1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
 
Romania 1881 - 1947
 
     
A Hungarian
 
Russian Czars 1482 - 1698 216
 
Russian Empire 1721 - 1917 196
 
N Europe
Iceland Country FlagIreland Country FlagUnited Kingdom Country FlagDenmark Country FlagNorway Country Flag
Sweden Country Flag
Finland Country FlagEstonia Country FlagLatvia Country FlagLithuania Country Flag
W Europe
Netherlands Country FlagBelgium Country FlagLuxembourg Country FlagFrance Country FlagMonaco Country Flag
Switzerland Country FlagLiechtenstein Country FlagGermany Country FlagAustria Country Flag
S Europe
Portugal Country FlagSpain Country FlagAndorra Country FlagItaly Country FlagVatican City Country FlagSan Marino Country FlagMalta Country Flag
Slovenia Country Flag
Croatia Country FlagBosnia and Herzegovina Country FlagAlbania Country FlagMontenegro Country FlagSerbia Country FlagMacedonia Country FlagGreece Country Flag
E Europe
Poland Country Flag
Czech Republic Country FlagSlovakia Country FlagHungary Country FlagBelarus Country Flag
Ukraine Country FlagRomania Country FlagMoldova Country FlagBulgaria Country FlagRussia Country Flag
N Africa
Morocco Country FlagWestern Sahara Country FlagAlgeria Country FlagTunisia Country Flag
Libya Country FlagEgypt Country FlagSudan Country Flag
E Africa
Ethiopia Country FlagEritrea Country FlagDjibouti Country FlagSomalia Country FlagFrance Country FlagMauritius Country Flag
Seychelles Country Flag
France Country FlagComoros Country FlagTanzania Country FlagMalawi Country FlagKenya Country FlagUganda Country Flag
W Africa
Cape Verde Country Flag
Mauritania Country FlagSenegal Country FlagGambia Country FlagGuinea Bissau Country FlagGuinea Country FlagSierra Leone Country FlagLiberia Country Flag
Mali Country FlagCote Divoire Country FlagBurkina Faso Country FlagGhana Country FlagTogo Country FlagBenin Country FlagNiger Country FlagNigeria Country Flag
C Africa
Chad Country FlagCameroon Country FlagCentral African Republic Country FlagSao Tome and Principe Country FlagGabon Country Flag
Congo Country FlagDemocratic Republic of Congo Country FlagRwanda Country FlagBurundi Country FlagAngola Country Flag
S Africa
Zambia Country FlagNamibia Country FlagCountry FlagZimbabwe Country Flag
Mozambique Country FlagMadagascar Country FlagSouth Africa Country FlagLesotho Country FlagSwaziland Country Flag
W Asia
Turkey Country FlagGeorgia Country FlagArmenia Country FlagAzerbaijan Country FlagCyprus Country FlagIsrael Country FlagLebanon Country FlagJordan Country Flag
Lesotho Country FlagIraq Country FlagKuwait Country FlagBahrain Country FladQatar Country FlagSaudi-Arabia Country FlagUnited-Arab-Emirates Country FlagOman Country FlagYemen Country Flag
C Asia
Kazakstan Country FlagTurkmenistan Country FlagUzbekistan Country Flag
Tajikistan Country FlagKygyzstan Country Flag
S Asia
Iran Country FlagAfghanistan Country Flag
Pakistan Country FlagIndia Country Flag
Nepal Country Flag
Bangladesh Country FlagBhutan Country FlagSri Lanka Country FlagMaldives Country Flag
E Asia
China Country Flag
Mongolia Country FlagNorth Korea Country FlagSouth Korea Country FlagJapan Country FlagTaiwan Country Flag
SE Asia
Myanmar Country FlagThailand Country FlagLaos Country FlagCambodia Country FlagVietnam Country Flag
Malaysia Country FlagSingapore Country FlagIndonesia Country FlagBrunei Country FlagPhilippines Country FlagEast Timor Country Flag
Oceania
Palau Country Flag
Micronesia Country FlagNauru Country FlagMarshall Islands Country FlagKiribati Country FlagPapau New Guinea Country FlagSolomon Islands Country Flag
Vanuatu Country Flag
Fiji Country FlagTuvalu Country FlagSamoa Country FlagTonga Country FlagAustralia Country FlagNew Zealand Country Flag
North America
Canada Country FlagUnited States Country FlagMexico Country Flag
C America
Guatemala Country FlagBelize Country FlagEl Salvador Country FlagHonduras Country Flag
Nicaragua Country FlagCosta Rica Country FlagPanama Country Flag
Carribean
Bahamas Country FlagTurks and Caicos Country FlagCuba Country FlagHaiti Country FlagDominican Republic Country FlagJamaica Country FlagCayman Islands Country Flag
Antigua and Barbuda Country FlagBarbados Country FlagDominica Country FlagGrenada Country FlagSaint Kitts and Nevis Country FlagSaint Lucia Country FlagSaint Vincent and the Grenadas Country FlagTrinidad and Tobago Country Flag
S America
Colombia Country Flag
Venezuela Country FlagGuyana Country FlagSuriname Country FlagEcuador Country FlagPeru Country Flag
Brazil Country FlagBolivia Country FlagChile Country FlagArgentina Country FlagUruguay Country FlagParaguay Country Flag
Kingdom of Poland
1025 - 1569
544
Jagiellon 1386 - 1569 173
1492 - 1501 9 Jan 1 Olbracht son of Casimir 4 & Elisabeth of Austria
1501 - 6 5 Aleksander son of Casimir 4 & Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492 - 1506
1506 Poland is invaded by Tatars from Crimean Khanate.
1506 - 48 42 Zygmunt 1 Old 1467 - 1548 83 son of Casimir IV & Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor established a conscription army & bureaucracy needed to finance it
1512 Copernicus writes Commentariolus, & moves sun to center of solar system. Poland.
1519 - 21 2 Polish Teutonic War 1519 - 21 Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Knights
1537 Janowiec Castle
1543 Copernicus publishes his ory that Earth & or planets revolve around Sun. Poland. Major changes in philosophy & science take place, often characterized as Scientific revolution. Copernicus, Poland.
1548 - 72 24 Zygmunt 2 August 1 son of Sigismund I & Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced personal union of Kingdom of Poland & Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union & an elective monarchy (PolishLithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569
1563 - 70 7 Norrn Seven Years War DenmarkNorway Lübeck Poland–Lithuania Sweden
1569 PolishLithuanian Commonwealth is created with Union of Lublin which lasts until 1795.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania. # 1582 6.5M D8 1618 10.5M D9.1 Formed by Union of Lublin in 1569, between Kingdom of Poland & Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Valois - 1574 5 1
1574 - 5 1 Henryk Walezy
1575 Maksymilian 2 King of Bohemia, Germany, Hungary & Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor. election contested after four days
