500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
 
Viking Age 793 - 1066 73
Beow
Building of Danevirke 737 - 1160 423
   
H
e
H
H
Fairhair
Kingdom of Norway
   
Kingdom of Denmark 710 Present 1301
 
f
Don
m
d
Con
m
f
m
l
c
d
Flan
c
Don
o
d
f
a
d
c
d
m
m
Mide 743 - 1173 430
 
Kingdom of Cait Scotland 550s - 697 147
     
   
Kingdom of Fortriu Scotland 843 - 1300 457
Finn
Frioðulf
Frealaf
Winta
Cretta
Cuelgils
Caedbaed
Bubba
Beda
Biscop
Eanferð
Eatta
Aldfrið
Lindsey 490s - 890s 400
   
 
Deira
Bern
o
o
o
a
o
a
a
Deira
Kingdom of Deira 559 - 679 120
 
Ke
d
C
a
G
D
M
I
d
c
k
K
c
k
Scotland 1 843 - 1707 164
g
a
a
t
f
h
a
Bernicia
Dei
o
e
a
Ber
Kingdom of Bernicia 500 - 653 163
O
E
A
e
O
c
O
c
c
o
a
a
a
a
o
a
o
e
e
e
a
a
o
a
o
Northumbrian
Kingdom of Northumbria 653 - 867 213
19 Kings
Kingdom of York
 
Kingdom of Dyfed 410 - 909 501
Kingdom of Deheubarth
Cornwall SE England 700s - 1000s 300
Kingdom of Gwent 500 - 1067 567
 
w
e
r
s
e
East Anglia
Offa
Mercia
 
b
Mercian
E Anglia
o
a
g
e
a
Norse
Kingdom of East Anglia 550 - 917 367
 
Kingom of Arles
e
Æð
E
e
o
w
Independant Kent
e
h
Os
e
b
E
Mercian Domination
Kingdom of Kent 450 - 871 421
 
Kingom of Strathclyde
 
p
c
c
b
C
c
b
l
w
w
C
A
a
Kingdom of Mercia 527 - 919 392
   
 
s
s
s
Si
Sw
Sael
Swa
S
Sigeric
Kingdom of Essex (East Saxons) 527 - 812 285
 
Kingom of Alba
 
c
 
c
a
c
s
a
a
a
a
Kingdom of Wessex (West Saxons) 519 - 927 408
E
E
e
E
s
England
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860 Discovery of Iceland by Norwegians
850 - 75 25 1st Settlers arrive
Settlement of Iceland
874 930
56
Reykjavík
Ingólfur Arnarson
Settlement of Iceland
874 - 930
56
Reykjavík
Ingólfur Arnarson
Icelandic Commonwealth
930 - 1262 332
Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
Federation
1199 - 1238 39 Sturla Sighvatsson
1208 - 45 37 Kolbeinn ungi Arnórsson
1245 - 1256 11 Þórður kakali Sighvatsson
1208 - 68 60 Gissur Þorvaldsson
1214 - 84 70 Sturla Þórðarson
920 Ulfljotr Norwegian brings Gulathing Law to Iceland, where it is used as a model upon which Icelandic Law is based.
930 First Althing held at Thingvellir in Iceland, establishment of Icelandic Free State.
930 - 1011 81 Njal of Berthorsknoll.
930 First Althing held at Thingvellir in Iceland, establishment of Icelandic Free State.
910 - 90 80 Egill Skallagrimsson Life of poet/warrior

Ancient & Mythological Kings of Munster
489 - 522 33 Eochaid mac Óengusa,
DubGilcach mac Óengusso, unknown
522 - 42 20 Crimthann Srem mac Echado r.
542 - 77 35 Coirpre Cromm mac Crimthainn, defeated Colmán Bec in battle
577 - 82 5 Fergus Scandal mac Crimthainn Airthir Chliach, Feidlimid mac Coirpri Chruimm, unknown
582 - 8 6 Feidlimid mac Tigernaig, r.
596 - 601 5 Amalgaid mac Éndai r.
596 Garbán mac Éndai
Kingdom of Osraige
Aenghus Osraigh, founder of Kingdom.
581 Feradach Finn mac Duach of Corcu Loígde
603 Colmán mac Feradaig
Kingdom of Dumnonia
290 - 800
510
Kings recorded in Welsh records
Kingdom of Deira 559 - 679 120
559 - 89 30 Ælla
589 - 604 15 Æthelric
Early 6th century – Irish colonists & invaders, Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland). Migration from southwest Britain to Brittany.
Early 6th century – Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. Kevin. Many similar foundations in Ireland & Wales.
540 - 615 75 Columbanus. Irish monk & missionary
500 Caherconnell Stone Fort
500 Kings crowned at Lia Fáil Hill of Tara
Ancient & Mythological Kings of Munster
601 - 18 17 Fíngen mac Áedo Duib, first husband of Mór Muman
618 Áed Bennán mac Crimthainn
, King of Iarmuman & father of Mór Muman
618 - 27 9 Cathal mac Áedo Flaind Chathrach, second husband of Mór Muman
627 - 39 12 Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib, defeated Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin in battle
639 - 41 2 Cúán mac Amalgado
642 - 61 19 Máenach mac Fíngin
661 - 5 4 Cathal Cúcenmáthair mac Cathaíl,
665 - 78 13 Colgú mac Faílbe Flaind,
678 - 96 18 Finguine mac Cathail Concenmáthair,
696 - 701 5 Ailill mac Cathail Concenmáthair,
Osraige
?
644 Scannlan Mór mac Cinn Fáelad
660 Fáelán mac Crundmaíl
678 Tuaim Snámha
693 Fáelchar Ua Máele Ódrain
? - 679 Cenn Fáelad mac Aillila Sholar
655 On miraculous things in sacred scripture by Augustine Eriugena, Irish scientist
6900 Grianan of Aileach
640 1490 Innisfallen Abbey at Innisfallen Island
Kingdom of Ceredigion
424 - 909
485
595 - 630 35 Arthlwys
630 - 65 35 Clydog 1
Seisyllwg
Kingdom of Dumnonia
290 - 800
510
Possible rulers as ancestors of an Earl of Cornwall
598 - 613 15 Bledric ap Custennin
613 - 33 20 Clemen ap Bledric
633 - 54 21 Petroc Baladrddellt ap Clemen Petroc Splintered Spear
659 - 61 2 Culmin ap Petroc
661 - 700 39 Donyarth ap Culmin
Ancient & Mythological Kings of Munster

