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60 - 54
54 - 48
500 Fut 48 - 42 BC AD
42 - 36
36 - 30
30M
60 - 30 M
6M
PHP Hits Count Visitors
Lives/Generations 15 - 1 15
1,800,000 - 1,620,000 180,000 1,800 Km
0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
1,620,000 - 1,440,000 180,000 1,620 Km
2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5
1,440,000 - 1,260,000 180,000 1,440 Km
4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7
1,260,000 - 1,080,000 180,000 1,260 Km
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9
1,080,000 - 900,000 180,000 1,080 Km
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Pole Shifts 43
South North South North South North South North South North South North South North South North South North South
1st Galactic year 250 to present
Tertiary Period 66 - 2.58 63.42
Selan Thanetian Age
59.2 - 56 3.2
Paleocene Epoch 66 - 56
Ypresian Age
56 - 47.8
8.2
Boverisuchus
Lutetian Age
47.8 - 41.2 6.6
Bartonian
41.2 - 37.8 3.4
Priabonian Age
37.8 - 33.9
3.9
Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Rupelian Age
33.9 - 27.82
6.08
Oligocene Epoch

33.9 - 23.3 10.6
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 37.97
Cenozoic Era 65 - Present
60 - 54
54 - 48
500 Fut 48 - 42 BC AD
42 - 36
36 - 30
Cenozoic Era 66 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 42.97
Paleocene Epoch 66 - 56 10
Selandian Age 61.6 - 59.2 2.4
60 - 58 2 Puentemys P. mushaisaensis, †Puentemys, †Foxemydina, †Bothremydidae, Pleurodira, Teatudines, Reptila, 2012 Correjon formation, Colombia
60 - 50 10 Barylambda B. faberi, †Barylambda, †Pantodonta, †Cimolesta, Mammalia. Chrdata 3Sp 1933 N America
66 - 0 Peter's elephantnose fish, Gnathonemus petersii, Gnathonemus, Mormyridae, Osteoglossiformes, Actinopterygii. 2Sp Least concern
60 - 58 2 Titanaboa T. cerrejonensis, Titanaboa, Boidea, Serpentes Squamata, Reptilia, Amazon basin 2009 Paleocene
60 - 58 2 Waimanu W. manneringi, Waimanu, Spheniscoformes, Aves, New Zealand
66 - 0 Common potoo Nyctibius griseus, Nyctibius, Nyctibiidae, Caprimulgiformes, Aves, C and S America  Least concern
60 Meteora rock formation C Greece earth movements pushed the seabed upward, creating a high plateau and causing many vertical fault lines in the thick layer of sandstone. 
60 Cedar Breaks National Monument shalelimestone, and sandstone ancient lake Claron 70/250m / 110/400km erodes 2"/50mm every 5 years
60 Hippos >< whales from artiodactyls 
60 - 0 Ungulates  mammals with hooves.  odd-toed ungulates: horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates: cattlepigsgiraffescamelsdeer, and hippopotamusessub-ungulates:  elephants.
60 - 56 10 Phosphatherium P. escuillei, Probosciderium, Numidotheriidae, Proboscidea, Mammalia,
60 Eritherium   Proboscidea Ouled Abdoun basinMorocco. 1S   oldest, smallest and most primitive known elephant
Eritherium azzouzorum.
60 - 11,000  Channel Islands pygmy mammoth 1.72m/5.6' tall 760kg/1,680lb 4.3m/14ft 9,070/20,000lb Channel Islands of California. Evolved from Columbian mammoths.
60 - 50 10 Crescent volcanicsOlympic Peninsula/ southern Vancouver Island 
60? - 0 Tethytheria Mirorder of  Paenungulata Superorder of  Afrotheria Magnorder of Placentalia Subdivision of Mammalia Class. Elephants, dugongs, and manatees
60 - 0 Proboscidea (elephants) Order of Tethytheria Mirorder of  Paenungulata Superorder of  Afrotheria Magnorder of Placentalia Subdivision of Mammalia Class
60 - 0 Gliriforme Grandorder
 
60 - 0 Pangolins, or scaly anteaters Order Pholidota Mirorder Ferae Superorder Laurasiatheria
 
60 - 58 2 Titanoboa La Guajira in northeastern Colombia
Thanetian Age 59.2 - 56 3.2

Numidotheriidae †Plesielephantiformes, Proboscidea, Mammalia, Fragmentary fossils (mainly teeth) 4Sp. 1922. Ouled Abdun Basin, Morocco.  niche of modern hippopotamus & Moeritherium,  soft, aquatic plants in marshy environments. Not direct ancestors of modern elephants, but a collateral branch.

56 - 47.8 8.2 Daouitherium D. rebouli, †Daouitherium, †Numidotheriidae, †Plesielephantiformes, Proboscidea, Mammalia, 2002
Numidotherium is known from an almost complete skeleton S Algeria and Libya. 1 m in length
Phosphatherium, for instance, was only 60 cm long and weighed about 15 kg
Plesielephantiformes   suborder of large herbivorous mammals that were closely related to elephants.
59 - 0 Atlantic sailfish, Istiophorus albicans, Istiophorus, Istiophoridae, Istiophoriformes, Actinopterygii, Atantic, 3.15m/10.3' 58.1kg/128.1lb 1804 Least concern
59 - 0 European hornet V. crabro, Vespa, Vespidae, Hymenoptera, Insecta, Arthropoda Europe 
59 - 0 European wasp V. germanica, Vespula, Vespidae, Apocrita, Hymenoptera, INsecta, Arthropoda 1793 Eurasia & N Africa
59 - 0 Longheaded eagle ray A. flagellus, Aetobatus, Myliobatidae, Myliobatiformes, Chondrichthyes, Indo-Pacific Endangered
58.7 - 0 Cingulata,  Xenarthra, Mammalia 1811 3Ge
58.7 - 0 Ameridelphia is traditionally a superorder Marsupial Infraclass of Mammal Class Americas. Evolved in Antartcica and moved north
58.5 - 0 Sterba's corydoras, Corydoras sterbai, Guapore river, Brazil & Bolivia, Near threatened
58.1 - 50.7 .4 Siletz River Volcanico  Oregon Coast Range, United States
58 - 41 17 Riostegotherium R. yanei, Riostegotherium, Xenarthra, Mammalia, "covered beast", 1998 Rio, SE Brazil 