Jagiellon 1575 - 86 11
1575 - 86 11 Anna daughter of Sigismund I & Bona Sforza
reigned toger with her husband Stephen Báthory
Báthory 1575 - 86 11
1575 - 86 11 Stefan 1 Batory son of Stephen 8 Báthory & Carine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned toger with his wife Anna
regarded as one of greatest kings of Poland
1580 - 1631 Krasiczyn Palace
1587 - 1645 Krzyżtopór Castle
1587 Maksymilian 3 son of Maximilian II & Maria of Spain
Archduke of Austria
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Vasa 1587 - 1668 83
1587 - 1632 45 Zygmunt 3 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John 3 of Sweden & Carine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592 - 1599, titular King 1599 - 1632
1595 Wawel Castle
State of Teutonic Order
1224 - 1525
301
@ Marienburg, Poland (1308 - 1454 146),
Königsberg, Russia (1454 - 1525 101)
Roman Catholicism
ocracy
1497 - 1510 13 Frederick of Saxony
1510 - 25 15 Albert of BrandenburgAnsbach (Albert of Prussia)
1473 - 1543 70 Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, developed heliocentric (Suncentered) ory using scientific methods.
1530 - 84 54 Jan Kochanowski, Polish poet
1505 - 69 64 Mikołaj Rej, Polish writer
1594 Oliwa Cadral Consecrated
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania.
Vasa 1587 - 1668 83
1587 - 1632 45 Zygmunt 3 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John 3 of Sweden & Carine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592 - 9, titular King 1599 - 1632
1606 Baranów Sandomierski Castle
1610 Battle of Klushino Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian Swedish forces at & conquers Moscow.
1613 - 7 4 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by Tatars dozens of times.
1617 Poznań Castle
1617 - 8 1 Polish Swedish War Sweden Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1620 - 1 1 Polish–Ottoman War PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire
1620 Bethlen Gabor allies with Ottomans & an invasion of Moldavia takes place. Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on River Prut.
1621 Battle of Chocim: Poles & Cossacks under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat Ottomans.
1621 - 5 4 Polish–Swedish War Sweden Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1632 - 48 16 Władysław 4 son of Sigismund III & Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 16101634, titular King of Sweden 16321648
1633 - 4 1 Polish–Ottoman War. Ukraine. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire
1635 Nowy Wiśnicz Castle
1642 Łańcut Castle
1648 - 67 19 Deluge wars leave PolishLithuanian Commonwealth in ruins.
1648 - 68 20 Jan 2 Kazimierz
(John II Casimir) son of Sigismund III & Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 16481660
abdicated
1648 - 57 9 Khmelnytsky Uprising. Ukraine, Belorus, Moldava. Zaporozhian Cossacks, Crimean Tatars 1649 - 54, 1656 1657 vs PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Crimean Tatars 1654 - 6
Ogniem i mieczem (With Fire & Sword) 1961
1655 Ogrodzieniec Castle
1666 71 5 Polish Cossack Tatar War
Wiśniowiecki 1669 - 73 4
1669 - 73 4 Michał Korybut
(Michael 1) son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, & Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
1672 - 6 4 Polish–Ottoman War. Ukraine. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate, Rightbank, Ukraine vs PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Principality of Wallachia
Sobieski 1674 - 96 22
1674 - 96 22 Jan 3 (John 3) son of Jakub Sobieski & Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
most famous for his brilliant victory over Turks at Battle of Vienna in 1683
Bourbon 1697
1697 Franciszek Ludwik BurbonConti (François Louis, Prince of Conti) son of Armand de BourbonConti & Anne Marie Martinozzi
elected king, obliged to return to France from Gdansk without crown
Wettin 1697 - 1704 7
1697 - 1704 7 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus II Strong) son of John George 3 & Anna Sophie of Denmark Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694 1733
1600s Sielecki Castle
1600s WarsawOstrogski Palace Chopin Museum
1600s - 1904 304 St. John Baptist Cadral Przemyśl
1660 - 1940s 280s Field Cadral of Polish Army
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania.
Wettin 1697 - 1704 7
1697 - 1704 7 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus II Strong) son of John George 3 & Anna Sophie of Denmark Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694 - 1733
Leszczyński 1705 - 9 4
1705 - 9 4 Stanisław 1 (Stanislas 1) son of Rafał Leszczyński & Anna Jabłonowska yielded to Augustus 2
Wettin 1709 - 33 24
1709 - 33 24 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus 2 Strong)
Leszczyński 1733 - 4 1
1733 - 4 1 Stanisław 1
(Stanislas 1) restored
defeated in War of Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
1733 - 8 5 War of Polish succession Poland under Stanisław Leszczyński France (Bourbons) Spain (Bourbons) Duchy of Savoy Poland under August III of Poland Russia Habsburg Monarchy Saxony
Wettin 1734 - 63 29
1734 - 63 29 August 3 Sas
(Augustus 3) son of Augustus II & Christiane Eberhardine of BrandenburgBayreuth Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, & Grand Duke of Lithuania
1740 - 2 2 1st Silesian War. Part of War of Austrian Succession. Poland. Prussia vs Austria.
1744 - 5 1 2nd Silesian War, Part of War of Austrian Succession. Poland. Prussia vs Austria.
1752 Niemcza Castle
1756 - 63 7 3rd Silesian War, Poland. Prussia vs Austria. Part of Seven Years War
Poniatowski 1764 - 95 31
1764 - 95 31 Stanisław 2 August
(Stanislas 2 August) son of Stanisław Poniatowski & Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when PolishLithuanian Commonwealth ( Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist
1768 - 72 4 Bar Confederation. Poland. Russian Empire vs Bar Confederates.
1772 - 95 23 Partitions of Poland ended PolishLithuanian Commonwealth & erased Poland from map for 123 years.
1790 Establishment of PolishPrussian Pact
1794 Polish revolt
1795 Subsummed into Prussia & Russia
1742 - 80 38 Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish politician
1700s Szydłowiec Castle
1848 Greater Poland Uprising
1900 Krosno Odrzańskie Castle
Second Polish Republic
1918 - 39 21