701 - 12 11 Cormac Mac Ailello ^Ailello
712 - 21 9 Eterscél Mac Máele Umai ^Máele Umai
721 - 42 21 Cathal Mac Finguine ^Finguine1st major competitor with Uí Néill
? Cathussach mac Eterscélai
, unknown
? - 786 Máel Dúin mac Áedo ^Áedo, fought a series of battles
786 - 97 11 Ólchobar mac Flainn ^Flainn, possible king from Uí Fidgenti

Kingdom of Dyfed
410 - 909 501
? Cloten = Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, uniting two kingdoms
? - 740 Rhain also king of Brycheiniog; on his death, his kingdoms were divided again by his sons
740 - 97 47 Maredydd ap Rhain ^Rhain
Kingdom of Gwynedd
450 - 1282
832
Cunedda
7 - 1100s Clonmacnoise Cathedral
7 - 1200s Ardmore Cathedral
Ancient & Mythological Kings of Munster
797 - 805 8 Ólchobar mac DuibIndrecht,
805 - 21 16 Artrí mac Cathail
805 - 7 2 Tnúthgal mac Artrach
807 - 20 13 Tnúthgal mac Donngaile (or Dunngusso),
820 - 47 27 Feidlimid mac Cremthanin, another great competitor with Uí Néill
847 - 51 4 Ólchobar mac Cináeda, may have sent an embassy to Charles Bald
851 - 3 2 Áilgenán mac Donngaile
,
853 - 59 6 Máel Gualae mac Donngaile,
859 - 72 13 Cenn Fáelad hua Mugthigirn,
872 - 88 16 Dúnchad mac DuibdáBairenn,
888 - 95 7 Dub Lachtna mac Máele Gualae,
895 - 902 7 Finguine Cenn nGécan mac Loégairi,
Kingdom of Dyfed
410 - 909 501
797 - 808 11 Rhain ap Maredydd
808 - 11 3 Owain ap Maredydd
? - 893 Hyfaidd ap Bledrig
893 - 904 11 Llywarch ap Hyfaidd
Seisyllwg
872 Gwgon of Seisyllwg
872 - 8 6 Anghared, sister & heiress of Gwgon
872 - 8 6 Rhodri Mawr by right of his wife
878 - 909 31 Cadell ap Rhodri second son of Anghared & Rhodri
Kingdom of Gwynedd
450 - 1282
832
Cunedda
798 - 816 18 Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri
814 - 25 11 Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog With Hywels death all male descendants of Maelgwn Gwynedd have expired, & Merfyn Freckled succeeds because his mother Esyllt was eldest daughter of Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri, & niece to last king Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog.
Manaw
825 - 44 19 Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad Merfyn Freckled
844 - 78 34 Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn inherits Gwynedd from his father & Powys from his maternal uncle (who died without issue), then conquers most of rest of Wales.
Aberffraw
878 - 916 38 Anarawd ap Rhodri establishes Aberffraw dynasty, senior branch of descendants from Rhodri Mawr)
Kingdom of Ossory (Osraige)
802 - 42 40 Dúngal mac Fergaile ^Fergaile XX
842 - 88 46 Cerball mac Dúnlainge Leading his army, he is recorded as having slaughtered 1,200 Danes at CarnBrammin (Bramblestown), in Co. Kilkenny in 845 AD. In 847 AD it is proposed that he had "Saint Canices" Round Tower built.
888 - 94 6 Riacan mac Dunlainge ^Dunlainge
894 - 905 11 Diarmait mac Cerbaill
845 AlGhazals embassy to Turgeis, King of Vikings in Ireland.
841 Dublin founded on east coast of Ireland by Vikings.
8 - 1100s Glendalough Round Tower at
8 - 1100s Kinneigh Round Tower
Ancient & Mythological Kings of Munster
902 - 8 6 Cormac mac Cuilennáin, probable compiler of famous Sanas Cormaic
908 - 44 36 Flaithbertach mac Inmainén
, belonged to Múscraige
944 - ? Lorcán mac Coinlígáin, unknown
? - 954 Cellachán Caisil mac Buadacháin, fought a series of battles
954 - 7 3 Máel Fathardaig mac Flainn,
957 - 9 2 DubdáBairenn mac Domnaill
959 - 61 3 Fer Gráid mac Clérig,
961 - 3 2 Donnchad mac Cellacháin, (possibly never ruled)
? (Máel Muad mac Brain) (1st reign), (extent of authority uncertain)
? - 968 Ivar of Limerick, de facto, according to Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. Deposed
Kings of Munster from 970
Of Dál gCais, or, if marked (E), Eóganacht.
968 - 76 8 Mathgamain mac Cennétig,
976 - 8 2 (E) Máel Muad mac Brain (2nd reign),
978 - 1014 36 Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig,
Osraige
905 - 8 3 Cellach mac Cerbaill
908 - 28 20 Diarmait mac Cerbaill
928 - 33 5 Cuilen mac Cellaig
934 - 76 42 Donnchad mac Cellaig
976 - 96 20 Gilla Patráic mac Donnchada
Kingdom of Mide
743 - 1173
430
916 - 19 3 Conchobar mac Flainn
919 - 44 25 Donnchad Donn mac Flainn
944 - 6 2 Oengus mac Donnchada
946 - 50 4 Donnchad mac Domnaill
950 Fergal Got mac Oengussa
950 - 1 1 Aed mac Mael Ruanaid
951 - 2 1 Domnall mac Donnchada
952 - 60 8 Carlus mac Cuinn
960 - 74 14 Donnchad Finn mac Aeda
974 - 6 2 Muirchertach mac Mael Sechnaill
976 - 1022 46 Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill
Kingdom of Dyfed
410 - 909
501
Seisyllwg
909 Hywel Dda (Hywel Good)
Gwynedd
450 - 1282 832
Aberffraw
878 - 916 38 Anarawd ap Rhodri establishes Aberffraw dynasty, senior branch of descendants from Rhodri Mawr)
916 - 42 26 Idwal Foel ab Anarawd Idwal Bald
942 - 50 8 Hywel Dda ap Cadell Howell Good Dinefwr dynasty, descended from second son of Rhodri Mawr who ruled in Deheubarth, usurps Gwynedd from Aberffraw line.)
950 - 79 29 Iago ab Idwal returns to Aberffraw branch
950 - 69 19 Ieuaf ab Idwal
974 - 85 11 Hywel ab Ieuaf
985 - 6 1 Cadwallon ab Ieuaf
10th & 11th century usurpations
986 - 99 13 Maredudd ab OwainDinefwr dynasty seizes Gwynedd

