1000s
1100s
1200s
1300s
1400s
Tibet Emp
Buddhism translated from Sanskrit to Tibetan 1000s - 1300s 300s
 
Timurid Empire
1401 - 1505
104
Heian Period 794 - 1185 391
Kamakura Period of Japan 1185 - 1333
Muromachi Period (Ashikaga) 1336 - 1573
Western Xia 1038 - 1227
I
Liao 907 - 1125
   
 
Jin 1115 - 1234
   
Northern Song 960 - 1127
Southern Song 1127 - 1279
Yuan 1279 - 1368
Ming 1368 - 1644
China
 
Great Khans 1206 - 1388
 
Dhalli Llamas
 
Mongol Empire 1206 - 1502
Mongol Khitans Liao 916 - 1124
 
   
 
Khamang
 
Mongol
 
Northern Yuan Kingdom 1368 - 1635
Heian period in Japan 794 - 1185
 
Fujiwara 1086
 
Marco Polo
1254 - 1324
 
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Northern Song Dynasty
960 - 1127
67
997 - 1022 25 Zhao Heng Zhenzong
1005 Treaty of Shanyuan was signed between Chinese Song Dynasty and Khitan Liao Dynasty.
990 - 1020 30 Fan Kuans Carreer Landscape painter
1010 with aid of scholars such as Song Zhun, Lu Duosun compiles a massive work of cartography in 1566 chapters, including mapped topography of each provincial region in China down to minute level of small towns and villages; this was an imperial compendium first issued by Emperor Taizu of Song in 971.
1010s Fan Kuan paints Travelers among Mountains and Streams. Northern Song dynasty. It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.
1013 Prime Tortoise of Record Bureau One of Four Great Books of Song, compiled by 1013 was largest of Song Chinese encyclopedias. Divided into 1000 volumes, it consisted of 9.4 million written Chinese characters. by Wang Qinruo
1022 - 63 43 Zhao Zhen Renzong
1001 - 1100 99 demands of Chinese iron industry for charcoal led to a huge amount of deforestation, which was curbed when Chinese discovered how to use bituminous coal in smelting cast iron and steel, thus sparing thousands of acres of prime timberland.
1024 Worlds 1st paperprinted money can be traced back to year 1024, in Sichuan province of Song Dynasty China. Chinese government would step in and overtake this trend, issuing central governments official banknote in 1120s.
1027 Recreates mechanical compassvehicle Yan Su of South Pointing Chariot, first invented by Ma Jun in 3rd century
1028 King of Srivijaya appeals to Song Dynasty Chinese, sending a diplomatic mission to their capital at Kaifeng.
1037 Jiyun Rhyme dictionary by Ding Du. Expanded by later scholars.
1037 - 1101 64 Su Shi Poet one of renowned poets of Song Dynasty, who also penned works of travel literature.
Chinese official Cai Xiang 1012 - 67 55 oversaw construction of Wanan Bridge in Fujian, and may have been leading member of an engineering school due to many other bridges of similar construction built in Fujian. song
1007 - 72 65 Ouyang Xiu Statesman, Historian, Archaeological Epigapher, Essayist, Poet
1043 Song Dynasty Chancellor of China, Fan Zhongyan, and prominent official and historian Ouyang Xiu introduce Qingli Reforms, which would be rescinded by court in 1045 due to partisan resistance to reforms.
1044 Wujing Zongyao, by Zeng Gongliang and Yang Weide, is first book to describe gunpowder formulas; it also described their use in warfare, such as blackpowderimpregnated fuses for flamethrowers. It also described an early form of compass, a thermoremanence compass.
1044 Wujing Zongyao military manuscript is completed by Chinese scholars Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du, and Yang Weide. song
1041 - 8 7 Artisan Bi Sheng of Song Dynasty China invents ceramic movable type printing using individual ceramic characters
989 - 1052 63 Fan Zhongyan, Song Chinese chancellor
1045 Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, China, is built in
1049 Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng
1049 Record of Tea is written by Chinese official Cai Xiang
1049 Fishermens Evening Song Painting by Xu Daoning
1051 Jinshi Exam by Mei Yaochen 1002 60 58 Poet, Official
1053 New History of 5 Dynasties by Chinese official Ouyang Xiu 1007 72 65 is completed.
1050s Fishing in a Mountain Stream Painting by Xu Daoning. Northern Song dynasty. It is now kept at NelsonAtkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri.
1055 Liaodi Pagoda Tallest in Chinas premodern history. 84 m (275 ft).
1060 New Book of Tang by Ouyang Xiu 1007 72 65 song
999 - 1062 63 Bao Zheng Judge, Mayor of Kaifeng song
1063 Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, Shandong, China completed song
1063 - 7 4 Zhao Shu Yingzong
1012 - 67 55 Cai Xiang Poet, Scholar, Calligrapher, Structural Engineer, Official song
1067 - 85 18 Zhao Xu Shenzong
1068 Drydock
1017 - 73 56 Zhou Dunyi Philosopher song
