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600 - 540
540 - 480
500 Fut 480 - 420 BC AD
420 - 360
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360 - 180 180
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Colorado Landscape
     
3rd Galactic year
2nd Galactic year of 250 million years 500 - 250 million
Ediacaran Period
635 - 541
94
Neoproterozoic Era 1B - 541 659
Proterozoic Eon
2.5 - 541 M 2.047
Precambrian Eon
4.6 - 541 M
4.059
  Chondrichthyes 430 - 0
  Placodermi 430 - 358.9 71.1  
  Tetrapodomorpha 409 - Present
      Stethacanthus 382.7 - 323.2 59.6  
  Amphibians 370 - Present
      Reptiliomorpha 340 - Present
For St 2
Camb Expl
41 - 22 19
Terreneuvian-21
S3 S4
Series2-9
W D G
Miaolingian -97
P J St10
Furongian
Cambrian Period
541 - 485.4
55.6
Early
Middle
Late
Ordovician Period
485.4 - 443.8 41.6
Llan 33.4 Wen
27.4
Lud
23
Prid
19.2
Silurian Period
443.8 - 419.2 24.6  
Early
419.2 - 393.3 25.9
Middle
93.3 - 82.7 10.6
  Ich
 
    Vent
  E   A H   H  
Late
352.7-58.9
23.8
Devonian Period 419.2 - 358.9 60.3
Tourn Visean
Proterog
Serpuk
Mississippian Suberiod
358.9 - 323.2
  D
G
  B
C
 
      D   S  
B M K G
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9
Carboniferous Period 358.9 - 298.9 60
Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life) 541 - 248 293
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
600 - 540
540 - 480
500 Fut 480 - 420 BC AD
420 - 360
360 - 300
Precambrian Eon
4.6 - 541 M
4.059
Proterozoic Eon
2.5 - 541 M 2.047
Neoproterozoic Era 1B - 541 659
Ediacaran Period
635 - 541
94
600 Kata Tjuṯa, Olgas rock formations 360km/220mi SW Alice Springs
600 Chief Mountain  Precambrian block  above 400-500 million years  younger Cretaceous gray shales.    Montana E  Glacier National Park
600  Red Rock area was under an ocean basin during the Paleozoic Era 600 million years ago. Up to 9,000 feet (2,700 m) of limey sediments were deposited and eventually lithified to limestone.[9] 
600 - 542 Ediacaran biota life of Ediacon Period
600 It is thought that earliest multicellular life on Earth was a sponge-like creature.
? Sponges among simplest animals, partially differentiated tissues but without muscles, nerves, or internal organs.
Sponges ( Porifera) are phylogenetically oldest animal phylum extant today.
In some ways they are closer to being cell colonies than multicellular organisms.
580 - 0 Red paper lantern jellyfish Pandea rubra N Pacific & N Atlantic
558 - 555 3 Kimberella quadrata, Mr. John Kimber's one, Australia & Russia
580 - 550 30 Eoandromeda octobrachiata, Doushantuo formation, China
580 movement of all animals may have started with cnidarians. Almost all cnidarians possess nerves & muscles and, because they are simplest animals to possess it, their direct ancestors were very likely first animals to use nerves & muscles together. Cnidarians are also first animals with an actual body of definite form & shape. They have radial symmetry.

579,880,000 - 579,630,000 Gaskiers glaciation is a period of widespread glacial deposits that lasted under 340,000 years

