400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Caducia
   
Hyrcanians
   
Media
   
Carmania
   
Persia
 
Parthian Empire Iran 247 BCE - 228 CE 475
Ariana
   
   
Gedrosia
   
Mahabharata finished 500 - 200 300
 
Indo - Greek Kingdom Pakistan 180 BCE - 10 CE 190
Haryanka
Shishunaga
9 *
Nanda
Mauryan 321 - 184 135
Shunga
Kanva
Magadhan Empire 1738 - 26 1712 Strabo's India
 
M
   
Chera Dynasty India 300 - 300 600
   
Satavahana Dynasty Kotilingala 230 BCR - 220 CE 450
   
Indo - Scythian
 
 
 
Bud
     
Anuradhapura Kingdom Sri Lanka 377 BCE - 1017 CE 394
 
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Achaemenid Persia 2
550 - 330
220
Persian Babylonia
2nd Persian Empire
- Pasargadae, Iran, Ecbatana, Iran, Persepolis, Iran, Susa, Iran, Babylon, Iraq. Largest Empire in Classical Antiquity, Founded by Cyrus Great.
521 - 486 35 Darius 1 of Persia Greatbrother-in-law of Smerdis & grandson of Arsames X41
499 Aristagoras, investigates Ionic Revolt, leads a failed attack on rebellious island of Naxos, beginning Persian Wars between Greece & Persia.
494 Battle of Lade , where Persians take back Ionia.
492 First expedition of King Darius 1 of Persia against Greece, under leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius.
490 Persia, led by Xerxes, invades Greece, Battle of Marathon
485 - 65 20 Xerxes 1 of Persiason of Darius 1 Murdered by Artabanus Hyrcanian.
484 Xerxes 1 abolishes Kingdom of Babel & removes golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach)
483 Xerxes 1 of Persia starts planning his expedition against Greece.
480 King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece.
480 Persians suffer defeat by Greeks at Plataea & Mycale Persian expansion halted
479 Battle of Mycale.
479 Egypt overthrows Persian rule
465 - 24 41 Artaxerxes 1 Longimanus ^ story of Esther occurred during his rule. possibly with Artabanus acting as Regent.
464 death of Artabanus of Persia, Regent King for Artaxerxes I
424 Xerxes 2 ^
424 - 3 1 Sogdianus half< & rival
423 - 05 18 Darius 2 of Persia Nothus half< & rival Xerxes 2
412 Persian Empire starts preparing an invasion of Ionia & signs a treaty with Sparta about it.
408 Persian king, Darius II, decides to aid Sparta in war & makes his son Cyrus a satrap. However, Cyrus starts collecting an army to benefit his own interests, rather than his father's.
405 Cyrus Younger rebels in Persia, but is defeated by Artaxerxes II at Cunoxa
404 - 359 45 Artaxerxes 2 Mnemon of Persia Mnemon(see also Xenophon) son of Darius 2 X77
401 Cyrus Younger rebels against Persian king Artaxerxes II but is, however, eventually slain in battle.
400 After Cyrus has been killed, his Greek mercenaries make their way back to Greece, where Sparta is so impressed with their feats in & march through Persia that they declare war on Persians.
400 revolt of Jews against Artaxerxes 3 in Persia
500 - 450 BC Apadana
Achaemenid Persia 2
550 - 330
220
(Persian Babylonia)
404 - 359 45 Artaxerxes 2 of Persia Mnemon(see also Xenophon) son of Darius 2 X77
358 - 38 20 Artaxerxes 3 of Persia Ochusson of Artaxerxes 2
338 - 6 32 Arses of Persia (Artaxerxes 4) son of Artaxerxes 3
336 - 30 6 Darius 3 of Persia Codomannusgreat-grandson of Darius 2

332 Persian capital of Persepolis burned by Alexander Great
330 Battle of the Persian Gate
317 Battle of Paraitakene
Parthian Empire
247 BC - 228 AD
475
Arsacid
247 BCE - 228 CE
- Asaak, Iran, Hecatompylos, Iran, Ecbatana, Iran, Ctesiphon, Iraq, Susa, Iran, Mithridatkird-Nisa, Turkmenistan. (Middle Persian Empire, Arsacid Dynasty) Syncretic Helleno-Zoroastrianism. Middle Iranian Languages. Third Persian Empire
247 - 11 36 Tiridates 1 or Arsaces Arsaces 1 King, Karen, AutocratorA descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes 2

 