Picts
Early kings

502 - 14 12? Drest ^Uudrost
514 - 26 12? Drest ^Girom
526 - 38 12? Gartnait <
538 - 50 12? Cailtram <
550 - 62 12? Talorc ^Murtolic
580 Drest ^Manath

Early historical kings
580 - 672 92
first king who appears in multiple early sources is Bridei son of Maelchon, & kings from later 6th century onwards may be considered historical as their deaths are generally reported in Irish sources.
580 - 4 4 Galam Cennalath
584 - 601 17 Bridei ^Maelchon named in Adomnáns Life of Saint Columba; first Pictish king to be more than a name in a list
Kingdom of Essex
527 812 285
527 - 87 60 Aescwine
587 - 604 17 Sledda
Kingdom of Mercia
527 - 919
392
Repton, Tamworth
527 - ? Icel Son of Eomer last King of Angles in Angeln. Led his people across North Sea to Britain.
? Cnebba Son of Icel.
Cynewald ? Son of Cnebba.?
584 - 93 9 Creoda Son of Cynewald. Probable founder of Mercian royal fortress at Tamworth. 593
593 - 606 13 Pybba Son of Creoda. Extended Mercian control into western Midlands
Kingdom of Kent
450 - 871
421
500 - 12 12 Oisc (Oesc, Aesc, Oeric) no charters son of Hengest or Octa
512 - 34 22 Octa
(Octha) no chartersson of Hengest
534 - 90 56 Eormenric no charters father of Æðelberht 1
Kingdom of East Anglia
550 - 917 417
550 - 71 21 Wehha first to rule over East Angles (Historia Britonum)
571 - 8 7 WuffaEponymous ancestor of Wuffing dynasty, ruling in 571 (Roger of Wendover)
578 - 99 21 Tytila Took up helm of kingdom (Roger of Wendover)
Kingdom of Gwent
500 - 1067 567
@ Caerwent S England No * list
Kingdom of Gwynedd
450 - 1282 832
Cunedda
500 - 47 47
Kingdom of Cornwall
490s - 1066 576
SE England. Limited King list
500s Salomon, father of Saint Cybi, probably ruled after Mark
876 Dungarth, drowned
? - 1066 Cadoc
Kingdom of Lindsey
440s - 890s
450
@ SE England Anglians, Geats descended from Norse Gods. Mentioned in Beowulfs story.
Finn
Frioðulf
Frealaf
Woden, after God.
Kingdom of Cait
550s - 697 240s
Pictish (Scottish) Caithness N Scotland. No * list
596 St. Augustine arrived in England with 40 monks. He was sent by Gregory Great.
535 Postulated Tropical Volcano which causes several years of abnormally cold weather, resulting in mass famine in Northern Hemisphere
? - 601 Saint Asaph North England
1st European triangular harp designed by Picts of Scotland.
510s AngloSaxon Heptarchy emerges
Medieval Warm Period begins.
beginning of Medieval Warm Period
563 Monastery on Iona Scottland is founded by St. Columba.
Horse collar in use in Northern Europe in 8th or 9th century, perhaps introduced from Asia.
Probably at some time in this century, Beowulf is composed.
Ælfflæd of Whitby
? - 664 ? Æthelburg of Faremoutiers
590s? - 647 50s Æthelburg of Kent
636 - 79 43 Æthelthryth
660s - 70s Caedmon Poet
634 - 87 53 Saint Cuthbert
626 - 704 78 Eanflæd
539 - 612 73 Bertha of Kent
? - 699 Seaxburh of Ely
530? - 604 70s Augustine of Canterbury, Roman monk, missionary, & bishop

Picts
Early historical kings
580 - 672 92

601 - 21 20 Gartnait ^Domelch
621 - ? Nechtan ^Cano ^^Uerb
? - 633 Cinioch ^Lutrin
? Gartnait ^Uuid
? Bridei <
? - 653 Talorc <
653 - 7 4 Talorgan ^Eanfrith of Bernicia
657 - 63 6 Gartnait ^Donnel
663 - 72 9 Drest < Deposed
Later historical kings
693 - 839 146
693 Bridei ^Bili of Alt Clut ^^Nechtan 2 Defeated Ecgfrith of Northumbria at battle of Dunnichen
692 - 6 4 Taran ^Ainftech <