579 - 555 24 Charnia masoni, Leicestershire, England
575 - 0 Botrynema brucei N Atlantic
575 - 0 Turritopsis nutricula Carribean sea
575 - 0 Poertuguese man o' war Physalia physalis Tropical zone
571 - 541 30 Dickinsonia costata, Russia, Ediacaran
575 Avalon explosion fauna of the Avalon Peninsula, is a proposed evolutionary radiation in the history of the Animalia
575 - 0 Orange sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi Western  N America 
558 - 555 3 Tribrachidium heraldicum, Ukraine, Russia & Australia
555 diverse Ediacaran community was discovered in 1995 in Sonora, Mexico
555 Mollusc-like Kimberella and its trace fossils
555  Coronacollina acula, Asia minor
555  Spriggina floudersi, Australia
550 - 330 20 Proto-Tethys Ocean
550 First Cloudina & Namacalathusmineral tubular fossils
550 Flatworm earliest animals to have a brain, & simplest animals alive to have bilateral symmetry. They are also simplest animals with organs that form from three germ layers.
580 - 0 Platytrochozoa Basal Clade
550 - 180 370 Gondwana (South America, Africa, peninsular India, Australia, & Antarctica) to south.
549 - 530 Baykonurian glaciation 
4 Ernietta plateauvensis, Dabis formation, Namibia, Ediacaran, 548 Ma
547 Baykonurian glaciation peak contributor to the Cambrian explosion. Its deposits are known in  Baykonur Formation in Central Asia and Africa
6 Amplectobelua symbrachiata, Burgess Shale, Canada, Middle Cambiran 525 Ma
542 Treptichnus pedum  1st preserved burrow of an animal
542 Foraminifera Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
Paleozoic Era 541 - 252 289
541 - 0 Squidworm, Teuthidodrilus samae, Indo-Pacific ocean, Least concern
541 - 485.4 56.6 Proconodontus posterocostatus, Argentina
541 - 485.4 56.6 Yunnanozoon lividum, Livid animal of Yunnan, China
541 - 485.4 56.6 Metaspriggina walcotti. Burgess shale, Canada
541 - 485.4 56.6 Pikaia gracilens, Burgess shale, Canada
541 - 485.4 56.6 Myllokunmingia fengjiaoa, China
541 - 485.4 56.6 Metaldetes gracilis, Australia
541 - 485.4 56.6 Pirania muricata, burgess shales
541 - 485.4 56.6 Choia carteri, Burgess shales, Canada
541 - 485.4 56.6 Venus' flower baskeet, Euplectella asperiallum, W Pacific
541 - 485.4 56.6 Siphusauctum gregarium, Burgess shales
541 - 485.4 56.6 Amiskwia sagittiformis, Burgess shales
Cambrian Period
541 - 485.4
55.6
541 - 0 Green spoonworm, Bonellia viridis, NE Atlantic ocean & Mediterranean sea, 541 - 0 Least concern
541 - 485.4 56.6 Microschedia amphitrite, Morocco
541 - 485.4 56.6 Hirondellea gigas, Japan Least Concern
541 - 485.4 56.6 Martinosioia elongata, Norway
541 - 485.4 56.6 Cambropachycope clarksoni, Norway
541 - 485.4 56.6 Goticaris longispinosa, Norway
541 - 359 82 Cyrtoceras minneapolis, Southern American & Africa Cambrian
541 - 485.4 56.6 Vetustovermis planus, Very old worm, Australia
541 - 485.4 56.6 Nectocaris pteryx, Swimming shrimp, Canada & China 
541 - 0 Flame scallop, Ctenoides scaber, Caribbean sea Least concern
541 - 529 12 Halkieria obliqua, Greenland Early Cambrian
541 - 529 12 Atolla jellyfish Atolla wyvillei worldwide
541 - 0 Horned upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea ornata Indo-Pacific
541 - 0 Nomura's jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai Japanese sea 
541 - 0 Spotted jelly Mastigias papua Indo-Pacific
541 - 0 Swimming anemone Boloceroides memurrichi Iindo-Pacific
541 - 0 compass jellyfish Chrysaora hysoella NE Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean sea 
541 - 0 Stygiomedusa gigantea Gulf of Mexico
1541 - 0 9 Tiburonia granrojo Northeastern Pacific
541 - 521 20 Terreneuvian System
541 - 529 12 Fortunian Age
541 Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation
541 Large negative peak δ 13Ccarb excursio
541 - 0 Scaly-foot gastropod, Chrysomallon squamiforum, S Indian ocean Status not evaluated
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life)
541 - 252 289
Cambrian Period
541 - 485.4
55.6
Terreneuvian Epoch 541 - 521 20
Fortunian Stage 541 - 529 12
540 - 0 Lyrocteis imperatoris, Japan,
540 Laurentian Mountain range is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. It contains rocks deposited before the Cambrian Period 540
540 - 0 Ecdysozoa superphylum of  protostome
arthropods
Bivalvia Clams
540 Acorn worms are considered more highly specialised & advanced than other similarly shaped worm-like creatures. They have a circulatory system with a heart that also functions as a kidney. Acorn worms have gill-like structure it uses for breathing, a structure similar to that of primitive fish. Acorn worms are thus sometimes said to be a link between vertebrates & invertebrates.
corals
536 - 0 Lophotrochozoa superphylum
535 - P Agnatha, first vertebrates appear: ostracoderms, jawless fish related to present-day lampreys & hagfishes. Haikouichthys & Myllokunmingia are examples of these jawless fish, or Agnatha. (See also prehistoric fish). They were jawless & their internal skeletons were cartilaginous. They lacked paired (pectoral & pelvic) fins of more advanced fish. They were Precursors to bony fish.
5 Anomalocaris canadensis, Abno burgess shales, Canada, Middle - Late Cambrian 530 - 501 Ma
530 - 0 Lancelet fish. Resembles Pikaia
530 Pikaia earliest known ancestor of chordates. It is first known animal with a notochord.Pikaia is believed to be ancestor of all chordates & vertebrates.
echinoderms
Stage 2 (Tommotian) 529 - 521 8
Other earliest known chordate-like fossils is from a conodonts a "eel-shaped animal of 4-20 cm long" with a pair of huge eyes at head end were & a complex basket of teeth.
molluscs
529 - 0  Ecdysozoa  protostome  including Arthropoda  & Nematoda
529 - 0 Kalinga ornata, Indo-Pacific ocean , Least concern
529 - 0 Naked sea butterfly, Clione limacina, Arctic ocean,  Status not evaluated
525  Peanchoilia superlata, Burgess Shale, Canada, Chengjiang biota, China, Middle Cambrian
525 - 505 20 Isozys chilhoweanus, Sirius Passet, Greenland Middle Cambrian
525 Amplectobelua symbrachiata, Burgess Shale, Canada
525 Canadaspis perfecta, Shield of Capsula, Burgess shale, Canada
525 Waptia fieldensis, burgess shale, Canada
525 Dinomischus isolatus, burgess shales, Canada
525 Herpetogaster collinsi, Burgess shale, Canada
525 - 425 80 Eldonia ludwigii, Burgess Shale, Canada, ghengjiang biota, China
525 Echmatocrinus brachiatus, Burgess Shale, Canada
Series 2 Epoch 521 - 09 12
Stage 3 521 - 514 7
521 - 514 7 Tamisiocaris borelis, Sirius Passet, Greenland