1927 - 55 28 Christ King Cadral Katowice
German Occupation of Poland
1939 44
5
1939 Invasion of Poland. Poland Germany 60Div 6Bri 1.5M 16.3X 3.5M 30.3W 9G 2.8T 2.3, Slovakia 3Div 51.3 #37X #11M #114W, USSR 33+Div 11+Bri 466.5 5.3 1.5XM 2.4W, 5G, 4.7T, 3.3 2+M 59 VS Poland 39Div 16Bri 950 904 66X 133.7W 694C 4.3G 880T 400 * Decisive German & Soviet victory. Beginning of World War II. Polish territory divided between Germany, Soviet Union, Lithuania & Slovakia
1939 Battle of Bzura. Poland Germany 12Div 5A&MDiv 425 8X 4C 50T 100C 20A VS Poland 8Div 24CBri 225 1820X 32W 170C
1939 Battle of Kock. Poland Germany MCor 30 3500 185C VS Poland 18 250300 17C
Soviot Invasion
1939 Battle of Grodno. Poland USSR ACor #57X #159W 23AFV VS Poland 24 644X 1.5C 2G
1939 Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski. Poland Germany VS Poland
1939 Battle of Szack. Ukraine Poland 4 350X 900+W A Tr VS USSR RiDiv 81X 184W 7T 2Tra 3ATG
1939 Battle of Krojanty. Germany Germany Reg 800 11X 9W ARV 30G VS Poland 4Sq 1Pla 250 1925X 450W
1939 Battle of Hel. Poland Germany 4653 1DD 1BLD VS Poland 3 46G
1939 Battle of Westerplatte. Poland Germany 3.4 #2300XW VS Poland #209 1520X 53W +C
1939 Battle of Wizna. Poland Germany 42.2 1X 350T 657M&G&H 10AV ? VS Poland #720 650X 40C 6A 42MG 6Ri
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Sourn Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belarus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR SouthFro 33 VS Germany, Poland 1PTArm 20
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1942 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1942 Battle of El Agheila. Libya UK, Poland, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Axis retreats to Tunisia
1942 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1943 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1943 - 4 1 Battle of Berlin. Germany USSR, Poland 156200 196Div 2.5M (1.5 in Berlin) 81.1XM 280.2W 2.3T&G 2 41.6A 2.1, 7.5 917 VS Germany 50Div 767 (+45So 22 40Ci 22 in Berlin) 92100X 220W 480C, 1.5AFV 9.3A 2.2
1944 Battle of Ancona. Italy Poland 50 #496X 1.8W #139M VS Germany #800X 3C
1944 Operation Totalize. France Canada, UK, Poland 85 1.3 3IDiv 2ArDiv 2Arbri 720A 2 146+T VS Germany 3IDiv 1PTDiv 1HTBat 74T 45 3
1944 Operation Tractable. France Canada, Poland 1.4, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 2IDiv 1PTDiv
1944 Battle of Hill 262. France Poland 1.5 #351 80T 11 VS Germany Remains of 20I&PTDiv 1.5
1944 Falaise pocket. France USA, UK, Canada, Poland, Free French 17Div + VS Germany 1415Div 100 60
1944 Allied advance from Paris to Rhine. France, Nerlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Market Garden. Nerlands, Germany UK, USA, Poland, Dutch Resistance 42.6PT 2IDiv 15.317.2 1ADiv 1ABri 88 144T VS Germany, German Nerlands 6.313.3 30T&SPG 159
1944 Battle of Arnhem. Nerlands Germany, German Nerlands 1Div 1For 1.3X 2WVS UK, Poland 1AiDiv 1PTBri 2X 6.8C
1944 Battle of Scheldt. Belgium, Nerlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Belostock Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany 30X 1C
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1944 Vilnius Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany 8X 5C VS Polish Home Arm
1944 Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1945 Vistula–Oder Offensive. Germany, Poland USSR, Poland 2.2M 43.4XM 150.7WS VS Germany 450 ?X ?W 150C
1945 Lower Silesian Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Osovets Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Battle of Radzymin. Poland Germany VS USSR
1944 Battle of Studzianki. Poland USSR 1Arm, Poland 1ArmBri 89 27T VS Germany 3Div 40T 26G&M 9APC
1945 Battle of Seelow Heights. Germany USSR, Poland 1M 3T 16.9G&M 20 56X VS Germany 112.1 12X 587T 2.6G
1945 East Pomeranian Offensive. Germany USSR, Poland 996.1 55.3XM 179W VS Germany
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1945 Battle of Bautzen . Germany Germany 5090 6.5X 300T 620A VS USSR 20 ?, Poland 90 4.9X 2.8M 10.5W 500T 250 110
1945 Battle of Kolberg. Germany USSR, Poland 28+ 1.2XMVS Germany 10 ?X 8C
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1945 Silesian Offensives. Poland, Germany USSR VS Germany 40X 14C
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Nerlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany. Germany USA 6th,12thArmG 3M, UK 21stArmG, France 1stArm, Canada, Poland VS Germany ArmG:B,G,H 1M
1939 - 45 6 Battle of Atlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Nerlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle of River Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Nerlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
Peoples Republic of Poland
1944 - 89 45
Kingdom of Bohemia
1198 - 1918
720
@ Prague
.
1471 - 1516 45 Vladislaus 2 Jagiellonian. ^< Ladislaus Posthumous. *Hungary 90
1516 - 26 10 Louis Jagiellonian ^ *Hungary
1526 - 64 38 Ferdinand 1 =< *Hungary HRE 58
1560 Hasisegn Castle Ruined in fire
1564 - 76 12 Maximilian ^ HRE *Hungary
1576 - 1611 35 Rudolph 2 ^ HRE *Hungary
Kingdom of Bohemia
1198 - 1918
720
@ Prague
1576 - 1611 35 Rudolph 2 ^ HRE *Hungary
1611 - 9 8 7 Matthias < HRE *Hungary
1618 Bohemian Revolt precipitates Thirty Years War which devastates Europe in years 1618 - 48.
1618 - 48 30 Ricany Castle Destroyed 1619 - 37 18 Ferdinand 2 ^< HRE *Hungary
1619 - 20 1 Frederick. Elected anti*. at beginning of Thirty Years War but after lost Battle of White Mountain he fled country.
1620 Battle of White Mountain
1627 - 57 30 Ferdinand 3 ^Ferdinand 2 HRE *Hungary
1646 - 54 8 Ferdinand 4 ^ HRE *Hungary
1657 - 1705 38 Leopold 1 ^ HRE *Hungary