1069 - 76 7 New Policies with support of Emperor Shenzong of Song, Chancellor Wang Anshi of Chinese Song Dynasty introduces , including Baojia system of societal organization and militias, lowcost loans for farmers, taxes instead of corvée labor, government monopolies on tea, salt, and wine, reforming land survey system, and eliminating poetry requirement in imperial examination system to gain bureaucrats of a more practical bent.
1070 Ben Cao Tu Jing With a team of scholars, Chinese official Su Song also published in 1070, a treatise on pharmacology, botany, zoology, metallurgy, and mineralogy Some of drug concoctions in Sus book included ephedrine, mica minerals, and linaceae
1010 - 70 60 Jia Xian Mathematician song
1072 - 7 2 Calendar Fixed by Wei Pu at directorate of Astronomy but not accepted. Astronomer, Mathematician
1075 Partial Decarbonization Method of Repreated Forging of Cast Iron Under Cold Blast Song Chinese innovate a that Hartwell and Needham consider to be a predecessor to 18th century Bessemer process
1075 - 7 2 Song Dynasty of China and Lý Dynasty of Vietnam fight a border war, with Vietnamese forces striking first on land and with their navy, and afterwards Song armies advancing as far as modernday Hanoi, capital, but withdraw after Lý makes peace overtures; in 1082, both sides exchange territories that they had captured during war, and later a border agreement is reached.
1076 Song Chinese allied with southern Vietnamese Champa and Cambodian Chenla to conquer Lý Dynasty, which was an unsuccessful campaign.
1076 Strict Government Monopolies on Production & Distribution of Sulfur & Saltpetrethe Chinese Song Dynasty places , in order to curb possibility of merchants selling gunpowder formula components to enemies such as Tanguts and Khitans.
1011 - 77 66 Shao Yong Historian, Poet & Philosopher
1077 Su Songs astronomical clock tower Chinese official Su Song is sent on a diplomatic mission to Liao Dynasty and discovers that Khitan calendar is more mathematically accurate than Song calendar; Emperor Zhezong later sponsors in order to compete with Liao astronomers.
1019 - 79 60 Wen Tong Painter
1080 Poet Su Shi Exiled from court for writing poems criticizing various reforms of New Policies Group.
1080 - 1 1 Chinese statesman and scientist Shen Kuo is put in command of campaign against Western Xia, and although he successfully halts their invasion route to Yanzhou (modern Yanan), another officer disobeys imperial orders and campaign is ultimately a failure because of it.
1019 - 83 64 Zeng Gong, Chinese historian, travel writer, and poet song
1084 Zizhi Tongjian history is completed by Chinese official Sima Guang.
1084 Zizhi Tongjian enormous Chinese historical work of is compiled by scholars under Chancellor Sima Guang, completed in 294 volumes and included 3 million written Chinese characters
1019 - 86 67 Sima Guang, Song Chinese chancellor and court historian
1085 - 1100 15 Zhao Xu Zhezong
1021 - 86 65 Wang Anshi Song Chancellor
1087 New office at International Seaport of Quanzhou established to handle and regulate taxes and tariffs on all mercantile transactions of foreign goods coming from Africa, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Persia, and South East Asia.
1088 Dream Pool Essays is completed by Shen Kuo of Song China.
1088 1st reference to magnetic compass renowned polymath Chinese scientist and official Shen Kuo made worlds in his book Dream Pool Essays, along with encyclopedic documentation and inquiry into scientific discoveries.
1088 Pound Lock As written by Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays, earlier in China allows large ships to travel along canals without laborious hauling, thus allowing smooth travel of government ships holding cargo of up to 700 tan (49½ tons) and large privately ownedships holding cargo of up to 1600 tan (113 tons)
1020 - 1101 81 Su Song Astronomer, Morologist, Engineer, Zoologist, Botanist, Mineralogist, Diplomat, Cartographer, etc. song
1020 - 90 70 Guo Xi Landscape Painter song
1031 - 95 64 Shen Kuo Official, mathematician, astronomer, encyclopedist, zoologist, geologist, botanist, pharmacologist, agronomist, ethnographer, inventor, hydraulic engineer, cartographer, general, diplomat, archaeologist, musician and poet
1031 - 95 64 Theory for Land Formation (Geomorphology) Chinese scientist Shen Kuo creates a, theorized that climate change occurred over time, discovers concept of true north, improves design of astronomical sighting tube to view polestar indefinitely, hypothesizes retrogradation theory of planetary motion, and by observing lunar eclipse and solar eclipse he hypothesized that sun and moon were spherical Shen Kuo also experimented with camera obscura just decades after Ibn alHaitham, although Shen was first to treat it with quantitative attributes He also took an interdisciplinary approach to studies in archaeology
