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Ancient - 500A 1700s Future
C Africa
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Population in Millions Visualization Links: 100M, 1M, 160K, 40K, 20K, 10K, 1K, 1C, 10, 1
545 555 562 570 578 580 587 592
625 700 740 780 820 843 874 894
991 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6
2 2.4 2.7 3 3.5 4.2 5 6.1
Lives 15 - 1 15
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Meghalayan Age 2250 BC - Present 4269
Holocene Epoch 9,650 -  Present 11,679
Age of Pisces 100 BCE - 2680 CE 2780

Middle Ages
Sir Isaac Newton
Indrustrial rev
2nd Ind rev
Renaissance 1400 - 1600 200
Baroque 1600 - 1760 160
Early Period of Western Classical Music 500 - 1760 1260
Romantic 1815 - 1910 95
Classical 1730 - 1820 90
Baroque 1600 - 1760 160
1875 - 1925 50
Common Practice Period of Western Classical Music 1600 - 1925 325
90 - 30 40
75 P
Modern & Contemporary
1890 - Present 123
Spanish Inquisition 1492 - 1843 351
30 yrs
R Catholic
Russian Czars 1482 - 1698 216
Russian Empire 1721 - 1917 196
Portuguese traders
Japanese Empire
Slavery 1500 - 1865 365
Fr & Indian Wars
US Indian wars 1622 - 1890 268
Mayan Calendars 5000 year age 3114 BC - 1755
Mayan Calendars 250 year age 1755 - 1999
Post Conquest Mesoamerica 1521 - 1697 176

William Kyle
1740 - 1821
James Kyle
1800 - 1874
James M Kyle
1826 - 1902
Samuel Davis Kyle 1866 - 1939
JM Kyle
07 - 52
Mod Max
Little Age Age 1350 - 1850 500
L Pounds
S Min
Maunder Min
D Min
Slavery 1500 1888
Brazilian Emp.
N Europe
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1465 mystery eruption
1755 - 66 Solar Cycle 1 11.3 yrs March June. Max 86.5 Min 11.2
1766 - 75 Cycle 2
9 yrs June June 115.8 Max 7.2 Min
1775 - 84 Cycle 3
9.3 yrs June Sept. Max 158.5 Min 9.6
1784 - 98 Cycle 4
13.7 yrs Sept May Max 141.1 Min 3.2
1798 - 1810 12.6 Solar Cycle 5 May Dec Max 49.2 Min 0
1810 - 23
12.4 Cycle 6Dec May Max 48.7 Min .1
1823 - 33 10.5
Cycle 7May Nov Max 71.5 Min 7.3
1833 - 43
9.8 Cycle 8 Nov Jul Max 146.9 Min 10.6
1843 - 55
12.4 Cycle 9Jul Dec Max 131.9 Min 3.2
1855 - 67
11.3 Cycle 10Dec March Max 97.3 Min 5.2
1867 - 78
11.8 Cycle 11March Dec Max 140.3 Min 2.2
1878 - 1890
11.3 Cycle 12Dec March Max 74.6 Min 5
1890 - 1902
11.9 Cycle 13March Feb Max 87.9 (Jan 1894) Min 2.7
1902 - 13 11.5 Cycle 14 Feb Aug Max 64.2 Feb 06 Min 1.5
1913 - 23
10 Cycle 15 Aug Aug Max 105.4 Aug 17 Min 5.6
1923 - 33
10.1 Cycle 16 Aug Sept Max 78.1 Apr 28 Min 3.5
1933 - 44
10.4 Cycle 17Sept Feb Max 119.2 Apr 37 Min 7.7
1944 - 54
10.2 Cycle 18Feb Apr Max 151.8 May 47 Min 3.4
1954 - 64
10.5 Cycle 19Apr Oct Max 201.3 Mar 58 Min 9.6
1964 - 76
11.7 Cycle 20Oct June Max 110.6 Nov 68 Min 12.2
1976 - 86
10.3 Cycle 21June Sept Max 164.5 Dec 79 Min 12.3
1986 - 96
9.7 Cycle 22Sept May Max 158.5 Jul 89 Min 8
1996 - 2008
12.6 Cycle 23May Dec Max 120.8 Mar 2000 Min 1.7
1350 - 1850 500 Little Age Age
1460 - 1550 Sporer Minimun of solar activity
1500? Saint Croix racer Extinct
1519 Da Vinci
1506 Julius commenced building St. Peters Cathedral at Rome.
1564 Galileo, astronomer, was born. He lived 78 years.
1564 William Shakespeare was born. He lived 52 years.
500 - 1700 1200 Middle Ages
1593 - 1653 Artemisia Gentileschi painter
Artemisia 1997
1500 1st flush toilets appeared.
