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20,000 - 18,000
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500 Fut 16,000 - 14,000 BC AD
14,000 - 12,000
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Gore Range, Lake Dillon, Summit County

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Lives/Generations 15 - 1 15
600-590 590-580 580-570 570-560 560-550 550-540
540-530 530-520 520-510 510-500 500-490 490-480
480-470 470-460 460-450 450-440 440-430 430-420
420-410 410-400 400-400 390-380 380-370 370-360
360-350 350-430 340-330 330-320 320-310 310-300
Zaire Pigmies 20,000 - Present
C.A.R. Pigmies 20,000 - Present
                                                          M M                                           G       C       V     B         R I A                           L C S K T L                    
Hominids 7.2M - Present
  40 Missoula Floods 15 - 13 ev 50 yrs
  Younger Dryas 12,900 - 11,650  
Tarantian Age 126,000 - 11,650 114,350
Pleistocene Epoch 2.588 - 11,650 2,576,350
Greenlandian Age
11650 -   8236
3414
Holocene Epoch
11,650 - present
50,000 year long Mayan age 55114 - 5114
Interval between glacial incursions, glaciers retreat, sea levels rise, climate warms, & deserts form in some areas.
Human civilization develops. Activities of mankind begin to affect world climates. extinction of other species continues.
King Suiren of China 458,123 - 2123 456,000 
Sagi
19,440 - 17,280 Age of Scorpio
17,280 - 15,120 Age of Libra
15,120 - 12,960 Age of Virgo
12,960 - 10,800 Age Leo
Cancer
20,000 - 18,000
18,000 - 16,000
500 Fut 16,000 - 14,000 BC AD
14,000 - 12,000
12,000 - 10,000
21.6 - 19.44 Age of Sagitarius
>20 Barnes Ice Cap is an ice cap located in central Baffin IslandNunavut, Canada. Canada's oldest ice
20 - 0 Muskox Ovibos moschatus N Canada Least concern
20 - 18 2 Lake Connecticut covered Long Island Sound.
20 - 18 2 Broken Mammoth site fossilized ivory tools  at
19.44 - 17.28 Age of Scorpio

19 - 14 5 Lake Passaic New Jersey

19 - 14 5   Lake Baikal settlements, as at the
Studenoe site, for example. Later sites include
Kokorevo in the Yenisei Valley
Chernoozer'e in the Ob River basin
18,500 Cave of Altamira Bison Spain
18.5 - 8.5 10 Lake Tauca  Lake Pocoyu Also known as for its constituent lakes: Lake PoopóSalar de Coipasa and Salar de UyuniAltiplano of Bolivia.
18 last glacial maximum "Great Ice Age." Ice sheets & other glaciers encroach & retreat during four or five primary glacial periods. At its peak, as much as 30% of Earth's surface is covered by glaciers, & parts of northern oceans are frozen. movement of glaciers alters landscape. Lakes, such as Great Lakes in North America, are formed as ice sheets melt, & retreat. Global warming begins after, 18,000 years ago.
18 - 14 4 Glacial Lake Wisconsin; along the Wisconsin River
18 - 12 6 New York ice sheet 2,000' high. 16 Began to melt.
18 last glacial maximum. Ocean levels 350 feet lower than today.
18 - 8 10 Zarzian culture  SW Asia preceded by Baradostian culture followed by M'lefaatian culture
18 - 12.5 5.5 Kebaran culture @ Kebara Cave Levant geometric microliths preceded by Ahmarian Levantine Aurignacian followed by Natufian culture
17,300 Lascaux Painting France
17.28 - 15.12 Age of Libra
17 Descendants of people from Mu migrate from India, Burma, and Tibet to Upper Egypt.
17 - 13 4 Glacial Lake Great Falls;  Montana   
17 coastal route opens from Alaska to California

17±5 Emmons Lake Caldera 11x18km, Aleutian Range,  >50km3/12mi3 tephra.

