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Portugal Country Flag Portugal Spain Country Flag Spain
1st Kingdom of Galicia
410 - 584
174
   
A G T A
Balti 113
T T A A L L H R L W G S R2 S R S I C T C R W E E W R A A
Elective Non Balti
531 - 721
190
Visigothic Kingdom 418 - 721 303
 
 
Kingdom of Lombards 568 - 814 246
 
 
                           
Kingdom of Asturias 718 - 925 207
 
Viguera
970 -
 
                   
Umayyad Dynasty 756 - 1031 275
   
Íñigo García Fortún
Íñiguez
824 - 905
81
S1 J GS1 S2 gs2
Jiméne
905 - 1234
329
Kingdom of Navarre 824 - 1620 976
   
                   
Kingdom of Castile 850 - 1230 380
   
Galicia 2 Kgdm
   
                       
Kingdom of León 910 -
 
 
Lombard Kingdom 568 - 774 206
 
 
Venetian Empire 800s - 1797 1000ish
S
H
S
V
S
S
V
D
A
C
Popes
E
S
N
F 7 S3 2 J10 L7 S9 M2 A2 J12 J13 B7 J14 J16 G5 S2
Papal States 754 - 1870 1116
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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C Africa
Chad Country FlagCameroon Country FlagCentral African Republic Country FlagSao Tome & Principe Country FlagGabon Country Flag
Congo Country FlagDemocratic Republic of Congo Country FlagRwanda Country FlagBurundi Country FlagAngola Country Flag
S Africa
Zambia Country FlagNamibia Country FlagCountry FlagZimbabwe Country Flag
Mozambique Country FlagMadagascar Country FlagSouth Africa Country FlagLesotho Country FlagSwaziland Country Flag
1st Kingdom of Galicia
409 - 712 303
Dark Period
469 - 550
81
? Hermeneric
? Veremund
? Theodemund
Final Suevic Period
550 - 85 35
 


702 - 10 8 Wittiza ^
710 - 2 2 Roderic
712 Subsumed into Asturias & Leon.
 
Galicia 1
409 - 910
501
Asturian kings with capital in Oviedo
 
Galicia 2
910 - 14 4
910 - 14 4 Afonso 3 Great Refounded kingdom of Galicia.
914 Subsumed into Leon.

900s Moor Castle
900s Guimarães Castle
   
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
589 3rd Council of Toledo adds "filioque" clause to Nicene Creed in Spain.
Visigothic Kingdom
418 - 721 303
694 - 710 16 Wittiza son, initially coking or subking in Gallaecia
710 - 1 1 Roderic only in Lusitania & Carthaginiensis
711 - 4 3 Agila 2 only in Tarraconensis & Narbonensis
712 Battle of Guadalete
712 Oppas perhaps in opposition to Roderic & Agila 2
714 - 21 7 Ardo only in Narbonensis
700s Gallifa Castle
700s Saint Catalinas Castle
756 Gormaz Castle
778 Battle of Roncevaux Pass
785 Calatrava la Vieja Castle
784 - 987 Córdoba Cathedral - Mosque
844 - 5 1 Norse raids on Moorish Spain begin.
800s Santa Bárbara Castle
800s Requesens Castle
800s Sobroso Castle
800s Torre de la Plata Castle
886 Cardona Castle
931 - 70 39 Count of Castille
El valle de las espadas (Castilian) 1963
900 - 1100 200 Zamora Castle Spain
900s Molina Castle Aragón
900s Peracense Castle
900s Xabier Castle
900s Monzón Castle
939 Battle of Simancas
982 Besora Castle
995 Alcazaba Castle Almería
   