1500s Bahaman barn owl Bahamas
1500s?Martinique giant ameiva  Extinct
1510 Leonardo da Vinci designs a horizontal water wheel .
1510 Pocket watch invented by Peter Henlein.
1513 Urs Graf invents etching.
1530spinning wheel was invented at Brunswick.
1568 Bottled beer invented in London. 
1569 Gerard Mercator invents Mercator map projection.
1589 Englishmen, William Lee inventsknitting machine.
1590 Dutchmen, Zacharias Janssen invents compound microscope
1593 Galileo invents a water thermometer.
Realism & Romanticism ofearly 19th century gave way to Impressionism & PostImpressionism inlater half ofcentury, with Paris beingdominant art capital ofworld. InUnited StatesHudson River School was prominent. 19th century painters included:
Onliterary frontnew century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18thcentury rationalism, & it develops more or less alonglines ofIndustrial Revolution, with a design to react againstdramatic changes wrought on nature bysteam engine andrailway. William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge are consideredinitiators ofnew school in England, while incontinentGerman Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy & Spain.
French arts had been hampered byNapoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.
Goncourts & Emile Zola in France & Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some offinest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map ofnew unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic & cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels publishedCommunist Manifesto.
There was a huge literary output during19th century. Some ofmost famous writers includedRussians Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov & Fyodor Dostoevsky;English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson & Jane Austen;Scottish Sir Walter Scott;Irish Oscar Wilde;Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, & Mark Twain; andFrench Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne & Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included:
Sonata form matured duringClassical era to becomeprimary form of instrumental compositions throughout19th century. Much ofmusic from19th century was referred to as being inRomantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky & Richard Wagner.list includes:
19th century sawbirth of science as a profession;term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell.[9] Amongmost influential ideas of19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 publishedbookOrigin of Species, which introducedidea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur madefirst vaccine against rabies, & also made many discoveries infield of chemistry, includingasymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gaveworld a practical everyday lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass & other mathematicians also carried outarithmetization of analysis for functions of real & complex variables; they also beganuse of hypercomplex numbers. Butmost important step in science at this time wasideas formulated by Michael Faraday & James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changedface of physics & made possible for new World to come about. Other important 19th century scientists included:
. 1500-1550 - The Waitaha penguin of New Zealand's South Island became extinct.

1603 Bermuda hawk Extinct Bermuda
1600s Bermuda saw-whet owl 
1606 Dutch discovered Australia.
1608 Hans Lippershey inventsfirst refracting telescope.
1609 Galileo uses telescope to study sunspots.
1619 Wm. Harvey, M.D. of England discovereddouble function of heart as a pump & supplier of oxygen fromlungs.
1619 Report of nakedeye sunspot by Chinese
1620 earliest humanpowered submarine invented.
1621 Pierre Gassendi first uses term Aurora Borealis
1624 William Oughtred invents a slide ruler.
1624 Report of nakedeye sunspot by Chinese
1625 Frenchmen, JeanBaptiste Denys invents a method for blood transfusion.
1629 Giovanni Branca invents a steam turbine.
1630 Rhembrantd
Rembrandt 1936
1631 1st newspaper,Gazette De France. Still in circulation.
1632 Galileo writes treatise on solar system
1564 - 1642 Galileo Galilae
Galileo 1975
Galileo Galilei 1969  Italian film
1636 W. Gascoigne inventsmicrometer.
1638 Report of nakedeye sunspot by Chinese
1642 Frenchmen, Blaise Pascal invents an adding machine.
1643 Evangelista Torricelli inventsbarometer.
1645 Maunder Sunspot Minimum starts
1643 - 1727 Sir Isaac Newton
1645 - 1715 Maunder Minimun almost no sunspots
1650 Otto von Guericke invents a air pump. 
1656 Christian Huygens invents a pendulum clock. 
1660 Cuckoo clocks made in Furtwangen, Germany, in Black Forest region.
1663 James Gregory inventsfirst reflecting telescope.
1666 Sir Isaac Newton discoveredlaw of gravitation.
1668 Isaac Newton invents a reflecting telescope. 
1670 1st reference to a candy cane is made. Dom Pérignon invents Champagne.
1671 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invents a calculating machine. 