521 - 0 Sea pineappple, Halocynthia raretzi, Japanese sea,
521 - 0 Predatory tunicate, Megaloddicopia hiaps, Montery canyon
Leanchoilia  megacheiran arthropod known from Cambrian Burgess Shale in Canada and the Chengjiang biota of China. 5cm/2" long, whip-like feelers mounted on frontal arm-like appendages. internal organs preserved in three dimensions.
  521–251.9 Trilobites
520 Vertebrates-primitive fish with bony armor plates.
520 Collinsium ciliosum, Xiaoshiba Lagerstatte, China
520 Paucipodia inermis, Chengjiang lagerstatte, China
520 Pomatrum ventralis, Qiongzhusi formation, China
520 Vetulicola cuneata, Ancient Chengjiang biota, China
520 - 505 15 Wiwaxia corrugata, Canada & Europe
520 Alalcomenaeus cambricus, Burgess shale, Canada 
520 - 505 15 Yohoia tenuis, Burgess shale, Canada
520 Pambdelurion whittingtoni, Sirius Passet, Greenland
520 Kerygmechela kierkegaaardi, Sirius Passet, Greenland,
520 Parapeytoia yunnanensis, Maotianshan Shales, China
520 Odaraia alata, Burgess shale, Canada
520 Microdictyon effusum, Eurasia
520 Onychodictyon ferox, China, Middle Cambiran
520 Walking cactus, Diania cactiformis, China
515 Urokodia aequalis, Maotianshan Shales, China
515 Haplophrentis carinatus, Burgess Shale, Canada
515 Burgessochaeta setigera, Burgess Shale, Canada
Stage 4 514 - 509 5
Emu Bay Shale is a geological formation in Emu Bay, South Australia, containing a major Konservat-Lagerstätte (fossil beds with soft tissue preservation). It is one of two in the world containing Redlichiidan trilobites
513 - 506 7 Kaili stratigraphic Formation 
513 - 501 12 Opabinia regalis, "Opabin pasali," Burgess Shale, Canada, Middle Cambriann
513 - 505 8 Peytoia nathorsti, Burgess Shale, Canada, Middle Cambrian
511 - 0 Crustaceans (shellfish)
510 - 320 190 Graptolithina graptolites subclass of the class Pterobranchia
510  Aysheaia pedunculata, Burgess Shale, Canada
510  Canadia spinosa Canada burgess Shale, Canada
Miaolingian Epoch 509 - 497 12
Wuliulan Stage 509 - 504.5 4.5
509 - 500 9 Haplophrentis carinatus Burgess shales Canada 
508 Ottoia prolifica, Burgess Shales, Canada
507 Skeemella clavula, Wheeler Shale, USA
505 Orthrozanclus reburrus, Dawn scythe with hair, Canada & China 
505 Hurdia victoria, Burgess Shale, Canada
505 Hallucigenia sparsa, Burgess Shale, Canada
505 Ovatiovermis cribratus Clap worm Burgess Shale, Canada
Drumian Stage 504.5 - 500.5 4
501 - 488 13 Plectronoceras cambria, Texas
Guzhangian Stage 500.5 - 497 3.5
500 Natural Chimneys, known as the Cyclopean Towers in the 19th century,   Mt. Solon   Augusta County, Virginia   limestone underwater
500 Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is a U.S. National Lakeshore on the shore of Lake Superior in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, United States.
500 Wichita Mountains. 500mya granite on top.
Furongian Epoch 497 - 485.4 10.6
Paibian Stage 497 - 494 3
497 - 0 Colossal squid, Mesonychoteuthis, Antarctic ocean, Least concern
495 nautiloids appeared.
Jiangshanian Stage 494 - 489.5 5.5
Stage 10 489.5 - 485.4 12.5
490 - 0 brachiopods phylum
bryozoans
488.3 - 443.7 44.6 Scafells volcanos, Lake District, England; VEI8; Ordovician
488 - 0 Brittle stars or ophiuroids ancestors of starfish  trace fossils class Ophiuroidea phylum Echinodermata
488 Orthoceras regulare, Straight horn, Baltic & Scandinavian states
488 - 0 Gorgonocephalus eucnemis, Dreadful head, N Atlantic, Least Concern
488  Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event 
Ordovician Period
485.4 - 443.8 41.6
Early 485.4 - 470 15.4
Tremadocian stage 485.4 - 477.7 7.7
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Promissum pulchrum, S Africa
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Arandaspis prionotolepis, Aranda sheild, Australia
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Sacabambaspis janvieri, S America & Australia
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Dendrograptus grabaui, Europe
2485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Crytograpsus grayianus, Scotland
485.4 - 251.9 23.5 Syringopora blanda N America
485.4 - 251.9 23.5 Honycomb coral Favosites sp N America and Euraasia 
485.4 - 419.2 66.2 Chain coral Halysites coral N America and Europe Ordovician
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Estonioceras decheni, Estonian horn, Europe
480 Appalachian mountain range. Europe & North America straddle equator.
480 Placodermi were prehistoric fish. Placoderms were first of jawed fishes, their jaws evolving from first of their gill arches .Their head & thorax were covered by articulated armoured plates & rest of body was scaled or naked.
480 Crinoids starfishbrittle starssea urchins and sea cucumbers
470 - 425 45 Cameroceras trentonense, Chambered horn, Baltic states & Siberia, Ordovician
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life)
541 - 252 289
Ordovician Period
485.4 - 443.8 41.6
Early Ordovician Subperiod
485.4 - 470 15.4
Tremadocian stage 485.4 - 477.7 7.7
480 crinoids
480 Aegirocassis benmoulai, Fezouata biota, Morocco
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Balacrinus inflatus, Oceans worldwide
Floian stage 477.7 - 470 7.7
Middle Ordovician Subperiod
485.4 - 470 15.4
Dapingian stage 470 - 467.3  7.7
470 conodont species Baltoniodus triangularis 
Darriwilian stage 467.3 - 458.4 8.9
467.3 - 251.9 215.4 Eurypterids, first giant sea scorpions appeared.
Late Ordovician Subperiod
485.4 - 470 15.4
Sandbian stage 485.4 - 453 5.4
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Enoploura popei, N America
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Isorophus africanus, N Africa
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Astrapsis desiderata, Star shield, USA
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Ctenaspis kiaeri, Canada
485.4 - 443.8 41.6 Cothurnocystis elizae, N America, Europe & N Africa
470 Rock Natural Bridge Rockbridge County, Virginia, 215'/66m span of 90'/27m. in a gorge  limestone terrain  by Cedar Creek, a small tributary of the James River.
470 - 425 45 Cameroceras giant orthoconic cephalopod
467.3 - 0 Isocrinus nicoleti, N Ameria, Africa & Eurasia,
467 - 0 Bathycrinus aldrichianus, N Atlantic,
465 - 0 Snake sea cucumber, Synapta maculata, E Indian ocean
465 - 0 Elpidia glacialis, Arctic circle, Least Concern
34 Scotoplane globosa, Oceans worldwide, 465 - Present Least Concern
35 Pink swimming sea cucumber, Enypniastes ecimis, Marianna trench, 465 - Present Least Concern
 