17 Lake Barrine, Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia

17 - 12Magdalenian cultures  Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic in western Europe  reindeer hunters  Sites: La Madeleine,  Vézère valley, Tursac, in France's DordogneCave of AltamiraKents CavernLascaux, Vale Boi, Cardina 1, Foz Coa, Nerja, El Parpallo, Las Caldas, Altamira. El Castillo, Ekain, Duruthy, Les Espelugues, Lortet, Goudan, Caverne du Volp, Niaux, Belvis Canecaude, Gazel, Bruniquel, La Marche, La Garenne, Abri Durif, Le rond du Barry, La Colombiere, Les Hoteaux, Grappin, Abri des Cabones, Kesslerloch, Schweizersbild, La Pierre aux Fees, Marsagny Arcy-sur-Cure. Le Trou des Nutons, Le Trou de Chaleux, Goyet, Oelknitz, Kniegrote, Teufelsbrucke, Kulna, Pekarna, Abri Tagliente, Grotte Polesinin, La Porta, Paglicci, Grotte delle Mura, Grotte Romanelli, Addaura, Levanzo preceeded by Solutrean followed by  AzilianAhrensburg culture

17 - 10 7 Epigravettian archaeological sites common in the southwest, central, and southern regions of the East European Plain
17±1 Minatogawa 1 Homo sapiens 1970
17 Tandou Homo sapiens 1967 AustraliaDuncan Merrilees
16.9 - 15.9 1  Lake Russell S basins of Puget Sound
16.8 Lake Bonneville empites through Red Rock Pass in Idaho, resulting in cataclysmic floods and creates The Great Salt Lake,  Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, and Rush Lake
16.2 - 12.6 3.6 Lake Thompson is a former lake in California deep
>16,000 Meadowcroft settlement Lake Ontario
>16,000 Topper settlement Georgia USA

16 - 1876  Falkland Islands wolf >< mainland relative Dusicyon avus extinct 1600
15 - 1900? Fuegian dog of Yaghan people. domesticated culpeo fox
16 Atlanteans settled in Upper Egypt.
16 - 8 8 Trialetian tool industry S of Caucasus Mountains & N Zagros Mountains TrialetiShanidar CaveHuto and Kamarband CavesKotias Klde, Chokh preceded by Baradostian culture followed by Shulaveri-Shomu culture  
16 human colonization of North America
15.5 Buttermilk Creek settlement Mississippi USA
15.5 - 13.1 2.4 Hamburg culture   Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe
15.05 Lake Panamint began to recede as overflow from Searles ceased. 14,925 radiocarbon years ago Lake Panamint was definitively receding.
15 - 12.6 Glacial Lake Albany
15 - 0 Darwin's fox Chloe Island Chile. When island separated from mainland.
15  Dells of the Wisconsin River formations
15 - 5 10 Lake Stowe  glacial lake Vermont 
15 - 13 2 40 Lake Missoula floods every 50 yrs. discharging about 10km³ per hour, 13x Amazon River. up to 60km³   maximum flow speed 36 meters/second 80mph/130kph
15 - 12 3 Lake Hitchcock Rocky Hill, Connecticut, to St. Johnsbury, Vermont 
15 - 2 13 Craters of the Moon lava field National Monument and Preserve; Great Rift of Idaho; the was formed during eight eruptive episodes between about
15 - 12 3 Sebilian is a pre-historic archaeological culture in Egypt preceeded by Halfan culture followed by Qadan culture
15 - 2.7 12.3 Eburran industry East African tool assemblage 3,000 BCE, the climate was much drier than now. During this last period Eburran tools are also found with ceramics and livestock. Pastoral Africa. Before phase 5,  hunting and gathering.   700 AD, a transformation from the Pastoral Neolithic to the Pastoral Iron Age
15.5 human exploration at the Bluefish Caves in the Yukon
15.12 - 12.96 Age of Virgo
>15.07 Cactus Hill settlement USA
15 climates warmed further
15 - 13 2 Lake Allison intermittent lake formed by Missoula floods
15 fish began to populate rivers, and technology used to harvest them, such as barbed harpoons, first appeared on the Upper Angara River. People expanded northwards into the Middle Lena Basin. 
15 Huaca Prieta settlement Peru
15 - 11 4  Qadan culture South Egypt  hunting,  preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains. water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows.  from the Second Cataract of the Nile to Tushka, 250km upriver from Aswan. +grinding stones and blades w/ glossy films of silica from cutting grass stems. intense inter-tribal war. 40 percent of individuals buried in the Jebel Sahaba cemetery near the border of Sudan on the Nile river show signs of fatal wounds caused by projectiles, ritual burials. fishing, hunting, wild grain
14.7 Gough's Cave Homo sapiens2010 UK
14.7 - 13.5 1.2 Meltwater pulse 1A  sea level rose 16m/52 ft) and 25 meters (82 ft) in about 400–500 years, giving mean rates of roughly 40–60 mm (0.13–0.20 ft)/yr.  catastrophic rise event 1 (CRE1) in the Caribbean Sea. highest rates of post-glacial, eustatic sea level rise. 
14.6 - 5 9.6 African Humid Period 14.5 - 6 inside dates
14.6 - 5 11.6 Lake Mega-Chad 1Mkm2/390Kmi2, larger than   Caspian Sea 
>14.2 Dog
14.8 Monte Verde Settlement Chile
14.67 - 12.89 1.78 Late Glacial Interstadial.
14.51 Saltville settlement USA
14.5 West Antarctica ice sheet begins decline.
14.5 abrupt rise in the sea level 
14.3 Paisly settlement Washington USA
14.3 - 11 3.3 Lake Chewaucan arid land around Lake Abert 461 mi2/1,190 km2  375'/114m. high water 13,000
>14.2 Paige Ladson settlement Florida USA
14.2 dog