1675 Christian Huygens patents pocket watch.
1676 Robert Hooke inventsuniversal joint.
1679 Denis Papin invents pressure cooker.
1684 George Handel was born.
1695Bank of England commenced business on
1698 Englishmen, Thomas Savery invents a steam pump.
51 Cerdic King of Wessex 519 - 34 25
50 Cynric King of Wessex 495 - 560 56
49 Ceawlin King of Wessex 535 - 592
48 Cuthwine 592
47 Cutha Cathwulf 592
46 Ceolwald
45 Coenred 640
44 Ingild 672 - 718
43 Eoppa 706
42 Eafa 730
41 Ealhmund King of Kent 750 - 784
40 Egbert King of Wessex 775 - 839
39 Aethelwulf 795 - 858
38 AlfredGreat 849 - 899
37 EdwardElder 871 - 924
36 Edmund 922 - 946
35 Edgar 943 - 975
34 Aethelred 2Unready 968 - 1016
33 Edmund 2 Ironside 990 - 1016
32 Edward Athling X 1016 - 1057
31 St Margaret 1093 W
30 Matilda 1118
29 Henry Curtmantle 1133 - 1189
28 John Lackland 1166 - 1216
27 Henry 3 1207 - 1272
26 Edward I 1239 - 1307
25 Edward 2 1284 - 1327
24 Edward 3 1312 - 1377
23 John of Gaunt 1340 - 1399
22 Joan Beaufort
21 Richard Plantagenet 1460
20 Edward 4 1422 - 1483
19 Elizabeth of York 1466 - 1503
18 Margaret Tudor 1489 - 1541
17 James 5 1512 - 1542
16 mary Stuart 1542 - 1586
15 James 1 Stuart 1566 - 1625
14 Elizabeth Stuart 1596 - 1661
13 Sophie Hanover 1630 - 1714
12 George 1 Hanover 1660 - 1727
11 George 2 Hanover 1683 - 1760
10 Frederick Louis Hanover 1700 - 1751
9 George 3 Hanover 1738 - 1820
8 Edward 1767 - 1820
7 Victoria Hanover 1819 - 1901
6 Edward 7 Wettin 1841 - 1910
5 George Windsor 1865 - 1936
4 George 6 Windsor 1895 - 1952
3 Elizabeth 2 Windsor 1926
2 Charles Windsor 1943
1 William Arthur Philip Windsor 1982

1627 last known aurochs died in Poland. This large wild cattle formerly inhabited much of Europe, northern Africa, Middle East, central Asia, and India.[26]
1645 Finsch's duck survived in New Zealand until around this time.[3]
1662 last definite sighting of a dodo was made in Mauritius.[15] The extinction was due to hunting, but also by pigs, rats, dogs & cats brought to island by settlers. species has become an iconic symbol of animal extinction.[27]
1690s elephant bird Aepyornis maximus was last recorded around end of 17th century








1700 1st piano is built
1700s Guadeloupe parakeet Extinct
1700s Bermuda flicker Extinct
1700s Bermuda night heron Extinct
1701 Jethro Tull invents seed drill.
1704 Newton explains principles of Colour in Optics
1707 Abraham Darby uses coal to smelt Iron
1708 Jesuit missionaries make first accurate map of China
Union Pacific 1939
1711 Englishmen, John Shore inventstuning fork.
1712 Thomas Newcomen patentsatmospheric steam engine
1714 Fahrenheit devises mercury thermometer
1715 Earliest sketch of solar corona
1716 Dramatic aurora seen in England
1717 Edmond Halley inventsdiving bell.
1722 French C. Hopffer patentsfire extinguisher
1722 George Graham discovers that compass needle always in motion.
1723 Workhouses started
1724 Gabriel Fahrenheit inventsfirst mercury thermometer.
1725 First Encyclopedia printed in China
1728 Danish explorer Bering discovers Straits
1730 Octant navigational aid invented
1731 Wickliffes New Testament was printed.
1731 Rosetta Stone discovered
1733 First perambulator (pram) designed
1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle.