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
718 - 37 19 Pelagius Pelayo Founded kingdom through Battle of Covadonga & made his capital at Cangas de Onís
737 - 9 2 Favila Favilac, Fafila
739 - 57 18 Alfonso 1 Catholic He & his descendants formed Beni Alfons dynasty.
757 - 68 11 Fruela 1 CruelFroila
768 - 74 6 Aurelius Aurelio
774 - 83 9 Silo Succeeded through his wife, Adosinda, daughter of Alfonso 1. Moved capital to Pravia.
783 - 8 5 Mauregatus Usurper Mauregato Illegitimate ^ Alfonso I who usurped throne.
788 - 91 3 Bermudo 1 Deacon, MonkVeremund, VermudoRetired to become a monk.
791 - 842 51 Alfonso 2 Chaste Moved capital to Oviedo
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
791 - 842 51 Alfonso 2 Chaste Moved capital to Oviedo
842 Nepotian Nepociano Elected king, though unrelated to Beni Alfonso.
842 - 50 8 Ramiro 1 Deposed Nepotian.
850 - 66 16 Ordoño 1 During reign of Ordoño 1, kingdom of Asturias progressively came to be known as Kingdom of León. kingdom was split in 910 & Fruela received Asturias. For later kings, see list of Leonese monarchs & list of Galician monarchs.
866 - 910 44 Alfonso 3 Great Kingdom divided between his three sons: García I received León, Ordoño 2 Galicia, & Fruela II Asturias.
Kingdom of Asturias
718 - 925
207
910 - 25 15 Fruela 2 Froila After his death, Asturias was seized by Alfonso 4 of León, while Alfonso Fróilaz ineffectually claimed it.
   
Umayyad Dynasty
756 - 1031 275
705 - 15 10 AlWalid 1
711 - 8 7 Islamic conquest of Hispania Tariq ibnZiyad crosses Straits of Gibraltar. With creation of AlAndalus, most of Iberian peninsula is conquered by Arab & Berber Muslims, thus ending Visigothic rule, & starting almost eight centuries of Muslim presence there.
714 Mahometan Spain emerged under Emirs
715 - 7 2 Sulayman
717 - 20 3 Umar 2 Sometimes considered, honorifically as fifth of Rashidun
718 - 1492 774 Spanish Reconquista
722 Battle of Covadonga
720 - 4 4 Yazid 2
724 - 43 18 Hisham
732 Battle of Tours Charles Martel defeated Saracens & saved Europe from Asiatic civilization.
743 - 4 1 AlWalid 2
744 Yazid 3
744 Ibrahim
744 - 50 6 Marwan 2
750 Defeat & massacre of Umayyads; only survivor flees to Spain where he establishes Umayyad principality
Emirs of Córdoba
756 - 929
173
756 - 88 32 Abd arRahman 1
788 - 96 8 Hisham 1
796 - 822 26 alHakam 1
   
 
 
     
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976
Pamplona
Íñiguez 824 - 905 81
824 - 51 27 Íñigo Arista 4 ch
851 - 82 31 García Íñiguez ^ 5 ch
882 - 905 23 Fortún Garcés ^ = Oria 5 ch deposed

Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976

Íñiguez 824 - 905 81
882 - 905 23 Fortún Garcés ^ = Oria 5 ch deposed
Jiméne
905 - 1234
329
905 - 25 20 Sancho 1 Garcés = Toda 6 ch
925 - 31 6 Jimeno Garcés < Sancha 3 ch
931 - 70 39 García Sánchez 1 ^ Sancho 1 Garces da 51
970 - 94 24 Sancho 2 Garcés Abarca ^ 4 ch
994 - 1004 10 García Sánchez 2 ^ 4 ch
     
Kingdom of Castile
1065 - 1230 165
Spain
Jimenez 1065 - 1126 56
1065 - 72 7 Sancho 2 the strong
1072 - 1109 37 Alfonso 6 the brave
Kingdom of Castile
1065 - 1230 165
Spain
Jimenez 1065 - 1126 56
1072 - 1109 37 Alfonso 6 the brav
1109 - 26 17 Queen Urraca
Ivrea 1126 - 1369 243
1126 - 57 31 Alfonso 6 the Emperor
1157 - 8 1 Sancho 3 the Desired
1158 - 1214 56 Alfonso 8 the Noble
1214 - 7 3 Henry 1
1217 Benengaria the Great abdicated
1217 - 52 35 Ferdinand 3 Saint
Annexed by Leon.
       
Kingdom of León
910 - 1230
320
Portugal
910 - 24 14 Ordoño 2 of León From 910 he governed Galician territory in social position of dominus.
924 - 5 1 Fruela 2 younger brother of Ordoño 2
925 - 6 1 Alfonso Fróilaz ^ Fruela 2
926 - 9 3 Sancho 1 Ordóñez firstborn of Ordoño 2
929 - 31 2 Alfonso 4 Monk
931 - 51 20 Ramiro 2
951 - 6 5 Ordoño 3
956 - 8 2 Sancho 1 the Fat
958 - 60 2 Ordoño 4 the Wicked, the Bad
960 - 6 6 Sancho 1 restored
966 - 82 6 Ramiro 3 Galicia once again became separate from León during his reign, which lasted until 984 in León.
982 - 99 17 Bermudo 2 Becomes king of León in 984.
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
         