1631 - 1836 Zamek Kynzvart Castle Construction
Kingdom of Bohemia
1198 - 1918
720
@ Prague

1657 - 1705 38 Leopold 1 ^ HRE *Hungary
1705 - 11 6 Joseph 1 ^ HRE *Hungary
1711 - 40 29 Charles 2 < HRE *Hungary
1721 - 3 2 Karlova Koruna Castle
1730 - 6 6 Ss. Cyril & Methodius Cadral
1741 - 3 2 Charles Albert =^Joseph 1 Antiking to Maria resa during War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 80 40 Maria resa ^Charles 2 *Hungary
1745 Dobris Castle Rebuilt
1770 - 1 1 Famine in Czech lands killed hundreds of thousands.
1780 - 90 10 Joseph 2 ^ Maria resa HRE *Hungary
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 2 < HRE *Hungary
1792 - 1835 43 Francis ^ HRE 06 *Hungary **Austria 04
1700s Stramberk Castle
Kingdom of Bohemia
1198 - 1918
720
@ Prague
1792 - 1835 43 Francis ^ HRE 06 *Hungary **Austria 04
1835 - 48 13 Ferdinand 5 ^Francis. **Austria *Hungary. Last crowned*
1847 - 66 Horovice Castle
1848 Revolution * Lost power
1848 - 1916 68 Francis Joseph ^< **Austria *Hungary
1916 - 8 2 Charles 3 ^^< **Austria *Hungary. Abdicated.


1889 Divine Saviour Cadral
1841 - 1904 63 Antonín Dvořák Czech
Kingdom of Bohemia
1198 - 1918
720
@ Prague
1848 - 1916 68 Francis Joseph ^< **Austria *Hungary
1916 8 2 Charles 3 ^^< **Austria *Hungary. Abdicated.
1968 Czechoslovakia invaded by Warpac
Czechoslovakia
1918 - 92 74
@ Prague
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Nerlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 n 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 n 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Nerlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Czech Rebublic
1993 - 2011
18
@ Prague
1500s Smolenice Castle
1527 Kolárovo Castle
1571 Nový zámok Castle
1594 KomárnoKomarno Castle
1629 - 37 St. John Baptist Cadral Trnava
1702 - 15 St Francis Xavier Cadral Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
1736 Trinitarian Cadral Bratislava
1720 Červený Kláštor Castle
1776 Diocese Established for Assumption of Mary Cadral Rožňava

1859 - 60 Temple of Exhaltation of Holy Cross
Czechoslovakia
1918 - 92 74
@ Prague, Czech Republic
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1939 Invasion of Poland. Poland Germany 60Div 6Bri 1.5M 16.3X 3.5M 30.3W 9G 2.8T 2.3, Slovakia 3Div 51.3 #37X #11M #114W, USSR 33+Div 11+Bri 466.5 5.3 1.5XM 2.4W, 5G, 4.7T, 3.3 2+M 59 VS Poland 39Div 16Bri 950 904 66X 133.7W 694C 4.3G 880T 400 * Decisive German & Soviet victory. Beginning of World War II. Polish territory divided between Germany, Soviet Union, Lithuania & Slovakia
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1944 Battle of Ushant. English Channel UK, Canada, Poland 8D 1D VS Germany 4D 1 1Sc #140C #39X
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Nerlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 n 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 n 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Nerlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Slovakia (Slovak Republic)
1993 Present
18
@ Bratislava
1st Kingdom of Hungary
1000 - 1538
538
Bohemia 1440 - 1540 100
1490 - 1516 26 Vladislaus 2 *Bohemia
1516 - 26 10 Louis 2 *Bohemia
1526 Battle of Mohács. Hungary. Ottoman Empire vs Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Bohemia Holy Roman Empire Bavaria Papal States Kingdom of Poland Louis 2 killed.
1526 - 40 14 John 1 (Szapolyai János)