58 Thames river. 13th oldest. Emties N Sea.
58 Castle Rock is a butte in the Colorado Piedmont region of the Great Plains
58 - 0 Australidelphia  superorder of Marsupial subfamily of Mammal Family  Australasia and a single species[i] from South America 
58 - 0 Microbiotheria order Marsupial subfamily has  two families, Microbiotheriidae and Woodburnodontidae
58 - 0 Microbiotheriidae  family Microbiotheria order
66 - 61.6 4.4 Carpolestes simponi "Fruit robber", †Carpolestes, †Carpolestidae, †Carpolestoidea, †Plesiadapiformes, Mammalia, 100g arboreal 1998
58 - 0 Green sea turtle Chelonia mydas, Chelonia, Cheloniidae, Cheloniidae, Chelonioidea, Cryptodira, Testudines, Reptilia, Endangered 1800
57 - 46 11 Coryphodon C. eocaenus, "Peaked tooth", †Coryphodon, †Coryphodontidae, †Pantodonta, †Cimolesta, Mammalia, 1m/3.3' tall 2.5m/8.2' long. Brain 90g/3.2oz Body 500kg/1,100lb Small brain to body. 1845 Mongolia
57 - 0 Lagomorpha, Gilires, Euarchontoglires, Boreoeutheria, Exafroplacentalia, Mammalia, 3Fa 1855
57 - 1989 Golden toad Incilius periglenes, Incilius, Bufonidae, Anura, Amphibia, 1966 42-56mm M86% 1966 Costa Rica
57 - 0 Cane toad Rhinella merianae, Rhinella, Bufonidae, Anura. Amphibia, C America and Amazon basin 1758 Least Concern
57 - 0 Rodents
57 Kumimanu K. biceae, Kumimanu, Sphenisciformes, Aves, "Monster bird". New Zealand
Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Ypresian Age 56 - 47.8 8.2
55.8 - 33.9 11.9 Oxygen doubled, beginning Eocene. 
56 - 0 Rhinoceros hornbill Buceros rhinoceros, Buceros, Bucerotidae, Bucerotiformes, Aves, . 80-90cm/31-35" 2,465-2,960g/87-104.4oz 79%1758 SE Asia NT
56 - 0 Eastern long-necked turtle, Chelodina longicollis, Chelodina, Chelodina, Chelidae, Pleurodira, Testudines, Reptilia, 1794 E Australia,  Least concern
56 - 0 Garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus, Eliomys, Gliridae, Rodentia, Mammalia, . 10-15cm/3.9-5.9", 60-140g/2.1-4.9oz 1766 Europe, Near threatened
56 - 33.9 16.1 Necrolemur antiquus, N antiquus, †Necrolemur, †Microchoerinae, †Omomydae, Haplorhini, Primates Mammalia, "Dead lemur" 3Sp Germany 1873
56 - 47 9 Teilhardina belgica, †Teilhardina, †Anaptomorphini, †Anaptomorphinae, †Omomydae, Haplorhini, Primates, Mammalia, N America, Europe & Asia, 6Sp  1927
56 Phosphatherium escullei, †Phosphatherium, †Numidotheriidae, Proboscidea, Mammalia, "Phosphate beast", Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco  1996
56 - 33.9 22.1 Eomanis waldi, "Dawn pangolin", Eomanis, Eomanidae, Pholidota, Mammalia, 2Sp Germany, 1978
56 - 33.9 22.1 Stylinodon mirus, Pillar tooth, North America, Stylinodon mirus Pillar tooth
56 - 0 Threetooth puffer, Triodon macropterus, Triodon, Triodontidae, Tetraodontiformes, Actinopterygii, 1831 Indo-Pacific ocean, Least concern
56 - 0 Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, Katsuwonus, Thunnini, Scombrinae, Scomridae, Scombriformes, Actinopterygii, 1758 worldwide,  Least concern
56 - 0 Atlantic flyingfish, C. melanurus, Cheilopogon, Exocoetidae, Beloniformes, Actinopterygii, . 32cm/12.6" Swim 19mph/30kmh Glide 3-12m/10-40' to avoid predators. 1848 Atlantic, Least concern
56 - 0 Geography cone, Conus geographus, Conus, Conidae, Conoidea, Neogastropoda, Hypsogastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Gastropoda, Mollusca. 4-6"/10-15cm 1758 Indo-Pacific ocean, Least concern
56 - 0 Giant prickly stick E. tiaratum, Extatosoma, Extatosomatina, Phasmatidea, Phasmatodea, Insecta, Arthropoda. 1826. E Australia 
56 - 0 Phyllium giganteum, Phyllium, Phylliidae, Phasmatodea, Insecta, Arthropoda. 1984. Malasia
56 - 33.9 22.1 Pristichampsus "Saw crocodile" P. rollinatii, †Pristichampsus, †Pristichampsidae, Crocodilia, Reptilia, . 3Sp 1831. France
56 - 0 Pacific electric ray T. californica, Tetronarce, Torpedinidae, Torpediniformes. Easmorbranchii, Chondrichthyes, 1855. california E Pacific ocean Least concern
56 - 45 11 Gastornis G. parisiensis, Gastornis, Gastornithidae, Gastornithiformes, Aves,   6Sp 1855 Europe
56 - 0 Bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus, Thunnus, Thunnus, Scombridae, Scombriformes, Actinopterygii, . 1Sp. 1839. Tropical zone Vulnerable
56 - 54.5 1.5 Fur Marine Formation  crops out in the Limfjord region of Denmark
56 - 0 Cetancodontamorpha, Cetruminantia, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, 2009
56 - 0 Ruminantia, Ruminantiamorpha, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, . cattlegoatssheepdeer, and antelope.   foregut fermentation and are ruminants: they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way to begin with, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to rechew it and thus extract the maximum possible food value.
56 - 0 Whippomorpha  Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and their closest living relatives, the hippopotamuses, named by Waddell et al. (1999).   crown group, including all species that are descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Hippopotamus amphibiusand Tursiops truncatus. This would be a subgrouping of the Cetartiodactyla (which also includes pigs and ruminants).
56 - 0  Cetruminantia are a clade made up of the Cetacodontamorpha (or Whippomorpha) and their closest living relatives, the Ruminantia.
56 - 55,950 50,000 Massive carbon release. ~12,000 Gt carbon (>44000 Gt CO2e) 50,000 years, averaging  0.24 Gt per year.  current rate of carbon injection into the atmosphere is over 10 GtC/yr, 
56 - 55,800 200,000 Global warming 5-8 °C.
Effects
Ocean:  freshwater in the Arctic Ocean increased, in part due to northern hemisphere rainfall patterns, fueled by poleward storm track migrations under global warming conditions
N Atlantic & others bioturbation absent due to bottom-water anoxia, or changing circulation patterns changing the temperatures of bottom water.