1093 liberal reforms of Wang Anshi reinstated when Chinese Empress Dowager Gao dies, conservative faction that had followed Sima Guang is ousted from court, the, and Emperor Zhezong of Song halted all negotiations with Tanguts of Western Xia, resuming in armed conflict with them.
1094 1st chain driven armillary sphere, astronomical & stricking clock Engineer and astronomer Su Song incorporates an escapement mechanism and 1st chain drive to operate armillary sphere, astronomical clock, and striking clock jacks of his clock tower in Kaifeng
1098 Dongpo Academy of Hainan, China is built in honor of Song Dynasty Chinese official and poet Su Shi, who was exiled there for criticizing reforms of New Policies Group.
1037 - 1101 64 Su Shi Poet, calligrapher, painter, travel writer, pharmacologist, and statesman
1045 - 1105 50 Huang Tingjian Calligrapher, Painter
Western Xia Dynasty
1038 - 1227 189
China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia Xingqing Also called Tangut Dynasty.
1032 - 48 16 Lǐ Yuánhào Wǔlièdì Jǐngzōng
1048 - 67 19 Lǐ Liàngzuò Zhāoyīngdì Yìzōng
1067 - 86 19 Lǐ Bǐng cháng Kāngjìngdì Huìzōng
Liao Dynasty
907 - 1125
218
Shangjing
982 - 1031 49 Yēlǜ Lóngxùtedious Shengzong
1031 - 55 24 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēntedious Xingzong
1055 - 1101 46 Yēlǜ Hóngjītedious Daozong
1056 Pagoda of Fogong Temple of Shanxi province Liao Dynasty
1075 Chinese official and diplomat Shen Kuo asserts Song Dynastys rightful border lines by using court archives against bold bluff of Emperor Daozong of Liao, who had asserted that Liao Dynasty territory exceeded its earlieraccepted bounds.
Tibet Empire
1000s
brings about a brief period where central power is taken out of hands of Fujiwara clan
980 - 1054 74 Atisha, influential Buddhist teacher to Tibet
1052 - 1135 83 Milarepa Poet, Yogi, and member of Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
Northern Song
960 - 1127
67
1100 - 25 25 Huizong
1111 Donglin Academy is founded.
1047 - 1126 79 Cai Jing Chancellor of Song Dynasty
1033 - 1107 74 Cheng Yi Philosopher
1051 - 1107 56 Mi Fu Chinese painter, poet, and calligrapher
1107 combines mechanical compass vehicle of South Pointing Chariot with distancemeasuring odometer device by engineer Wu Deren .
1110s Zhu Yus Carreer Chinese maritime author
1125 - 27 2 Qinzong
1127 Northern Song dynasty loses power over northern China to Jurchens of Manchuria.
1089 - 1151 62 Han Shizhong, Chinese military general song
Southern Song
1127 - 1279
152
1127 - 62 35 Zhao Gou Gaozong
1132 - 83 51 Chinese navy increases from a mere 3,000 marine soldiers to 52,000 marine soldiers stationed in 20 different squadrons. During this time, hundreds of treadmilloperated paddle wheel craft are assembled for navy, in order to combat Jurchens Jin Dynasty in north.
1132 Southern Song Dynasty establishes Chinas first permanent standing navy, although China had a long naval history prior. main admirals office was stationed at port of Dinghai.
1141 Treaty of Shaoxing ends conflicts between Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty, legally establishing boundaries of two countries and forcing Song Dynasty to renounce all claims to its former territories north of Huai River. treaty reduced Southern Song into a quasitributary state of Jurchen Jin Dynasty.
1103 - 42 39 Yue Fei General
1085 - 1145 60 Zhang Zeduan Landscape Painter song
1085 - 1145 60 Zhang Zeduan Painter
1084 - 1151 67 Lady Li Qingzhao Poet, Writer
1161 Battle of Tangdao Song Dynasty Chinese navy, employing gunpowder bombs launched from trebuchets, defeats enormous Jin Dynasty navy in East China Sea in and on in .
1161 Battle of Caishi Yangtze River
1162 - 89 27 Zhao Shen Xiaozong
1165 Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou
1174 - 89 15 fl Lin Tinggui Painter of Buddhist themes
1178 Chinese writer Zhou Qufei, a Guangzhou customs officer, writes of an island far west in Indian Ocean (possibly Madagascar), from where people with skin "as black as lacquer" and with frizzy hair were captured and purchased as slaves by Arab merchants.
960 - 1279 119 Zhou Jichang Painter
1189 - 94 5 Zhao Dun Guangzong
Jin Dynasty
1115 - 1234
119
Northern China, Manchuria Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng Also known as Jurchens, were ancestors of Manchus who established Qing Dynasty.
1115 - 23
8 Wányán Āgǔdǎ Tàizǔ
1123 - 34
11 Wányán Wúqǐmǎi Tàizōng
1135 - 49
14 Wányán Héláor Wányán Dǎn Xīzōng
1149 - 61
12 Wányán Liàng Hǎilíngwáng
1161 - 89
28 Wányán Yōng Shìzōng
1190 - 1208
18 Wányán Jǐng Zhāngzōn
1115 Jurchen (Manchu) overrun Kitan and found Jin dynasty
1122 - 7 5 Jurchen / Sung War
Song Dynasties
960 - 1279
319
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty 北宋
960 1127
67
1100 - 2525 Zhao Ji Huizong
1126 - 7 1 Zhao Huan Qinzong