466 - 465 1 Flat Landing Brook Formation volcanos Telagouche Group
461 - 449 12 Endoceras proteiforme, Inner horn, USA
460 - 440 20 Stark's Knob basaltic pillow lava formation   Schuylerville, New York. formed  in relatively shallow sea water. 
460 - 440 20 Late Ordovician glaciation climate cooled
455 - 430 25 last Ordovician–Silurian extinction events
Katian stage 453 - 445.2 7.8
6 Pleurocystites squamosus, Side bladder, N America & Europe, Late Ordovician 453 - 446
Barn Bluff (known as Ȟemníčhaŋ in the Dakota language[2]) is a bluff along the Mississippi River in Red Wing, Minnesota, United States. 
450 Cederberg mountains are located near Clanwilliam, approximately 300 km north of Cape Town, South Africa 
20 Australian ghostshark Callorhinchus milii S Australia 450 - Present Least concern
450 - 420 30 Andean-Saharan glaciation Peak 440
Hirnantian stage 445.2- 443.8 11.4
444 Ice age begins mass extinctions of marine life
Silurian Period
443.8 - 419.2 24.6
Llandovery epoch 443.8 - 433.4 10.4
Rhuddanian Age 443.8 - 440.8 3
1 Cooksonia pertoni Europe & N America, Silurian 443 - 360 Devonian
23 Birkenia elegans, N America & Europe, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
20 Thelodus parvidens, N America & Eurasia, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
21 Phlebolepis elegans, Estonia, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
5 Jmoytius kerwoodi, Scotland, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
5 Horncoral Goniophyllus N America and N Europe Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
22 Ainiktozoon loganense, Scotland, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
13 Americaspis americana, American shield, N America, Silurian 443.8 – 419.2
9 Scyphocrinus elegans, Skyphos crioid, Eurasia & Africa, Silurian - Devonian 443.4 - 358.9 Ma
Aeronian Age 440.8 - 438.5 2.3
440 Seneca Rocks is a large crag and local landmark in Pendleton County in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, United States.
Jamoytius kerwoodi was a species of primitive, eel-like jawless fish
440 -  145 295 Paleo-Tethys Ocean 
Telychian Age 438.5 - 433.4 5.1
27 Dictyosoma burgeri, E Asia, 438 - Present Least concern
433.4  Ireviken event was the first of three relatively minor extinction events (the Ireviken, Mulde, and Lau events)  lasted around 200,000 years comprises eight extinction "datum points"—the first four being regularly spaced, every 30,797 years, and linked to the Milankovic obliquity cycle.[3] The fifth and sixth probably reflect maxima in the precessional cycles, with periods of around 16.5 and 19 ka.[3] The final two data are much further spaced, so harder to link with Milankovic changes
Wenlock Epoch
433.4 - 427.4 6
Sheinwoodian Age 433.4 - 430.5 2.9
Homerian Age 430.5 - 427.4 3.1
430 - 0 Arachnida class arthropods  subphylum  Chelicerata.
428 - 0 lycophytes, when broadly circumscribed, are a vascular plant (tracheophyte) subgroup of the kingdom Plantae
2 Phragmoceras broderipi, Sweden, Silurian 428 - 416 Ma
Ludlow epoch
427.4 - 423 4.4
Gorstian Age 427.4 - 425.6 1.8
427  Mulde event was an anoxic event
Ludfordian Age 425.6 - 423 2.6
425 Siskiyou Mountains
425 - 0 sharks 
425 - 0 psilophytes 1st land plants leafless, vascular plants
425 - 200 225 Laurasia (North America, Greenland, Eurasia, & Scandinavia) to north of equator, &
425 - 0 Blob sculpin, Psychrolutes phrictus, N Pacific ocean 839 - 2800 M, Least concern
425 - 0 Asian sheepsead wrasse, Semicossyphus reticulatus, W Pacific Vulnerable