Sea Level: Despite the global lack of ice, the sea level would have risen due to thermal expansion.[17] Evidence for this can be found in the shifting palynomorph assemblages of the Arctic Ocean, which reflect a relative decrease in terrestrial organic material compared to marine organic matter.
Currents At the start of the PETM, the ocean circulation patterns changed radically in the course of under 5,000 years.  Global-scale current directions reversed due to a shift in overturning from the southern hemisphere to northern hemisphere overturning.[33] This "backwards" flow persisted for 40,000 years.[33] Such a change would transport warm water to the deep oceans, enhancing further warming.[
Land: Humid conditions caused migration of modern Asian mammals northward, dependent on the climatic belts. Uncertainty remains for the timing and tempo of migration.[49]

The increase in mammalian abundance is intriguing. Increased CO
2 levels may have promoted dwarfing[50][51] – which may have encouraged speciation. Many major mammalian orders – including the Artiodactyla, horses, and primates – appeared and spread around the globe 13,000 to 22,000 years after the initiation of the PETM.

56 - 28 28 Embrithopoda ("heavy-footed") is an order  of extinct mammals known from Asia, Africa and eastern Europe. Most of the embrithopod genera are known exclusively from jaws and teeth dated from the late Paleocene to the late Eocene, but the order is best known from its terminal member, the elephantine Arsinoitherium.[
56 Odd-toed ungulates
56 - 0 Longhorn cowfish, Lactoria cornuta, Lactoria, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontiformes, Actinopterygii, 1758. W Pacific, Status not evaluated
56 - 0 Regal tang, Paracanthurus hepatus, Indo-Pacific ocean, Least concern
55.8 - 0 Rock hyrax, P. capensis, Procavia, Procaviidae, Hyracoidea, Mammalia, 1766 Sub-saharan Africa, Middle East, Least concern
55.8 - 0 Hyraxes
55.8 - 0 Pilosa Order (anteaters and sloths),  Xenarthra Magnorder
55.8 - 0 Sirenia (dugongs and manatees) order of Tethytheria Mirorder of  Paenungulata Superorder of  Afrotheria Magnorder of Placentalia Subdivision of Mammalia Class
55.8 - 0 Hyracoidea (hyraxes) order of Paenungulata Superorder of  Afrotheria  Magnorder of Placentalia Subdivision of Mammalia Class
Silver Bell Caldera (size: 8 km wide), Arizona; 55.8 Ma; unknown amount of Mount Laird Tuff.
55.8 - 48.6 7.2 Gomphos elkema Peg China & Mongolia
56 - 45 11 Gastornis EnglandBelgiumFrance and Germany, North America, China
55.4 - 46.2 9.2 Diacodexis pakistanensis N America and Eurasia
55 - 0 Brown long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus, Eurasia, Least concern
55 - 0 Birdlike noctule, Nyctaalus aviator, E Asia,  Near threatened
55 - 0 Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Least concern
55 - 0 Prussian carp, Carassius gibilio, Siberia,   Least concern
55 - 0 Paedocypris progenetica, Sumatra, Near threatened
55 - 0 Tokay gecko Gekko gecko SE Asia  Least concern
55 - 0 Schlegel's Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus E Asia Least concern
55 - 0 Mexican mole lizard Bipes biporus California and Mexico  Least concern
55 - 0 Helmeted guineafowl Numida meleacui 9 ss Africa
55 - 35 20  Miacis parvivorus Mother animal N America Europe and China
4 Vulpavus palustris Fox grandfather N Ameria Eocene 55 - 48 Ma
25 Onychocerus albitarsis Brazil 55 - Present
55 - 0  Titan beetle Titanus giganteus N South America
55 - 0 Bluefin trevally, Caranx melampygus, Near threatened
55 - 0 primate
55 Daouitherium ("Sidi Daoui beast" from the name of the site where it was discovered)  genus of early proboscideans (a group including modern elephants and their extinct relatives) that lived during the early Eocene (Ypresian stage) some 55 million years ago in North Africa.

Remains of this animal, fragments of jaws and teeth, have been found in the Ouled Abdoun Basin in Morocco. It is estimated to have weighed between 80 and 170 kg (180 and 370 lb), making it one of the earliest large mammals known from Africa and one of the oldest known proboscideans.[1] Another estimate gives a weight of 200 kg (440 lb).

55 - 23 32 Archaeoceti ("ancient whales"), or Zeuglodontes in older literature, is a paraphyletic group of primitive cetaceans that lived from the Early Eocene to the late Oligocene(55 to 23 
55 - 0 even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla, from Ancient Greek ἄρτιος, ártios, meaning 'even', and δάκτυλος, dáktylos, meaning 'finger / toe') are ungulates – hoofed animals – which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on one (an odd number) of the five toes: the third toe. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulosein one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do.

The aquatic cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) evolved from even-toed ungulates, so modern taxonomic classification combines the two under the name Cetartiodactyla.

The roughly 220 land-based even-toed ungulate species include pigspeccarieshippopotamusesantelopesmouse deerdeergiraffescamelsllamasalpacassheepgoats, and cattle. Many of these are of great dietary, economic, and cultural importance to humans.

55 - 0 tapir
55 - 44 11 Southern Gulf Islands consist mainly of former seabed sediments crumpled and gradually thrust upward by tectonic plate movement
55  Djarthia marsupial ancestor of Monito del monte
55 - 0 monito del monte little monkey of the bush") or colocolo opossum Argenina & Chile
50? - 0 50? Eohippus North America
Cenozoic Era 66 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 42.97
Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Ypresian Age 56 - 47.8 8.2
55 - 0 Eohippus horses Equidae  North America 
54 - 38 16 Notharctus tenebrosus, Notharctus, Notharctidae, Strepsirrhini, Primates, Mammalia, "False bear" 1870 N America
53.7 - 49 4.7 Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2).