Parthian Empire
247 BC - 228 AD
475
Arsacid 247 BC - 228 AD
-
211 - 185
26 Arsaces 2 ^Arsaces 1
185 - 70 15 Phriapatius Arsaces 3 Grandson of Tiridates 1
170 - 67 3 Phraates 1 Arsaces 4 Son of Phriapatius
167 - 32 35 Mithridates 1 Arsaces 5
132 - 27 5 Phraates 2 Arsaces 6 Killed in battle with Scythians
127 - 6 1 Artabanus 1 Arsaces 7 Killed in battle with Tocharians
126 - 2 4 Vologases 1 Arsaces 8 He was first Arsacid king of Media, Arran & Iberia
122 - 1 1 Artabanus 2 Arsaces 9 Killed in battle with Medians
121 - 91 30 Mithridates 2 Arsaces 10
100 Scythians overran Parthia.

 

Parthian Empire
247 BC - 228 AD
475
Arsacid 247 BC - 228 AD
121 - 91 30 Mithridates 2 Arsaces 10
91 - 87 4 Gotarzes 1 Arsaces 11
91 - 77 14 Artabanus 3 Arsaces 12
88 - 67 21 Mithridates 3 Arsaces 13
80 - 75 5 Orodes 1 Arsaces 14
77 - 70 7 Sanatruces 1 Arsaces 15 157 BC - 70
77 - 66 11 Arsaces 16
70 - 57 13 Phraates 3 Arsaces 17 Killed by Orodes 2
66 - 3 3 Arsaces 18
65 - 54 11 Mithridates 3 or 4Arsaces 19 Killed by Orodes 2
57 - 38 19 Orodes 2 Arsaces 20 Killed by Phraates 4
50 - 38 12 Pacorus 1 Arsaces 21 Son of Orodes 2 Killed in battle with Romans
38 - 2 6 Phraates 4 Arsaces 22 Son of Orodes 2 Killed by Musa
36 - 3 3 Marc Anthony's invasion on Parthian Empire
30 - 25 5 Tiridates 2 Arsaces 23 Probably a descendant of Mithridates 3 Deposed & went to Rome
12 - 9 3 Mithridates 5 Arsaces 24 Probably a descendant of Mithridates 3
2 BC - 2 AD 4 Musa

 

Mahadha
Haryanka 684 - 413 271
558 - 491 67 Bimbisara
- Ajatasattu
- Udayabhadra
       
Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara
505 - 377
132
504 - 474 30 Panduvasdeva
474 - 54 20 Abhaya
454 - 37 17 Tissa
437 - 377 60 Pandukabhaya

       
Sarmatian tribes
400's BC - 300's AD 700
- Iran
       
 
332 Al-Khanoum by Alexander City

Greco-Bactria
256 - 125 131
@ Balkh, Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan
Diodotus 250 - 30 20
250 - 40 10 Diodotus 1
240 - 30
10 Diodotus 2

Euthydemus
223 - 200 23 Euthydemus 1
Greco-Bactria
256 - 125
- Balkh, Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan
Diodotus
200 - 180 20 Demetrius 1
territory won by Demetrius was separated between western & eastern parts, ruled by several sub-kings & successor kings:
Euthydemus
180 Euthydemus 2
185 - 70
15 Antimachus 1 brother of Demetrius. Defeated by usurper Eucratides.

190s Pantaleon another brother & co-ruler of Demetrius 1.
190 - 80 10 Agathocles
180 - 60
20 Apollodotus 1
160 - 55
5 Antimachus 2 Nikephoros
155 - 50 5 Demetrius 2
155 - 30
25 Menander Legendary for size of his Kingdom, & his support of Buddhist faith. It is unclear whether he was related to other kings, & thus if dynasty survived further.


- Followed by Indo-Greek kings in northern India.
House of Eucratides
- Territory of Bactria & Sogdiana
170 - 45
25 Eucratides 1
166
Plato co-regent
145 - 40 5 Eucratides 1
145 - 30
15 Heliocles, last Greek king of Bactria, was invaded by nomadic tribes of Yuezhi from North. Descendants of Eucratides may have ruled on in Indo-Greek kingdom.
100s - 000s BC Hadda, Afghanistan-Hadda Genius City
000s Tillia Tepe Burial site
000s Tillya Tepe Bactria Map
Ror
450 BC - 489 AD 939
- Rori, Pakistan., built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
450 - 28 22 Dhaj, Ror Kumar
428 - 06 22 Kunak
Ror
450 BC - 489 AD 939

- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
406 - 384 22 Rurak
384 - 62 22 Harak
362 - 40 22 Devanik
340 - 18 22 Ahinak
318 - 296 22 Paripat