Kingdom of Wessex
519 - 927 408
597 - 611 14 Ceolwulf
611 - 43 31 Cynegils
626 - 36 10 Cwichelm
643 - 5 2 Cenwalh Deposed 645 - 8 3 Penda
648 - 74 26 Cenwalh Restored
672 - 4 2 Seaxburh Reigned with her husband Cenwalh until his death
674 Cenfus
674 - 6 2 Æscwine
676 - 85 9 Centwine Deposed by Cædwalla
685 - 8 3 Caedwalla Usurper; abdicated, possibly British origin
688 - 726 38 Ine (Ina) Abdicated
Kingdom of Essex
527 - 812 85
604 - 16 12 Saebert
616 - 7 1 SexredJoint king with Saeward; killed in battle against West Saxons
617 Saeward Joint king with Sexred; killed in battle against West Saxons
617 - 53 36 Sigeberht Little
653 - 60 7 Sigeberht Good Saint Sigeberht; Saint Sebbi
660 - 4 4 Swithelm
664 - 83 19 Sighere Jointking with Sebbi
664 - 94 30 Sebbi Jointking with Sighere; abdicated in favour of his son Sigeheardc.
Kingdom of Sussex
477 - 772
275
514 - 67 53 Cissa coruled 491 X90
660 - 85 25 Æðelwealh Killed by Caedwalla; first king of Sussex to be baptized
683 Eadwulf
683 - 5 2 Ecgwald subking
685 Berhthun According to Bede, an alderman of King
685 Andhun According to Bede, an alderman of King. Ceawlin of Wessex
Kingdom of Mercia
527 - 919
892
606 - 26 20 Cearl No known relation to his predecessors. Possibly a usurper or distant kinsman 626
626
- 55
29 Penda ^ Pybba. Raised Mercia to dominant status amongst AngloSaxon kingdoms. Last pagan ruler of Mercia. Killed in battle by Oswiu of Northumbria.15 Nov 655
635 - 42 7 Eowa < Coruler. Killed in battle.
653 - 6 3 Peada < Coruler in southeast Midlands. Murdered.17 Apr 656
Northumbian Domination
655 - 658
3
655 - 8 3 Oswiu of Northumbria Briefly took direct control of Mercia after death of Penda. Also King of Northumbria 655 670
Mercia 2
658 - 704
46
658 - 75 17 Wulfhere ^ Penda. Restored Mercian dominance in England. 1st Christian king of Mercia. 675
675 - 704 29 Æthelred 1 < Abdicated & retired to a monastery at Bardney. 716
Kingdom of Kent
450 - 871
421
590 - 616 26 Æðelberht 1 no genuine charters 1st Christian King of Kent
616 - 20 4 640 Eadbald ^ Æðelberht Iunknown
620 - 40 20 Æðelwald
640 - 64 24 Eorcenberht no chartersson of Eadbaldunknown Eormenred Irminredus brother of Eorcenberht
664 - 74 9 Ecgberht 1 son of Eorcenberht
674 - 685 11 Hlothhere
^ Eorcenberht I w/ Eadric
685 - 6 1 Eadric Eadricus rex Cantuariorum Ædricus rex Edricusson of Ecgberht 1; reigning jointly with Hlothhere killed 687
686
- 8
2 Mul Mulo rege regnum Cantie brother of Cædwalla, King of Wessex acceded still reigning 692 Swæfheard Suebhardus rex Cantuariorum Sueaberdus rex Cantie son of Sæberht, King of Essex, reigning jointly in Kent with Oswine & Withred 689 Swæfberht Gabertus Suebertus rex Cantuariorum jointly with Oswine
688 - 90 1 Oswine Oswynus rex Cantie Oswinus rex Cantuariorum jointly with Swæfberht & Swæfheardacceded
690 - 2 1 Wihtred Wihtredus died 725 rex Cantie Wythredus rex Cantuariorum Wihtredus rex Cantuariorum son of Ecgberht 1; reigned jointly with Swæfheardsucceeded
692 - 725 33 Ælfric no charters ^ succeeded jointly with his brothers Æðelberht 2 & Eadberht 1
Kingdom of East Anglia
550 - 917 417
599 - 624 25 Rædwald Bretwalda in AngloSaxon Chronicles
600s Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia (modern England).
617 - 8 1 Eni
624 - 7 3 Eorpwald Murdered by Ricberht.
627 - 9 2 Ricberht
629 - 34 5 Sigeberht abdicated; Slain in battle; Saint Sigeberht.
Son or Stepson of Rædwald
? - 743 Withburga Princess
629 - 36 7 Ecgric Slain in battle; kinsman of Sigeberht
son of Rædwald or Eni.
636 - 54 18 Anna Slain in battle 654 5 1 Æthelhere
654 - 64 10 Æthelwold
664 - 713 49 Ealdwulf
Kingdom of Bernicia
500 - 654
154
593 - 616 23 Æthelfrith Killed in battle

Deira
616 - 32 16 Edwin Killed in battle by Penda, King of Mercia

Bernicia
632 - 3 1 Eanfrith
634 - 42 8 Oswald Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
642 - 654 12 Oswiu Became King of united Northumbria

639 SuttonHoo shipburial Swedish Origen
616 Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Welsh in a battle at Chester.
Kingdom of Northumbria
653 - 954
301
653 - 70 16 Oswiu
670 - 85 15 Ecgfrith Killed in battle against Picts
685 - 704 19 Aldfrith (Ealdfrith, Aldfrid)
600s Hereswitha Northumbria
Kingdom of Deira
559 - 679
120
Bernician Dynasty
604 - 16 12 Æthelfrith Killed in battle

Deira House
616 - 33 17 Edwin Killed in battle by Cadwallon of Gwynedd & Penda of Mercia; Saint Edwin
633 - 634 1 Osric
633 - 42 9 Oswald Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
642 - 44 2 Oswiu
644 - 51 7 Oswine Murdered
651 - 4 3 Æthelwold
654 - 70 16 Oswiu Restored
656 - 64 8 Alchfrith
670 - 9 9 Ælfwine