53 Volcanos stop warming period.
53 - 45Cetacian's initial diversification of whales shallow waters between India & Asia  30Sp
53 - 0 Sacred scarab Scarabaeus sacer, Scarabaeus, Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera, Insecta, Arthropoda. 1758 Mediterranean basin
53 - 0 Black-tailed jackrabbit, L. californicus, Lepus, Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia, N America, Least concern
52.5 - 0 House sparrow Passer domesticus, Passer, Passeridae, Passeriformes, Aves, 12ss 1758 Eurasia Least concern
52.5 - 0 Eurasian tree sparrow P. montanus, Passer, Passeridae, Passeriformes, Aves, 15 ss 1768 Eurasia Least concern
52.5 - 0 Russet sparrow Passer cinnamomeus E asia Least concern
52.5 - 0 Java sparrow Lonchura oryzivora Indonesia Least concern
52.5 Icaronycteis index, "Icarus night flyer", †Icaronycteris, †Icaronycteridae, Chiroptera, Mammalia, 3Sp Green river formation, USA
52.5 - 0 Hooded pitohui P. dichrous, Pitohui, Oriolidae, Passeriformes, Aves, New Guinea 1850 Least concern
52.5 - 0 Lawes's parotia P. lawesii, Parotia, Paradisaeidae, Passeriformes, Aves, Papua New Guinea  1885 Least concern
52.5  Onychonycteris finneyi, †Onychonycteris, †Onychonycteridae, Chiroptera, Mammalia, . "Clawed bat", Greene river formation, USA
52 - 48 4 Pakicetus inachus, "Pakistan whale" Pakicetus, Pakicetidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, Pakistan
52 - 0 Archaeoceti 1st cetaceans protowhale Pakicetus & others
52 - 48 4  Pakicetidae "Pakistani whales"   Pakistan. 1996 amphibious
52 - 48 4 Pakicetus P. inachus, Pakicetus, Pakicetidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia,1st whale. 1-2m/3'3"-6'7" 1996
53 - 0 Rabbit & Hare
50 - 0 Hooded pitohui P. dichrous, Pitohui, Oriolidae, Passeriformes, Aves, 1850 New Guinea Least concern
50 Pezosiren "Wallking siren" P. portelli, †Pezosiren, †Prorastomidae, Sirenia, Mammalia, , 2001 Jamaica
50 - 1890 N Island takahe P. mantelli, Porphyrio, Rallidae, Gruiformes, Aves, 1848 N New Zealand
50 - 0 Okinawa rail, G. okinawae, Gallirallus, Rallidae, Gruiformes, Aves, 1981 Endangered
50 - 0 Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica Least concern
50 Bennett Lake volcano Skukum Group
50 - 35 15 Leptictidium Europe
50 Mole
50 - 38 22 Fantasy Canyon is a Bureau of Land Management-managed area located about 27 miles (43 km) south of Vernal, in Uintah CountyUtah. Deposited
50 India makes contact with Eurasia.
50 - 0 5 Stellar's sea eagle H. pelagicus, Haliaeetus, Accipitridae, Accipitriformes. Aves, 1811 NE Asia  Vu
50 - 0 Harpy eagle H. harpyia, Harpia, Harpiinae, Accipitridae, Accipitriformes, Aves, C and S America Least concern
50 - 0 Crowned eagle S. Coronatus, Stephanoaetus, Accipitridae, Accipitriformes, Aves, 1766 Africa   Least concern
50 - 0 Crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela 21 ss SE Asia Least concern
50 - 0 Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis 10 ss N hemisphere Least concern
50 - 0 Ural owl Strix uralensis 15 ss Finland, Russia and Japan  Least concern
50 - 0 Western barn owl Tyto alba 9 ss Europe and Africa  Least concern
50 - 0 Burrowing owl Athene cunicularia 22 ss America Least concern
50 - 0 Greater honeyguide Indicator indicator Subsaharian era Least concern
50 Late Wisconsin Glaciel Maximum Culmination.
50  North Cascades mountains
50 Anisosiren was an early sea cow from the Eocene of Hungary.
50 - 23 27 Anthracotherium ("Coal Beast") was a genus of extinct artiodactyl ungulate mammals, characterized by having 44 teeth, with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the upper molars. The genus ranged from the early Eocene period until the early Miocene, having a distribution throughout Eurasia.
50 - 35 15 Leptictidium auderiense, Graceful weasel, Eurasia, MIddle Eocene
49 Indohyus major India's pig Kashmir N India
49 - 47.8 1.2 Azolla event blooms of freshwater fern Azolla in Arctic. As they sank to the stagnant sea floor, they were incorporated into the sedimentdraw-down of carbon dioxide transformed "greenhouse Earth" to "icehouse Earth"
49 - 0 Resplendent quetzal P. mocinnoo, Pharomachrus, Trogonidae, Trogoniformes, Aves, 2SS 1832 C America Near threatened
48.6 - 40.4 8.2 Rodhocetus balochistanensis, "Rodho whale" Rodhocetus, Protecetinae, Protocetidae, Cetacea, Artidactyla, Mammalia, Pakistan  
48.6 - 33.9 4.7 Eotheroides E. aegyptiacum, Eotheroides, Dugongidae, Sirenia, Mammalia, "Water bushpig", E Africa & Madagascar
15 - 0 Golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, Mesocricetus, Cricetinae, Cricetidae, Rodentia, Mammalia S Turkey & Syria, 7-9"/18-23cm 120-125g Mediterranean VU
Cenozoic Era 66 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 42.97
Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Ypresian Age 56 - 47.8 8.2
48 - Present Plumed basilisk, B. plumifrane, Basiliscus, Corytophanidae, Iguania, Squamata, Reptilia, 1875 C America Near threatened
48 - 41 7 Andrewsarchus Central Asia
Lutetian Age 47.8 - 41.2 5.6
48 - 23 25 Anoplotheriidae Anoplotheroidea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, . W Europe mid-sized terrestrial herbivores like camels, but smaller and low-slung with long and thick tails, and rather generalisticsubtropical or  tropical, plentiful rainfall and abundant vegetation. resembled a large duiker of our time foraging in dense growth where their low builds would have been advantageous.
47.8 - 41.3 6.5 Ambuloceetus natans, "Walking whale"  Ambuloceetus, Ambulocetidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia,
47 - 0 Secretary bird S. serpentarius, Sagittarius, Sagittariidae, Accipitriformes, Aves, 1783 Africa Vulnerable
47 - 0 King vulture Sarcoramphus papa S America Least concern
47 Pholidocercus P. hassiacus, †Pholidocercus, †Amphilemuridae, Eulipotyphla, Mammalia, 1983 Germany
47 Darwinius D. masillae, †Darwinius, †Adapidae, Strepsirrhini, Primates, Mammalia, Chordat Charles Darwin's Germany
46.2 - 0 Tylopoda  "calloused foot"  Artiodactyla. terrestrial herbivorous even-toed ungulates  S America & Asia,
Golden moles  insectivorous burrowing mammals S Africa, where their Afrikaans names are gouemolle or kruipmolle (singular gouemol or kruipmol). They comprise the family Chrysochloridae and as such they are taxonomically distinct from the true moles, family Talpidae, and other mole-like families, all of which, to various degrees, they resemble as a result of evolutionary convergence.