Pridoli epoch
423 - 419.2 3.8

420 Lau event
420 - 297 123 Trigonotarbida is a group of extinct arachnids Europe & Americas
420 - 400? 20 zosterophylls were a group of extinct land plants  Lycophytes Tracheophytes Plantae
420 Glen CoeScotland; VEI8; 420 volcano

420 Fish evolve jaws.
420 - 0 Pudgy cusk-eel, Spectrunculus grandis Atlantic & Pacific 4,500 - 2,000 meters depth, Least concern
420 - 0 Grideye fish, Ipnops agassizii, Indo-Pacific ocean depths 1,392 - 3,475, Least concern
Silurian Regional Stages
North American Silurian Regional Stages
436 - 416
20
Cayugan Regional Stage 
421.3 - 416 5.3
Lockportian Regional Stage 
426.2 - 422.9 3.3
Tonawandan Regional Stage 
428.2 - 426.2 2
Ontarian Regional Stage 
436 - 428.2 9.8
Alexandrian Regional Stage 
  428.2 - 419.2 9
 Estonian Silurian regional stages
443 - 417 26
Ohessaare Regional stage 
Late Silurian – early Přídolí ?
Kaugatuma Regional stage 
418.7 - 417 1.7
Kuressaare Regional stage 
419.4 - 418.7 .7
Paadla Regional stage 
422.7 - 419.4 3.3
Rootsiküla Regional stage 
424.6 - 422.7 1.9
Jaagarahu Regional stage 
427 - 424.6 2.4
Jaani Regional stage 
428.2 - 427 1.2
Adavere Regional stage 
436.7 - 428.2 8.5
Raikküla Regional stage
441 - 436.7 4.3
Juuru Regional stage
443.7 - 441 2.7
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life)
541 - 252 289
Devonian Period 419.2 - 358.9 60.3
Early Devonian Subperiod
419.2 - 393.3 25.9
Lochkovian Stage
419.2  - 410.8 8.4
420 Andreolipis hedei, Silurian, N Europe  
420 - 0 Tribute spiderfish, Bathypterois guentheri, Indo-Pacific  878 - 4,720 m, Status not evaluated
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Cheirolepis trailli Hand fin Europe
419.2 - 0 Silver chimaera Chimaera phantasma Western Pacific Data deficient
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Ryniella praecursor small creture of the Rhynie chert Scotland
419.2 - 0 Yeti lobster, Kiwa hirstua, S Pacific, Vulnerable
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Clydagnathus cavusformis, Morocco
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Drepanaspis gemuendensis, Europe
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Doryaspis nathorsti, Dart shield, Norway
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Pteraspis rostrata, Wing shield, Europe
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Rhinopteraspis dunensis, Nosed wing shield, Germany
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Furcancauda heintze, Canada
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Pharyngolepis oblongus, Norway
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Lungmenshanapsis kiangyouensis, China
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Polybranchiaspis yunnanensis, China
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Eugaleaspis changi, China
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Sanchaspis megalorostrata, China
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Piturisaspis doylei, Doyle's pituri shield, Australia
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Tremataspis schmidtii, Estonia
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Dartmuthia gemmifera, Estonia
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 cephalaspis lyelli, Head shield, N america & Europe
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Hemicyclaspis murchisoni, N America & Europe
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Ateleaspis tessellata, N Eruope & Siberia
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Boreaspis rostrata, Boreas' shield, Norway
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Parameteroraspis lanternaria, Norway
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Ammonicrinus wanneri, Ammonite crinoid, Portilla formation, Spain
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Cupressocrinites elongatus, Africa, Eurasia & Austalia
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Petalocrinus mirabilis, Sweden
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Caryocrinites ornatus, N America
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus, Hooked crinoid, N America
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Rhenocystis latipedunculata, Germany
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Helianthaster rhenanus, Germany
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii Europe & N America
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Zosterophyllum myretonianum, Eurasia
419 - 299 120 Archaeopteris hibernica, Worldwide
419 - 0 Giant squid, Architeuthis dux, worldwide, Least concern
419 - 0 Asperoteuthis acanthoderma, Atlantic & Pacific, Least concern
419 - 0 Pacific bigfin squid, Magnapinna pacifica, N Pacific. Data deficient
419 - 0 Mastigoteuthis magna, Atlantic
419 - 0 Purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis, Indo-Pacific, Least concern
419 - 0 Flowervase jewel squid, Stigmototeuthis, Indo-Pacific
419 - 0 Atlantic cranch squid, Teuthowenia megalops, N Atlantic, Least concern
419.2 - 358.9 60.3 Nahecaris stuertzi, NE America
418 - 0 Red Headed Centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes, SE Asia, Least Concern
Collisions between Laurasia & Gondwana form major mountain ranges. Coal-forming sediments are laid down in vast swamps.
Global climatic changes occur, changing from warm & wet to cooler & drier. result is a long interval of glaciation in southern hemisphere.
Great swamp forests covered land.
Laurentia
Shallow flooding of continental areas deposits sediments;
later withdrawal of ocean water leaves oxidized "red beds" & extensive salt deposits.
As seas recede, they leave a thick layer of limestone.
Later in period, seas recover North America, depositing quartz, sandstones, & more limestone.
Metazoan invertebrates are still dominant form of life on Earth.
benthic (bottom-dwelling)
planktonic (floating, swimming) organisms.