Lindsey
440s - 890s
450
Winta from Winteringham
Cretta
Cuelgils
659 Penda last heathen king of England, dies in battle.
571 Battle of Bedford Cuthwulf Invaded Midland Britain & conquered Britons in 571 at the(see also Bedford Castle & Bedford), probably under King Cadrod of Calchfynedd. Probably an associate of Ceawlin.
600s Taliesin Welsh poet
600s Earliest attested English poetry
614 - 80 66 Hilda of Whitby Abbess, Saint
672 - 735 63 Bede Venerable Monk, Scholar
600 Sutton Hoo Burial Mound cleaned
600 Sutton Hoo Helmet
Picts
Later historical kings
693 - 839 146
696 - 706 10 Bridei ^DerIlei ^DerIlei & Dargart mac Finnguine of Cenél Comgaill
706 - 24 18 Nechtan < Abdicated Adopted Roman dating of Easter 712 founder of churches & monasteries
724 - 9 5 Drest X ^< Imprisoned Nechtan
728 Alpín ^Crup Deposed
728 - 9 1 Nechtan 2X
732 - 61 29 Onuist ^Fergus of Eóganachta
732 - 9 7 Talorgan ^Drostan *Atholl sub* executed by drowning
739 - 50 11 Talorgan X ^Fergus Xbattle against Britons of Alt Clut
750 - 63 13 Bridei ^Fergus <Onuist *Fortiu
763 - 75 12 Ciniod ^Uuredach ^^Selbach mac Ferchair Granted asylum to deposed King Alhred of Northumbria
775 - 80 5 Alpín ^Uuroid
780 - 2 2 Talorgan ^Onuist
780 - 2 2 Dubhtolargg * Cismontane Picts
782 - 7 5 Drest ^Talorgan
787 - 9 2 Conall deposed ^Tarla X807

Kingdom of Wessex
519 - 927
408
Kingdom of Essex
527 812 285
694 - 709 15 Sigeheard
995 - 709 14 Swaefred
709 Offa
709 - 46 37 Saelred
715 - 38 23 Swaefbert
746 - 58 12 Svvithred
758 - 98 40 Sigeric Abdicated
Kingdom of Sussex
477 - 772
275
Subject to Wessex
686
- 726
40
Kingdom of Mercia
527 - 919
392
704 - 9 5 Cœnred ^Wulfhere. Abdicated & retired to Rome
709
- 16
7 Ceolred Son of Æthelred I. poisoned
716
Ceolwald son of Æthelred I
716 - 57 41 Æthelbald ^^ Eowa. Proclaimed himself King of Britain in 736. Murdered by bodyguards
757
Beornred No known relation to predecessors. Deposed by Offa. burnt to death in 769 in Northumbria
757
- 96
39 Offa Greatgreatgrandson of Eowa. Greatest Mercian king proclaimed himself King of English in 774, built Offas Dyke, & introduced silver penny
Mercia House
774 - 796 22 Offa 747 796 58
787 - 96 9 Ecgfrith ^ Offa. Coruler
Kingdom of Kent
450 - 871
421
725 - 48 23 Eadberht 1 son of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Æðelberht 2 & Ælfric
Mercian Domination
748 - 871
123
725 - 62 37 Æðelberht 2 son of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Eadberht I & Ælfric, & nephew Eardwulfunknown Eardwulf Earduulfus rex Cantuariorum Eardulfus rex Cantiaeson of Eadberht 1; reigned jointly with Æðelberht 2; contemporary with Archbishop Cuðbert 740 760
762 Eadberht 2 jointly with Sigered
762 Sigered jointly with Eadberht II unknown
762
- 4
2 Eanmund contemporary with Archbishop Bregowine
764 - 5 1 Heaberht jointly with Ecgberht 2
765 - 79 14 Ecgberht 2 jointly with Heaberht
779 - 84 5 Ealhmund father of Ecgberht 3 Under direct rule of Osfrith of Mercia deposed
784 - 96 12 Osfrith of Mercia directly controls
796 - 8 2 Eadberht 3 Præn no charters; coins: EADBEARHT REX Deposed & mutilated by Cœnwulf
798 - 809 11 Cuðred brother of Cœnwulf & Ceolwulf d 807
Kingdom of East Anglia
550 - 917 417
713 - 49 36 Ælfwald
749 Hun
749 - 60 11 Beorna
749 - 60 11 Alberht Æthelberht 1
760 - 79 19 Æthelred 1
779 - 94 15 Æthelberht 2 Saint Æthelbert.
Executed at command of Offa 760 - 96 36 Offa
East Anglian
794 - 6 2
794 - 6 2 Eadwald
Kingdom of Dumnonia
290 - 800
510
Kings from AngloSaxon sources
700 - 10 10 Geraint
Cornish
710
By end of 8th century, Dumnonia was much reduced in size by aggressive advance of West Saxons & remaining territory became rump state of Kingdom of Cornwall. generally accepted date for this transition is around 800. Subsequent possible rulers also appear in Book of Baglan
710 - 5 5 Ithel Eiddyn ap Donyarth Ithel Rock
730s Dyfnwal Boifunall ap Ithel Dyfnwal of Boifunall
750s Cawrdolli ap Dyfnwal
770s Oswallt ap Cawrdolli
790s Hernam ap Oswallt
Kingdom of Northumbria
654 - 878
24
704 - 5 1 Eadwulf Usurper
705 - 16 11 Osred 1 Killed in battle or murdered
716 - 18 2 Coenred
718 - 29 11 Osric Adopted Ceolwulf as his heir
729 - 31 2 Ceolwulf Deposed; Saint Ceolwulf
731 - 7 6 Ceolwulf Restored; abdicated to become a monk
737 - 58 21 Eadberht Abdicated to become a monk
758 - 9 1 Oswulf Murdered by his servants
759 - 65 6 Æthelwald Deposed
765 - 74 9 Alhred Deposed & exiled
774 - 9 5 Æthelred 1 Deposed
779 - 88 9 Ælfwald 1 Murdered
788 - 90 2 Osred 2 Deposed & exiled
790 - 6 6 Æthelred 1 Restored
796
Osbald Exiled after a reign of 27 days
796 - 806 10 EardwulfDeposed
Kingdom of Lindsey
440s - 890s
450
? Caedbaed
? Bubba
? Beda
? Biscop
700s Alcuin, English monk, deacon, scholar, & teacher; Charlemagnes advisor in educational affairs
793 very first Viking raid is carried out on abbey of Lindisfarne in northern England.