46.3 - 13.6 32.7 Poebrotherium N America
46 Numidotherium "Numidia beast"  N. koholense, Proboscideans, N Africa  90-100 cm tall 250-300 kg. 1 almost complete skeleton El Kohol, southern Algeria, like a modern tapir. more slender & plantigrade than elephant. 1984
46 Van Horn cauldron complex 34x48km, Challis volcanic field, Custer, Idaho; Elis Creek Tuff
46 - 43 3 Kutchicetus "Kutch whale" K. minimus, Kutchicetus, Remingtonocetidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, Pakistan & India  
46 - 0 Arctoidea infraorder
45.8 - 0 White sturgeon, A. transmontanus, Acipenser, Acipenseridae, Acipenseriformes, Actinopterygii, 1836 Least concern
45 - 0 Horsfield's tarsier, Cephalopachus bancanus, Cephalopachus, Tarsiidae, Haplorhini, Primates, Mammalia, 4 ss, Borneo & S Sumatra, Vulnerable
45 - 0 Pen-tailed treeshrew, P. lowlii, Ptilocercus, Ptilocercidae, Scandentia, Mammalia, SE Asia, Least concern
45 - 0 Large treeshrew, T. tanaa, Tupaia, Tupaiidae, scandentia, Mammalia, SE Asia, Least concern
145 - 0 Pom pom crab, L. tessellata, Lybia, Xanthidae, Brachyura, Decapoda, Malacostraca, Crustacea, Arthropoda 2Sp Indo-Pacific, Least Concern
45? Elephant shrews. Macroscelidea, Macroscelea, Afrotheria, Placentalia, Eutheria, Theria, Mammalia, 1838 insectivorous
45 - 0 Japanese puffer, T. rubripes, Takifugu, Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes, Actinopterygii, 1850 Japanese sea, Near threatened
45 Protectus atavus, "First whale" Protectus, Protecedidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, . 1904 Egypt  
45 Eolactoria sorbinii, Eolactoria, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontiformes, Actinopterygii, Osteichthyes, Gnathostomata, Vertebrata, 1975 "Dawn lactoria" Italy
45 - 43.5 1.5   Remingtonecetus harudiniensis, "Remington's whale" Remingtonecetus, Remingtonecetidae, Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, . 2Sp. 1975 Domanda formation Pakistan
45 - 33 11 Anthropornis nordenskjoldi "Human bird" Anthropornis, Palaeeudyptinae, Spheniscidae, Sphenisciformes, Aves, 2Sp La Meseta formation (Antarctica) and New zealand
45 - 0 Oblong blow fish T. oblongus, Takifugu, Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes, Actinopterygii. 1949 W Pacific Least concern
45 - 0 Finepatterned puffer Takifugu poecilonotus NW Paific ocean Least concern
45 - 0 Yellowfin puffer Takifugu xanthopterus W Pacific ocean Least concern
45 - 13 32 Cainotheriidae  family of artiodactyls Europekarstic deposits. 15cm/5.9" @ shoulders,
45 - 2.6 42.4 Anthracotheriidae family of  hippopotamus
oldest genus, Elomeryx, Asia.  thrived in Africa and Eurasia, a few species entered N America in Oligocene. Extinct in Europe and Africa during the Miocene, possibly due to a combination
youngest genus, Merycopotamus, died out in Asia during the late Pliocene
45 - 0  Dugongidae, Sirenia, Mammalia, 2Ge 1821 Dugong 
45 Twin Peaks Caldera 20km Challis volcanic field, Custer, Idaho; 500km2/120mi2 of Challis Creek Tuff
45 Indus River 14th oldest. Karakoram Mountains to Arabian Sea
45 - 0 Golden mole Chrysochloridae, Chrysochloridea, Afrosoricida, Mammalia, 10Ge 1825
45 - 37 8 Uintatherium Uinta Mountains NE Utah
45 - 40 5 Protylopus Camel Ancestor 26/57 N America
45 - 0 Warty frogfish, Antennarius maculatus, Indo-Pacific ocean, Near threatened
45 - 0 Grant's golden mole, E. granti, Eremitalpa, Chrysochloridae, Afrosoricida, Mammalia, 1907 W Namibia & W S Africa,  Near threatened
44 - 37 7 Iberosuchus "Iberian crocodile" I. macrodon, †Iberosuchus, †Iberosuchidae, †Sebecia, †Sebecusochia, Reptilia, 1975 Spain 
5 Ardipithecus ramidus Root ape NE Africa
42.5 - 31 11.5 Hesperocyon canids Hesperocyoninae Canidae S Canada to Colorado
42 - 11,000 saber-toothed cats
Cenozoic Era 66 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 42.97
Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Lutetian Age 47.8 - 41.2 5.6
45 - 0 Numbat, Myrmecobius fasciatus, Myrmecobius, Myrmecobiidae, Dasyuromorphia, Marsupialia, Mammalia, 2SS S Australia, Endangered
42 - 16 26 Hyaenonod leptorhynchus Hyena-tooth N America Africa & Eurasia
42 - 5.2 36.8 Broxton Rocks largest exposure of sandstone, about 4 miles in extent, Altamaha Grit
40.5 Devil's Tower magma created
42 - 0 Carnivora
42 - 0 Caniformia
42? - 30? 12? Barytherium genus  of  family Barytheriidae of primitive proboscideans N Africa.  first large proboscideans strong sexual dimorphism. 1.8–2.0m @ shoulder 2 tonnes.
42 - 2.6 39.4 Amphicyonidae Bear Dog
42 - 41 1 Deinotherium Romania
42 - 15.9 26,100 Hyaenadon  EurasiaNorth America, and Africa
Bartonian Age 41.2 - 37.8 3.4
42 - 0 Numbat Family Myrmecobiidae W australia recently re-introduced to S Australia Notoryctidae Family
41.2  Reticulofenestra reticulata calcareous nanoplankton  
40.4 - 33.9 7.5 Xiphodontidae    family of even-toed ungulates order ArtiodactylaEurope terrestrial herbivores
40 - 0 Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis 7 ss Eurasia Least concern
40 - 0 Loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta
40 - 30 10 Moeritherium Lyonsi, Moeritherium, Moeritheriidae, Proboscidea, Mammalia, "Beast from Lake Moeris", Qasr el Sagha formation, Egypt
40 Prorastomus sirenoides, Jamaica
40 - 0 Greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumauinum, Eurasia, Least concern
40 - 0 Southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius New Guenea and N Australia
40 - 0 Laughing kookaburra Dacelo novaegi 2 ss Australia Least concern
40 - 0 Eastern honey bee Apis cerana SE Asia 
40 - 35 5 Basilosaurus cetoides King lizard
40 - 22 18 Tooth of Time geological feature  igneous intrusion of dacite porphyry 5m SW  Cimarron, New Mexico
40 Primates diverge into suborders Strepsirrhini (wet-nosed primates) >< Haplorrhini (dry nosed primates). Strepsirrhini contains most of prosimians; modern examples include lemurs & lorises. prosimian tarsiers, along with simian monkeys & apes are haplorrhines. One of earliest haplorrhines is Teilhardina asiatica, a mouse-sized, diurnal creature with small eyes.