amphibians
Benthic (bottom-dwelling) marine
blastoids
brachiopods
horsetails
lungfish
club mosses
Pragian Stage
410.8 - 407.6
3.2
410 collision between the LaurentianBaltica, and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny
410 - 0 fungus
410 Rhynie chert fossel bed  Rhynie, AberdeenshireScotland
409 - 66 343 Ammonites evolve from nautiloids & become one of dominant invertebrate forms.
As ozone layer forms, first air-breathing arthropods—spiders & mites—evolve on land. Amphibians evolve & venture onto land.
Plant life, including lowland forests of giant psilophyta plants, develop & spread over planet.
409 - 0 Coelacanth "living fossil" related lobe-finned fish without these shallow-water adaptations. These fishes used their fins as paddles in shallow-water habitats choked with plants & detritus. universal tetrapod characteristics of front limbs that bend backward at elbow & hind limbs that bend forward at knee can plausibly be traced to early tetrapods living in shallow water.
409 - 400 8 Hunsrück Slate   lithostratigraphic unit,  Hunsrück and TaunusGerman
409 - 205 204 Goniatites bohemicus, Czech Republic 
408 - 400 8 Schinderhannes bartelsi, Hunsruck Slates, Germany
Emsian Stage
407.6 - 393.3 14.3
10 Edestus protopirataa Scissor tooth N America and Eurasia Late Devonian - Late Cafboniferous 407.7 - 300 Ma
405 - 345 60 Rayonnoceras solidiforme, USA, Carboniferous
400 - 350 50 Finke river Australia. oldest river in world feeds lake  Eyre.
400 Hanging Rock National Natural Landmark  4-acre (1.6 ha)   Wabash CountyIndiana Wabash Rive Lagro,  fossilized coral reef
400 - 0 nematodes
400 Peggy's Cove is a small rural community located on the eastern shore of St. Margarets Bay in Nova Scotia's Halifax Regional Municipality pushed up
396 - 0 Insects
Middle Devonian Subperiod
393.3 - 382.7 10.6
Eifelian Stage
393.3  - 387.7 5.6
ferns
Givetian Stage
387.7 - 382.7
5
385 Widespread shrubs & trees
385 - 0 Elpistostegali or Panderichthyida order of prehistoric lobe-finned fishes 
385 - 380? 5 Elpistostege  extinct genus of tetrapod-like vertebrate Escuminac Formation in Quebec, Canada.
385 Eusthenopteron foordi Miguasha Quebec
Late Devonian Subperiod
382.7 - 358.9
23.8
Frasnian Stage
382.7  - 372.2 10.5
382.7 - 323.2 59.3 Stethacanthus altonensis Chest thorn N America and Eurasia
382.7 - 323.2 59.5 Stethacanthus shark-like Holocephalian
380 Panderichthys rhombolepis Pander's fishis a 90-130 cm long fish from Late Devonian period. It have a large tetrapod-like head. Panderichthys exhibits features transitional between lobe-finned fishes & early tetrapods. Lungfishes retain some characteristics of early Tetrapodas. One example is Australian Lungfish. Latvia
375 - 345 30 Osteolepis macrolepidotus Bone scale Lake Orcadie Scotland Middle Devonian
375 - 0 Stegocephalia is a name used for four-limbed stem-tetrapods, and their amphibian-grade descendants
375 Elginerpeton stem-tetrapod
375 Tiktaalik roseae Burbot Nunavut is a genus of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from late Devonian with many tetrapod-like features.Canada 
372.2 Kellwasser extinction event  "Late Devonian extinction"   first event to be detected based on marine invertebrate record. Volcanos
Famennian Stage
372.2 - 358.9
13.3
372.2 - 359.2  13 Ventastega curonica Venta roof Sweden 
372.2 - 359.2 3 Ventastega
370? - 296? 74 Lyginopteridales were the archetypal pteridosperms:
365 Sarcopterygii (fresh water lobe-finned fish) >< tetrapods in shallow & swampy freshwater habitats.
365 Acanthostega gunnari Spiny rooffour-limbed vertebrate Eastern Greenland 
365 Tulerpeton four-limbed vertebrate
365 - 60 5 Ichthyostega   stensioei Fish roof four-limbed vertebrates Eastern Greenland
365 - 360 5 Acanthostega Ichthyostega  amphibian, among first animals to have recognizable limbs. It is a candidate for being one of first vertebrates to be capable of coming onto land. It lacked wrists, & was generally poorly adapted to come onto land. limbs could not support animal's weight. Acanthostega had both lungs & gills, also indicating it was a link between lobe-finned fish & terrestrial vertebrates. hybrid between a fish & an amphibian. legs to paw their way through mud.
365 - 3 2 Hynerpeton four-limbed vertebrate first to have lost internal (fish-like) gills.
365 - 0 Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum, Arctic circle, Least concern
360 Hyneria predatory lobe-finned fish 
