500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
   
Córdoba Caliphate 756 - 1031 275
   
Kingdom of Castile 850 - 1230 380
   
Galicia 2 Kgdm
   
Kingdom of León
 
Kingdom of Asturias 718 - 925 207
 
   
Age of Roman Catholic Religious Omnipower 755 - 1529 774
 
A
C
A
A
A
A
R
R
A
P&
Lombard Kingdom 568 - 774 206
 
 
Venetian Empire 800s - 1797 1000ish
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1st Kingdom of Galicia
410 - 584
174
Dark Period
469 - 550
81
Final Suevic Period
550 - 85 35
500s São Jorge Castle

 



1st Kingdom of Galicia
410 - 584
174
Visigothic Kings of Galicia, Hispania and Septimania
Despite fact that Visigothic kings attained control of region in 585. Galicia continued under a different development than other Visigothic kingdoms of Iberian Peninsula. Thus, even then, Visigothic kingdoms of Hispania contained three fully distinct cultural regions.
585 - 6 1 Liuvigild
586 - 601 15 Reccared 1
601 - 3 2 Liuva 2
603 - 10 7 Witteric
610 - 2 2 Gundemar
612 - 21 9 Sisebut
621 Reccared 2
621 - 31 10 Suintila
631 - 6 5 Sisenand
636 - 40 4 Chintila
640 - 1 1 Tulga
641 - 53 12 Chindasuinth
649 - 72 23 Reccesuinth
672 - 80 8 Wamba
680 - 7 7 Erwig
687 - 702 15 Egica, He ruled no more Galicia in 702, securing his son Wittiza as his heir.
Galicia 1
410 - 584 174
Visigothic Kings of Galicia, Hispania and Septimania
702 - 10 8 Wittiza, king of Galicia between 648 and 710 (coruling with his father until 702), also king of Septimania and Hispania
710 - 2 2 Roderic
Kings with capital in Cangas de Onís
718 - 37 19 Pelagius He ruled only east of Asturias, socalled regnum asturorum.
737 - 9 2 Favila Brief lord of same territory.
739 - 57 18 Alfonso Extent of his dominions unknown.
757 - 68 11 Fruela 1
"Usurper" Kings
768 - 91 23
768 - 74 6 Aurelius
774 - 83 9 Silo
783 - 8 5 Mauregatus
788 - 91 3 Bermudo 1

 


Galicia 1
409 - 910
501
Asturian kings with capital in Oviedo
791 - 842 51 Alfonso 2
842 Nepotian
842 - 50 8 Ramiro 1
850 - 66 16 Ordoño 1
866 - 910 44 Afonso 3 Great Refounded kingdom of Galicia.
After him Galicia is subsumed into Leon.

 

900s Moor Castle
900s Guimarães Castle

 

 

589 3rd Council of Toledo adds "filioque" clause to Nicene Creed in Spain.
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
718 - 37 19 Pelagius Pelayo Founded kingdom through Battle of Covadonga and made his capital at Cangas de Onís
737 - 9 2 Favila Favilac, Fafila
739 - 57 18 Alfonso 1 Catholic He and his descendants formed Beni Alfons dynasty.
757 - 68 11 Fruela 1 CruelFroila
768 - 74 6 Aurelius Aurelio
774 - 83 9 Silo Succeeded through his wife, Adosinda, daughter of Alfonso 1. Moved capital to Pravia.
783 - 8 5 Mauregatus Usurper Mauregato Illegitimate son of Alfonso I who usurped throne.
788 - 91 3 Bermudo 1 Deacon, MonkVeremund, VermudoRetired to become a monk.
Visigothic Kingdom
418 721
303
Elective Non Balti 531 721 190
694 710 16 Wittiza son, initially coking or subking in Gallaecia
710 1 1 Roderic only in Lusitania and Carthaginiensis
711 4 3 Agila 2 only in Tarraconensis and Narbonensis
712 Oppas perhaps in opposition to Roderic and Agila 2
714 21 7 Ardo only in Narbonensis
Umayyad Dynasty
756 - 1031 275
705 - 15 10 AlWalid 1
711 - 8 7 Islamic conquest of Hispania Tariq ibnZiyad crosses Straits of Gibraltar. With creation of AlAndalus, most of Iberian peninsula is conquered by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending Visigothic rule, and starting almost eight centuries of Muslim presence there.
714 Mahometan Spain emerged under Emirs
715 - 7 2 Sulayman
717 - 20 3 Umar 2 Sometimes considered, honorifically as fifth of Rashidun
718 - 1492 774 Spanish Reconquista
720 - 4 4 Yazid 2
724 - 43
18 Hisham
732 Battle of Tours Charles Martel defeated Saracens and saved Europe from Asiatic civilization.
743 - 4 1 AlWalid 2
744
Yazid 3
744
Ibrahim
744 - 50
6