1527 - 8 1 Hungarian campaign of 1527 1528. Hungary. Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Papal States, Hungary (Kingdom of Ferdinands), Voivodian Serbs vs Ottoman Turks
1530 - 52 22 Little War in Hungary. Hungary. Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Papal States, Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia, Hungarian Kingdom of Ferdinands vs Ottoman Empire, Moldavia, Hungarian Kingdom of Szapolyais, Wallachia, Serbian Despotate, France
Holy Roman Empire
1526 - 38
12
1526 - 64 38 Ferdinand 1 HRE Rival
1538 Subsummed into Ottoman Empire.
1560 Erzsebet Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary.
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
Hungary was effectively split into three parts: Royal Hungary in north & west, Ottoman Hungary in south, & Principality of Transylvania in east. following, until 1699, gives rulers of "Royal Hungary".
1563 - 76 13 Maximilian (1. Miksa)
1572 - 1608 36 Rudolf 1
1593 - 1606 14 Long War (Ottoman wars). Hungary, Romania, Greece. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate, Nogai Khanate vs Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Bohemia, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Zaporozhian Host, Kingdom of Bohemia, Spain, Serbian rebels, Papal States, Venice, Saxony, Tuscany, Persia, Knights of St. Stephen, Bulgarian rebels, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Mantua, Republic of Ragusa, Duchy of Savoy
1470 - 1514 44 György Dózsa, leader of peasants revolt in Hungary
1550 Budapest Bathhouse
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1608 - 19 11 Matthias 2 (2. Mátyás)
1618 - 37 19 Ferdinand 2
1625 - 57 32 Ferdinand 3
1647 - 54 7 Ferdinand 4
1655 - 1705 50 Leopold 1 (1. Lipót)Habsburgs began colonization of Serbs (1690) & Germans (1682–1699) in Sourn Hungary.
Hungary reunited under Habsburg rule after Great Turkish War in 1699.
1681 Pasha of Buda supports Imre Thökölys rebellion in Hungary.
1686 seige Pecsbarbakan
1580 - 1629 49 Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania
1657 - 1705 48 Imre Thököly, prince of Transylvania, leader of antiHapsburg uprising in Hungary
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1687 - 1711 24 Joseph 1
1703 - 11 8 Rákóczis War for Independence, Hungary.
1711 - 40 29 Charles 3 KárolyLarge scale German settlements in Hungary begin (1720–1800).
1731 Kazakh Lesser Horde accepts Russian protection.
1740 - 80 40 Maria 2 resa (2. Mária Terézia) Enjoyed broad support of Hungarian nobles
1780 - 90 10 Joseph 2 József
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 2 Lipót
1676 - 1735 59 Francis II Rákóczi, Prince of Hungary & Transylvania, revolutionary leader













2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1792 - 1835 43 Francis Ferenc
1822 - 69 Esztergom Basilica
1830 - 48 18 Ferdinand 5 Ferdinánd Being epileptic & mentally ill, abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph (son of his younger bror Franz Karl). Died in 1875.
Is merged into AustroHungarian Empire
1848 - 9 1 Hungarian Revolution Austrian Empire Hungarian Rebels
1802 - 60 58 János Bolyai, mamatician Hungarian
1818 - 65 47 Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian proponent of hygienic practices
1802 - 94 92 Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of war of independence
1791 - 1860 69 István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of Hungarian reform movement
1811 - 86 75 Franz Liszt Hungarian

 

 




