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400s
300s
Ancient - 500A 200s Future
100s
000s
Caducia
   
Hyrcanians
   
Media
   
Carmania
   
Persia
 
Ariana
   
   
Gedrosia
   
Mahabharata finished 500 - 200 300
 
Indo - Greek Kingdom Pakistan 180 BCE - 10 CE 190
Haryanka
Shishunaga
9 *
Nanda
Mauryan 321 - 184 135
Shunga
Kanva
Magadhan Empire 1738 - 26 1712 Strabo's India
 
M
   
Chera Dynasty India 300 - 300 600
   
Satavahana Dynasty Kotilingala 230 BCR - 220 CE 450
   
Indo - Scythian
 
 
 
Bud
     
Pan
10
Ut
10
Ma
10
Su
10
Vijaya 1 377 - 237 140
S&G
S&G 22
As
v2
10
Elara 205 - 161 44
Elara 205 - 161 44
Dut
24
Sad
18
La
10
K
5
v
1
Vijaya 3  161 - 03 58
5D
14
Va
13
Ma
14
Ch
12
k
3
        A
5
Kut
22
Bhat
22
Vijaya 4  89 - 67 22
Anuradhapura Kingdom Sri Lanka 377 BCE - 1017 CE 394
 
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Achaemenid Persia 2
550 - 330
220
Persian Babylonia
2nd Persian Empire
- Pasargadae, Iran, Ecbatana, Iran, Persepolis, Iran, Susa, Iran, Babylon, Iraq. Largest Empire in Classical Antiquity, Founded by Cyrus Great.
521 - 486 35 Darius 1 of Persia Greatbrother-in-law of Smerdis & grandson of Arsames X41
499 Aristagoras, investigates Ionic Revolt, leads a failed attack on rebellious island of Naxos, beginning Persian Wars between Greece & Persia.
494 Battle of Lade , where Persians take back Ionia.
492 First expedition of King Darius 1 of Persia against Greece, under leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius.
490 Persia, led by Xerxes, invades Greece, Battle of Marathon
485 - 65 20 Xerxes 1 of Persiason of Darius 1 Murdered by Artabanus Hyrcanian.
484 Abolish Kingdom of Babel & removes golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach)
483 Xerxes 1 starts planning expedition against Greece.
480 King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece.
480 Persians suffer defeat by Greeks at Plataea
479 Battle of Mycale. Persian expansion halted
479 Egypt overthrows Persian rule
465 - 24 41 Artaxerxes 1 Longimanus ^ story of Esther occurred during his rule. possibly with Artabanus acting as Regent
464 death of Artabanus of Persia, Regent King for Artaxerxes I
424 Xerxes 2 ^
424 - 3 1 Sogdianus half< & rival
423 - 05 18 Darius 2 of Persia Nothus half< & rival Xerxes 2
412 Persian Empire starts preparing an invasion of Ionia & signs a treaty with Sparta about it.
408 Persian king, Darius II, decides to aid Sparta in war & makes his son Cyrus a satrap. However, Cyrus starts collecting an army to benefit his own interests, rather than his father's.
405 Cyrus Younger rebels in Persia, but is defeated by Artaxerxes II at Cunoxa
404 - 359 45 Artaxerxes 2 Mnemon of Persia Mnemon(see also Xenophon) ^ Darius 2 X77
401 Cyrus Younger rebels against Persian king Artaxerxes II but is, however, eventually slain in battle.
400 After Cyrus has been killed, his Greek mercenaries make their way back to Greece, where Sparta is so impressed with their feats in & march through Persia that they declare war on Persians.
400 revolt of Jews against Artaxerxes 3 in Persia
500 - 450 BC Apadana
Achaemenid Persia 2
550 - 330 220
(Persian Babylonia)
404 - 359 45 Artaxerxes 2 of Persia Mnemon(see also Xenophon) ^ Darius 2 X77
358 - 38 20 Artaxerxes 3 of Persia Ochusson of Artaxerxes 2
338 - 6 32 Arses of Persia (Artaxerxes 4) ^ Artaxerxes 3
336 - 30 6 Darius 3 of Persia Codomannusgreat-grandson of Darius 2
332 Persian capital of Persepolis burned by Alexander Great
330 Battle of Persian Gate
317 Battle of Paraitakene
 