1127 - 1279 152 Linan
Liao 907 - 1125 18
1101 - 25 24 Yēlǜ YánxǐTianzuodi No temple
916 - 1124 208 Liao dynasty from China, resulting in creation of Qarakhitai state in Semirechye.
1124 Tungusic Juchen drive Mongol Khitans
1135 Mongols led by Kabul Khan raid northern China
Along River During Painted by Zhang Zeduan Qingming Festival. It will later end up in Palace Museum, Beijing.
1000s - 1300s 300 Buddhism translated from Sanskrit to Tibetan
1123 Jurchen dynasty forces Koryo to recognize their suzerainty.
Southern Song
1127 - 1279 152
1194 - 1224 34 Zhao Kuo Ningzong
1130 - 1200 70 Zhu Xi NeoConfucian Chinese philosopher
1210s 12 Views from a Thatched Hut painted by Xia Gui . Southern Song dynasty. It is now kept at NelsonAtkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri.
1224 - 64 40 Zhao Yun Lizong
1200s earliest known rockets, landmines, and handguns are made by Chinese for use in warfare.
1200s Windmill from Islamic world.
1200s Guan ware vase is made. Southern Song dynasty. It is now kept at Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London.
1260 Mongols, under Kublai Khan took over China.
1264 - 74 10 Zhao Qi Duzong
1274 - 62 Zhao Xian Gong Di Gongzong
1276 - 8 2 Zhao Shi tedious; Duan Zong
1278 - 9 1 Zhao Bing Di or Wei Wang did not exist
Yuan
1279 - 1368
89
China, Mongolia Dadu State of Mongol Empire, emperor of Yuan was also emperor of all Mongol Empire (until 1300s).
1206 - 27 21 Borjigin Temüjin Genghis Khan tedious Tàizǔ
1228 Borjigin Tolui Tolui tedious Ruìzōng
1229 - 41 12 Borjigin Ögedei
1246 - 8 2 Borjigin Güyük
1251 - 9 8 Borjigin Möngke Bóérzhījīn Ménggē Möngke Khan tedious Xiànzōng
1260 - 94 34 Borjigin Kublai Bóérzhījīn Hūbìliè Kublai Khan tedious Shìzǔ
1298 Wooden Movable Type Printing invented by Chinese governmental minister Wang Zhen in
1211 - 76 65 Mongol invasion of China
1215 Mongols invade northern China, besieging and sacking Jin capital of Yanjing (later known as Beijing).
1214 Zengis Khan took Northern China
1257 Mongols led by Mongkes brother Kublai conquer China all way to Hanoi
1254 - 1324 70 Marco Polo
Adventures of Marco Polo 1938
Marco Polo 1962
Marco Polo 1998