1734 First fire extinguisher invented Newcomen invents steam powered piston engine
1735 Linnaeus develops categorisation system
1736 Rubber discovered in Peru
1740 Anders Celcius & Olof Hoiter discover magnetic storms
1742 Celsius devises centigrade scale
1745 E.G. von Kleist inventsleyden jar,first electrical capacitor.
1746 1828 Fransisco Goya
Volavérunt 1999
Goyas Ghost 2006
1748 First blast furnace built
1750 James Watt discoveredpower of steam.
1752 Ben. Franklin discoveredidentity of lightening & electricity. Lightening rods were used thereafter.
1752 Franklin proposes Theory of Electricity
1752 Britain adopts Gregorian calender leading to riots
1770 Wilcke discovers aurora aligned with magnetic field of Earth,
Mozart 1756 - 91 35
Amadeus 1984
Mozart 1956
1756 Amadeus Mozart of Germany was born. He lived 36 years.
1757 Sextant invented by John Campbell
1760 - 1830 70 Indrustrial rev
1760 Lesser Antillean macaw Extinct Guadeloupe
1764 First public restaurant opens in France
1764 Voltaires Dictionnaire Philosophique
1764 James Watt develops Steam engine
1766 Cavendish isolates Hydrogen
1770 - 1827 57 Beethoven
Beethovens Great Love 1936
1770 Beethoven was born. He lived 57 years, primarily in Vienna.
1771 First edition of Encyclopedia Britannica
1772 Nitrogen discovered
1773 First Iron bridge built at Coalbrookdale
1774 Priestly discovers Oxygen
1775 Thomas Crapper invents WC
1777 Lavoister shows that Oxygen & Nitrogen aremain components of air
1777 Mairan proposes aurora caused by earth entering Zodiacal light
1779 Riots against machinery
1779 Martinique parrot Extinct Martinique
1779 Mauge's parakeet Mona, Puerto Rico
1781 Herschel discovers Uranus
1782 Watt patents rotary steam engine
1784 Bifocal spectacles developed
1784first mail delivered by coaches left London for Bristol, August
1786 Coal gas used to make light
1790 Guillotine put totest
1791 Metric system formulated in France
1791 James Hargreaves inventsSpinning Jenny
1792 Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney
1795 Hydraulic Press
1796 Jenner succeeds in developing a smallpox vaccine
1798 Lithography invented
1799 Income Tax introduced
1752 Benjamin Franklin invents lightening rod.
1755 Samuel Johnson publishesfirst English language dictionary on April 15th after nine years of writing. In preface Samuel Johnson wrote, "I am not so lost in lexicography as to forget that words aredaughters of earth, & that things are sons of heaven."
1757 John Campbell invents sextant. 
1758 Dolland invents a chromatic lens.
1761 Englishmen, John Harrison invents navigational clock or marine chronometer for measuring longitude.
1764 James Hargreaves invents spinning jenny.
1767 Joseph Priestley invents carbonated water soda water.
1768 Richard Arkwright patents spinning frame
1769 James Watt invents an improved steam engine
1774 Georges Louis Lesage patentselectric telegraph.
1775 Alexander Cummings invents flush toilet.Jacques Perrier invents a steamship.
1776 David Bushnell invents a submarine.
1779 Samuel Crompton invents spinning mule.
1779 Guadeloupe parrot Extinct
1780 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocal eyeglasses.Gervinus invents circular saw.
1783 Louis Sebastien demonstratesfirst parachute.Benjamin Hanks patentsselfwinding clock.Joseph Michel Montgolfier & Jacques Etienne Montgolfier inventhotair balloon.Englishmen, Henry Cort inventssteel roller for steel production.
1784 Andrew Meikle inventsthreshing machine.Joseph Bramah invents safety lock.
1785 Edmund Cartwright invents power loom.Claude Berthollet invents chemical bleaching Charles Augustus Coulomb inventstorsion balance.Blanchard invents a working parachute.
1786 John Fitch invents a steamboat.
1789 guillotine is invented.
1790United States issued its first patent to William Pollard of Philadelphia for a machine that roves & spins cotton. 
1791 John Barber inventsgas turbine.Early bicycles invented in Scotland.
1792 William Murdoch invents gas lighting.The first ambulance.
1794 Eli Whitney patentscotton gin.Welshmen, Philip Vaughan invents ball bearings.
1795 Francois Appert inventspreserving jar for food.
1796 Edward Jenner creates a smallpox vaccination.
1797 Wittemore patents a carding machine.A British inventor, Henry Maudslay invents first metal or precision lathe.
1798 1st soft drink invented.Aloys Senefelder invents lithography.
1799 Alessandro Volta invents battery. Louis Robert inventsFourdrinier Machine for sheet paper making.
1768  Steller's sea cow became extinct due to overhunting for meat & leather.[3][28]
1773 The Tahiti sandpiper died out after rats were introduced to its habitat in the Society Islands.[29]
1774 The Sardinian pika became extinct due to invasive species (foxes, cats, etc.) that were introduced to Sardinia and Corsica.[30]
1777 The Society parakeet population dies out on Society Islands after vessels released pests.[31]
1790 The Lord Howe swamphen, also known as white gallinule, becomes extinct.[32]






1790 - 1830 Dalton Minimun Low sunspot activity. Germany had 2 degree drop in temp for 20 yrs
1800 Volta makes first battery
1802 Zeppelin invents his airship
1802 First Steamship
1803 Daltons Atomic theory
1803 1st passenger steamboat,Clermont, performed its maiden voyage onSeine River.