Parthian Empire
247 BC - 228 AD 475
-
211 - 185 26 Arsaces 2 ^Arsaces 1
185 - 70 15 Phriapatius Arsaces 3 Grandson of Tiridates 1
170 - 67 3 Phraates 1 Arsaces 4 ^ Phriapatius
167 - 32 35 Mithridates 1 Arsaces 5
132 - 27 5 Phraates 2 Arsaces 6 Killed in battle with Scythians
127 - 6 1 Artabanus 1 Arsaces 7 Killed in battle with Tocharians
126 - 2 4 Vologases 1 Arsaces 8 He was first Arsacid king of Media, Arran & Iberia
122 - 1 1 Artabanus 2 Arsaces 9 Killed in battle with Medians
121 - 91 30 Mithridates 2 Arsaces 10
100 Scythians overran Parthia.
 
Parthian Empire
247 BC - 228 AD 475
91 - 87 4 Gotarzes 1 Arsaces 11
91 - 77 14 Artabanus 3 Arsaces 12
88 - 67 21 Mithridates 3 Arsaces 13
80 - 75 5 Orodes 1 Arsaces 14
77 - 70 7 Sanatruces 1 Arsaces 15 157 BC - 70
77 - 66 11 Arsaces 16
70 - 57 13 Phraates 3 Arsaces 17 Killed by Orodes 2
66 - 3 3 Arsaces 18
65 - 54 11 Mithridates 3 or 4 Arsaces 19 Killed by Orodes 2
57 - 38 19 Orodes 2 Arsaces 20 Killed by Phraates 4
50 - 38 12 Pacorus 1 Arsaces 21 ^ Orodes 2 Killed in battle with Romans
38 - 2 6 Phraates 4 Arsaces 22 ^ Orodes 2 Killed by Musa
36 - 3 3 Marc Anthony's invasion on Parthian Empire
30 - 25 5 Tiridates 2 Arsaces 23 Probably a descendant of Mithridates 3 Deposed & went to Rome
12 - 9 3 Mithridates 5 Arsaces 24 Probably a descendant of Mithridates 3
2 BC - 2 AD 4 Musa

 
Mahadha
543 - 413  130
Haryanka
684 - 413
271
558 - 491 67 Bimbisara
- Ajatasattu
- Udayabhadra
       
       
Sarmatian Tribes
400s BC - 300s AD 700
- Iran
       
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
 
332 Al-Khanoum by Alexander City

Greco-Bactria
256 - 125
131
- Balkh, Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan
Diodotus
200 - 180 20 Demetrius 1
territory won by Demetrius was separated between western & eastern parts, ruled by several sub-kings & successor kings:
Euthydemus
180 Euthydemus 2
185 - 70 15 Antimachus 1 brother of Demetrius. Defeated by usurper Eucratides.
190s Pantaleon another brother & co-ruler of Demetrius 1.
190 - 80 10 Agathocles
180 - 60 20 Apollodotus 1
160 - 55 5 Antimachus 2 Nikephoros
155 - 50 5 Demetrius 2
155 - 30 25 Menander Legendary for size of his Kingdom, & his support of Buddhist faith. It is unclear whether he was related to other kings, & thus if dynasty survived further.
- Followed by Indo-Greek kings in northern India.
House of Eucratides
- Territory of Bactria & Sogdiana
170 - 45 25 Eucratides 1
100s - 000s BC Hadda, Afghanistan-Hadda Genius City
166 Plato co-regent
145 - 40 5 Eucratides 1
145 - 30 15 Heliocles
130 Conquered by nomadic tribes of Yuezhi from North. Descendants of Eucratides may have ruled on in Indo-Greek kingdom.
000s Tillia Tepe Burial site
000s Tillya Tepe Bactria Map
North & West Satraps
of Indo-Scythians