Western Xia Dynasty
1038 - 1227 189
1206 - 11 5 Lǐ Ānquán Jǐngwǔdì Xiāngzōng
1211 - 23 12 Lǐ Zūnxū Yīngwéndì Shénzōng
1223 - 6 3 Lǐ Déwàng Did not exist Xiànzōng
1226 - 7 1 Lǐ Xiàn Did not exist Mòzhǔ
1218 Mongols capture Semirechye and Tarim Basin, occupying Kashgar
1267 Kublai Khan moves Mongol capital to Dadu (Beijing) and founds Yuan dynasty
Mongol Yüan dynasty is established in China under Kublai Khan.

Yuan
1271 - 1368
97
1294 - 1307 13 Borjigin Temür Bóérzhījīn Tiěmùěr Temür Öljeytü Khân tedious Chéngzōng
1308 - 11 3 Borjigin Qayshan Bóérzhījīn Hǎishān Qayshan Gülüktedious Wǔzōng
1311 - 20 9 Borjigin Ayurparibhadra Bóérzhījīn Àiyùlíbálìbādá Ayurparibhadra tedious Rénzōng
1321 - 3 2 Borjigin Suddhipala Bóérzhījīn Shuòdébālá Suddhipala Gegeen tedious Yīngzōng
1323 - 8 5 Borjigin YesünTemür Bóérzhījīn Yěsūntiěmùér YesünTemür Tàidìng Dì did not exist
1328 Borjigin Arigaba Bóérzhījīn Āsùjíbā Arigaba Tiānshùn Dì did not exist
1328 - 32 4 Borjigin Toq Temür Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér Jijaghatu ToqTemür tedious Wénzōng
1329 Borjigin Qoshila Bóérzhījīn Héshìlà Qoshila Qutuqtu tedious Míngzōng
1332 Borjigin Irinchibal Bóérzhījīn Yìlínzhìbān Irinchiba l tedious Níngzōng
1333 - 70 37 Borjigin Toghan Temür Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér ToghanTemür Shundi Huìzōng
1363 Battle of Lake Poyang, a naval conflict between Chinese rebel groups led by Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang. one of largest naval battles in history.
1340s Jiao Yu, Chinese general and author of Huolongjing military treatise
Ming
1368 - 1644
276
Nanjing 1368 - 1421 53
1368 Ming dynasty is founded by a Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel, Chu Yuanchang, under whose leadership China regains independence from corrupt and inefectual Mongols rulers after a 13 year rebellion.
1311 - 75 64 Liu Ji General, Court Advisor, Philosopher, Coeditor of Huolongjing
1300s Chinese text Huolongjing by Jiao Yu describes fire lances, fire arrows (rockets), rocket launchers, land mines, naval mines, bombards, cannons, and hollow cast iron cannonballs filled with gunpowder, and their use to set ablaze enemy camps.
1320 - 63 43 Chen Youliang, Chinese rebel leader and arch nemesis to Zhu Yuanzhang (aka Emperor Hongwu)
1300s Dongguan Mosque China

 

Ming
1368 - 1644
276
Beijing 1421 - 1644 223
1368 - 98 30 Zhū Yuánzhāng Gāodì Hongwu ** Tàizǔ Hóngwǔ
1398 - 1402 4 Zhū Yǔnwén Huìdì None given² ** Jiànwén Jianwen
1402 - 24 22 Zhū Dì Wēndì Yongle ** Chéngzǔ, or Tàizōng, Yǒnglè
1403 Yongle Emperor moves capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing.
1403 Yongle Encyclopedia +22,000 volumes
1403 Movable type first used by King Taejong of Joseon (Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words, was invented in China by Bi Sheng between 1041 to 1048.)
1405 - 33 28 Zheng He of China sails through Indian Ocean to India, Arabia, and East Africa.
1420 Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.
1424 - 5 1 Hongxi ** Zhū Gāochì Zhāodì Rénzōng Hóngxī
1425 - 35 10 Xuande ** Zhū Zhānjī Zhāngdì Xuānzōng Xuāndé
1371 - 1433 62 Zheng He Eunuch, Admiral, Explorer
1435 - 49 14 1457 1464³ Zhengtong ** Zhū Qízhèn Ruìdì Yīngzōng
1449 Battle of Tumu Fortress Esen Tayisi leads an Oirat Mongol invasion of China which culminate in capture of Zhengtong Emperor at .
1449 - 57 8 Jingtai ** Zhū Qíyù Jǐngdì Dàizōng
1464 - 87 23 Chenghua ** Zhū Jiànshēn Chúndì Xiànzōng
1487 1505 18 Hongzhi ** Zhū Yòutáng Jìngdì Xiàozōng
1391 - 1474 83 Gendun Drup
1475 - 1542 57 Gendun Gyatso
1490 Although pioneered earlier in Korea and by Chinese official Wang Zhen (with tin), bronze metal movable type printing is created in China by Hua Sui in .
1434 rise of Oyrat (Western) Mongols in Jungaria.
1442 Id Kah Mosque china