Marwan 2
750 Defeat and massacre of Umayyads; only survivor flees to Spain where he establishes Umayyad principality
Emirs of Córdoba
756 - 929
173
756 - 88 32 Abd arRahman 1
788 - 96 8 Hisham 1
796 - 822
26 alHakam 1
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925 207
North Spain
700s Gallifa Castle
700s Saint Catalinas Castle
756 Gormaz Castle
785 Calatrava la Vieja Castle
784 - 987 Córdoba Cathedral - Mosque
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
791 - 842 51 Alfonso 2 Chaste Moved capital to Oviedo
842 Nepotian Nepociano Elected king, though unrelated to Beni Alfonso.
842 - 50 8 Ramiro 1 Deposed Nepotian.
850 - 66 16 Ordoño 1 During reign of Ordoño 1, kingdom of Asturias progressively came to be known as Kingdom of León. kingdom was split in 910 and Fruela received Asturias. For later kings, see list of Leonese monarchs and list of Galician monarchs.
866 - 910 44 Alfonso 3 Great Kingdom divided between his three sons: García I received León, Ordoño 2 Galicia, and Fruela II Asturias.
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976
Pamplona
824 - 51 27
Íñiguez 824 - 905 81
824 - 51 27 Íñigo Arista 4 ch
851 - 82 31 García Íñiguez ^ 5 ch
882 - 905 23 Fortún Garcés ^ = Oria 5 ch deposed
Kingdom of Castile
850 - 1230 380
Spain
844 - 5 1 Norse raids on Moorish Spain begin.
800s Santa Bárbara Castle
800s Requesens Castle
800s Sobroso Castle
800s Torre de la Plata Castle
886 Cardona Castle
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
910 - 25 15 Fruela 2 Froila After his death, Asturias was seized by Alfonso 4 of León, while Alfonso Fróilaz ineffectually claimed it.
Kingdom of León
910 - 1230 320
Portugal
910 - 24 14 Ordoño 2 of León From 910 he governed Galician territory in social position of dominus.
924 - 5 1 Fruela 2 younger brother of Ordoño 2
925 - 6 1 Alfonso Fróilaz son of Fruela 2
926 - 9 3 Sancho 1 Ordóñez firstborn of Ordoño 2
929 - 31 2 Alfonso 4 Monk
931 - 51 20 Ramiro 2
951 - 6 5 Ordoño 3
956 - 8 2 Sancho 1 called "the Fat"
958 - 60 2 Ordoño 4 called "the Wicked" or "the Bad"
960 - 6 6 Sancho 1 restored
966 - 82 6 Ramiro 3 Galicia once again became separate from León during his reign, which lasted until 984 in León.
982 - 99 17 Bermudo 2 Becomes king of León in 984.
Caliphate of Córdoba
929 - 1031 102

912 - 929 17 AbdarRahman 3 (Declared himself Caliph)
929 - 961 32 AbdarRahman 3
961 - 976 15 AlHakam 2
976 - 1009 33 Hisham 2 alHakam

Galicia 2
910 - 1833 923
(Suebic Kingdom of Galicia) Portugal
Kingdom of León
910 - 1230 320
Spain
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976