40  tenrec afrotherian family  Madagascar. diverse from  convergent evolution. resemble hedgehogsshrewsopossums or mice. occupy aquaticarborealterrestrial and fossorial environments. 
40 shrew
40 - 25 Mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up
40 - 0 Scandentia (treeshrews)
40? Chiroptera Bat
40? Eulipotyphla
40? gymnure
40 Ailuridae is a family ancestor to Red Panda
40  Red Panda >< bears 
40 - 0 Chlamyphoridae family Chlamyphoridae order of armadillo
40 - 0 Skunk >< Weasel & Pole Cats
40   Mono–Inyo Craters are a volcanic chain of craters, domes and lava flows in Mono CountyEastern California
39.75 - 0 Canidae
39 Thomas Caldera 16x25km Delta, Utah;  400km2/96m2 of Mount Laird Tuff
38 - 33.9 4.1 Megacerops North America
38 - 34 4 Zygorhiza kochii Yoke-Root N America and Zew Zealand
38 - 0 Camelinae Camels
38 - 34 4 Hueco Tanks syenite pluton was formed
38 - 0 Bears
38 - 0 Parictis 1st Bear Genus North America
38 - 18 10 Amphicynodontinae clade of Arctoidea
42 - 18 24 Khormusan industry  Paleolithic archeological industry  Egypt & Sudan   tools from stone, animal bones and hematite.  small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans, no bows followed by  Gemaian
40 - 34 6 Oromerycidae small  size and diversity  family of artiodactyls  related to   camels, North America.
Priabonian Age 37.8 - 33.9 3.9
37.8  first appearance of calcareous nanoplankton species Chiasmolithus oamaruensis
37.5 Infernito Caldera 12km wide), Trans-Pecos, Texas;70 to 100 cubic kilometers (17 to 24 cu mi) of Buckshot Tuff
37.5 - 17.5 20  Western Cascade Stratovolcanoes erupted with periodic regularity for over 20 million years
37.2 - 0 Euphractinae is a subfamily of armadillo in the family Chlamyphoridae
Chaetophractus Hairy Armadillo
1. screaming hairy armadillo
2.  big hairy armadillo
3. Andean hairy armadillo
six-banded armadillo 
pichi (Zaedyus pichiy), dwarf armadillo or pygmy armadillo
Extict:
1. Paleuphractus
2.
Doellotatus
3.
Proeuphractus
4.
Macroeuphractus
37.2 - 28.4 4.8 Eusmilus bidentatus True sabre Europe
37.2 - 33.9 3.3 Icadyptes salasi Ica diver Otuma formation Peru
37.2 - 33.9 3.3 Inkayacu paracasensis Water king Peru 
37.2 - 15.97 21.23 Entelodonts"hell pigsCetancodontamorpha, Artiodactyla, Mammalia, 1883  of pig-like omnivores  forests & plains  N AmericaEurasia
37.2 - 0 shrew opossum Caenolestidae, Paucituberculata, Marsupialia, Mammalia, 7Ge 1898 Andes S America Family
37.2 - 20.4 6.8 Dinictis "False saber-toothed cat" D. felina, †Dinictis, †Nimravinae, †Nimravidae, Feliformia, Carnivora, Mammalia, 1854 N America
37 - 30 7 Phiomia serridens "Saw-toothed animal of Faiyum" Phiomia, †Phiomiidae, Proboscidea, Mammalia, 2Sp 1902 N Africa
37 - 33 4 Barytherium grave, "Heavy beast", †Barytherium, †Barytheriidae, †Plesielephantiformes, Proboscidea, Mammalia, Fayum, Egypt
37 - 35 2 Gigantophis garstini, †Gigantophis, †Madtsoiidae, Serpentes, Squamata, Reptilia N Africa
37 - 34 3 New Zealand giant penguin Pachydyptes Thick diver New Zealand
37 Muir Caldera 26x18km Hidalgo County, New Mexico 300km2/72m2 of Woodhaul Canyon tephra
37 - 0 Dermoptera (colugos)
37 - 0 common shrew opossums  family Caenolestidae.   ColombiaEcuadorPeru, and Venezuela
eastern caenolestid grey-bellied shrew opossum Andean caenolestid pop <1K
northern caenolestid  blackish shrew opossum
dusky caenolestid Tate's shrew opossum
37 - 17 20 Hesperocyoninae are one of three subfamilies found within the canid family. The other two canid subfamilies are the extinct Borophaginae and extant Caninae. gave rise to the other two canid subfamilies, the Borophaginae and Caninae. N America,10G 26S
37 - 30 7 Phiomia  genus of basal proboscid that N Africa  2.5 metres (8.2 ft)  vaguely resembled a modern elephant, although, based on the shape of its nasal bones,  very short trunk. short tusks on the upper jaw and short shovel-like tusks on the lower jaw similar to those of the Miocene PlatybelodonArchaeobelodonAmebelodon, but considerably smaller. 
37 - 0 Genus Lestoros Incan caenolestid  Incan shrew opossum or Peruvian caenolestid
37 - 0 Genus Rhyncholestes long-nosed caenolestid
37 - 0 tenrec Madagascar
37 - 35 2 Moeritherium N Africa
37 - 0 Sunda flying lemur, G. varia, Galeopterus, Cynocephalidae, Dermoptera, Mammalia, 1799 SE Asia, Least concern
36.82 Davis Mountains (fissures), Texas; 1,250km2/300m2 of Flood rhyolites, rhyolite domes, and Gomez Tuff
Cenozoic Era 66 - Present
Paleogene Period 66 - 23.03 42.97
 Eocene Epoch 56 - 33.9 22.1
Priabonian Age 37.8 - 33.9 3.9
36.5 Three Gorges formation
36.5 - 23 13.5 Yangtze river 16th oldest. Empties E China Sea.