armored fish become extinct.
358.9 Hangenberg extinction event  anoxic event marked by a black shale.
Phanerozoic Eon 541 - Present
Paleozoic Era (Ancient Life)
541 - 252 289
Carboniferous Period 358.9 - 298.9 60
Mississippian Subperiod
358.9 - 323.2
Tournais Age 
358.9 - 346.7 12.2
358.9 - 298.9 60 Concavicaris georgeorum, NE America & Europe
358.9 - 298.9 60 Convexicris mazonensis, NE America
358.9 - 298.9 60 Deltoptychius gibberuius Europe 
358.9 - 298.9 60 Cobelodus obliquus N America and Europe 
358.9 - 298.9 60 Symmorium reniforme N America 
358.9 - 298.9 60 Harpagofututor volsellorhinus N America 
358.9 - 298.9 60 Delphyodontos dacriformes Womb tooth N America 
358.9 - 298.9 60 Belantsea montana N America 
358.9 – 323.2 35.7 Lethiscus stocki Scotland
358.9 - 298.9 60 Crab louse Pthirus pubis N America and Eurasia
 358 - 252 6 Calamites ramosus Worldwide
358 Hangenberg extinction event    marked by an anoxic black shale layer and an overlying sandstone deposit. Unlike the Kellwasser event, the Hangenberg event affected both marine and terrestrial habitats.
 last placoderms disappear
358 - 0 Violet sea-snail, Janthina janthina, Tropical zone, Least concern
358 - 202 156 Lepidodendron whitehillianum, Worldwide, Carboniferous
358.9 - 298.9 60 Amynilyspes wortheni, Germany, Carboniferous
Reptiles adapt to life in sea, in air, & on land.
Mammals are small, shrew-like animals.
364 - 360 4 Clymenia laevigata, Europe & Australia
354 - 290 64 Bilger's Rocks is a park in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, USA, 
350 Tarrasius problematicus, Early Carboniferous  
350 Rainbow Valley Conservation Reserve is a protected area located south of Alice SpringsNorthern Territory in Australia. 
350 - 300 50 Stone Mountain Blue Ridge Mountains   Appalachian Mountains. upwelling of magma from within Earth's crust which solidified to form granite within the crust 5-10M down.
350 - 0 Dentaliida one of the two orders of scaphopod mollusks, "elephant's tusk shells"
Dentaliidae is a family of relatively large tusk shellsscaphopod mollusks in the order Dentaliida.
Antalis is a genus of tusk shells, marine scaphopod mollusks.
Antalis diarrhox is a species of tusk shell, a marine scaphopod mollusk in the family Dentaliidae
Sandstone forms in shallow seas over continents.
Shale forms in shallow seas over continents.
Limestone forms in shallow seas over continents.
Conglomerate forms in shallow seas over continents.
348 - 347.6 .4 Pederpes finneyae Peter's foot C Scotland  
Marine transgression  Northern Hemisphere: the sea level was so high that only the Fennoscandian Shield and the Laurentian Shield were dry land. 
Gondwana in south incorporates South America, Africa, Antarctica, & Western Australia as well as peninsular India & parts of Arabia.
fish
Marine metazoans with mineralized skeletons
 first appearance of the conodont Siphonodella sulcata within the evolutionary lineage from Siphonodella praesulcata to Siphonodella sulcata. The first appearance of ammonite species Gattendorfia subinvoluta is just above this and was used as a base for the Carboniferous in the past
 first appearance of the fusulinid species Eoparastaffella simplex morphotype 1/morphotype 2.
Visean Age
346.7- 330.9
15.8
345.3 - 318.1 Pholidogaster ('scaly stomach') is an extinct genus of tetrapod 
345.3 - 328.3 Crassigyrinus  "thick tadpole"  extinct genus of carnivorous stem tetrapod 
345.3 - 328.3  17 Greererpeton burkemorani "crawler from Greer", W Virginia colosteid stem-tetrapods
345.3 - 328.3  17 Crassigyrinus scoticus Thick tadpole Scotland and Eastern N America
340 - 320 20 Meuse river France 2nd oldest 
340 - 334 6 Casineria is an extinct genus of tetrapod 15cm
340 - 0 tusk shells  scaphopods class youngest Mollusc
340? Whatcheeriidae is an extinct family of tetrapods 
338 Westlothiana "animal from West Lothian" is a genus of reptile-like tetrapod that lived about million years ago during the latest part of the Visean age of the Carboniferous. Members of the genus bore a superficial resemblance to modern-day lizards.   East Kirkton Limestoneat the East Kirkton QuarryWest LothianScotland in 1984.
335 - 318 17 Falcatus falcatus N America
335 - 175 160 Pangaea supercontinent extends across all climatic zones & nearly from one pole to other.
331 - 23 8 Proterogyrinus
Serpukhovian Age
330.9 - 323.2 7.7
330.9 Conodonts are extinct agnathan chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta.