Jiméne
905 - 1234 329
905 - 25 20 Sancho 1 Garcés = Toda 6 ch
925 - 31 6 Jimeno Garcés < Sancha 3 ch
931 - 70 39 García Sánchez 1 ^ Sancho 1 Garces da 51
970 - 94 24 Sancho 2 Garcés Abarca ^ 4 ch
994 - 1004 10 García Sánchez 2 ^ 4 ch
Kingdom of Viguera
970 - 1005 35
Pamplona
970 - ? Ramiro Garcés
? Sancho 2
? García Ramírez
931 - 70 39 Count of Castille
El valle de las espadas (Castilian) 1963
900 - 1100 200 Zamora Castle Spain
900s Molina Castle Aragón
900s Peracense Castle
900s Xabier Castle
900s Monzón Castle
982 Besora Castle
995 Alcazaba Castle Almería
Ostrogothic Kingdom
493 - 553
60
493 - 526 33 Theodoric Great
Later a prominent hero in Germanic tales, rules in Rome until his death.
510s Basilica of SantApollinare in Classes apses mosaic is completed. Ravennna
510s Cassiodorus founds a cenobitic monastery at Vivarium
524 Consolation of Philosophy By Boethius 480 525 45 Roman philosopher and theologian
529 Saint Benedict of Nursia founds monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy.
526 - 34 8 Athalaric
534 - 6 2 Theodahad
535 - 54 19 Gothic War
536 - 40 4 Witiges
540 - 1 1 Ildibad
541 Eraric
541 - 52 11 Totila
480 - 547 67 Benedict of Nursia Umbrian founder of Western Monasticism
552 - 3 1 Teia
553 Battle of Mons Lactarius
554 reunification of all Italy under Byzantine rule Eviction of Ostrogoths from Rome
Lumbard Tribe
300 - 568
260s
500 - 10 10 Tato his son Ildichus died in exile
510 - 39 29 Wacho ^Unichus
539 - 46 7 Waltari
546 - 65 19 Audoin led Lombards into Pannonia
Kingdom of Lombards
568 - 814
246
568 Lombards invade Italy and establish a federation of dukedoms under a king. Lombards (of Vandal origin, from north), under Alboin, took over Ostrogothic monarchy of Italy. Ostrogothic nation disappeared from history.
565 - 72 7 Alboin
1st
572 - 4
2
572 - 4 2 Cleph
Rule of Dukes
574 - 84
10
2nd
584 - 616
32
584 - 90 6 Authari ^
485 - 585 100 Cassiodorus Roman senator and scholar
533 - 4 1 Vandalic War in North Africa
534 - 47 13 Wars against Moors in North Africa
500s - 1300s Trieste Cathedral
500s - 1682 Trento Cathedral
600s Side panels, Basilica of SantApollinare in Classe, Ravenna
600s - 800s 200 Mosaics above apse, Basilica of Sant Apollinare in Classe
540 - 609 69 Venantius Fortunatus Venetian poet, traveler, bishop of Poitiers (c.599600/9)
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100
Venice

697 - 717 20 Paolo Lucio Anafesto
6 - 1300s Andria Cathedral
603 - 1606 Duomo of Monza Cathedral
689 - 1300s Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral
600s - 1500s San Pietro di Castello Cathedral
Kingdom of Lombards
568 814
246
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

697 - 717 20 Paolo Lucio Anafesto
717 - 726 9 Marcello Tegalliano
726 - 37 11 Orso Ipato
737 - 42 5 Dominicus Leono Abrogatis
742 - 55 13 Teodato Ipato
755 - 6 1 Galla Gaulo
756 - 64 8 Domenico Monegario
764 - 87 23 Maurizio Galbaio
787 - 804 17 Giovanni Galbaio
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
781 - 810 29 Pippin
Astolphus, King of Italy, surrendered Exarchate (or Reavenna) to Pepin. He gave it to Stephen 3 who thus obtained civil power. Naples, Sicily and Lower Italy were retained by Eastern Empire.
787 - 802 15 Paulinus 2 of Aquileia Carolingian scholar, poet, patriarch of Aquileia
770 Iron horseshoes came into common use

Kingdom of Lombards
568 - 814
246
774 - 814 40 Charlamagne
800 Charlemagne Crowned Emperor of Rome by Pope Leo 3
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