 

Yenisei Kirghiz Tribe
539 - 1219 680
Yenisei Kirghiz Tribe
539 - 1219 680
Khamang 1100s - 1206 100s
in Mongolia 0*
1190 Temujin (Genghis Khan) Becomes king of Mongols
1164 - 1214 50 Genghis Khan founded Mongul Empire. (An alternate spelling is Zengis Khan.) ZengisKhan was one of bloodiest conquerors of world. Fourteen million people perished by his sword, under pretense of establishing worship of "One God and Mahomet as his Prophet."
1155 birth of Chingiz Khan.

Yenisei Kirghiz Tribe
539 - 1219 680
Mongol Empire
1206 - 1368 162
Karakorum Split into four empires (Yuan Empire, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde).
Khans
1206 - 1294
88
1206 - 27 21 Temuchin Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan 1965
Conqueror 1956
Mongols 1961
1206 Unification of all Mongol & Tatar Tribes
1209 Mongols Conquer Kirghiz of Yenisei forcing them to flee south to Tien Shan.
1210 Conquers Kingdom of Xi Xia
1215 Conquers kingdom Jin/Jurchen
1216 Citadel of Karakorum
1218 - 22 4 Mongol invasion of Central Asia
1218 Mongols Conquer Kingdom of KaraKhitai (Kitan/Liao)
1220 Capital of Karakorum Founded

1224 Empire split into 4 Khanates ruled by his four sons Jochi (western part), Ogodei (southern Siberia and western Mongolia), Chaghatay (Transoxania and KaraKhitai), Tolui (the traditional Mongol lands)

1225 Jochi dies and his son Batu inherits his Khanate and assigns eastern part to his brother Orda
1227 Genghis Khan dies and is succeeded by Ogodai who rules over Chaghatays khanate in West Turkestan, Toluis Eastern Mongolia, Batus Blue Horde in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and Ordas White Horde in Kazakhstan and Ogodai moves capital to Karakorum
1230 - 1380 150 Mongol Empire
1229 - 41 12 Ogedei Khan
1231 Mongols defeat a resurrected Khwarezmian Shahdom.
1236 second Mongol westward thrust begins.
1241 Ogodai dies, Mongols retreat from Europe and Ogodais widow T”regene takes over as regent
1241 - 6 5 Toregene Khatun
1246 papal envoy Giovanni da Pian del Carpine visits Mongol capital Karakorum
1246 - 8 2 Guyuk Khan
1248 - 51 3 Oghul Ghaymish
1251 - 9 8 Mongke Khan
1258 Mongols led by Hulegu conquer Mesopotamia and Syria
1260 - 94 34 Kublai Khan
1260 Buddhism State Religion
1284 Uighur empire is absorbed into Chagatai Khanate
1293 Kublai Khan fails to invade Java
1294 Kublai Khan dies and empire fragments in khanates
Genghis Khan attacks Soong state
Mongkes brother Hulegu leads Mongol invasion of Persia and establishes Ilkhanate
Uighurs, under Barchuq, submit to Mongol rule.
1255 Batu dies and is succeeded by his brother Berke, a Muslim convert
Northern Yuan
1368 - 1635 267
Post Imperial Nomadic Mongolia Shangdu, Yingchang, Karakorum
Created after expulsion of Yuan Dynasty from China
PostImperial Mongolia
1333 - 70 37 Huizong (same person as last Yuan ** in China) Shundi
1370 - 8 8 Zhaozong Hexiao ** Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara of Borjigin clan
1378 - 88 10 Yizong Ningxiao ** Usakhal Khan Tögüs Temür of Borjigin clan
1388 Ming defeat Yuan and destroy Karakorum, Mongolia.
1388 - 92 4 Jorightu Khan (Yesüder)
? - 1392 Engke Khan
1392 - 9 7 Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan

Later Goguryeo
901 -
18 17

901 - 1817 Gungye era Mutae
Seongchaek
SudeokManse
Jeonggae
1001 ± 40 yrs Baitoushan volcano on what would be ChineseKorean border, erupts with a force of 6.5, fourth largest Holocene blast.
 
