30 - 24
24 - 18
18 - 12
12 - 6
6 - 0 million years ago
30M
30 - 0 M
6M
1st Galactic year 250 to present
Tertiary 65 - 2.7
Quaternary
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
Paleogene Period 65.5 - 23
   
Rupelian
Chattian 28.4 - 23
Neogene Period 23 - 2.6
     
 
Aquitanian
23 - 20.4
Burdigalian
20.4 - 16
Langhian
16 - 13.7
Serravalian
13.7 - 11.6
Tortonian
11.6 - 7.2
Messinian
7.2 - 5.3
Zanclean
5.3 - 3.6
Piacenzian
3.6 - 2.6
 
Oligocene Epoch 34 - 23
Miocene Epoch 23 - 5.3
Pliocene Epoch
5.3 - 2.6
Pl
Tertiary Period 65 - 1.8 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                       
South Pole


(There are 22 more pole shifts that represented above)
- 29.7 - 29.6
- 29.3 - 28.7
- 28.5 - 28.4
- 28.2 - 27.9
- 27 - 26.5
- 26 - 25.9
- 25.8 - 25.7
- 25.5 - 25.2
- 24.9 - 24.8
- 24.7 - 24.1
Miocene Epoch 24 - 5

- Modern ocean currents are essentially established. A drop in sea level near the end of the Epoch isolates and dries up the Mediterranean Sea, leaving evaporite deposits on its floor.
The climate is generally cooler than the Oligocene Epoch. A cold transantarctic ocean current isolates the waters around Antarctica, and the continent becomes permanently frozen.

- Mammal forms are essentially modern, and almost half of modern placental mammal families are present. The ancestor of mastodons disperse into North America.
Almost all the modern groups of whales are present, as well as the early seals and walruses.
Many modern birds—herons, rails, ducks, eagles, hawks, crows, sparrows—are present in Europe and Asia.
Higher primates undergo substantial evolution; advanced primates, including apes, are present in southern Europe and Asia.
Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predaceous shark ever to have lived, inhabits the seas.
The coasts are submerged and kelp forests develop. On land, grasslands replace forests over large areas on several continents.
- 33.9 - 28.4 Rupelian Age
- 30 Aegyptopithecus - Haplorrhini splits into infraorders Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. New World monkeys have prehensile tails and males are color blind. They migrated to South America Catarrhines mostly stayed in Africa as the two continents drifted apart. Other ancient catarrhines include today's lemurs. Soon catarrhine males gain color vision but lose the pheromone pathway.
- 25 Proconsul Catarrhini splits into 2 superfamilies, Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) and apes (Hominoidea).
They had a mixture of Old World monkey and ape characteristics. Proconsul's monkey-like features include thin tooth enamel, a light build with a narrow chest and short forelimbs, and an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle. Its ape-like features are its lack of a tail, ape-like elbows, and a slightly larger brain relative to body size.
Proconsul africanus is a possible ancestor of both great and lesser apes, and humans.
South Pole

- 24 - 23.8
- 23.7 - 23.6
- 23.4 - 23.1
- 22.9 - 22.8
- 22.7 - 22.6
- 22.5 - 22.3
- 22.2 - 21.9
- 21.8 - 21.4
- 21.1 - 20.8
- 20.6 - 20.2
- 19 - 18.8
Oligocene Epoch 34 - 24

- Tectonic plate movement is still very dynamic. Africa and Europe nearly collide, closing the Tethys Sea and leaving as a remnant the Mediterranean Sea. Volcanism and fragmentation of western North America is associated with the emplacement of major ore deposits.
The southeren ocean forms and the climate is generally temperate. Glaciation begins in Antarctica.

- Representatives of modern mammals become the dominant vertebrate life form, including horses, pigs, true carnivores, rhinoceroses, elephants, and camels. Oreodonts diversify in North America. Early primates appear in North America, and early apes appear in Egypt. Many archaic mammals become extinct.
The earliest representatives of modern cetaceans (baleen and "toothed" whales) evolve.
Grasslands expand, and forest regions diminish.
- 23 - 2.6 Neogene Period
South Pole

- 18.3 - 17.6
- 17.3 - 16.7
- 16.6 - 16.5
- 16.4 - 16.3
- 16 - 15.2
- 15.1 - 14.9
- 14.8 - 14.6
- 14.2 - 14.1
- 13.7 - 13.6
- 13.4 - 13.3
- 13.1 - 13
- 12.9 - 12.8
- 12.7 - 12.5
- 12.3 - 12.2

- Plate tectonics and volcanic activity form the Rockies in western North America. Erosion fills basins. Continental collisions between India and Asia culminate in the Alpine-Himalayan mountain system. Antarctica and Australia continue to separate and drift apart.
The climate is subtropical and moist throughout North America and Europe.

- Early forms of horse, rhinoceros, camel, and other modern groups such as bats evolve in Europe and North America. Creodonts and ruminant ungulates evolve.
Archaic whales (archeocetes) evolve from terrestrial meat-eating ungulates. Sirenians (dugongs and manatees) first evolve in the shallow Tethys Sea.
- 15 Human ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the gibbon (lesser apes).
- 13 Human ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the great apes.
Pierolapithecus catalaunicus is believed to be a common ancestor of humans and the great apes or at least a species that brings us closer to a common ancestor than any previous fossil discovery.
Pierolapithecus had special adaptations for tree climbing, just as humans and other great apes do: a wide, flat ribcage, a stiff lower spine, flexible wrists, and shoulder blades that lie along its back.

South Pole

- 12 - 11.7
-
11.7 - .6
- 11.6 - 11.3
-
11.3 - .2
- 11.2 - 11.1
-
11.1 - 10.1
- 10.1 - 10
-
10 - 9.9
- 9.9 - 9.8
-
9.8 - .7
- 9.7 - 9.6
-
9.6 - .5
- 9.5 - 9.3
-
9.3 - .2
- 9.2 - 9
-
9 - 8.7
- 8.7 - 8.3
-
8.3 - .2
- 8.2 - 8.1
-
8.1 - 7.7
- 7.7 - 7.6
-
7.6 - .5
- 7.5 - 7.4
-
7.4 - .3
- 7.3 - 7.2
-
7.2 - .1
- 7.1 - 7
-
7 - 6.9
- 6.9 - 6.6
-
6.6 - .3
- 6.3 - 6.2
Paleocene 65 - 54.8

- During the, the vast inland seas of the Cretaceous Period dry up, exposing large land areas in North America and Eurasia. Australia begins to separate from Antarctica, and Greenland splits from North America. A remnant Tethys Sea persists in the equatorial region.

- Mammalian life diversifies, spreading into all major environments. Placental mammals eventually dominate the land, and many differentiated forms evolve, including early ungulates (hoofed animals), primates, rodents, and carnivores.
- 10 Human ancestors speciate from the ancestors of the gorillas.
- 7 Humans in Africa
South Pole - North Pole
- 5.9 - 5.2
-
5.2 - 5
- 5 - 4.9
-
4.9 - .8
- 4.8 - 4.7
-
4.7 - .5
- 4.5 - 4.4
-
4.4 - .3
- 4.3 - 3.6
-
3.6 - .4
- 3.4 - 3.3
-
3.3 - .2
- 3.2 - 3.1
-
3.1 - 2.6
- 2.6 - 2
-
2 - 1.9
- 1.9 - 1.2
-
1.2 - .1
- 1.1 - 900 K
- 5 - 1.8 Pliocene Epoch
- 2.7 - Present Quaternary Period
- 1.8 million - 10 K Pleistocene Epoch