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Lumbard Tribe
300 - 568
260s
500 - 10 10 Tato his son Ildichus died in exile
510 - 39 29 Wacho ^Unichus
537 - 8 Siege of Rome
539 - 46 7 Waltari
546 - 65 19 Audoin led Lombards into Pannonia
551 Battle of Sena Gallica
552 Battle of Taginae
553 Battle of Mons Lactarius
554 Battle of Volturnus River
Kingdom of Lombards
568 - 814
246
568 Lombards invade Italy & establish a federation of dukedoms under a king. Lombards (of Vandal origin, from north), under Alboin, took over Ostrogothic monarchy of Italy. Ostrogothic nation disappeared from history.
565 - 72 7 Alboin
1st
572 - 4
2
572 - 4 2 Cleph
Rule of Dukes
574 - 84
10
2nd
584 - 616
32
584 - 90 6 Authari ^
485 - 585 100 Cassiodorus Roman senator & scholar
533 - 4 1 Vandalic War in North Africa
534 - 47 13 Wars against Moors in North Africa
500s - 1300s Trieste Cathedral
500s - 1682 Trento Cathedral
600s Side panels, Basilica of SantApollinare in Classe, Ravenna
600s - 800s 200 Mosaics above apse, Basilica of Sant Apollinare in Classe
540 - 609 69 Venantius Fortunatus Venetian poet, traveler, bishop of Poitiers (c.599600/9)
6 - 1300s Andria Cathedral
603 - 1606 Duomo of Monza Cathedral
689 - 1300s Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral
600s - 1500s San Pietro di Castello Cathedral
Astolphus, King of Italy, surrendered Exarchate (or Reavenna) to Pepin. He gave it to Stephen 3 who thus obtained civil power. Naples, Sicily & Lower Italy were retained by Eastern Empire.
787 - 802 15 Paulinus 2 of Aquileia Carolingian scholar, poet, patriarch of Aquileia
770 Iron horseshoes came into common use
Kingdom of Lombards
568 - 814 246
774 - 814 40 Charlamagne
800 Charlemagne Crowned Emperor of Rome by Pope Leo 3
827 - 902 75 Arab conquest of Sicily
800s Romance Languages begin to be developed out of Vulgar Latin
849 Battle of Ostia
889 In Italy, some cities became free republics: for instance Forlì
800 Arab fleet sails up Tiber.
827 - 902 75 Aghlabid dynasty colonises emirates in Sicily & subsequently raids Southern Italy.
813 - 915 103 Period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian & Adriatic seas.
800s Petroia Castle
800s Cattolica di Stilo Cathedral Calabria
915 Battle of Garigliano
997 Venice became independent of Eastern Empire & acquired Dalmatian & Istria.
1000 Archangel Michail, icon, is made. It is now kept at Treasury of Cathedral of Saint Mark, Venice.
900s Rivoli Castle
900s Rocca Calascio Castle
940 Canossa Castle
982 Battle of Crotone
923 - 1505 528 Pistoia Cathedral
Ostrogothic Kingdom
493 - 553
60
493 - 526 33 Theodoric Great
Later a prominent hero in Germanic tales, rules in Rome until his death.
510s Basilica of SantApollinare in Classes apses mosaic is completed. Ravennna
510s Cassiodorus founds a cenobitic monastery at Vivarium
524 Consolation of Philosophy By Boethius 480 525 45 Roman philosopher & theologian
529 Saint Benedict of Nursia founds monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy.
526 - 34 8 Athalaric
534 - 6 2 Theodahad
535 - 54 19 Gothic War
536 - 40 4 Witiges
540 - 1 1 Ildibad
541 Eraric
541 - 52 11 Totila
480 - 547 67 Benedict of Nursia Umbrian founder of Western Monasticism
552 - 3 1 Teia
553 Battle of Mons Lactarius
554 reunification of all Italy under Byzantine rule Eviction of Ostrogoths from Rome
       
