - 22.6 South
22.6 - 22.5 North
22.5 - 22.3 South
22.3 - 22.2 North
22.2 - 21.9 South
21.9 - 21.8 North
21.8 - 21.4 South
21.4 - 21.1 North
21.1 - 20.8 South
20.8 - 20.6 North
20.6 - 20.2 South
20.2 - 19 North
19 - 18.8 South
18.8 - 18.3 North
18.3 - 17.6 South
17.6 - 17.3 North
17.3 - 16.7 South
16.7 - 16.6 North
16.6 - 16.5 South
16.5 - 16.4 North
16.4 - 16.3 South
16.3 - 16 North
16 - 15.2 South
15.2 - 15.1 North
15.1 - 14.9 South
14.9 - 14.8 North
14.8 - 14.6 South
14.6 - 14.2 North
14.2 - 14.1 South
14.1 - 13.7 North
13.7 - 13.6 South
13.6 - 13.4 North
13.4 - 13.3 South
13.3 - 13.1 North
13.1 - 13 South
13 - 12.9 North
12.9 - 12.8 South
12.8 - 12.7 North
12.7 - 12.5 South
12.5 - 12.3 North
12.3 - 12.2 South
12.2 - 12 North
12 - 11.7 South
11.7 - 11.6 North
11.6 - 11.3 South
11.3 - 11.2 North
11.2 - 11.1 South
11.1 - 10.1 North
10.1 - 10 South
10 - 9.9 North
9.9 - 9.8 South
9.8 - 9.7 North
9.7 - 9.6 South
9.6 - 9.5 North
9.5 - 9.3 South
9.3 - 9.2 North
9.2 - 9 South
9 - 8.7 North
8.7 - 8.3 South
8.3 - 8.2 North
8.2 - 8.1 South
8.1 - 7.7 North
7.7 - 7.6 South
7.6 - 7.5 North
7.5 - 7.4 South
7.4 - .3 North
7.3 - 7.2 South
7.2 - 7.1 North
7.1 - 7 South
7 - 6.9 North
6.9 - 6.6 South
6.6 - 6.3 North
6.3 - 6.2 South
6.2 - 5.9 North
5.9 - 5.2 South
5.2 - 5 North
5 - 4.9 South
4.9 - 4.8 North
4.8 - 4.7 South
4.7 - .5 North
4.5 - 4.4 South
4.4 - .3 North
4.3 - 3.6 South
3.6 - .4 North
3.4 - 3.3 South
3.3 - .2 North
3.2 - 3.1 South
3.1 - 2.6 North
2.6 - 2 South
2 - 1.9 North
1.9 - 1.2 South
1.2 - 1.1 North
1.1 - 900 K South
900K - Present North
Lives/Generations 15 - 1 15
160,000 Colors 10000
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160,000 Colors 10000
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160,000 Colors 10000
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 160,000 Colors 10000
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