Picts
Later historical kings
693 - 839 146
789 - 820 31 Caustantín ^Fergus ^^Onuist ^Fergus mac Echdach Father of Domnal *Dál Riata
820 - 34 14 Óengus <
834 Drest ^<
834 - 9 5 Eógan ^Óengus Xbattle against Vikings; led to a decade of conflict

Kings of Picts
839 - 48 9 (not successively)
deaths of Eógan & Bran appears to have led to a large number of competitors for throne of Pictland.
839 - 42 3 Uurad ^Bargoit
842 - 3 1 Bridei ^
843 - 4 1 Ciniod <
844 - 6 2 Bridei ^Uuthoil
846 - 9 3 Drest <Ciniod In myth of MacAlpins Treason
849 - 58 9 Cináed MacAlpine of Cenél n Gabráin of Dál Riata

Kings of Picts traditionally counted as King of Scots
858 - 900 42
Cináed mac Ailpín defeated rival kings, winning out by around 845–848. He is traditionally considered first "King of Scots", or of "Picts & Scots", allegedly having conquered Picts as a Gael, which is turning history back to front, as most modern scholars point out, he was actually King of Picts, & terms King of Alba & even later King Scots were not used until several generations after him.
858 Cináed MacAlpine of Cenél nGabráin of Dál Riata
862 Domnall <
877 Causantín ^<
878 Áed <
889 Giric ^^Cináed Deposed

843 - 58 15 Kenneth 1 of Scotland king of picts
Kingdom of Wessex
519 - 927
408
802 - 39 37 Egbert
839 - 56
17 Æthelwulf
856 - 60
4 Æthelbald
860 - 5
5 Æthelbert
865 - 71
6 Æthelred
871 - 99
28 Alfred (the Great) only English monarch to be given nickname "The Great". First King of united Anglo Saxons
Alfred Great 1969
King Arthur
King Arthur 2004
Camelot 1967
Knights of Round Table 1953
Sword of Lancelot 1963
Excalibur 1981
First Knight 1995
Arthur King 1985
World of Lancelot 1963
878 Battle of Ethandun results in victory of Alfred Great over Danish warlord Guthrum & forces Viking forces to accept Christianity in return for English for settlement. Harald Harfagra completes his conquest & unification of Norway & Orkney Islands, many Norwegians flee to Iceland..
Kingdom of Essex
527 - 812 285
798 - 812 14 Sigered
812 - 25 13 Sigered Rank reduced Wessex, Essex subsumed into Wessex
Kingdom of Mercia
527 - 919
392
796 - 821 25 Cœnwulf Seventh generation descendant of Pybba, probably through a sister of Penda. Assumed title of emperor.821
798
- 812
14 Cynehelm ^ Coruler. murdered, later canonised (St Kenelm).812
821
- 3
2 Ceolwulf 1 Brother of Cœnwulf. Deposed by Beornwulf.?
823 - 6 3 Beornwulf Conjectured kinsman of Beornred. Killed in battle against East Anglians.826
826
- 7
1 Ludeca No known relation to his predecessors. Killed in battle against East Anglians.827
827
- 9
2 Wiglaf (1st reign) No known relation to his predecessors. Deposed by Ecgberht of Wessex.839
Wessex Domination
829 - 830
1
829 - 30 1 Ecgberht of Wessex Briefly took direct control of Mercia after deposition of Wiglaf. Also King of Wessex 802 839 839
Mercia 3
830 - 919
89
830 - 9 9 Wiglaf (2nd reign) Restored. Although Mercia regained its independence, its dominance in England was lost. 839
839 - 40 1 Wigmund ^ & soninlaw of Ceolwulf I. Probably coruler 840
840
Wigstan Son of Wigmund. Declined kingship & was later murdered by Beorhtwulf. Canonised (St Wystan). 849
Ælfflæd (Queen) 840 Daughter of Ceolwulf I, wife of Wigmund & mother of Wigstan. Appointed regent by Wigstan.?
840
- 52
12 Beorhtwulf Claimed to be a cousin of Wigstan. Usurped kingship & forced Ælfflæd to marry his son, Beorhtfrith. 852
852
- 74
22 Burgred Conjectured kinsman of Beorhtwulf. Fled to Rome in face of a Danish invasion.?
874
- 83
9 Ceolwulf 2 Possibly a son or grandson of Wigmund & Ælfflæd. Set up by Danes as a puppet ruler in western Mercia 883
883
- 911
28 Æthelred 2 Recognised Alfred of Wessex as his overlord. Sometimes listed as ealdorman rather than king. 911
Kingdom of Kent
450 - 871
421
809 - 21 12 Cœnwulf Ceonulfus Christi gracia rex Merciorum atque provincie Cancie brother of Cuðred & Ceolwulf; also King of Mercia 796 821
821 - 5 4 Ceolwulf Ceolwulf rex Merciorum vel etiam Contwariorum Ceolwulf rex Merciorum seu etiam Cantwariorum brother of Cuðred & Cœnwulf; also King of Mercia 821 823 deposed in 825
825
Baldred no charters; coins: BALDRED REX CANT expelled by Æðelwulf in 825
825 - 39 14 Ecgberht 3 Ecgberht rex occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorum son of Ealhmund; reigned in Kent jointly with his son Æðelwulf; also King of Wessex 802 839
825 - 58 33 Æðelwulf Aetheluulf rex
jointly with his father Ecgberht 3 & son Æðelstan; also King of Wessex 839 856
839 - 51 12 Æðelstan 1 Edelstan rex Kancie jointly with his father Æðelwulf
855 - 66 11 Æðelberht 3 Aeðelberht rex jointly with his father Æðelwulf; also King of Wessex 860 866
866 - 71 5 Æðelred I Eðelred rex occidentalium Saxonum . non et Cantwariorum Aeðered rex Occidentalium Saxonum necnon et Cantuariorum son of Æðelwulf King of Wessex Incorporated into Wessex
Kingdom of East Anglia
550 - 917 417
796 - 821 25 Coenwulf
821 - 3 2 Ceolwulf
823 - 6 3 Beornwulf