150 BC - 400 AD 550
"Northern Satraps" (Mathura area) 0
000s BC satrap Hagamasha
000s BC Hagana
     
 Indo-Greek
180 BC - 10 AD 190
Alexandria in Caucasus (Kapisi/Bagram)
Taxila (Sirkap) 
Chiniotis (Chiniot) 
Sagala (Sialkot)
Peukelaotis (Charsadda, Pushkalavati)
Greek (Greek alphabet)
Pali (Kharoshthi script)
Sanskrit
Prakrit
(Brahmi script)
Greek polytheism
Buddhism
Hinduism
Zoroastrianism
Consisting of Satraps: Paropamisade
Arachosia
Gandhara
Western Punjab
130s - Eastern Punjab
130s - Mathura
180 - 60 120 BC Apollodotus 1
175 - 70 5 Demetrius 2
160 - 55 5 Antimachus 2
170 - 45 25 Eucratides
155 - 30 25 Menander 1
130s Adds Eastern Punjab & Mathura Satraps
130 - 20 10 Zoilos 1 & Agathokleia
&
120 - 10 10 Lysias & Strato 1
110 - 100 10 Antialcidas & Heliokles 2
 Indo-Greek
180 BC - 10 AD 190
100 Polyxenos & Demetrius 3
100 - 95 5 Philoxenus
&
95 - 90 5 Diomedes & Amyntas & Epander
90 Theophilos & Peukolaos & Thraso
&
90 - 85 5 Nicias & Menander 2 & Artemidoros
&
90 - 70 20 Hermaeus & Archebius
75 - 70 5 Telephos & Apollodotus 2
70 Yuezhi occupation led by Maues (Indo-Scythian)
65 - 55 20 Hippostratos & Dionysios
55 - 35 20 Azes 1 (Indo-Scythian) & Zoilos 2
55 - 35 20 Apollophanes
25 BC - 10 AD 35 Strato 2 & Strato 3
     
Indo-Scythians
150 BC - 400 AD 550

Sigal, Taxila, Mathura
Scythian, Greek, Pali (Kharoshthi script)
Sanskrit, Prakrit (Brahmi script)
Possibly Aramaic
Buddhism, Ancient Greek religionMonarchy

Indo-Scythians
150 BC - 400 AD 550
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Eastern Pakistan
85 -
85 - 60 25 Maues
75 - 65 10 Vonones
75 - 65 10 Spalahores  satrap and brother of King Vonones, & probably later King Spalirises.
60 - 57 3 Spalirises king & brother of King Vonones.
50 Spalagadames satrap, & ^Spalahores.
>60 Azilises
60 - 20 40 Azes 1
10 BC  - 10 AD 20 Zeionises
10 BC - 10 AD 20 Kharahostes
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
- Rori, Pakistan., built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
450 - 28 22 Dhaj, Ror Kumar
428 - 06 22 Kunak
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
406 - 384 22 Rurak
384 - 62 22 Harak
362 - 40 22 Devanik
340 - 18 22 Ahinak
318 - 296 22 Paripat
327 - 26 Alexander Great passes through Indus Valley installing Greek officials in area.
400s BCE - 400s CE Taxila Monestary
327 Siege of Aornos
326 Battle of Hydaspus River
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
296 - 274 22 Bal Shah
274 - 52 22 Vijay Bhan
252 - 30 22 Khangar
230 - 08 22 Brihadrath
200 Harappa
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
208 - 184 22 Har Ansh
184 - 62 22 Brihad-datt
162 - 40 22 Ishman
140 - 18 22 Sridhar
118 - 96 22 Mohri
174 - 61 13 Hsiung-nu attack Yüeh-chih (known in West as Tocharians), driving them from Gansu.
141 - 28 13 Yüeh-chih, fleeing from Hsiung-nu, overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.
90s BCE - 600s CE Takht-i-Bahi
     
 
       