1231 - 73 42 Mongol invasions of Korea
1226 Jurchen Invade North China & Korea
   
Goryeo
918 - 1392
474
997 - 1009 12 Wang Song
964 - 1010 46 Gang Jo General
1009 - 31 22 Wang Sun
1010 - 1 1 Second GoryeoKhitan War; Korean king was forced to flee capital temporarily, but unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack, Khitan forces withdrew.
1019 3rd GoryeoKhitan War Korea kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan
948 - 1031 83 Gang Gamchan, Korean general of Goryeo Dynasty
1031 - 4 3 Wang Heum
1035 Kim Muche passes literary examination. Korean scholar of Goryeo Dynasty who opened up educational facilities which rivaled Gukjagam, or National University
1034 - 46 12 Wang Hyeong
1046 - 83 37 Wang Hwi
1083 Wang Hun
1083 - 94 11 Wang Un
1094 - 5 1 Wang Uk
1095 - 1105 10 Wang Hee
1021 Dongnae eupseong site
Goryeo
918 - 1392
474
1105 - 22 17 Wang U
1122 - 46 24 Wang Hae
1146 - 70 24 Wang Hyeon
1075 - 1151 76 Kim Busik, Korean historian of Goryeo Dynasty who compiled Samguk Sagi historical text
1170 - 97 27 Wang Ho
1100s Wiryeseong
Goryeo
918 - 1392
474
1197 - 1204 7 Wang Tak
1204 - 11 7 Wang Yeong
1211 - 3 2 Wang O
1213 - 59 46 Wang Cheol
1259 - 74 15 Wang Sik
1274 - 1308 34 Wang Geo
Goryeo
918 - 1392
474
1308 - 13 5 Wang Jang
1313 - 30 17 Wang Man
1330 - 2 2 Wang Jeong
1339 - 44 5 ?
1344 - 8 4 Wang Heun
1348 - 51 3 Wang Jeo
1351 - 74 23 Wang Jeon
1374 - 88 14 Wang U
1388 - 9 1 Wang Chang
1389 - 92 3 Wang Yo
Josean
1392 - 1897 505
Korea
1392 - 8 16 Yi Seong gye
1398 - 1400 2 Yi Banggwa
1396 - 8 Seoul Gates
Josean
1392 - 1897 505
1400 - 18 18 Yi Bang won
1418 - 50 32 Yi Do 1397 - 1450 53 Sejong Great
1446 Hangul native phonetic alphabet system for Korean language.
1450 - 2 2 Yi Hyang
1452 - 5 3 Yi Hong wi
1455 - 68 13 Yi Yu
1468 - 9 1 Yi Gwang
1469 - 94 25 Yi Hyeol
1494 - 1506 12 Yi Yung
Japan
660 BC - Present
2671
Heian Period 781 - 1185 404
1001 - 8 7 Japanese Lady Murasaki Shikibu writes first novel, Tale of Genji, first fulllength novel.
966 - 1017 51 Sei Shōnagon Writer, a Japanese lady of royal court
1011 - 6 5 Okisada/Iyasada ** Sanjō
1016 - 36 20 Atsuhira ** GoIchijō
1019 Toi invasion Japan invasion of northern Kyūshū by Jurchen pirates
966 - 1028 62 Fujiwara Michinaga, powerful regent of Japan
1036 - 45 9 Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi ** GoSuzaku
1045 - 68 23 Chikahito ** GoReizei
1051 - 63 12 Early 9 Yrs War Japans Mutsu province
1052 Uji Dainagon Monogatari, a collection of stories allegedly penned by MinamotonoTakakuni, Japan. is written sometime between now and 1077.
1052 Fujiwara no Yorimichi converts rural villa at Byōdōin into a famous Japanese Buddhist temple.
1053 Phoenix Hall of Byōdōin, Japan, is completed in
? - 1057 Jōchō, famous Japanese sculptor
992 - 1072 80 Fujiwara no Yorimichi, Japanese court noble and regent
1068 - 73 5 Takahito ** GoSanjō
1073 - 86 13 Sadahito ** Shirakawa
1087 - 1107 20 Taruhito ** Horikawa
Japan
660 BC - Present
2671
Heian Period 781 - 1185 404
Japan is in its Heian Period. Chōjūjinbutsugiga is made and attributed to Toba Sojo. It will end up at Kozanji, Kyoto.
1107 - 23 16 Munehito ** Toba
1123 - 42 19 Akihito ** Sutoku
1142 - 55 13 Narihito ** Konoe
1155 - 8 3 Masahito ** GoShirakawa
1158 - 65 7 Morihito ** Nijō
1165 - 8 3 Yorihito ** Rokujō
1168 - 80 12 Norihito ** Takakura
1175 Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū) founds Japanese Jōdo shū (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism.
1180 - 5 5 Tokihito ** Antoku
1180 - 5 5 Genpei War
1185 Iwamura Castle
1185 Sagiyama Castle
Kamakura Period
1185 - 1333
148
1183 - 98 15 Takahira ** GoToba
1185 Beginning in this year Kamakura Shogunate deprives Emperor of Japan of political power.
1192 Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed Seii Taishōgun, "barbariansubduing great general, shōgun for short, first military dictator to bear this title.
1147 - 99 52 Minamoto no Yoritomo, shōgun of Japan, founder of Kamakura Shogunate. governor and commander loyal to Fujiwara clan of Minamoto clan
Japan
1155 Hogen Disturbance
1180 - 5 5 Genpei War Japan Taira and Minamoto clans
Kamakura Period
1185 - 1333 148
Japan
1200s Hinoe Castle
1201 Gifu Castle
1240 Bitchū Matsuyama Castle
Japan
660 BC - Present
2671
1198 - 1210 12 Tamehito ** Tsuchimikado
1210 - 21 11 Morihira/Morinari ** Juntoku
1133 - 1212 79 Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū), Japanese religious founder
1221 Kanehira/Kanenari ** Chūkyō X51 Deposed.
1221 - 32 11 Yutahito ** GoHorikawa
1232 - 42 10 Mitsuhito/Hidehito ** Shijō
1242 - 6 4 Kunihito ** GoSaga
1246 60 14 Hisahito ** GoFukakusa
1260 - 74 14 Tsunehito ** Kameyama
1274 Kublai Khan fails to invade Japan
1274 - 87 13 Yohito ** GoUda
1287 - 98 11 Hirohito ** Fushimi
1290s Descent of Amida Trinity, raigo triptych, is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at Art Institute of Chicago.
1290s "Night Attack on Sanjo Palace" Japan is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
1298 - 1301 3 Tanehito ** GoFushimi
1274 - 81 7 Mongol invasion of Japan
Japan
660 BC - Present
2671
1301 - 8 7 Kuniharu ** GoNijō
1308 - 18 10 Tomihito ** Hanazono
1310s Attributed to Kao Ninga Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at Cleveland Museum of Art.
1318 39 21 Takaharu ** GoDaigo Southern Court
Muromachi Period 1333 - 1573
1318 39 21 Takaharu ** GoDaigo Southern Court
1331 Ōzu Castle
1332 Chihaya Castle
1339 Shōryūji Castle
1339 - 68 29 Norinaga/Noriyoshi ** GoMurakami Southern Court
1340 Bitchū Matsuyama Castle
1340 Komine Castle
1346 Himeji Castle
1353 Kawate Castle
1368 - 83 15 Yutanari ** ChōkeiSouthern Court
1369 Okayama Castle
1380 Aizuwakamatsu Castle
1383 - 92 9 Hironari ** GoKameyama Southern Court
1384 Aizuwakamatsu Castle
1390 Akashi Castle