327 - 26 Alexander Great passes through Indus Valley installing Greek officials in area.
400s BCE - 400s CE Taxila Monestary
327 Siege of Aornos
326 Battle of Hydaspus River
Ror
450 BC - 489 AD 939
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
296 - 274 22 Bal Shah
274 - 52 22 Vijay Bhan
252 - 30 22 Khangar
230 - 08 22 Brihadrath

200 Harappa
Ror
450 BC - 489 AD 939
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
208 - 184 22 Har Ansh
184 - 62 22 Brihad-datt
162 - 40 22 Ishman
140 - 18 22 Sridhar
118 - 96 22 Mohri

174 - 61 13 Hsiung-nu attack Yüeh-chih (known in West as Tocharians), driving them from Gansu.
141 - 28 13 Yüeh-chih, fleeing from Hsiung-nu, overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.

Apracarajas (Bajaur area)
12 BC - 15 AD 27Vijayamitra
20 Itravasu
15 - 45 30 Aspavarma

90s BCE - 600s CE Takht-i-Bahi
545 - 493 52 Bimbisara founder of first Magadhan empire
493 - 61 32 Ajatashatru
461- 45 16 Udayabhadra
? Aniruddha
? Munda
437 - 13 24 Nagadasaka

486 1st Buddhist Council at Rejgaha, under patronage of King Ajatasattu. Oral tradition established for first time.
540 - 486 Mahavira, founder of Jainism.
483 Gautama Buddha died.
500 Sisupalgarh
Mauryan Empire
321 - 185 36
- Pataliputra Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. Ashoka Great transformed it into first Buddhist empire.
322 - 298 ?

395 - 67 28 Kakavarna Kalashoka
367 - 45 22 Mahanandin his empire is inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

400 Panini's Sutra, earliest Sanskrit grammer, is written.
400 Delhi founded in India.
383 Second Buddhist council at Vesali, 100 years after Parinirvana
323 Alexander Great dies, providing opportunity for an independent state in India. Chandragupta Maurya founds Maurya dynasty, first Indian empire. Its capital is in Patna. By 184, this dynasty will conquer most of India.
304 Chandragupta trades 500 war elephants to Seleucus in exchange for Indus region & regions immediately to West.
Ilamcetcenni, Cholas ruler of South India in Sangam Age around 301 BC.
322 - 185 Barabar Caves
273 - 32 Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya & most impressive ruler in Maurya dynasty, rules in India & institutes a series of edicts designed to bring about moral reform. His policy on reform flows from his Buddhist orientation.
- Asoka 2001
265 - 3 2 Kalinga War between Mauryan Empire & Kalinga
250 A general council of Buddhist monks is held in Patna, where canon of Buddhist scriptures is selected.
- Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of Mauryan Empire.
Kuninda
210 - 193 17 Amoghabhuti
193 - 70 23 Kharavela
200s Indian traders regularly visited Arabia.
200s - 100s Kharligarh
269 - 32 Jaugada
Mauryan
321 - 185 136
- 202 - 195 Devavarman <
195 - 87 8 Satadhanvanthe Mauryan Empire had shrunk by time of his reign
187 - 4
3 Brihadrata assassinated by Pusyamitra Shunga
Shunga 185 - 73 112
- Pataliputra, Vidisa Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central & Eastern India.
185 - 49
36 Pusyamitra Shunga founded dynasty after assassinating Brihadrata
149 - 1
8 Agnimitra son & successor of Pusyamitra
141 - 31
10 Vasujyeshtha
131 - 24
7 Vasumitra
124 - 2
2 Andhraka
122 - 19
3 Pulindaka
-
Ghosha
-
Vajramitra
-
Bhagabhadra, mentioned by Puranas
83 - 73
Devabhuti last Sunga king
184 Maurya dynasty ends when last ruler is assassinated by an ambitious army commander.
100's Buddhist monks begin to hew caves for their own use out of stone plateaus in region of south-central India known as Deccan
- 100s bc Maharashtra Castle Sudhagad
- 100s bc Maharashtra Castle Tikona
100s BC - 650 AD Ajanta Caves
Indo-Scythia
- NW India
90 - 60 30 Maues
75 - 65 10 Vonones
75 - 65 10 Spalahores satrap & brother of King Vonones, & probably later King Spalirises.
60 - 57 3 Spalirises king & brother of King Vonones.
50 - 55 5 Spalagadamessatrap, & son of Spalahores.
55 - 60 5 Azilises
60 - 20 40 Azes 1
10 Zeionises
10 Kharahostes
10 Indravarman
10 Hajatria
30s Chaitya hall at Karli, India, Maharashtra, is made. Early Andhra period.
- Lord Mahavir, 24th Tirthankar in great 'Jain Religion'
Kshaharatas
90 - 20 70 Liaka Kusuluka, satrap of Chuk
20 - 40 20 Zeionises (Jihonika) may have succeeded Patika around
40 BC - 6 AD 46 Kusulaka Patika, satrap of Chuksa & son of Liaka Kusulaka dated between
- Abhiraka
- ? - 119 Bhumaka
- 119 - 124 Nahapana (founder of Western Satraps)