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Magadhan
546 - 180
366
-
Haryanka 546 - 414 132
546 - 494 52 Bimbisara
494 - 62 32 Ajatashatru
462 - 46 16 Udayin
446 - 38 8 Anuruddha & Munda
438 - 14 24 Nagadasaka
Shishunaga 414 - 180 234
414 - 396 18 Shishunaga
Magadhan
546 - 180
366
- Pataliputra Founded by Chandragupta Maurya. Ashoka Great transformed it into first Buddhist empire.
322 - 298 24 ?
322 - 185 137 Barabar Caves
367 - 45 22 Mahanandin his empire is inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda
Mauryan Empire
321 - 185 136
301 - 273 28 Bindusara (Amritrochates)
400 Panini's Sutra, earliest Sanskrit grammer, is written.
400 Delhi founded in India.
383 2nd Buddhist council at Vesali, 100 years after Parinirvana
323 Alexander Great dies, providing opportunity for an independent state in India. Chandragupta Maurya founds Maurya dynasty, first Indian empire. Its capital is in Patna. By 184, this dynasty will conquer most of India.
304 Chandragupta trades 500 war elephants to Seleucus in exchange for Indus region & regions immediately to West.
Ilamcetcenni, Cholas ruler of South India in Sangam Age around 301 BC.
Magadhan
546 - 180
366
297 - 72 25 Bindusara
273 - 32 41 Ashoka Great considered greatest ancient Indian emperor, first emperor to unify India (after conquering most of South Asia & Afghanistan), adopt Buddhism, grant animal rights & promote non-violence, a secular administrator,often called emperor of all ages.
- Asoka 2001
232 - 24 8 Dasaratha
224 - 15 9 Samprati
215 - 02 13 Salisuka
202 - 195 7 Devavarman
195 - 87 8 Satadhanvan
187 - 5 2 Brihadratha
324 - 301 23 Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos), founded Mauryan Empire after defeating both Nanda Empire & Macedonian Seleucid Empire
265 - 3 2 Kalinga War between Mauryan Empire & Kalinga
250 A general council of Buddhist monks is held in Patna, where canon of Buddhist scriptures is selected.
200s Indian traders regularly visited Arabia.
232 - 24 8 Dasaratha
224 - 15 9 Samprati
215 - 02 13 Salisuka
202 - 195 7 Devavarman
200s - 100s Kharligarh
269 - 32 Jaugada
- Pataliputra, Vidisa Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central & Eastern India.
185 - 49 36 Pusyamitra Shunga founded dynasty after assassinating Brihadrata
100s Maharashtra Castle @ Sudhagad
100s Maharashtra Castle @ Tikona
100s BC - 650 AD 750s Ajanta Caves
149 - 1 8 Agnimitra son & successor of Pusyamitra
141 - 31 10 Vasujyeshtha
131 - 24 7 Vasumitra
124 - 2 2 Andhraka
122 - 19 3 Pulindaka
- Ghosha
- Vajramitra
- Bhagabhadra, mentioned by Puranas
83 - 73 10 Devabhuti last Sunga king

100s Buddhist monks begin to hew caves for their own use out of stone plateaus in region of south-central India known as Deccan
30s Chaitya hall at Karli, India, Maharashtra, is made. Early Andhra period.
- Lord Mahavir, 24th Tirthankar in great 'Jain Religion'
Kshaharatas
0
90 - 20 70 Liaka Kusuluka, satrap of Chuk
20 - 40 20 Zeionises (Jihonika) may have succeeded Patika around
40 BC - 6 AD 46 Kusulaka Patika, satrap of Chuksa & ^ Liaka Kusulaka dated between
- Abhiraka
? - 119 Bhumaka
119 - 124 Nahapana (founder of Western Satraps)
545 - 493 52 Bimbisara founder of first Magadhan empire
500 Sisupalgarh
493 - 61 32 Ajatashatru
540 - 486 54 Mahavira, founder of Jainism.
486 1st Buddhist Council at Rejgaha, under patronage of King Ajatasattu. Oral tradition established for first time.
483 Gautama Buddha died.
461- 45 16 Udayabhadra
? Aniruddha
? Munda
437 - 13 24 Nagadasaka
 

 

 

 

 