14 - 10 4 last glacial retreat in Alpine Lakes   to north of the Canada–US border 
14 - 0  South Asian river dolphin Platansita gangetica Ganges & Indus rivers Endangered
14 - 12.7 1.3 Lake Whittlesey at Great Lakes. When it dropped it became lake Warren.
13 - 10 3 Champlain Sea  temporary inlet of the Atlantic, created by the retreating glaciers  QuebecOntario,  New York, Vermont.
13 - 11 2 Lake Chicago  proglacial  ancestor of  Lake Michigan, one of N America's five Great Lakes. Drained south through the Chicago Outlet River.
14,000 - 12,700  Lake Maumee   proglacial  ancestor of  Lake Erie. formed as   Huron-Erie Lobe of   Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. As water levels continued to rise the lake evolved into Lake Arkona and then Lake Whittlesey.
14 - 12.5 1.5 Lake Wayne formed in the Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair basins around 12,500
14 Rising temperatures and increased moisture accelerated environmental change  shrub tundra replaced dry steppe in many parts of Beringia.
14 settlement sites  along Tanana River in central Alaska
14 Triquet island settlement Canada
14 Taima-Taima settlement Venezuela
13? - 8.5? 4.5 Lake Lewis was a temporary lake in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, largely formed by the Missoula Floods in about the 14th millennium B.C.
14 - 12.8 1.2 Federmesser group is an archaeological umbrella term including the late Upper Paleolithic to Mesolithic cultures of the  Northern European Plain  Lochtenrek in the Frisian part of the Netherland, spanning the area of Belgium, the Netherlands, northern France, northern Germany and Poland   small backed flint blades succeeded by the Ahrensburg culture
13.8 Manis settlement Washington USA
13.8 Mary Bay on the edge of Yellowstone Lake 5km/3.1m crater  (located in the center of the caldera)
13.6 Lake Oshkosh; C Wisconsin River
13.6 - 13.2 .4 Lake Kankakee
13.5 - 12 1.5 Lake Vermont  temporary lake created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age  failed catastrophically about 12,000 years ago. 
13.525 Irovy with  hearth charcoal at Broken Mammoth site show contact with living Mammoths
14 - 11.5 2.5 Natufian culture  Epipaleolithic Shuqba cave, Ain MallahaEin GevTell Abu Hureyra preceeded by KebaranMushabian followed by NeolithicKhiamianShepherd Neolithic
13 Reoccupation of northern territories of the East European Plain 
13 - 10.5 2.5 Glacial Lake Iroquois
13 - 3.5 9.5 Early Lake Erie. Replaced by Lake Erie.
13 - 0 Humans inhabit channel islands California
13 - 0  island fox Urocyon littoralis six of the eight Channel Islands of California.  6SS docile, little fear of humans, easily tamed.  semi-domesticated as pets, used as pelts, or for other functions, like pest control.
13 - 10.2 2.8 Swiderian culture Upper Palaeolithic/Mesolithic cultural complex,  Poland Otwock preceeded by Ahrensburg culture followed by Maglemosian cultureKunda cultureDnieper-Donets culture

12.9 Eifel hotspotLaacher SeeVulkan Eifel, Germany;  VEI 6; 6km3/1.4mi3 of tephra.

12.9 - 11.7 1.2 Ahrensburg culture late Upper Paleolithic nomadic hunter culture (or technocomplex) in north-central Europe  tunnel valley near the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km (16 mi) northeast of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, where Ahrensburg find layers were excavated in MeiendorfStellmoor and Borneck preceeded by Magdalenian followed by Maglemosian cultureSwiderian culture
12.8 - 8.4 4.4 Lake Agassiz was a very large glacial lake in central North America. Fed by glacial meltwater at the end of the last glacial period, its area was larger than all of the modern Great Lakescombined though its mean depth was not as great as that of many major lakes today.

12.875 - 12.56 315 Lockhart Phase Lake Agassiz: drained into the ancestral Minnesota and Mississippi River system. 335m/1,099', Big Stone Moraine southern boundary 231m/758' deep, with greater depths near the glacier.