Magadhan Empire
500 - 300/139
-
   
Kuninda
100's BC - 200's 500 AD
- Uttarakhand, India
 
       
Ror
450 BC - 489 AD 939
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
96 - 74 22 Prasann Ket
74 - 52 22 Amirvan
52 - 30 22 Mahasen
30 - 8 22 Brihad-dhaul
8 BC - 16 AD 22 Harikeert
16 - 38 22 Som
38 - 60 22 Mitravan
60 - 82 22 Pushyapata
82 - 104 22 Sudaav
104 - 126 22 Bideerakh
126 - 148 22 Nahakman
148 - 170 22 Mangalmitra
170 - 192 22 Surat
192 - 214 22 Pushkar Ket
214 - 36 22 Antar Ket
236 - 58 22 Sutjaya
258 - 80 22 Brihad-dhwaj
280 - 302 22 Bahuk
302 - 24 22 Kampjayi
324 - 46 22 Kagnish
346 - 68 22 Kapish
368 - 90 22 Sumantra
390 - 412 22 Ling-laav
412 - 34 22 Manasjit
434 - 56 22 Sunder Ket
456 - 89 33 Dadror

Nanda Empire
424 - 321
103
- India Pataliputra Dravidian Empire.
424 Mahapadma Nanda
- Pandhuka
- Panghupati
- Bhutapala
- Rashtrapala
- Govishanaka
- Dashasidkhaka
- Kaivarta
- Mahendra
? - 321 Dhana Nanda (Argames)

Nanda 345 - 21 24
345 - ? Mahapadma Nanda Ugrasena ^1 Mahanandin, founded Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire
- Pandhuka
- Panghupati
- Bhutapala
- Rashtrapala
- Govishanaka
- Dashasidkhaka
- Kaivarta

? - 321 Dhana (Agrammes, Xandrammes) defeated by Chandragupta Maurya
   
Kanva
73 - 26 47
75 - 66 9 Vasudeva
66 - 52
14 Bhumimitra
52 - 40
12 Narayana
40 - 26
14 Susarman
Shishunaga dynasty
413 - 345 78
- 413 - 395 Shishunaga established kingdom of Magadha
Shishunaga
413 - 345 78
413 - 395 18 Shishunaga
395 - 67 28 Kakavarna Kalashoka
367 - 45 22 Mahanandin
     
Chera
400's BC - 1102 AD 1500's
- Perumchottu Uthiyan Cheralathan
- Antuvancheral
- Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan
- Cheralathan ^Uthiyan Cheralathan
- Cheran Chenkutuvan or Senguttuvan
- Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan
- Poraiyan Kadungo
- Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral
- Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan
- Selvak-Kadungo
- Adukotpattu Cheralatan
- Kuttuvan Irumporai
- Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral
- Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral
- Ilamcheral Irumporai
- Perumkadungo
- Ilamkadungo
- Kanaikal Irumporai
 
Chera
300 - 300 600
- Southern India Vanchi MuthurA Tamil Empire.
   
 
Chola Empire
300s BCE - 1279 CE
1600
@ Early Cholas: Poompuhar, Urayur, Medieval Cholas: Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Chola Empire
300s BC - 1279 AD
1600
-
Chola Empire
300s BCE - 1279 CE
1600
-
- Southern India Various, including Poompuhar, Urayur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram A Tamil Empire. - 235 - 161 74 Elara Chola
-
Ilamcetcenni Karikala Chola
- Nedunkilli 
- Killivalavan  Kopperuncholan
- Kocengannan Perunarkilli
Chola Empire
300s BCE - 1279 CE
1600
-
   