 
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100
Venice
697 - 717 20 Paolo Lucio Anafesto
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100
697 - 717 20 Paolo Lucio Anafesto
717 - 726 9 Marcello Tegalliano
726 - 37 11 Orso Ipato
737 - 42 5 Dominicus Leono Abrogatis
742 - 55 13 Teodato Ipato
755 - 6 1 Galla Gaulo
756 - 64 8 Domenico Monegario
764 - 87 23 Maurizio Galbaio
787 - 804 17 Giovanni Galbaio
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100
787 - 804 17 Giovanni Galbaio
804 - 11 7 Obelerio Antenoreo
811 - 27 16 Agnello Participazio
827 - 9 2 Giustiniano Participazio
829 - 37 8 Giovanni I Participazio
837 - 64 27 Pietro Tradonico
864 - 81 17 Orso I Participazio
881 - 7 6 Giovanni II Participazio
887 - 8 1 Pietro I Candiano
888 - 912 24 Pietro Tribuno
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100
888 - 912 24 Pietro Tribuno
912 - 32 20 Pietro II Candiano
932 - 9 7 Pietro Participazio
939 - 42 3 Pietro Participazio
942 - 59 17 Pietro III Candiano
959 - 76 17 Pietro IV Candiano
976 - 8 2 Pietro I Orseolo
978 - 9 1 Vitale Candiano
979 - 91 12 Tribuno Memmo
991 - 1009 18 Pietro II Orseolo
   
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
781 - 810 29 Pippin
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
781 - 810 29 Pippin
810 - 8 8 Bernard
818 - 22 4 Louis 1
822 - 55 33 Lothair 1
844 - 75 31 Louis 2
875 - 7 2 Charles 2 Bald
877 - 9 2 Carloman
879 - 87 8 Charles 3 Fat
Feudal Era
887 - 951
64
888 - 96 8 Berengar 1
vassal of German King Arnulf of Carinthia, reduced to Friuli 889894, deposed by Arnulf in 896.
889 - 94 5 Guy of Spoleto
opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.
891 - 6 5 Lambert of Spoleto
subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894895.
894 - 9 5 Arnulf of Carinthia with Ratold as subking in 96.
896 Arnulf & Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar & Lambert
896 - 8 2 Lambert of Spoleto
896 - 921 25 Berengar 1
898 Seized Lamberts portion upon his death
Frankish Kingdom of Italy
781 - 963
182
Feudal Era
887 - 951
64
896 - 921 25 Berengar 1
900 - 5 5 Louis 3 of Provence
Opposed Berengar 900902 & 905.
922 - 33 11 Rudolph 2 of Burgundy
926 Defeated Berengar but fled Italy
926 - 47 21 Hugh of Arles
925 elected by Berengars partisans.
945 Resigned to Provence
945 - 50 5 Lothair 2
950 - 61 11 Berengar 2 of Ivrea jointly with his son:
950 - 63 13 Adalbert of Ivrea
951 Otto 1 of Germany invaded Italy & was crowned "King of Lombards". In 952, Berengar & Adalbert became in vassals but remained Kings until being deposed by Otto.
Kingdom of Italy within
Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1648 686
Ottonian (Saxon)
962 - 1024
62
962 - 73 11 Otto 1
980 - 3 3 Otto 2
996 - 1002 Otto 3
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Popes
498 - 514 16 Symmachus
514 - 23 9 Hormisdas
523 - 26 3 John 1
525 Anno Domini Calendar Having settled in Rome c. 500, Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus invents thebased on estimated birth year of Jesus Christ
526 - 30 4 Felix 4
530 - 32 2 Boniface 2
533 - 35 2 John 2
535 - 36 1 Agapetus 1
536 - 37 1 Silverius
537 - 55 18 Vigilius
553 5th Council held at Constantinople.
556 - 61 5 Pelagius 1
561 - 74 13 John 3
575 - 79 4 Benedict 1
579 - 90 11 Pelagius 2 dies of plague
590 - 604 14 Gregory 1 #64
590 Roman Catholicism after Constantine; Pope Gregory
596 St. Augustine arrived in England with 40 monks Sent by Gregory Great.