East Anglia
827 - 45 18 Æthelstan
845 - 55 10 Æthelweard
855 - 70 15 Eadmund Martyred; Saint Edmund.
Rex Anglorum coin
Subkings under Norse Suzerainty
870 - 6 6 Oswald
876 - 9 3 Æthelred 2 Replaced by Alfred Great of Wessex in 879
879 - 90 11 Guthrum Old Norse ruler took name Æthelstan at baptism
890 - 902 12 Eohric Killed in battle
Kingdom of Powys
420 - 1160
750
Gwerthrynion
808 - 54 46 Cyngen ap Cadell Throne usurped by Gwynedd & exiled to Rome where family endured
Manaw
854 - 78 24 Rhodri Mawrof Gwynedd, inheriting through his mother
878 - 900 22 Merfyn ap Rhodri
Kingdom of Lindsey
440s - 890s
450
Eanferð
Eatta
Aldfrið
Kingdom of Northumbria
654 - 867
213
806 - 8 2 Elfwald 2
808 - 10 2 Eardwulf Restored
810 - 41 31 Eanred
841 - 4 3 Æthelred 2 Deposed
844
Redwulf Usurper
844 - 8 4 Æthelred 2 Restored
848 - 62 14 Osbert Deposed
862 - 7 5 Ælle Usurper; Killed by Danes with Osbeorht
867 Osbert Killed by Danes with usurper Aelle conquered by York.
Kingdom of York
876 954
78
England
867 - 72 5 Ecgberht 1 Puppet king of Danes
872 - 6 4 Ricsige
876 - 8 2 Ecgberht 2
878 - 95 17 Guðroðr
late 9th century/early 10th century
895 - 900 Sigfroðr & Knútr 5
835 Danish raiders ally with Cornish against rule of King Ecgbehrt of Wessex.
Scotland 1
843 - 1707
864
Alpin 848 - 1034 195
843 - 58 15 Kenneth 1 (Coinneach mac Ailpein) Cináed mac Ailpín Ciniod m. Ailpinson of Alpin king of Dal Riata Rex Pictorum ("King of Picts") An Ferbasach, "The Conqueror"
858 - 62 4 Donald 1 Dòmhnall mac Ailpein Domnall mac Ailpínson of Alpin king of Dal Riata, & brother of Kenneth 1 Rex Pictorum
862 - 77 15 Constantine 1 (Còiseam mac Choinnich) Causantín mac CináedaSon of Kenneth 1 Rex Pictorum ("King of Picts")
877 - 8 1 Aed An FinnShoichleach, "The WineBountiful" Áed (Aodh mac Choinnich) Áed mac CináedaSon of Kenneth 1 Rex Pictorum ("King of Picts")
878 - 89 11 Giric (Griogair mac Dhunghail) Giric mac DúngailSon of Donald I Mac Rath,
"Son of Fortune" Eochaid grandson of Kenneth 1
889 - 900 11 Donald 2 Son of Constantine 1 Rí Alban ("King of Scotland")
Rì nan Albannaich "King of Scots" "Madman"
Kingdom of Fortriu
843 - 1300
457
C Scotland Moray & Eastern Ross Pictish Kingdom. No * List
851 First Norse raid on Wales recorded in Welsh chronicles Annales Cambriae, Brut y Tywysogion & Brut y Saeson stating that a certain Cyngen or Cinnen died on swords of "the Heathen".
800s - 900s 100 Hop (plant) first mentioned in connection with beer brewing
8 - 1900s 1100s Newport Cathedral
Picts
Kings of Picts traditionally counted as King of Scots
900 Domnall ^Causantin