12.7 - 11.65 1.05 Lake Warren was a proglacial lake that formed in the Lake Erie basin around 12,700 when lake Whittlesey dropped in elevation

12.56 - 11.69 .87 Lake Agassiz Moorhead Phase lower outlet through the Kaministikwia route along the modern Minnesota–Ontario Norcross stage  325m/1,066'. average depth 258m/846'. Drainage flow southward out of the ancient Minnesota and Mississippi River systems into the Gulf of Mexico.

12,000 Vicuna South America 
12,000 Guanaco South America 
14 Bird-Serpent War.
13.5 "ice-free corridor" through western Canada to the northern plains opened
13 first hunter-gatherers settle in Maya highlands & lowlands.
13 Homo floresiensis "hobbit" 7 people found in Indonesia 400 CC cranium (up to 100 K yrs ago)
12,400 BCE ± 160 El Abra Columbia
13 Conley Settlement California USA
13 Tan./Nenana settlement Alaska, USA
13,000 Daggett's eagle Extinct California & Nuevo León, Mexico
14.5±2.5  Chancelade find Homo sapiens 1888 France
14 Villabruna 1 Homo sapiens  (WHG) 1988 Italy
13.7 Bichon man Homo sapiens (WHG) 1956 Switzerland
13±1.5  Red Deer Cave Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China
13 Iwo Eleru Skullka Homo sapiens  1965 Nigeria
13 Arlington Springs Man Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
12,890  - 11,650 1240 Bond cycle 8 Younger Dryas 1K yr cold cycle
12.6 - 10.3  2.3 Baltic Ice Lake,
12.2 - 10.8 1.4 Khiamian
El Khiam
  at  AzraqAbu MadiMureybet  preceeded by Natufian culture followed by Pre-Pottery Neolithic
12.07 Lapo de Boquete settlement Brazil
12? - 5? Balearic shrew (Asoriculus hidalgo) is an extinct species of shrew from Majorca and Menorca, in the Balearic Islands of Spain.
12 Mill Bluff State Park sea stacks formation
12 - 10 2 Lake Admiralty;  proglacial lake in the basin of what is now Lake Ontario.
12 - 11 1 Lake Frontenac; Ontario basin & NW up the St. Lawrence Valley covering the low lands north to the Ottawa River and Montreal.
12 Rata, Edgar Cayce's past life building pyramids and miracle healing in Egypt
12 land bridges connected the islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra to  mainland as sea decreased  30-40m.
12 - 8 4 much of the Gulf floor exposed
12 - 11 1 Broken Mammoth archeological site, Alaska is an  located in the Tanana River Valley
12 - 11 1 Nenana complex sites in Alaska
12  Sumnagin culture appears over large portions of northern and eastern Siberia. The sites are small and yield few artifacts of small blades struck off thin cylindrical cores. Bone tools and fishing equipment are absent.
12 - 10Fosna-Hensbacka complex western coast of Norway and southern Sweden to latitude 65° north became occupied by sites belonging to the 
12 - 8 4 Magosian  culture SE   Africa  microliths and small blades. Zambia and Tanzania border.
12 El Abra/Tibito Columbia
12.96 - 10.8 Age of Leo
10.8 - 8.64 Age of Cancer
12 Pole shift
>12,000 - 0 pygmy right whale Southern Ocean
11.6 Glaciers began to retreat
40,000,000 animals died on American continent.
12 - 8 Shift from Hunter Gatherer to food producer in some areas (West Asia initially, Egypt by 6,000)
11,950 Cuvieronius humboldti extinct Chile
12 - 11.6 Moon brought here from Lyra
12 - 0 Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the sixth mass extinction or Anthropocene extinction
12 Champlain Sea Ice dam failed catastrophically lake dropped 300 feet (91 m) within hours or days. Eventually, when the glacier retreated far enough north, salt water swept in, replacing the larger, freshwater Lake Vermont with the smaller, saltwater Champlain Sea.
11.8 - 8.4 3.4 Lake McConnell covered parts of Great Bear LakeGreat Slave Lake and Lake Athabaska basins 280m/920ft or 305m/1,001ft),  210km2/81,000m2 @ 10.5  length of 1,100km/680mi, longer than any modern freshwater lake.
11,700 - 1907 Huia Heterolocha acutirostris N Island New Zealand
11,700 - 1938 Shomburgk's deer Rucervus schomburaki
11.65 Cueva del Milodón Natural Monument is a Natural Monument located in the Chilean Patagonia, Milodon skin found inside in 1895.
11.65  Altai flood  Katun River in the Altai Republic  Evidence: Gravel ripples,  Giant bars, Suspension gravels, Large blocks, Ice-rafted blocks, Eddy deposits
11.65 - 0 Lake Lewis Pacific Northwest  formed by the Missoula Flood of 13,000s B.C.
200m2/520km2  200'/61m
deep
12/19 long & 8/13 wide
108mi2/280km2 area
11.69 - 10.63 1.06 Lake Agassiz Emerson Phase. southward outlet to a northwestern outlet, closure of the Kaministikwia outlet in the east increased the size of the northern end of the lake. Clearwater and Athabasca River system and Lake Nipigon and Minong basin ice-covered.   Clearwater and Athabasca River system outlet opened. Isostatic rebound opened the southern outlet for a time, creating the Norcross  325m/1,066ft, Tintah 310m/1,020ft, and Upper Campbell 299m/981ft beaches. south outlet permanently closed at end of Phase.
11.6 Great Flood kills 20,000 people in Mexico. day of dead.
11,600 End of Atlantis
11.5 - 11.2 Meltwater pulse 1B
1.5 - 11 .5 Lake Duluth 1 W half of the Superior basin
11.4 - 8.5 2.9 Lake Minong became lake Superior
11.38 Tagua-Tagua settlement Chile
11,000 YA Göbekli Tepe Turkey
11 - 4 7 Woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primianius, N hemisphere
11,000 YA Pulli settlement Estonia
11,000 first hunter-gatherers settle in Maya highlands & lowlands.
11 Ust'-Belaya site settlement size increased as discovered at the , where fauna remains consisted of entirely modern-type remains of deer, moose, fish, and traces of domesticated dogs. New technology such as fish hooks appear among bone and antler implements
10,200 - 200 Neolithic Herscha Hill UK
11.65 Saiga Antelope in Russian Kalmykia and Astrakhan Oblast
11.65 Black Sea deluge
11.65 - 5 6.65 Lake Suguta dried
11,650 Dry Falls 3.5mi/5.6km X 5.5km scalloped precipice with four major alcoves, Washington scablands.
11,650 - 0 Aral Sea  Amu Darya did not flow into the shallow depression that now forms the Aral Sea until 
11,650 Aiolornis incredibilis Extinct
11,650 Antillean cave rail Extinct Virgin Islands
11,650 Californian turkey Extinct
11,650 Cathartornis gracilis Extinct USA
11,650 Cuban condor Extinct
11,650 La Brea stork Extinct Western, Southern USA & Cuba
11,650 Saint Croix macaw Extinct
11,650 Woodward's eagle Extinct Carribean
11,650 Saber-toothed salmon Extinct Western coast of Canada & U.S.