36 - 35 1 Palaeomastodon beadnelli, †Palaeomastodon, †Palaeomastodontidae, Proboscidea, Mammalia, , 1901 Fayou, Egypt
36 - 27 9 Arsiniotherium zitteli, †Arsiniotherium, †Arsiniotheriidae, †Embrithopoda, Mammalia, "Queen Arsinoe's beast", 1902 N Africa
36 - 0 Lowland streaked tenrex, Hemicentetes semispinosus, E Madagascar, Least concern
36 - 35 1 Echolocation and filter-feeding evolved during a second radiation
36 - 35 1 Palaeomastodon   Proboscidea. Africa ancestors of elephants or mastodons. 2.2m/7'3" @ shoulder  2.5 long tonnes flat rather than pointed tusks scooped plants from swamps. ears on top of heads4 species.
36 Quitman Caldera  15x10km Quitman Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas;  300km2/72mi2 Square Peak Volcanics
36 - 30 6 Arsinoitherium Paenungulate Mammals  Embrithopoda. related to elephantssirenianshyraxes and the extinct desmostylians.   rhinoceros-like herbivores N Africa  tropical rainforest, mangrove swamps. 2004, A. giganteum, lived in Ethiopia about 27 million years ago.  1.75-3m/5'7"-9'8"
35.35  Davis Mountains, Texas; 210KM2/50M2 of tuffs of Wild Cherry, Lavas of Casket Mountain
35.3 Mount Princeton (eroded), Central Colorado volcanic field; Colorado; >1,000KM2/240M2 of Wall Mountain Tuff.
35 - 0 Baluchistan pygmy jerboa, Salpingotulus michaelis, Pakistan, Near threatened
35 Star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata, Condylura, Condylurina, Scalopinae, Talpidae, Eulipotyphla, Mammalia, 1758 E North America,  Least concern
35 - 29 6 Hoplophoneus H. primaevus, Hoplophoneus, Hoplophoninae, Nimravidae, Feliformiam, Carnivora, Mammalia, "Armed murderer" N America
35 - 0 Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus Subantarctic and Arctic circles Least concern
35 - 0 Great skua Stercorarius skua N Atlantic ocean  Least concern
35 - 0 Tufted puffin Fratercula cirrhata N Pacific ocean Least concern
35 - 0 Common murre Uria aalge N Pacific and Atlantic Least concern
35 Juniper Caldera 25 km, Animas Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico;  500km2/120m2 of Oak Creek Tuff
35 - 0 Squirrels
35 - 30 5 Arcanotherium  genus early proboscidean family Numidotheriidae N Africa 
35 - 5 30 Merycoidodontoidea, "oreodonts""ruminating hogs",     cud-chewing artiodactyls  short faces, fang-like canine teethSuina "mountain teeth",  sheep- cattle sized heavy-bodied, short four-toed hooves, long tails.
35 - 0 Monkey
35 - 0 hedgehog
35 - 0 Camelini tribe
35 - 0 35 Embolotherium Mongolia
35 - 5,000 34,500 Ground Sloth North and South America, Carribean
35 - 0 Long-eared hedgehog, Hemiechinus auritus, Asia, Least concern
35 - 33 2 Dermotherium major Skin beast Thailand
34.9 City of Rocks State Park. Created by volcano
34.31 Grizzly Peak Caldera 12km Central Colorado volcanic field; Colorado;  100km2/24m2 of Grizzly Peak Rhyolite
34 - 0 Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus 4 ss
35 - 0 Savannah tsetse fly Glossina morsitans Africa 
34 - 0 Greater roadrunner Geococcyx californianus S North America
34 - 23 19 Paraceratherium Eurasia China to Balkans
34 - 0 Caninae, known as canines one of 3 subfamilies found within the canid family.  other two extinct canid subfamilies: Borophaginae and Hesperocyoninae.
34  baleen whales (Mysticeti) >< toothed whales (Odontoceti)
34 - 0 Mased palm civet Paguma larvata, Paguma, Viverridae, Feliformia, Carnivora, Mammalia, 1827 SE Asia  Least concern
34 Exellia velifer, N Africa & Europe
33.9 - 0 Common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, Australia, Least concern
33.9 - 0  suborder Suina also known as Suiformes is a lineage of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries of the families Suidae and Tayassuidae and their fossil kin. 
33.9 - 0 Pacific spookfish Rhinochimaera pacifica Pacific Least concern
33.9 - 20.6 13.3 Protoceras celer First horns N America 
33.9 - 0  peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs).  Central and South America and in the southwestern area of North America.  90-130/3.0-4.3'  20-40kg 44-88lb.  confused with the pig family from  Afro-Eurasia, as some escaped and became "razorback" hogs
Aetiocetus cotylaveus casual whale N Pacific Late Oligocene 33.9 - 23.03 10.87
33.9 - 0 Japanese spider crab, Macrocheira kaempferi, Japanese sea, Least Concern
33.9 - 5.3 28.6 Hemicyoninae Dog Bear
33.9 - 28.4 5.5 Amphicynodon Bear Europe and Asia 
33.81 Mount Aetna 10 km,  Central Colorado volcanic field; Colorado; 100km2/24m2 of Badger Creek Tuff.

aedocyon ("fit for cutting dog")  monospecific genus of bone crushing canid which inhabited western North America during the Oligocene 30.8 - 20.6 10.2 evolutionary position not clear. shortened upper premolars, enlarged caniniform upper third incisors, as well as reduced upper molars. Its simple, high premolars and the precision of its occlusion suggest a relation with Paraenhydrocyon. Known only from a single partial cranium, the dentition suggests hypercarnivore or mesocarnivore

33.7 Marshall Creek, Thirtynine Mile volcanic area, Central Colorado volcanic field; Colorado;  Ma; more than 100 cubic kilometres (24 cu mi) of Thorn Ranch Tuff
33.3 - 26.3 7 Cynodesmus  genus of omnivorous canine N America one of the first canids to truly look dog-like. 1m/3.3' size of coyote, but had a shorter skull, heavier tail, and longer rump.  not a very good runner compared to most other canids; five toes on each foot, bearing partially retractable claws.