1804 1st steam rail locomotive
1807 Gaslight was introduced in London
1808 Nobel invented dynamite.
1809 Samuel Sommerings electric telegraph
1809 - 82 Charles Darwin
1810 - 49 Fred Chopin
Chopin: Desire for Love 2000
1811 Luddites smash spinning & weaving machinery
1813 - 83 Richard Wagner
Wagner 1982
1816 Stethoscope invented
1819 Macadamized roads developed
1819Savannah isfirst steamship to cross Atlantic
1821 Faraday invents electric motor
1822 Rosetta stone deciphered by Champollion
1822 First Iron Steamship sails
1823 Rubberized cotton developed by Macintosh
1825 1st railway opened in England on September
1827 photographs produced on a metal plate
1828 Dutch manufacturer Houten developschocolate bar
1829 Braille invented
1830s Martinique curly-tailed lizard Extinct
1832 Morse invents code
1833 Ross proposes aurora are light reflected from polar ice & snow
1835 Railway Boom
1837 Electric Telegraph
1838 First Canadian railway starts operating
1838 Screw propellor invented
1839 Daguerre took first photograph.
1839 Faradays theory of electromagnetism
1840 first postage stamps
1840First bicycle
1842 First use of Anaesthetic in an operation
1845 Galvanised corrugated Iron invented,
1845 Pneumatic tyre invented
1848 Auroral earth currents disrupt telegraph lines worldwide
1849 Safety Pin patented;
1849 Speed of Light accurately measured by Fizeau
1850 Kelvins Law of conservation of energy
1850 Spectacled cormorant Komandorski Islands
1851 Heinreich Schwabe discovers11year sunspot cycle
1852 Great auk Extinct North Atlantic Coast
1853 Hypodermic syringe invented
1855 Mendels discovery
1856 First refrigerator ship,
1856 synthetic colours invented
1856 Edward Sabine discovers aurora connected to sunspot cycle
1856 Olmstead concludes aurora caused by events external to earth.
1857 Trollopes Barchester TowersTrans Atlantic cable completed
1858first Atlantic cable
1859 Oil pumped in Pennsylvania
1859 Visible solar flare sighted by Carrington & Hodgson.
1860 Bessemers mass production of Steel
1860 Elias Loomis maps outauroral oval zone on earth.
1860 Coronal Mass Ejection first spotted during a total solar eclipse
1861 Germ Theory of disease
1861 First Transcontinental Telegrah
Western Union 1941
1861 Victor Emanuel
1863 Maxwells theory of electro magnetism
1866 First successfully laid cable
1866 Nobel invents dynamite;
1866 Mendel published his research into Genetics
1867 Diamonds discovered in South Africa
1868 First Traffic signal in London
1868 Helium discovered
1868 Navassa curly-tailed lizard Extinct Navassa Island, U.S.
1869 Suez Canal opened
1869Suez Canal opened in November.
1869 First
1870 Cable links Australia & London
1870 elementary education act
1870 Periodic table developed by Mendelev
1870s Brace's emerald Extinct Bahamaas
1871 Pullman introducesSleeper car
1872 Secret ballot introduced
1872 air brakes, typewriter & colour photography
1872 Great Aurora seen in India, Cuba, Paris..
1873 Royal Canadian Mounted Police formed
1875 Bell patents telephone Transcontinetnal railroad
1877 microphone.
1877 telephone.
1877 Edison inventedphonograph.
1878 Lighting by electricity began to be used.
1880s - 1914 2nd Industrial revolution
1879 First Tramways in Berlin
1879 George Ellis offers first space weather forecast
1881 Prof. De La Rue creates artificial aurora in a vacuum tube.
1882 First hydro electric station in US
1882 Henry Draper reveals solar spectrum, not incandescent gas.
1882 Balfour Stewart proposes auroral currents in upper atmosphere
1883 Hot air balloon
1885 Gottleb Daimer inventedinternal combustion engine. Karl Benz pioneeredengine for automobiles.
1885 Canadian Pacific railway completed
1885 Daimler & Benz build automobile
1885 unique quality of fingerprints established
1880 First electric street light in New York
1887 Radio waves discovered by Hertz
1889 Eiffel Tower completed of laws of heredity
1889 Veeder discovers that major aurora can reoccur every 27days
1890s Navassa Island dwarf boa Extinct Navassa Island, U.S.
1890s Navassa Island iguana  Extinct Navassa Island, U.S.