11.5 Luzia Paleo-Indian 1975

11.4 Pigs domesticated on Cyprus
11.1 - 9.1 2 transition from the Younger Dryas to the boreal.
11 Cerro Sota 2 1936 Chile
11 - 7 4 Lake Algonquin prehistoric proglacial lake that existed in east-central North America at the time of the last ice age. Parts of the former lake are now Lake HuronGeorgian BayLake SuperiorLake Michigan, and Lake Nipissing.
10.3 - 8.3 2 Bond cold cycle 7

10 "Satsurblia" Caucasian Epipaleolithic (CHG) Georgia

13–9 Kow Swamp 1 1968
10±1  Talgai Skull 1886 Australia
10.63 - 9.16 .47 Lake Agazziz Nipigon Phase: series of ice advances and retreats blocked the Lake Nipigon outlet and the other low level outlets, creating intermittent catastrophic outbursts of water into the Lake Minong basin.The lower lake level ended the southern outlet through the ancestral Minnesota and Mississippi River system. ice sheets advanced and blocked northwestern outlet through Clearwater and Athabasca system. There were several other low level outlets into the Lake Minong basin, including the Kaministikwia and the Lake Nipigon outlet. These allowed large amounts of water to flow from Lake Agassiz into Lake Minong. 
10.6 - 4 6.6 Lake Chippewa replaced by lake Michigan

10.3 - 9.5 .8 Yoldia Sea

10.1 - 8.2 1.9 Lake Ojibway  greatest extent c. 8,500  draining of Lake Ojibway is a possible cause of the 8.2 kiloyear event,

10 La Brea Woman Paleo-Indian 1914 United States

4,000 BC Llama S America Domesticated at Neolithic Revolution.
4,000 BC Alpaca S America Domesticated at Neolithic Revolution.
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