Proterogyrinus

330 Deltaherpeton is an extinct genus of colosteid from middle Mississippian (late Viséan age) deposits of DeltaIowa
323.2 - 0 Speleonectes atlantida, NE Atlantic
328.3 - 318.1 10.2 Echinochimaera meltoni Spiny chimaera N America and Euasia Carboniferours
325 Cycads
325 - 260 65 New River created 3rd oldest river.  Dissects the Appalachian Mountains, formed by the Alleghenian orogeny
325 - 260 65 Susquehanna river 4th oldest river Chesapeake BayDissects the Appalachian Mountains
325 - 260 65 French Broad river. 5th oldest river. Empties Tennessee River Dissects the Appalachian Mountains,
325? Colosteidae are a family of stegocephalians (tetrapod-like vertebrates)
Jug Rock is a natural geological formation located outside of Shoals, Indiana, in the valley of the East Fork of the White River. It is composed of sandstone, and is the largest free-standing table rock formation (also called a "mushroom rock") in the United States east of the Mississippi River. It is part of the Mansfield formation, laid down in the Pennsylvanian geological epoch, roughly 325 to 286 million years ago. Erosion along fracture lines separated it from a nearby cliff. A companion feature, House Rock, stands opposite Jug Rock.
326 - 313 13 Spathicephalus mirus Flat head Scotland
326 - 307 19 Baphetidae early tetrapods
325 - 260 65 Alleghanian orogeny or Appalachian orogeny is one of the geological mountain-forming events that formed the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains
Pennsylvanian Subperiod
323.2 - 298.9
Bashkirian Stage 323.2 - 315.2 8
323.2 - 0 Telescope octopus, Amphitretus pelagisus, Pacific & Indian oceans, Least concern
323.2 - 0 Dumbo octopus, Opisthoteuthis albatrossi, Japan,  Data deficient
323.2 - 0 Opisthoteuthis depressa, Japanese sea,  Data deficient
323.2 - 0 Cirroteuthis meulleri, New Zealand, N Atlantic & Pacific oceans,   Least concern
323.2 - 0 Common octopus, Ocotus vulgaris, Mediterranean sea & W Atlantic oxean, Least concern
323.2 - 0 Giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus delfleinik, N Pacific, Least concern
323.2 - 0 Southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa, S Australia, Near threatened
323.2 - 0 Wonderpus octopus, Wunderpus photogenicus, Indo-Pacific ocean, Data deficient
323 - 0 Acanthacorydalis orientalis China
323.2 - 298.9 24.3 Escumasia roryi N America
Orodus ipeunaensis  323.2 - 272.95 50.25
319 - 0 spermatophytes Seed Plants
323.2  - 0 Octopuss 300 species
323.2  Pohlsepia mazonensis 1st octopod
Pangea begins to breakup as North America separates from Eurasia & Africa. Atlantic Ocean begins to form. Tectonic plate subduction along western North America causes Earth's crust to fold & mountains form in western part of continent.
First birds appeared (e.g. Archaeopteryx).
323 Amniota, reptiles who can reproduce on land & lay eggs on dry land capability to colonize uplands for first time.
  advanced nervous system, compared to amphibians w/ 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
370 - 364 6 Solyclymenia solarioides, Russia, Devonian
320 Hueco Mountains Texas,
510 - 320 190 graptolites Extinct
310  Percé Rock Rock formation has about 150 fossil species. In Bonaventure Island where the park is situated, conglomerates from the Carboniferous period of more than 310 million years are recorded.[4][12
319 - 0 Spiders
318 - 15 3 Dendrerpeton  temnospondyl amphibians
318 - 0 Genji firefly Luciola cruciata Japan
318 - 0 Pennsylvania firefly Photuris pensysvanica NE America
318 - 0 Japanese ground beetle Carabus blaptoides Japan 
318 - 0 Shining ball scarab beetle Ceratocanthus aeneus N America 
318 - 0 Dorcus curvidens Japan
318 - 0 Giraffe stag-beetle Prosopocoilus giraffa SE Asia 
318 - 0 Jewel scarab Chrysina batesi C America
318 - 0 Caucasus beetle Chalcosoma caucacus SE Asia
318 - 0 Centaurus beetle Augosoma centaurus C Africa
318 - 0 Goliath beetle Goliathus goliatus C Africa
318 - 0 Cheirotonus jambar Japan
318 - 0 Neptune beetle Dynastes neptunes Colombia 
318 - 0 Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules
318 - 0 Western Hercules Beetle Dynastes grantii 
318 - 0 Five-horned rhinoceros beetle Euppatorus gracilcornis SE Asia
318 - 0 Golofa porteri Venezuela 
318 - 0 Elephant beetle Central Mexico 
Moscovian Stage 315.2 - 307 8.2
315 - 299  16 Arthropleura armata, NE N America & Scotland, Carboniferous,
314.6 - 306.95 7.65 Limnostygis tetrapods. related to Limnoscelis  LimnoscelidaeNova Scotia.
313 - 04 9 Solenodonsaurus reptiliomorphs
312 Reptiles >< Reptiliomorph tetrapods
311.7 - 306.5 5.2 Eogyrinus attheyi Dawn tadpole N England 
310 Diplovertebron
310 Gephyrostegus
307.1 - 302 5.1 Micrbrachis Pelikani Small arm Czech Republic
307.1 - 5 2.1 Brouffia  basal reptile
307.1 - 5 2.1 Coelostegus basal reptile
307.1 - 5 2.1  Colosteus  genus  colosteid tetrapod  Ohio
Kasimovian Stage 307 - 303.7 3.3
307 - 0 Barber bug Triatoma infestans S America
307 Diapsids "two arches" amniote tetrapods two holes temporal fenestra crocodileslizardssnakestuataraturtles, and birds
306 Archaeothyris florensis Nova Scotia Canada 
306 - 280 26 Ophiacodon mirus N America & Europe
305.9 - 303.4 2.5 Ianthodon basal sphenacodont synapsids
305 - 299 6 Meganeura Liaoning Province, China
305 - 299 6 Gerarus vetus Europe
305 - 299 6 Obake raspy cricket Sia ferox Japan
305 - 299 6 Manoblatta bertrandi Europe
305  Carboniferous rainforest collapse   tropical rainforests equator of Euramerica. climate aridified. forest fragmented lycopsids which dominated wetlands thinned out, replaced by   ferns.  loss of amphibian diversity & drier climate spurred the diversification of reptiles  
Plants
 seed ferns of Moscovian tropical wetlands died: FlemingitaceaeDiaphorodendraceaeTedeleaceaeUrnatopteridaceaeAlethopteridaceae, Cyclopteridaceae, and Neurodontopteridaceae.
Invertebrates
Loss of oxygen killed giant arthropods like dragonflies & millipedes 
Vertebrates
Labyrinthodont amphibians devastated, 

many amphibian families failed to occupy new ecological niches and became extinct

Synapsids and sauropsids acquired new niches faster than amphibians

herbivory & carnivory replaced insectivores and piscivores.
305 - 303 2 Earth returning to normal tempetature
305 - 300 5 Vegetation recovery period
305 - 295 10 Biodiversity recovering with dinosaurs as dominant species
305 - 299 6  Mazothairos enormis USA
305 - 299 6  Stenodictya lobata France 
305 - 299 6  Protophasma woodwardi France
305 - 299 6  Meganeura monyi Large-nerved England 
Gzhelian Stage 303.7 - 298.9 4.8
302 Ianthasaurus hardestii Iantha River lizard Kansas USA 
302 Xyrospondylus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsids.
300 - 0 Conifers