1892 George Ellery Hale invents spectroheliograph to study solar flares.
1894 Great Aurora
1895 Cinema, safety razors, wireless telegraphy & Xrays all invented
1896 Olympic games started
1896 Radioactivity of Uranium discovered
1897 Thomson discovers electrons;
1897 Aspirin marketed
1897 Diesel engines invented
1898 Kristian Berkelund proposes electrical rays from sun cause aurora
1800 last known bluebuck was shot, making species first African antelope to be hunted to extinction by European settlers.[33]
1825 The mysterious starling died out.[34]
1826 The Mauritius blue pigeon becomes extinct due to excessive hunting.[35]
1827 The Tonga ground skink dies out from its only home in Tongan Islands.[36]
1852 last sighting of a great auk was made off coast of Newfoundland. bird was driven to extinction by hunting for its fat, feathers, meat, & oil.[15][37]
1860 The string tree from island of St Helena becomes extinct because of habitat destruction.[38]
1860 The sea mink becomes extinct because of hunting for its fur.[39]
1875 The broad-faced potoroo was last recorded.[3]
1876 The Falkland Islands wolf became extinct.[3]
1878Labrador duck declared extinct after last appearances in Long Island three years earlier.[40]
1879 last known Atlas bear, Africa's only native bear, is killed by hunters in Morocco. bear was heavily hunted & used for sport in Roman Empire.[41]
1880 The eastern elk, a subspecies of elk in US & Canada, is declared extinct.[42]
1883 The Quagga, a sub-species of the plains zebra, goes extinct.[43]
1886 red alga known as Bennett's seaweed from Australia disappears because of massive human activities.[44]
1889 last Hokkaido wolf dies from poisoning campaign.[45]
1890 The eastern hare-wallaby was last recorded.[3]
1890s Guadeloupe burrowing owl Extinct











1900 Guadalupe caracara Extinct Mexico
1901 Vacuum cleaner
1902 Kennely & Heavyside propose ionosphere layer
1903 1st powered flight byWright brothers
1905 Einsteins Special theory of relativity
1905 Rutherfords Nuclear model of atom
1906 Vitamins discovered by Hopkins;
1906 first sound radio broadcasting
1908 George Ellery Hale detects intense magnetic fields near sunspots
1908 Great Aurora
1909 Ford Model T
1909 Birkeland creates a Terella to mimic aurora
1910 Seaplane invented
1910 First air mail
1910 Stainless steel
1914 Panama canal opens
1914 Zip, Traffic lights & 35mm camera are all invented
1915 Einsteins General Theory of Relativity
1915 wireless outage in Northern Europe caused by an aurora
1916 First Tank developed
1916 first Jazz recordings
1918 Sydney Chapman describes magnetic field of sun & earth as system.
1918 Carolina parakeet Extinct Eastern U.S. & Canada
1919 League of Nations formed
1919 Rutherford splitsatom
1919 Whistlers heard for first time in World War I.
1920 Great Aurora
1921 Marconi makes first Radio Broadcast
1921 Major aurora seen worldwide.
1922 Insecticide developed
1923 First Talkie Movie
1923 Babcock & McLennan identify auroral green light as Oxygen III
1925 Beginning of studies of shortwave disruptions
1925 Appleton & Barnett detectionosphere layer
1926 First Television
1926 Great Aurora
1927 Lindbergh flies Atlantic
Spirit of St. Louis 1957
1928 Discovery of Penicillin
1928 Colour TV
1930 Pluto discovered
1931 Electron Microscope
1932 Cowards Private lives Jet engine
1933 Radar
1934 Nylon developed
1934 Hale publishes detailed study of solar flares
1936 Helicopter
1937 Photocopier
1937term solar flare appears forfirst time in newspaper.
1938 Great Aurora
1939 DDT insecticide developed
1939 J. Dellenger describes how short wave outages caused by solar flares acting onionosphere.
1939 Proton aurora discovered.
1940 Easter Day shortwave disruption by major flare.term radio blackout first appears in a New York Times article on January 14.
1941 Aerosol can
1941 Major shortwave disruptions during World War II activities.
1942 S.E. Forbush detects Ground Level Event (GLE) radiation enhancement due to energetic protons associated with a solar flare.
1943 Aqualung by Cousteau & Gagnan
1943 Sunspots hamper radio transmission of Allied invasion of Italy on September 3.
1945 Atom Bomb was invented & dropped on two Japanese cities byUnited States.
1946 Development of Computers
1947 Transistor invented
1947 Worldwide radio traffic is blacked out by a sunspot on March 8th. Radio fadeouts are reported over Shannon Airport in Ireland on July 19th Airplane radio traffic interference is extensive but no blackouts during July 20th storm. Radio blackouts acrossPacific Ocean & extending to New York are reported duringAugust 23 storm.
1947 Giovanelli proposes that solar flares related to solar magnetic changes.
1948 LPs invented
1949 Astronomer Grote Reber detects a major radio burst from a flare, 3 minutes beforeactual flare is detected by telescopic study
1950 First Kidney transplant
1950 Present Modern Maximun of solar activity
1951 L. Biermann discovers solar wind using comet tails
1952 Britains first atomic bomb
1953 Mount Everest climbed
1953 DNA unravelled
1953 Hydrogen bomb invented
1953 Dungey proposes that solar flares caused by opposing magnetic fields onsun.
1954 Fortran developed; first oral contraceptives
1955 Hovercraft
1956 Videotape
1956 P. A. Sweet proposes that flares originate inactivity of magnetic fields aboveactive areas of sunspots.
1957 Soviet Sputnik flight
1957 Waldmeier discovers coronal holes
1957 Hannes Alfven proposes thatsolar wind was magnetized.
1957 Worldwide radio fadeout lasts several hours on April 16th .A 36hour blackout cripples England on June 20th
1958 Silicon chip
1958 Van Allen Belts discovered by Explorer I satellite.
1958 Severny proposes magnetic shock wave theory of flares, & that flares occur alongmagnetic neutral line. Sweet develops a flux interchange theory which shows howflaring process leads to a simplershaped field afterflare event.