1905 St. Stephens Basilica Consecrated
1916 Battle of Asiago. Italy Italy 172Bat 850G 140Cas 12X 80W 50C VS AustriaHungary 300Bat 2G 100Cas 15X 75W 15MC
1915 1st Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225 14.9VS AustriaHungary 115 10
1915 2nd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 130Bat 420G 45XW VS Italy 260Bat 840G 42XW
1915 3rd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 184Bat 643AP 40.4 9X VS Italy 338Bat 130CSq 1.4AP 67.1 11X
1915 4th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 370Bat 1.4G 49.5 7.5X VS AustriaHungary 155Bat 626G 32.1 4X
1916 5th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 100Bat (+30R) 470G 2XW VS Italy 286Bat (+90R) 1.4G 1.9XWM
1916 6th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 9Div 42 8X VS Italy 22Div 51 21X
1916 7th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 150Bat 770AP 15 VS Italy 240Bat 1.2AP 17
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1917 8th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 14Div 25 VS Italy 20Div 24
1917 9th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225Bat 1.4A 39 VS AustriaHungary 170Bat 990A 33
1917 10th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 400 150 35X VS AustriaHungary 200 75 17X
1917 11th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1930 Votive Church of Szeged Consecrated
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1942 Operation Uranus. Russia USSR 1.14M 894T 13.5A 1.5 VS Germany 250+ 732 402Ser, Italy 220 ?A ?, Romania 143.3 827A 134T ?, Hungary 200 ?A&T 803+134+T 732+
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 n 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A n 13.5 15.7 400T n 894 4.3T 300 n 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 n 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A n 10.3 6 600 n 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1942 Battle of Voronezh. Russia Germany, Hungary VS USSR 568.3 370.5XC 197.8W
1943 Battle of Voronezh. Russia USSR VS Germany, Hungary
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Battle of Nikolayevka. Russia USSR 6 1XW VS Italy, Germany, Hungary 40 (4CR) 30XWC
1943 OstrogozhskRossosh Operation. Russia USSR VS Hungary, Italy
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Operation Margare. Hungary Germany, Hungary VS Russia German Occupation of Hungary
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungary, Germany
1944 - 5 Budapest Offensive . Hungary USSR VS Germany 49X 110C 269TC
1944 - 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1945 Operation Konrad. Hungary USSR VS Germany, Hungary Part of Battle of Budhapest
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1956 Hungarian revolt
1581 Lyubcha Castle
1590s Ruzhany Zamok Castle Panorama
1600s Lachowicze Castle
1604 Nesvizh Castle
1610s Halshany Castle
1734 - 51 HrodnaNew & Old Castles
1710 Saint Virgin Mary Cadral Minsk
1810 - 36 26 Babruysk Fortress
1825 Piszczalauski Castle
1830 Brest Fortress
1830 Kosava Castle
1882 Euxinograd Palace Benkovski Castle
1898 - 1918 20 Tsarska Bistritsa Gruev Castle
Republic of Belarus
1991 - 2011
20
@ Minsk
Belorusian, Russian
1926 - 37 11 Balchik Palace
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belarus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Pripyat swamps. Belarus Germany VS Jews 17.3X Punitive operation
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Bobruysk Offensive. Belarus USSR ? VS Germany 90 50X 20C
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Minsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 100 60WC 40XM
1944 Mogilev Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 33X 3.3C
1944 Polotsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 37X 7C
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1515 - 23 8 Mehmed 1 Giray,
1523 - 4 1 Ğazı 1 Giray,
1524 - 32 8 Saadet 1 Giray,
1532 İslâm 1 Giray,
1532 - 51 19 Sahib 1 Giray,
1551 - 77 26 Devlet 1 Giray,
1577 - 84 7 Mehmed 2 Giray,
1584 Saadet 2 Giray,
1584 - 8 4 İslâm 2 Giray,
1588 - 96 8 Ğazı 2 Giray, (first reign)
1596 Fetih 1 Giray,
Lithuanian Kiev Voivodeship
1471 - 1569
@ Kiev
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
1st Hetmans of
Ukrainian Cossacks

90
A Hetman was a military & civil leader, democratically elected by Cossacks.
Several Cossack regiments were operating in Ukraine at this time that were largely independent of each or, so some of Hetmans tenures overlap.
1506 - 12 6 Przecław Lanckoroński, was a member of Zadora Polish szlachta family & starosta of Khmilnyk ?1531
1506 - 35 29 Ataman Ostap Dashkevych, was a commander of Cossacks, sometimes referred to as Hetman 1495 - 1535
1550 - 3 3 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, 1st to be officially & casually referred to as Cossack Hetman ?1553
1567 - 74 7 Ivan Svirgovsky
1577 - 8 1 Ivan Pidkova, first Hetman to be elected by entire Sich, thus establishing first direct democratic rule in modern Europe
1579 - 91 12 Ivan Orishevsky
1586 - 94 8 Bogdan Mikoshinsky
1591 - 3 2 Kryshtof Kosynsky 1545 - 93 48
1593 - 6 3 Hryhory Loboda
1596 Severyn Nalyvaiko ?
1696 Conquered by Poland
1500s Pomoriany Castle
1540 Ternopil Castle
1540s Berezhany Castle
1564 Olyka Castle
1594 - 1606 Zhovkva Castle
1598 Letychiv Fortress
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1596 - 1607 11 Ğazı 2 Giray, (second reign)
1607 - 8 1 Toqtamış Giray,
1608 - 10 2 Selâmet 1 Giray,
1610 - 23 13 Canibek Giray, (first reign)
1623 - 8 5 Mehmed 3 Giray, †
1628 - 35 7 Canibek Giray, (second reign)
1635 - 7 2 İnayet Giray,
1637 - 41 4 Bahadır 1 Giray,
1641 - 4 3 Mehmed 4 Giray, (first reign)
1644 - 54 10 İslâm 3 Giray,
1654 - 66 12 Mehmed 4 Giray, (second reign)
1666 - 71 5 Adil Giray,
1671 - 8 7 Selim 1 Giray, (first reign)
1678 - 83 5 Murad Giray,
1683 - 4 1 Hacı 2 Giray,
1684 - 91 7 Selim 1 Giray,(second reign)
1691 Saadet 3 Giray,
1691 - 2 1 Safa Giray,
1692 - 9 7 Selim 1 Giray, (third reign)
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
2nd Hetmans of
Ukrainian Cossacks