Northern Court 1333 - 92
1331 - 3 2 Kazuhito ** Kōgon
1336 - 48 12 Yutahito ** Kōmyō
1348 - 51 3 Okihito ** Sukō
1351 - 2 1 Interregnum
1352 - 71 19 Iyahito ** GoKōgon
1371 - 82 11 Ohito ** GoEnyū
1382 - 92 10 Motohito ** GoKomatsu Reunified courts in 1392, see 100 below
1333 - 6 3 Kenmu Restoration of Japan
Muromachi Period
1336 - 1573
237
(Ashikaga) Japan
Nanbokucho period
1336 - 92
56
Japan
Japan
660 BC - Present
2671
Muromachi Period 1333 - 1573
1392 - 1412 20 Motohito ** GoKomatsu Reunified courts, see also entry in Northern Court section
1412 - 28 16 Mihito ** Shōkō
1428 - 64 36 Hikohito ** GoHanazono
1464 - 1500 36 Fusahito ** GoTsuchimikado
1419 Ōei Invasion Korean Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, Japan.
Ryūkyū
1429 - 1879
450
Ryukyu Islands, Japan.
Sengoku Period
1467 - 1615 148
Japan
1467 - 77 10 Ōnin War Japan Civil war
1400 Takiyama Castle
1400s Iwabitsu Castle
1427 Kiyosu Castle
1440 Inuyama Castle
1444 Tsuyama Castle
1447 Odawara Castle
1450 Katsuren Castle
1455 Okazaki Castle
1457 Edo Castle
1457 Kururi Castle
1462 Kakegawa Castle
1467 Kumamoto Castle
1467 Maruoka Castle
1471 Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins
1493 Nirengi Castle