Kings of Alba

943 Causantín Abdicated X952 ^Áed 1st *Alba

Kingdom of Wessex
519 - 927 408
899 - 924 25 Edward (the Elder)
924Ælfweard Second son of Edward Elder.
925 - 39 14 Athelstan glorius first King of England.
Kingdom of England 1
927 - 1649
724
Wessex Cerdicing
927 - 1015 87
925 - 39 14 Athelstan glorius
939 - 46 7 Edmund Magnificent 921 - 946 25 son of Edward Elder & Eadgifu of Kent three children
946 - 55 11 Eadred (Eadred) 923 son of Edward Elder & Eadgifu of Kentunmarried 955 Frome aged about 32
955 - 9 4
Eadwig (Eadwig) 24 November 940
son of Edmund Magnificent & Ælfgifu Ælfgifu 1 October 959
aged about 19
959 - 75 16 Edgar Peaceable 943 975 32 ^ Edmund Magnificent & Elgiva
975 - 8 3
Saint Edward Martyr 962 978 16 assassinated ^ Edgar Peaceable & Æthelflæd unmarried
978 - 1013 35
Æthelred Unready (first reign) 968 991 48 son of Edgar Peaceable & Ælfthryth of Northumbria
Kingdom of Mercia
527 - 919
392
911 - 18 7 Æthelflæd (Lady) Wife of Æthelred II, daughter of Alfred of Wessex & niece of Burgred. Reconquered eastern Mercia 918
918 - 9 1 Ælfwynn
(Lady) Daughter of Æthelred II & Æthelflæd. Deposed by her uncle, Edward Elder 918 who annexed Mercia to Wessex, creating Kingdom of England.
Titular kings following Mercias annexation
924 Æthelstan Son of Edward Elder & nephew of Æthelflæd. Became King of Mercia on Edwards death (Jul 924), & King of Wessex about 16 days later.27 Oct 939
957 - 9 2 Eadgar
Nephew of Æthelstan. Seized control of Mercia & Northumbria in May 957, before succeeding to reunited English throne in Oct 959.8 Jul 975
Ealdormen & Earls of Mercians
957
chief magnate of Mercia as an English province held title of ealdorman until 1023/32, & earl thereafter. Both offices were royal appointments, but latter in effect became hereditary. Ealdormen of Mercians (nondynastic)
Earls of Mercians (descendants of Leofwine)
957 - 83 26 Ælfhere Appointed ealdorman, or prince of Mercians in 957 by Eadgar, when English kingdom was disunited.983
983 - 5 2 Ælfric Cild
Brotherinlaw of Ælfhere. Deposed by Æthelred Unready in 985. Killed in battle against Danes in 1016.
985 - 1004 19 Wulfric Spot
Possibly ealdorman, or count of Mercians after deposition of Ælfric Cild.
East Anglia
550 - 917
417
902 Æthelwold of Wessex Killed in battle
902 - 916 14 Guthrum 2 Killed in battle 916. Conquered by Wessex. subsequent rulers downgraded to Earl of East Anglia.
Kingdom of York
876 - 954
78
900 - 2 2 Æthelwold d 910
902 - 13 11 Hálfdan & Eowils ^ brother
913 - 18 5 Eadwulf 2
ruled territory in north, from Bamburgh, until 927
918 - 21 3 Ragnall ua Ímair
921 - 7 6 Sigtrygg Caech
927 - 39 12 Æthelstan of Wessex
939 - 41 2 Amlaíb mac Gofraid
941 - 3 2 Amlaíb Cuarán
943 - 4 1 Ragnall mac Gofraid
944 - 6 2 Eadmund of Wessex
947 - 8 1 Eric
949 - 52 3 Amlaíb Cuarán (again)
952 - 4 2 Eric (again) from
954 Eadred of Wessex
954 Absorbed into England
Kingdom of Powys
420 1160 750
Kingdom of Alba
900 - 1286
386
Scotland
Kingdom of Strathclyde
900 - 1100
200
North England
900s Reindeer become extinct in Scotland
King Edmund 1 of England (lived 921 - 46, reigned 939946)

500 - 30 30 Lives of historical antecedents of Beowulf king of Geats, Hrothgar, Hrolf Kraki.
500 - 50 50? Hrodgar legendary Danish king depicted in Beowulf
 
772 - 804 32 Saxon Wars
793 - 1066 273 Viking raids across Europe
793 Norse searaiders sack AngloCeltic monastary at Lindisfarne.
795 Norse raids on Ireland begin.
Kingdom of Denmark
710 Present - 1301
591
737 - 1160 423 Building of Danevirke
794 Denmark emerged under Sigurd.
772 - 804 32 Saxon Wars
793 - 1066 73 Viking raids across Europe
793 Norse searaiders sack AngloCeltic monastary at Lindisfarne.
795 Norse raids on Ireland begin.

800 10 10 Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark.
890s Reign of King Helgi of Denmark, followed by Swedish rule of Denmark under King Olaf Swede.
853 - 73 Reign of King Rorik of Denmark.
800 Elder Futhark is replaced by Younger or SixteenRune Futhark.
873 - 91 18 Kings Sigfred & Halfdan are corulers of Denmark.
810 - 27 17 Reign of King Harald Klak of Denmark.
827 - 53 26 Reign of King Horik Godfredsson of Denmark.
800 Elder Futhark is replaced by Younger or SixteenRune Futhark.
800 - 10 10 Reign of King Godfrid of Denmark.
800s Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in 8th century.
Kingdom of Denmark
710 Present - 1301
591
Swedish House
950 - 83 33 Reign of King Haraldr Bluetooth of Denmark, Denmark adopts Christianity.
982 Eirikr inn Rauda (Eric Red) of Norway discovers Greenland.
983 Start of reign of King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark.
986 Settlement of Greenland.
935 - 50 15 Reign of King Gorm Old of Denmark.

970 - 1020 50 Leif Eiriksson Norwegian explorer, son of Erik Red, made first European attempt to settle in America.
1000 Olav Tryggvason becomes first king to try to Christianize Norway, dies at Battle of Svolder in.
630 Olaf became King of Norway.
700 Primitive Norse (or Runic Norse) gives way to Old Norse.
800s Oseberg, Norway ship burial.
793 - 1066 273 Viking Age
Vikings
Vikings 1958
Norseman 1978
Viking Sagas 1995
Vikings go to Russia
Thirteenth Warrior 1999
Kingdom of Norway
862 - Present 1149
Fairhair
862 - 970 108
862 - 940 75 Harald 1 Harfagra
872 Battle of Hafrsfjord Harald Fairhair was victorious at the, & Norway was unified into one kingdom. united Norway in 872 & remained its ruler until 933. One of most powerful lords of Europe at time.
840 - 70 30 Halfdan Black
834 Oseberg ship
890 Gokstad ship
947 Start of reign of King Olafr Tryggvasson of Norway, Norway adopts Christianity.
Kingdom of Norway
862 - Present 1149
930 - 4 4 Eirik Bloodaxe
934 - 61 27 Haakon 1 Good
961 - 70 9 Harald 2
Jarls
970 - 95 25
970 - 95 25 Earl Haakon
982 Eric Red 950 - 1003 53 discovers Greenland.
Fairhair
995 - 1000
5
995 - 1000 5 Olaf 1
999 Viking Civil War
900s Austrått Castle
900 Tune ship
500s Gråborg Fort
550 - 793 243 Valsgärde Burial
600s VendelHelmet from a Vendel era
7900s Birka
790 Sweden emerged under Ragnor Lodbrog.
852 Swedish Rus become dominant among Volga.
 
       
922 IbnFadlan, an Arab ambassador to Scandinavian Rus along Volga, writes his account of their customs, including a full description of a ship/cremation funeral.