1614 - 1775
161
1614 - 22 8 Petro KonashevychSahaidachny 1570 - 1622
1623 - 8 5 Mykhailo Doroshenko
1628 - 30 2 Hryhoriy Chorny, elected by Registered Cossacks
1629 - 30 1 Taras Fedorovych, elected by unregistered Cossacks ? - 1636
1630 - 5 5 Ivan Sulyma
1638 Dmytro Hunia
United Cossack Hetmanate
11
@ Chyhyryn, Baturyn, Hlukhiv
Ukrainian
Greek Orthodox
Following Khmelnytsky uprising a new Cossack republic, Hetmanate, was formed.
1648 - 57 9 Bohdan Khmelnytsky, first sole ruler of Ukrainian Cossack state who adopted title of Hetman of Zaporozhian Host 1595 - 1657
1651 Ivan Bohun, was Acting Hetman during Battle of Berestechko ? - 1664
1657 - 9 2 Ivan Vyhovsky, 2nd Hetman of Cossack Hetmanate, coauthor of Treaty of Hadiach signed in 1658, Voivode of Kiev (1660 - 4) ?1664
1659 - 60 1 Yurii Khmelnytsky, third Hetman of Cossack Hetmanate who adopted title of Hetman of Zaporozhian Host & Prince of Sarmatia 1641 - 85
1660 Hetmanate breaks up into Right & Left Bank
Hetmanate of Rightbank
1660 - 1704 44
@
1660 - 3 3 Yurii Khmelnytsky
1663 - 5 2 Pavlo Teteria, succeeded Yurii Khmelnytsky as first ruler of Rightbank Ukraine ? – 1670
1665 - 76 11 Petro Doroshenko, united Cossack state for a short period of time until accepting Ottoman suzerainty1627 98
1669 - 74 5 Mykhailo Khanenko, proclaimed Hetman (1669) & nominated by Polish authorities (1670)1620–1680
1678 - 81 3 1683 Yurii Khmelnytsky, nominated by Ottomans in 1678, & reinstaled by Poles in 1683 1641 - 85 44
1683 - 4 1 Stepan Kunytsky, nominated by Polish authorities1640 - 84
1684 - 9 5 Andriy Mohyla, nominated by Polish authorities
1692 - 1704 12 Samuel Samus, Acting Hetman of Rightbank Ukraineca. 1688 - 1713
Hetmanate of Leftbank
1660
- 1709
49
1660 - 3 3 Yakym Somko, Acting Hetman of Leftbank Ukraine ? - 28 September 1664
1663 - 8 5 Ivan Briukhovetsky, was a proRussian hetman of Leftbank Ukraine
1668 - 9 1 Petro Doroshenko 1627 1698
1669 - 72 3 Demian Mnohohrishny 1630 1701
1672 - 87 15 Ivan Samoylovych 1630 90 60
Hetmans after Ruin & reunification of Ukraine
1687 - 1709
22

1687 - 1709 22 Ivan Mazepa, was last hetman to actively fight against Russian domination 1639 - 1709 70

1709 Ukraine Subsumed into Russia & AustriaHungary
1610s Kudryntsi Castle
16305 Brody Castle
1631 Zbarazh Castle
16346 Zolochiv Castle
1635 Kodak Fortress
1635 - 40 Pidhirtsi Castle
1640s Sydoriv Castle
1699 - 1706 YeniKale Castle
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1699 - 1702 3 Devlet 2 Giray, (first reign)
1702 - 4 2 Selim 1 Giray, 1(fourth reign)
1704 - 7 3 Ğazı 3 Giray,
1707 - 8 1 Qaplan 1 Giray, (first reign)
1709 - 13 4 Devlet 2 Giray, (second reign)
1713 - 5 2 Qaplan 1 Giray, (second reign)
1716 - 7 1 Devlet 3 Giray,
1717 - 24 7 Saadet 4 Giray,
1724 - 30 6 Meñli 2 Giray, (first reign)
1730 - 6 6 Qaplan 1 Giray, (third reign)
1736 - 7 1 Fetih 2 Giray,
1737 - 40 3 Meñli 2 Giray, (second reign)
1740 - 3 3 Selamet 2 Giray,
1743 - 8 5 Selim 2 Giray,
1748 - 56 8 Arslan Giray, (first reign)
1756 - 8 2 Halim Giray,
1758 - 64 6 Qırım Giray, (first reign)
1765 - 7 2 Selim 3 Giray,(first reign)
1767 Arslan Giray, (second reign)
1767 - 8 1 Maqsud Giray,
1768 - 9 1 Qırım Giray, (second reign)
1769 - 70 1 Devlet 4 Giray, (first reign)
1770 Qaplan 2 Giray,
1770 - 1 1 Selim 3 Giray, (second reign)
1771 - 5 4 Sahib 2 Giray, †
1775 - 7 2 Devlet 4 Giray, (second reign)
1777 - 82 5 Şahin Giray, (first reign)
1782 Bahadır 2 Giray,
1782 - 3 1 Şahin Giray, (second reign)
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
1700 Medzhybizh Fortress
1747 - 54 7 St Andrews Cadral Kiev


 

1854 - 6 2 Crimean War
Charge of Light Brigade 1968 1936
Charge of Lancers 1954
1864 - 84 20 Popov Castle
1830 - 5 35 Transfiguration Cadral, Dnipropetrovsk
1882 St Volodymyrs Cadral
1888 Annunciation Cadral, Kharkiv
1912 Swallows Nest Castle Crimea
1939 Battle of Szack. Ukraine Poland 4 350X 900+W A Tr VS USSR RiDiv 81X 184W 7T 2Tra 3ATG
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of Brody . Ukraine Germany 800T 200 VS USSR 2.5T 800
1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1941 Battle of Uman. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Hungary 400 600T VS USSR 300 203 103C 100WX 317TC 858GC
1941 2 Crimean Campaign. Ukraine Germany VS USSR
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 KamenetsPodolsky Pocket. Ukraine USSR 500 399T&AG 280G VS Germany 220 14.2 5.9XM
1941 2 Battle of Kerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 First Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 2Div 1030 12T VS USSR 1Div
1942 Second Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1943 Third Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 70 11.5XWM VS USSR 346 86.5 45.2X 42.3W
1943 Fourth Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine USSR 4Arm 800T 450 VS Germany 2ArnGr
1941 Occupation of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany VS USSR 30CiX
1941 Battle of Kiev . Ukraine Germany 500 VS USSR 627 700.5 616.3XC 84.2W Occupation of city for next 2 years.
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1943 Battle of Kiev. Ukraine USSR VS Germany 1PTArm 15X 6.2C 286T 156
1944 KorsunCherkassy Pocket Ukraine USSR 336.7 80.2 5.3A&M 524T 1 Rien 400T 728T VS Germany 58 30XWM 242A 59T Rien 259T 156T 50
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1999 2003 Odessa Cadral
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529