Satavahana Dynasty
230 BC - 220 AD 450
- Puranic list of Satavahana kings (Source: "A Catalogue of Indian coins in British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson). This list, most complete one with - 30 kings, is based on Matsya Purana.
271 - 48 23 & 230 - 207 23 Simuka (Sisuka) kotilingala, karim nagar district
207 - 189 18 Krishna ruled 18 years.
- Sri Mallakarni (or Sri Satakarni), ruled 10 years.
- Purnotsanga, ruled 18 years
- Skandhastambhi, ruled 18 years
195 Sātakarnī 1 ruled 56 years
87 - 67 20 Lambodara
75 - 35 40 Probably as vassals of Kanva dynasty
35 - 23 12 Apilaka
23 - 5 18 Meghasvati (Saudasa)
5 BCE - 13 CE 18 Svati (Svami)
13 - 20 7 Skandasvat
20 - 8 8 Mahendra Satakarni (Mrgendra Svatikarna, Satakarni 2)
28 - 36 8 Kuntala Satakarni (Kuntala Svatikarna)
36 - 7 1 Svatikarna
- Pulomavi (or Patumavi), ruled 36 years.
- Riktavarna (or Aristakarman), ruled 25 years.
20 - 24 Hāla, author of Gathasaptasati, an Indian literature classic, ruled 5 years.
- Mandalaka (or Bhavaka, Puttalaka), ruled 5 years.
- Purindrasena, ruled 5 years.
- Sundara Satakarni, ruled 1 year.
- Cakora Satakarni (or Cakora Svatikarna), ruled 6 months.
- Sivasvati, ruled 28 years.
Satavahana
230 BCE - 220 CE 450
- Kotilingala, Pratishthana
Amaravati, India
Satavahana Dynasty
230 BC - 220 AD 450
-
563 - 483 Buddha
       
450 Wari-Bateshwar Fort City
 
200s Mahasthangarh City
Twipra Kingdom
100s
- Bangladesh
 
Upatissa Kingdom
505 - 377
128
- Nuwara, Sri Lanka.
505 - 4 1 Upatissa interregnum regent. Chief Minister under Vijaya
504 - 474 30 Panduvasdeva ^< Vijaya
474 - 54 20 Abhaya ^Panduvasdeva
454 - 37 17 Tissa interregnum
regent <
437 - 377 60 Pandukabhaya 474 - 367 X107 ^^ Panduvasudeva
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
Vijaya
377 - 237
140
- Sri Lanka
377 - 67 10 Pandukabhaya 474 - 367
 
367 - 07 60 Mutasiva
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
Vijaya
377 - 237
140
- Sri Lanka
307 - 267 40 Devanampiya Tissa
267 - 57 10 Uttiya
257 - 47 10 Mahasiva
247 - 37 10 Suratissa,

Sena
& Guttika X22
- 237 - 15 22 Sena & Guttika Defeated Suratissa in battle.
Vijaya 2 215 - 05 10
215 - 205 10 Asela Youngest son of Mutasiva

Elara 205 - 161
251 - 246 Aryan Hindus occupy Celyon.
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
Vijaya 377 - 237 140
205 - 161 44 Elara 235 - 161 Defeated Asela in battle House of Vijaya 161 - 103
161 - 37 24 Dutthagamani Abhaya Defeated Elara
Eldest son of Kavan Tissa
Originally ruler of Ruhuna
137 - 19 18 Saddha Tissa <Dutugemunu
119 Thulatthana Second son of Saddha Tissa
119 - 9 10 Lanja Tissa
109 - 4 5 Khallata Naga
104 - 3 1 Vattagamani Abhaya
- Theravada Buddhism is officially introduced to Sri Lanka by Venerable Mahinda.
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
5 Dravidans 103 - 89 14
- Sri Lanka
103 - 100 3 Pulahatta Tamil Chief
100 - 98 2 Bahiya Chief Minister of Pulahatha
98 - 91 7 Panya Mara Prime Minister of Bahiya
91 - 90 1 Pilaya Mara Chief Minister of Panayamara
90 - 88 2 Dathika Chief Minister of Pilayamara

House of Vijaya 89 BC - 66 AD
89 - 76 13 Vattagamani Abhaya Fourth son of Saddha Tissa
76 - 62 14 Mahakuli Mahatissa Son of Khallatanaga
Nephew & adopted son of Valagambahu 1
62 - 50 12 Chora Naga Son of Valagambahu 1
Cousin of Mahakuli Mahatissa
50 - 47 3 Kuda Tissa Son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
47 Siva 1
47 Vatuka
47 Darubhatika Tissa
47 Niliya
47 - 2 5 Anula Widow of Chora Naga & Kuda Tissa
42 - 20 22 Kutakanna Tissa Brother of Kuda Tissa
Second son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
20 BCE - 9 CE 29 Bhatikabhaya Abhaya ^Kuttakanna Tissa