787 - 804 17 Giovanni Galbaio
804 - 11 7 Obelerio Antenoreo
811 - 27 16 Agnello Participazio
827 - 9 2 Giustiniano Participazio
829 - 37 8 Giovanni I Participazio
837 - 64 27 Pietro Tradonico
864 - 81 17 Orso I Participazio
881 - 7 6 Giovanni II Participazio
887 - 8 1 Pietro I Candiano
888 - 912 24 Pietro Tribuno
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
781 - 810 29 Pippin
810 - 8 8 Bernard
818 - 22 4 Louis 1
822 - 55 33 Lothair 1
844 - 75 31 Louis 2
875 - 7 2 Charles 2 Bald
877 - 9 2 Carloman
879 - 87 8 Charles 3 Fat
Feudal Era
887 - 951
64
888 - 96 8 Berengar 1
vassal of German King Arnulf of Carinthia, reduced to Friuli 889894, deposed by Arnulf in 896.
889 - 94 5 Guy of Spoleto
opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.
891 - 6 5
Lambert of Spoleto
subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894895.
894 - 9 5
Arnulf of Carinthia with Ratold as subking in 96.
896 Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert
896 - 8 2 Lambert of Spoleto
896 - 921 25 Berengar 1
898 Seized Lamberts portion upon his death
827 - 902 75 Arab conquest of Sicily
800s Romance Languages begin to be developed out of Vulgar Latin
889 In Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance Forlì
800 Arab fleet sails up Tiber.
827 - 902 75 Aghlabid dynasty colonises emirates in Sicily and subsequently raids Southern Italy.
813 - 915 103 Period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas.
800s Petroia Castle
800s Cattolica di Stilo Cathedral Calabria
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

888 - 912 24 Pietro Tribuno
912 - 32 20 Pietro II Candiano
932 - 9 7 Pietro Participazio
939 - 42 3 Pietro Participazio
942 - 59 17 Pietro III Candiano
959 - 76 17 Pietro IV Candiano
976 - 8 2 Pietro I Orseolo
978 - 9 1 Vitale Candiano
979 - 91 12 Tribuno Memmo
991 - 1009 18 Pietro II Orseolo
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
Feudal Era
887 - 951
64
896 - 921 25 Berengar 1
900 - 5 5 Louis 3 of Provence
Opposed Berengar 900902 and 905.
922 - 33 11 Rudolph 2 of Burgundy
926 Defeated Berengar but fled Italy
926 - 47 21
Hugh of Arles
925 elected by Berengars partisans.
945 Resigned to Provence
945 - 50 5 Lothair 2
950 - 61 11 Berengar 2 of Ivrea jointly with his son:
950 - 63 13 Adalbert of Ivrea

951 Otto 1 of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned "King of Lombards". In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became in vassals but remained Kings until being deposed by Otto.

Kingdom of Italy within the
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686
Ottonian (Saxon)
962 - 1024
62
962 - 73 11 Otto 1
980 - 3 3 Otto 2
996 - 1002 Otto 3
997 Venice became independent of Eastern Empire and acquired Dalmatian and Istria.
1000 Archangel Michail, icon, is made. It is now kept at Treasury of Cathedral of Saint Mark, Venice.
900s Rivoli Castle
900s Rocca Calascio Castle
940 Canossa Castle
923 - 1505 528 Pistoia Cathedral
Popes
498 - 514 16 Symmachus
514 - 23 9 Hormisdas
523 - 26 3 John 1
525 Anno Domini Calendar Having settled in Rome c. 500, Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus invents thebased on estimated birth year of Jesus Christ
526 - 30 4 Felix 4
530 - 32 2 Boniface 2
533 - 35 2 John 2
535 - 36 1 Agapetus 1
536 - 37 1 Silverius
537 - 55 18 Vigilius
553 5th Council held at Constantinople.
556 - 61 5 Pelagius 1
561 - 74 13 John 3
575 - 79 4 Benedict 1
579 - 90 11 Pelagius 2 dies of plague
590 - 604 14 Gregory 1 #64
590 Roman Catholicism after Constantine; Pope Gregory
596 St. Augustine arrived in England with 40 monks Sent by Gregory Great.