Popes

604 - 606 2 Sabinian
607 1 Boniface 3
606 Boniface elected papal successor on death of Pope Sabinian. He sought & obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter Apostle should be head of all Churches". This ensured that title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to Bishop of Rome.
608 - 15 7 Boniface 4
615 - 8 3 Adeodatus 1
619 - 25 6 Boniface 5
625 - 38 13 Honorius 1
638 - 40 2 Severinus
640 - 2 2 John 4
642 - 9 7 Theodore 1
649 - 55 6 Martin 1
654 - 7 3 Eugene 1
657 - 72 15 Vitalian
672 - 6 4 Adiodatus 2
676 - 8 2 Donus
678 - 81 3 Agatho
680 6th Council at Constantinople
681 - 3 2 Leo 2
684 - 5 1 Benedict 2
685 - 6 1 John 5
686 - 7 1 Conon
687 - 701 14 Sergius 1
Popes
? - 752
?
701 - 5 4 John 6
705 - 07 2 John 7
708 20d Sissinius
715 - 31 16 Gregory 2
731 - 41 10 Gregory 3
741 - 52 9 Zachary
Papal States
754 - 1870 1116
752 - 57 5 Stephen 2
Enlisted Frankish aid against Lombards
755 - 1529 774 Papal Rome began. Age of Roman Catholic Religious Omnipower
758 - 68 10 Paul 1
768 - 72 4 Stephen 3
772 - 95 23 Adrian 1
787 7th Council at Nicaea
795 - 815 20 Leo 3
800 Charlemagne Crowned 1st Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas
Papal States
754 - 1870 1116
816 - 17 2 Stephen 4
817 - 24 7 Pascal 1
824 - 27 3 Eugenius
827 - 43 16 Gregory 4
844 - 47 3 Sergius
846 - 52 6 Leo 4
848 - 52 4 west bank of Tiber is annexed into city of Rome. A defensive wall, commissioned by Pope Leo 4, is built around what came to be called Leonine City.
853 - 58 5 Benediot 3
858 - 67 9 Nicholas
863 - 79 16 EastWest Schism
867 - 72 5 Adrian 2
869 - 70 1 8th Council at Constantinople
872 - 82 10 John 8
882 - 85 3 2 Popes
885 - 91 6 Stephen 6
891 - 94 3 Formosus
896 - 905 9 7 Popes
Papal States
754 - 1870 1116
905 - 10 5 Sergius 3
911 - 14 3 Two Popes 3 years, Anastasius 3 & Lando.
913 - 18 5 John 10
936 - 39 3 Leo 7
939 - 42 3 Stephen 9
942 - 46 4 Marin 2
946 - 5610 Agapetus 2
956 - 64 8 John 12
964 - 72 8 John 13
973 - 83 10 Benedict 7
984 - 86 2 John 14
986 - 96 10 John 16
996 - 99 3 Gregory 5
999 - 1003 4 Sylvester 2
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
       
533 Islands restored to Byzantine rule (?)
870 - 1090 220 Arab rule.
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
550s Knin Castle Croatia
     
Kingdom of Croatia
925 - 1097
172
900s medieval Croatian state becomes a unified kingdom under Tomislav
925 Pope John 10 crowned Tomislav, making him Rex Chroatorum King of united Croatia. All Croatian rulers after Tomislav beared title of king.
910 - 28 18 Tomislav Probably ^ Muncimir. Croatian state reaches greatest extent, includes Croatia, Slavonia, much of Dalmatia, & Bosnia. Crowned King by Pope John X in 925. After his death civil wars weakened state & some territory, including Bosnia, was lost.
927 CroatianBulgarian War
928 - 35 7 Trpimir 2 Younger brother or ^ Tomislav
935 - 45 10 Krešimir 1 ^
945 - 9 4 Miroslav ^
949 - 69 20 Michael Krešimir 2Younger brother of Miroslav. Croatian Kingdom regains previously lost territories, including Bosnia. He ruled together wit his wife Queen Jelena of Zadar.
969 - 97 28 Stephen Držislav ^
969 - 75 6 Queen Jelena of Zadar regent
997 - 1000 3 Svetoslav Suronja ^Stephen Deposed by <
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
       
926 Battle for Bosnian Highlands Croatia vs Bulgaria
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
500s Dajti Castle Albania
       
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Kingdom of Gepids
434 - 500s
100
@Sirmium, Serbia. Including: Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria, Urkaine
488 - 505 27 Thrasaric
505 - 25 20 Mundonus
525 - 48 23 Elemund  
548 - 60 12 Thurisind
560 - 7 7 Cunimund
535 - 615 80 Justiniana Prima Existed
535 Kalemegdan Belgrade Fortress
599 Battle of Viminacium
610s Serbs enter present territory in six distinct tribal delimitations. 1st Serbian state formed. Unknown Archont led Serbs to Balkans from north
     
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
500s Skopje Fortress
   
840 - 916 76 Clement of Ohrid Macedonia
 
Portugal Country Flag Portugal
500s
600s
700s
800s
900s
Byzantine Province of Macedonia
330 - 600s 250s
@ Thessalonica & Stobi
Byzantine Province of Macedonia
330 - 600s
250s