1958 Eugene Parker predicts solar wind should exist
1959 North Sea gas discovered
1959 Integrated circuits developed
1959 Shortwave blackout over North Atlantic on March 29th . Shortwave blackout over Asia, Europe & North America on August 18th,
1959 Mariner 2 spacecraft detectssolar wind
1960 Lasers developed
1960 Tommy Gold & Fred Hoyle propose that all ofenergy released in a flare was previously stored in a magnetic field.
1960 Moreton observes timelapse solar activity which shows that a flare explosion produces waves insolar atmosphere much like a bombs concussion wave, & that these waves travel at 1000 km/sec & sometimes cause other solar disturbances in their wake.
1961 Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space
1961 Magnetopause boundary detected by Explorer 10 spacecraft.
1961 Semper's warbler  Extinct St. Lucia
1962 Communications Satellites
1962 Warwick discovers Polar Cap Absorption events, & shows how these are related to powerful solar flare proton streams with energies of 10 MeV.
1963 Cassette tape recorder
1963 Eugene Parker calculates how magnetic reconnection might work in a solar flare, & concludes that it takes too long to explain sudden changes seen in typical solar flares.
1963 Type IV radio flares are found to be related to proton acceleration. Magnetic reconnection theories get a reprieve.
1963 Furth proposes a new tearing mode which disrupts current sheets & leads to solar flares.time it takes reconnection to happen is an average time betweenParker & Petschek processes.
1964 Word Processor
1964 Using a more detailed approach to describing magnetic reconnection than what Furth used in 1963, Petscheck recalculates how Parkers reconnection process would work, & concludes that reconnection could easily happen as fast as actual flare events are observed.
1965 Miniskirts
1967 Satellite navigation
1967 Alfven & Carlquist propose a current disruption process which can also act very quickly, but makes different assumptions than what Parker & Petschek made in describingrelease of magnetic energy.
1968 OGO5 satellite detects magnetic activity ingeotail region
1968 Bumba shows that flares have a statistical preference for active regions where two bipolar spot groups are merging, with one developing incentral regions of another.
1968 David Rust confirms that explosions occur at neutral points in magnetic fields of sunspots & satellite spots.vanishing magnetic energy is equal tokinetic energy ofgases andelectromagnetic energy in xrays & gamma rays. These observations seem to confirmParker/Petschek reconnection idea
1969 U.S. astronauts land onmoon.
1970 Concorde
1970 Floppy disk
1970 Socorro elf owl Extinct  Mexico (Socorro Island)
1971 Decimalisation of currency
1971 Najita & Orrall & Hudson propose that white light flares are caused by bombardment ofupper photosphere by downstreaming proton or electron beams fromsite offlare event in top ofcoronal loop.
1971 Lin & Hudson propose that hard Xray bursts duringimpulsive phase of a flare are evidence for 10,000 to 100,000 volt electron beams.
1971 Brown proposesnon thermal flare model where magnetic energy causes an electrical current to flow down a magnetic loop until it collides withphotosphere atfootpoints, & heatsgases to xray energies to causeflare.
1971 OSO7 satellite discovers Coronal transients
1972 Home video games
1972 August 4 Apollo 17 major flare
1974 Altschuler shows thatcoronal magnetic field changes drastically in strength & geometry around a flare region. Low level magnetic loops disappear & this means that currents of electricity also disappear attime of a flare.
1975 Altair 8800 isfirst personal computer
1978 First test tube baby
1978 First Apple computer
1980 Smallpox officially eliminated
1981 Space shuttle Columbia
1981 first reports of AIDS
1982 CDs on sale
1982 US Cruise missiles installed
1984 Genetic fingerprinting
1985 Desk Top Publishing
1986 Chernobyl
1987 Dusky seaside sparrow Extinct
1988 Bachman's warbler Extinct Southeastern USA
1989 March 813 Major solar flare, X15 Space Shuttle pressure sensor malfunction reported, but then sensor returns to normal so flight not aborted.
1989 Atitlán grebe Extinct Guatemala
1992 Cold war ended
1995 United Nations Science Council Report warned of catastrophic effects across world duringnext hundred years as global warming rapidly accelerates. Scientists said that advancing tides caused by polar ice cap melting during this period would inundate most ofworlds coastal cities. Holes inozone layer continue to widen as suninduced skin cancer reaches nearepidemic proportions worldwide.