Kuninda
100s BC - 200s AD 300s
210 - 193 17 Amoghabhuti
193 - 70 23 Kharavela
 
 
Pahlavas
300s
?
No*
   
- Rori, capital of Sindh, built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar.
96 - 74 22 Prasann Ket
74 - 52 22 Amirvan
52 - 30 22 Mahasen
30 - 8 22 Brihad-dhaul
8 BC - 16 AD 22 Harikeert
16 - 38 22 Som
38 - 60 22 Mitravan
60 - 82 22 Pushyapata
82 - 104 22 Sudaav
104 - 126 22 Bideerakh
126 - 148 22 Nahakman
148 - 170 22 Mangalmitra
170 - 192 22 Surat
192 - 214 22 Pushkar Ket
214 - 36 22 Antar Ket
236 - 58 22 Sutjaya
258 - 80 22 Brihad-dhwaj
280 - 302 22 Bahuk
302 - 24 22 Kampjayi
324 - 46 22 Kagnish
346 - 68 22 Kapish
368 - 90 22 Sumantra
390 - 412 22 Ling-laav
412 - 34 22 Manasjit
434 - 56 22 Sunder Ket
456 - 89 33 Dadror
Nanda Empire
424 - 321
103
- India Pataliputra Dravidian Empire.
424 Mahapadma Nanda
- Pandhuka
- Panghupati
- Bhutapala
- Rashtrapala
- Govishanaka
- Dashasidkhaka
- Kaivarta
- Mahendra
? - 321 Dhana Nanda (Argames)
Nanda Empire
424 - 321
103
345 - ? Mahapadma Nanda Ugrasena ^1 Mahanandin, founded Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire
- Pandhuka
- Panghupati
- Bhutapala
- Rashtrapala
- Govishanaka
- Dashasidkhaka
- Kaivarta
? - 321 Dhana (Agrammes, Xandrammes) defeated by Chandragupta Maurya
   
75 - 66 9 Vasudeva
66 - 52 14 Bhumimitra
52 - 40 12 Narayana
40 - 26 14 Susarman

Shishunaga dynasty
413 - 345
78
- 413 - 395 Shishunaga established kingdom of Magadha
Shishunaga
413 - 345 78
413 - 395 18 Shishunaga
395 - 67 28 Kakavarna Kalashoka
367 - 45 22 Mahanandin
     
- Perumchottu Uthiyan Cheralathan
- Antuvancheral
- Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan
- Cheralathan ^Uthiyan Cheralathan
- Cheran Chenkutuvan or Senguttuvan
- Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan
- Poraiyan Kadungo
- Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral
- Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan
- Selvak-Kadungo
- Adukotpattu Cheralatan
- Kuttuvan Irumporai
- Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral
- Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral
- Ilamcheral Irumporai
- Perumkadungo
- Ilamkadungo
- Kanaikal Irumporai
 
Chera
300 - 300 600
- Southern India Vanchi MuthurA Tamil Empire.
   
 
@ Early Cholas: Poompuhar, Urayur, Medieval Cholas: Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
-
-
- Southern India Various, including Poompuhar, Urayur, Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram A Tamil Empire.
Early Cholas
- 235 - 161 74 Elara Chola
- Ilamcetcenni Karikala Chola
- Nedunkilli 
- Killivalavan  Kopperuncholan
- Kocengannan Perunarkilli
-
   