Popes
604 - 606 2 Sabinian
607 1 Boniface 3
606 Boniface elected papal successor on death of Pope Sabinian. He sought and obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter Apostle should be head of all Churches". This ensured that title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to Bishop of Rome.
608 - 15 7 Boniface 4
615 - 8 3 Adeodatus 1
619 - 25 6 Boniface 5
625 - 38 13 Honorius 1
638 - 40 2 Severinus
640 - 2 2 John 4
642 - 9 7 Theodore 1
649 - 55 6 Martin 1
654 - 7 3 Eugene 1
657 - 72 15 Vitalian
672 - 6 4 Adiodatus 2
676 - 8 2 Donus
678 - 81 3 Agatho
680 6th Council at Constantinople
681 - 3 2 Leo 2
684 - 5 1 Benedict 2
685 - 6 1 John 5
686 - 7 1 Conon
687 - 701 14 Sergius 1
Popes
? - 752
?
Papal States
752 1870 1118
752 - 57 5 Stephen 2
Enlisted Frankish aid against Lombards
755 - 1529 774 Papal Rome began. Age of Roman Catholic Religious Omnipower
758 - 68 10 Paul 1
768 - 72 4 Stephen 3
772 - 95 23 Adrian 1
787 7th Council at Nicaea
795 - 815 20 Leo 3
800 Charlemagne Crowned 1st Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas
Papal States
752 - 1870 1118
816 - 17 2 Stephen 4
817 - 24 7 Pascal 1
824 - 27 3 Eugenius
827 - 43 16 Gregory 4
844 - 47 3 Sergius
846 - 52 6 Leo 4
848 - 52 4 west bank of Tiber is annexed into city of Rome. A defensive wall, commissioned by Pope Leo 4, is built around what came to be called Leonine City.
853 - 58 5 Benediot 3
858 - 67 9 Nicholas
863 - 79 16 EastWest Schism
867 - 72 5 Adrian 2
869 - 70 1 8th Council at Constantinople
872 - 82 10 John 8
882 - 85 3 2*
885 - 91 6 Stephen 6
891 - 94 3 Formosus
896 - 905 9 Seven Popes
Papal States
752 - 1870 1118
905 - 10 5 Sergius 3
911 - 14 3 Two Popes 3 years, Anastasius 3 & Lando.
913 - 18 5 John 10
936 - 39 3 Leo 7
939 - 42 3 Stephen 9
942 - 46 4 Marin 2
946 - 5610 Agapetus 2
956 - 64 8 John 12
964 - 72 8 John 13
973 - 83 10 Benedict 7
984 - 86 2 John 14
986 - 96 10 John 16
996 - 99 3 Gregory 5
       
533 Islands restored to Byzantine rule (?)
870 - 1090 220 Arab rule.
550s Knin Castle Croatia
       
500s Dajti Castle Albania
       
       
Kingdom of Croatia
925 - 1097
172
900s medieval Croatian state becomes a unified kingdom under Tomislav
925 Pope John 10 crowned Tomislav, making him Rex Chroatorum King of united Croatia. All Croatian rulers after Tomislav beared title of king.
910 - 28 18 Tomislav Probably son of Muncimir. Croatian state reaches greatest extent, includes Croatia, Slavonia, much of Dalmatia, and Bosnia. Crowned King by Pope John X in 925. After his death civil wars weakened state and some territory, including Bosnia, was lost.
927 CroatianBulgarian War
928 - 35 7 Trpimir 2 Younger brother or son of Tomislav
935 - 45 10 Krešimir 1 ^
945 - 9 4 Miroslav ^
949 - 69 20 Michael Krešimir 2Younger brother of Miroslav. Croatian Kingdom regains previously lost territories, including Bosnia. He ruled together wit his wife Queen Jelena of Zadar.
969 - 97 28 Stephen Držislav ^
969 - 75 6 Jelena of Zadar regent
997 - 1000 3 Svetoslav Suronja ^Stephen Deposed by <
Kingdom of Gepids
400s - 500s
100
Sirmium Including: Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria, Urkaine
535 - 615 80 Justiniana Prima Existed
535 Kalemegdan Belgrade Fortress
610s Serbs enter present territory in six distinct tribal delimitations. 1st Serbian state formed. Unknown Archont led Serbs to Balkans from north
     
500s Skopje Fortress
   
840 - 916 76 Clement of Ohrid Macedonia
 
Byzantine Province of Macedonia
330 - 600s
250s
@ Thessalonica & Stobi
583 MonemvasiaDe wit 1680 monemvasia
Byzantine Province of Macedonia
330 - 600s
250s
@ Thessalonica & Stobi
 
826 - 85 51 Saints Cyril & Methodius of Thessoloniki