33.3 - 16 17.3 Ectopocynus ("strange dog") genus of bone crushing canid N America
33 - 0 Proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, 2 ss, Borneo, Endangered
33 - 0 De Brazza's monkey, Cercopithecus neglectus, C Africa, Least concern
33 - 0 Northern plains gray langur, Semnopithecus entellus, NE India, Least concern
33 - 0 Common spotted cuscus, Spilocuscus maculatus, Cape Yorg region, Australia, New Guinea,  Least concern
33 - 15 15 Squalodon grateloupii Shark tooth Oceans worldwide
33 - 0 Javan mongoose Herpestes javanis S Asia Least concern
33 - 0 Banded mongoose Mungos mungo Africa Least concern
33 - 26 7 Cynodesmus thooides Dog chain N America
33 - 0 Striped polecat Ictonyx striatus Africa   Least concern
33 - 0 Striped skunk Mephitis mephiti N America  Least concern
33 - 0 Common egg eater Dasypeltis scrabra Subsahara Least concern
33 - 0 Tiger keelback Rhabdophis tigrinus E Asia Least concern
33 - 0 European honey bee Apis mellifera worldwide 
33 - 0 Largescale four-eyed fish, Anableps anableps, N South America, Near threatened
33 Socorro Caldera  25x35km, Rio Grande riftSocorro, New Mexico;   500km2/120m2 Hells Mesa Rhyolite
33 First Antarctic permanent ice-sheets
33 Emory Caldera  25x55km, Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, City of Rocks State Park; VEI 8; 1,310km2/314m2 Kneeling Nun Tuff
33 Omantherium "Oman beastgenus of barytheriid proboscidean Oman. family Barytheriidae, 1st large size proboscideans  strong sexual dimorphism.[
33 Cowboy Rim  26x18km, Animas MountainsHidalgo County, New Mexico;  500km2/120m2 of Gillespie Tuff
33 - 0 Japanese badger Meles anakuma Japan Least concern
33 Deer
34 - 0 Vulpini  fox-like tribe of the subfamily Caninae, sister to dog-like tribe Canini.
33 Antelope Africa
33 - 10 23 Yalkaparidontia is an order of extinct Australian marsupials
33 - 3 30 Obdurodon insignis Genus †Obdurodon  Ornithorhynchidae Family Platypus  Tirari Desert C Australia
32.5 Bonanza crater 12km, C Colorado volcanic field; Colorado;  100km2/24m2 of Bonanza Tuff
32.5 Chinati Caldera 30x20km, Chinati Mountains, Texas; 1,000km2/240m2 of Mitchel Mesa Rhyolite
32.25 North Pass Caldera, Cochetopa Hills, Central Colorado volcanic field; 400-500km2/96-120m2 of Saguache Creek Tuff
32 Organ Caldera 16km, Organ Mountains, New Mexico; 500km2/120m2 of Cueva Soledad Rhyolite
32 - 22 10 Marysvale volcanic field SW UtahUnited States.
31.4 William's Ridge, C Nevada 3,500KM2/840M2 of Windous Butte Tuff
30.5 Goodsight-Cedar Hills volcano-tectonic depression (Bell Top Formation), SC New Mexico;   295KM2/71M2 of tephra (Bell Top Formation)
35? - 33? 2? Barytheriidae "heavy beastfamily of primitive proboscideans (elephants) N Africa & Oman. 1st large size proboscideans strong sexual dimorphism
33.9 Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, cooling from extended volcanos. Most affected: marine or aquatic. last of ancient cetaceans, the Archaeoceti.
Oligocene Epoch
33.9 - 23.3 10.6
Rupelian Age
33.9 - 27.82
6.08
33.9 - 15.97 18.93 Osbornodon "Osborn's tooth" genus of canid N America  last surviving genus of the hesperocyonine subfamily, the oldest subfamily of canids.
33 - 0 Red panda, Ailurus fulgens, Endangered
32 Siwash Rock volcanic dike in sedimentary rock Stanley Park, Vancouver BC
31 - 0 Three-striped night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, Venezuela & NE Brazil, Least concern
31 - 0 Common marmoset, Callithric jacchus, E Brazil, Least concern
31 - 0 Golden lion tamarin, Leontophithecus S Brazil, Endangered
31 - 0 Cotton-top tamarin, Saguinas oedipus, NW Columbia, Critically endangered
31 Catopithecus browni Before the Apes Egypt & Ethiopia
30.8 - 26.3 4.5 Philotrox   monospecific genus of   Hesperocyoninae subfamily of early canids N America. between    Cynodesmus & later Enhydrocyon, 1st hypercarnivorous, "bone-cracking", canid.
30.8 - 26.3 4.5 Sunkahetanka   monospecific genus of the Hesperocyoninae subfamily of early canids N America between small Cynodesmus & later Enhydrocyon, 1st hypercarnivorous, "bone-cracking", canid.
30.8 - 20.4 10.4 Enhydrocyon  genus of bone crushing canid N America  hypercarnivore or mesocarnivore short snout and deep jaws reminiscent of a jaguar & sea otter  10kg/22lb, earliest genus of canid  specialized predators.
30.3 - 20.3 10 Mesocyon ("middle dog") genus of Hesperocyoninae subfamily of early canids N America.  Oregon, southern California and the northern Great Plains. coyote-sized, 1st canid to have a primarily meat-based diet.
Pole Shifts 43
6
61 - 57.8  3.2 South
57.8 - 57.5 300,000 North
57.5 - 56.4 1.1 South
56.4 - 55.9 500,000 North
55.9 - 53.4 2.5 South
53.4  - 53 400,000 North
12
53 - 52.9 100,000 South
52.9 - 52.8 100,000 North
52.8 - 52.7 100,000 South
52.7 - 52.4 300,000 North
52.4 - 51.8 600,000 South
51.8 - 51.2 600,000 North
51.2 - 51.1 100,000 South
51.1 - 50.9 200,000 North
50.9 - 49.6 1.3 South
49.6 - 49 600,000 North
49 - 47.9 1.1 South
47.9 - 46.3 1.6 North
3
46.3 - 43.8 2.5 South
43.8 - 42.6 1.2 North
42.6 - 41.6 1 South
41.6 - 41.3 300,000 North
12
41.3 - 40.2 1.1 South
40.2 - 39.6 600,000 North
39.6 - 39.5 100,000 South
39.5 - 38.4 1.1 North
38.4 - 38.1 300,000 South
38.1 - 37.9 200,000 North
37.9 - 37.8 100,000 South
37.8 - 37.6 200,000 North
37.6 - 37.5 100,000 South
37.5 - 36.6 900,000 North
36.6 - 36.3 300,000 South
36.3 - 35.7 700,000 North
10
35.7 - 35.6 100,000 South
35.6 - 35.3 300,000 North
35.3 - 35 300,000 South
35 - 34.7 300,000 North
34.7 - 33.6 1.1 South
33.6 - 33.1 500,000 North
33.1 - 31 2.1 South
31 - 30.6 400,000 North
30.6 - 30.2 400,000 South
30.2 - 29.7 500,000 North
Lives/Generations 15 - 1 15
160,000 Colors 10000
20,000 copy
160,000 Colors 10000
20,000 copy
160,000 Colors 10000
20,000 copy
160,000 Colors 10000
20,000 copy
 160,000 Colors 10000
20,000 copy