Satavahana Dynasty
230 BC - 220 AD 450
- Puranic list of Satavahana kings (Source: "A Catalogue of Indian coins in British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson). This list, most complete one with - 30 kings, is based on Matsya Purana.
271 - 48 23 & 230 - 207 23 Simuka (Sisuka) kotilingala, karim nagar district
207 - 189 18 Krishna
189 - 79 10 Sri Mallakarni (or Sri Satakarni)
- Purnotsanga, ruled 18 years
- Skandhastambhi, ruled 18 years
195 - 39 56 Sātakarnī 1 ruled 56 years
87 - 67 20 Lambodara
75 - 35 40 Vassals of Kanva dynasty
35 - 23 12 Apilaka
23 - 5 18 Meghasvati (Saudasa)
5 BCE - 13 CE 18 Svati (Svami)
13 - 20 7 Skandasvat
20 - 8 8 Mahendra Satakarni (Mrgendra Svatikarna, Satakarni 2)
28 - 36 8 Kuntala Satakarni (Kuntala Svatikarna)
36 - 7 1 Svatikarna
- Pulomavi (or Patumavi), ruled 36 years.
- Riktavarna (or Aristakarman), ruled 25 years.
20 - 25 5 Hāla, author of Gathasaptasati, an Indian literature classic
- Mandalaka (or Bhavaka, Puttalaka), ruled 5 years.
- Purindrasena, ruled 5 years.
- Sundara Satakarni, ruled 1 year.
- Cakora Satakarni (or Cakora Svatikarna), ruled 6 months.
- Sivasvati, ruled 28 years.
- Kotilingala, Pratishthana
Amaravati
Satavahana Dynasty
230 BC - 220 AD 450
-
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
563 - 483 Buddha
       
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
450 Wari-Bateshwar Fort City
 
200s Mahasthangarh City
Twipra Kingdom
100s
- Bangladesh
 
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s
Upatissa
505 - 377
128
@ Nuwara, Sri Lanka.
4 Kings
505 - 4 1 Upatissa interregnum regent. Chief Minister under Vijaya
504 - 474 30 Panduvasdeva ^< Vijaya
474 - 54 20 Abhaya ^Panduvasdeva
454 - 37 17 Tissa interregnum
regent <
437 - 377 60 Pandukabhaya 474 - 367 X107 ^^ Panduvasudeva

Upatissa Kingdom
505 - 377
128
307 - 267 40 Devanampiya Tissa
267 - 57 10 Uttiya
257 - 47 10 Mahasiva
247 - 37 10 Suratissa, Sena & Guttika X22
251 - 46 5 Aryan Hindus occupy Celyon.
237 - 15 22 Sena & Guttika Defeated Suratissa in battle.
Sena & Guttika
237 - 15 22
237 - 15 22 Sena & Guttika
Vijaya 2
215 - 05
10
215 - 205 10 Asela Youngest ^ Mutasiva
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
205 - 161 44 Elara 235 - 161 Defeated Asela in battle House of Vijaya 161 - 103
Vijaya 3
161 - 03
58
161 - 37 24 Dutthagamani Abhaya Defeated Elara
Eldest ^ Kavan Tissa
Originally ruler of Ruhuna
100s Theravada Buddhism is officially introduced to Sri Lanka by Venerable Mahinda.
137 - 19 18 Saddha Tissa <Dutugemunu
119 Thulatthana Second ^ Saddha Tissa
119 - 09 10 Lanja Tissa
109 - 4 5 Khallata Naga
104 - 3 1 Vattagamani Abhaya
Anuradhapura Kingdom
377 BC - 1017 AD
1394
5 Dravidians
103 - 89
14
103 - 100 3 Pulahatta Tamil Chief
100 - 98 2 Bahiya Chief Minister of Pulahatha
98 - 91 7 Panya Mara Prime Minister of Bahiya
91 - 90 1 Pilaya Mara Chief Minister of Panayamara
90 - 88 2 Dathika Chief Minister of Pilayamara
89 - 76 13 Vattagamani Abhaya Fourth ^ Saddha Tissa
76 - 62 14 Mahakuli Mahatissa ^ Khallatanaga
Nephew & adopted ^ Valagambahu 1
62 - 50 12 Chora Naga ^ Valagambahu 1
Cousin of Mahakuli Mahatissa
50 - 47 3 Kuda Tissa ^ Mahakuli Mahatissa
47 Siva 1
47 Vatuka
47 Darubhatika Tissa
47 Niliya
47 - 2 5 Anula Widow of Chora Naga & Kuda Tissa
42 - 20 22 Kutakanna Tissa Brother of Kuda Tissa
Second ^ Mahakuli Mahatissa
20 BCE - 9 CE 29 Bhatikabhaya Abhaya ^Kuttakanna Tissa
400s
300s
200s
100s
000s