1996 Rise & rise ofInternet
1997 Mars landing
1998 Pacific Oceans greatest "El Nino" current wreaked havoc on earth, producing mammoth fires, famine & drought in many places with huge floods in others.
1999 world population topped 6 billion people.
1902 last known specimens of the Rocky Mountain locust are collected near Brandon, Manitoba.[46]
1905 last known Honshū wolf of Japan dies in Nara Prefecture.[47]
1907 The huia, a native bird of New Zealand, is last seen. Habitat loss, hunting, & disease all played a role in its extinction.[48]
1909 last known tarpan, a Polish wild horse, died in captivity.[49]
1911 last Newfoundland wolf was shot.[45]
1914 last passenger pigeon, Martha, died in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo. Excessive hunting contributed to its extinction; it was formerly one of world's most abundant birds.[50]
1918 last Carolina parakeet died in captivity at Cincinnati Zoo. bird, formerly inhabiting southeastern United States, was driven to extinction by exploitation, deforestation, & competition with introduced bees.[51]
1924 The California grizzly bear is sighted for last time.[52]
1925 The Kenai Peninsula wolf was driven to extinction.[45]
1929Acalypha wilderi was last seen in wild. This species may be synonymous with A. raivavensis and A. tubuaiensis, which would mean it is in fact not extinct globally.[53]
1930Darwin's rice rat was last recorded in the Galápagos Islands. Its extinction was probably caused by introduction of black rats.[54]
1932 "Booming Ben", last known heath hen was seen on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.[55][56]
1933 The cry pansy from Europe becomes extinct due to habitat loss & overcollection in only place where it grew, France.[57]
1934 The indefatigable Galapagos mouse was last recorded. Its extinction was probably caused by introduction of black rats.[58]
1935 The desert rat-kangaroo was last recorded.[3]
1935 The Mogollon mountain wolf and the Southern Rocky Mountains wolf were hunted to extinction.[45]
1936 last thylacine died in captivity. Hunting, habitat loss, disease, & competition from domestic dogs all may have contributed to extinction of species.[59]
1937 The Bali tiger was last definitively seen around this time, but likely persisted into 1940s or possibly even early 1950s.[60]
1939 The toolache wallaby was last recorded.[3]
1940 The Cascade mountain wolf was hunted to extinction.[45]
1942 The Texas wolf was purposefully driven to extinction.[45]
1942 last confirmed sighting of the Barbary lion, although unconfirmed reports surfaced until 1970.[61]
1952 Last reliable report of the Caribbean monk seal.[62]
1952 The Bernard's wolf was hunted to extinction.[45]
1956 The crescent nail-tail wallaby and imperial woodpecker were last recorded.[3]
1957 The Scioto madtom, a species of fish, is last collected.[63]
1960 The Mexican grizzly bear was exterminated around this time.[64]
1962 The red-bellied gracile opossum was last recorded in Argentina.[3]
1964 The Hawaii chaff flower of Hawaiian islands becomes extinct because of habitat loss.[65]
1965 Last sighting of the turgid-blossom pearly mussel, an American mussel.[66]
1966 last Arabian ostrich died around this time.[67]
1970 The Caspian tiger becomes extinct primarily due to habitat loss, hunting, & loss of prey.[68]
1972 endemic to Jamaica Mason River myrtle becomes extinct.[69]
1974 last known Japanese sea lion is captured off coast of Rebun IslandHokkaido.[70]
1976 Last sightings of the Javan tiger.[71]
1981 The Puhielelu hibiscadelphus becomes extinct.[72]
1981 Last sighting of the green-blossom pearly mussel, an American mussel.[73]
1981 The Southern gastric-brooding frog (Rheobatrachus silus) became extinct probably due to habitat destruction and disease.[74]
1983 Last unconfirmed spotting of the kouprey (Bos sauveli),[75] last absolute confirmed spotting was in 1969/70.[76] Declared as “most likely to be extinct” by IUCN.[76]
1983-84 The 24-rayed sunstar (Heliaster solaris), Galapagos black-spotted damselfish & Galapagos stringweed likely become extinct due to climate change.[77]
1985 The Northern gastric-brooding frog (Rheobatrachus vitellinus) became extinct probably due to habitat destruction and disease.[78]
1987 last Kauaʻi ʻōʻō (Moho braccatus), a male, is recorded singing a mating call. species was never heard from again & was declared extinct.[79]
1989 The golden toad of Costa Rica becomes extinct, perhaps because of climate change.[80]
1990 The dusky seaside sparrow was officially declared extinct in December 1990. last definite known individual died on 17 June 1987.[81]
1994Saint Croix racer, a snake native to the Virgin Islands, declared extinct.[82]
1994Levuana moth from Hawaii goes extinct.[83]
1997 The Hainan ormosia (a species of legume) which was native to China is no longer seen.[84]

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