1495 - 1508 13 Radu 4 cel Mare " Great" ^
1508 - 9 1 Mihnea 1 cel Rău " Mean" ^ Vlad 3
1509 - 10 1 Mircea 3 ^
1510 - 2 2 Vlad 5 cel Tânăr " Younger" (Vlăduţ) ^< Radu cel Mare
Craioveşti 1512 - 21 9
1512 - 21 9 Neagoe Basarab 5
Teodosie 1521 - 2 1
1521 - 2 1 Teodosie
Drăculeşti 1522 - 3 1
1522 - 3 1 Radu 5 ^ Radu cel Mare; allied with Craioveşti; 1stX
Dăneşti 1523
1523 Vladislav 3 ^< Vladislav 2 1stX
Nondynastic 1523 4 1
1523 - 4 1 Radu 6 Bădica
1524 Radu 5 2ndX
Dăneşti 1524
1524 Vladislav 3 2ndX
Craioveşti 1524 - 5 1
1524 - 5 1 Radu 5 3rdX
Dăneşti 1525
1525 Vladislav 3 3rdX
Craioveşti 1525 9 4
1525 - 9 4 Radu 5 4thX
Nondynastic 1529 30 1
1529 Basarab 6
1529 - 30 1 Moise
Drăculeşti 1530 - 91 60
1530 - 2 2 Vlad 6 Înecatul " Drowned" ^ Vlad cel Tânăr
1532 - 5 3 Vlad 7 Vintilă de la Slatina ^ Radu cel Mare
1535 - 45 10 Radu 7 Paisie ^
1545 - 52 7 Mircea 4 Ciobanul " Shepard" 1stX ^ Radu cel Mare; 1stX
1552 - 3 1 Radu 8 Ilie Haidăul " Cowherd" ^ Radu de la Afumaţi
1553 - 4 1 Mircea 4 2ndX
1554 - 8 3 Pătraşcu cel Bun " Kind" ^ Radu Paisie; 3rdX
1558 - 9 1 Mircea 4 3rdX
1559 - 68 9 Petru 1 cel Tânăr " Younger" ^
1568 - 74 6 Alexandru 2 Mircea (Oaie Sea) 1stX ^ Mircea 2
1574 Vintilă ^ Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
1574 - 7 3 Alexandru 2 Mircea2ndX
1577 - 83 6 Mihnea 2 Turcitul
(Mihnea TurnedTurk) 1stX ^
1583 - 5 2 Petru 2 Cercel (Peter 2 Earring) ^ Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
1585 - 91 6 Mihnea 2 Turcitul 2ndX
Nondynastic 1591 - 3 2
1591 - 2 1 Ştefan Surdul " Deaf"
1592 - 3 1 Alexandru 3 cel Rău
" Mean" also ruled Moldavia (1592)
Drăculeşti 1593 - 1600 7
1593 - 1600 7 Michael Brave
(Mihai Viteazul) illegitimate son of Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599 - 1600) & Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting three principalities.
1543 Bonţida Bánffy Castle
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
BogdanMuşat 2ndX
1375 - 1449
74
1457 - 1504 47 Ştefan 3 cel Mare " Great" ^ Bogdan 2
1504 - 17 13 Bogdan 3 cel Chior ^
1517 - 27 10 Ştefan 4 ^ Bogdan 3
1527 - 38 11 Petru 4 Rareş
1538 - 40 2 Ştefan 5 Lăcustă ^^
1540 - 1 1 Alexandru 3 Cornea ^ Bogdan 3
1541 - 6 5 Petru 4 Rareş 2ndX
1546 - 51 5 Ilie II Rareş ^
1551 - 2 2 Ştefan 6 Rareş <
Nondynastic 3rdX 1552
1552 Ioan 1 Joldea
BogdanMuşat 4thX
1552 - 61
9
1552 - 61 9 Alexandru 4 Lăpuşneanu 1stX ^ Bogdan 3
Nondynastic 3rdX - 1561 4 3
1561 - 3 2 Ioan 2 Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides) " Despot"
1563 - 4 1 Ştefan 7 Tomşa
BogdanMuşat 5thX
1564 - 74
10
1564 - 8 4 Alexandru 4 Lăpuşneanu 2ndX
1568 - 72 4 Bogdan 4 ^
1572 - 4 Ioan 3 cel Cumplit (John 3 Terrible) " Brave" ^ Ştefan 4
Drăculeşti 1stX 1574 - 7 3
1574 - 7 3 Petru 5 Şchiopul
(Peter 5 Lame) 1stX
Hetman 1stX 1577
1577 Ioan 4 Potcoavă (Ivan Pidcova)
Drăculeşti 2ndX 1578 - 9 1
1578 - 9 1 Petru 5 Şchiopul 2ndX
BogdanMuşat 6thX
1579 - 82
3
1579 - 82 3 Ioan 5 Sasul
(John 5 Saxon) ^ Petru Rares
Drăculeşti 3rdX 1582 - 91 9
1582 - 91 9 Petru 5 Şchiopul 3rdX
BogdanMuşat 7thX 1591 - 5 4
1591 - 2 1 Aron Tiranul
" Tyrant 1stX ^ Alexandru Lăpuşneanu
1592 Alexandru 5 cel Rău
" Wrongdoer" ^ Bogdan 4. *Wallachia (92 3 1)
1592 Petru 6 Cazacul " Cossack" ^
1592 - 5 3 Aron Tiranul " Tyrant" 2ndX
Nondynastic 4thX 1595
1595 Ştefan 8 Răzvan
Movileşti 1stX 1595 - 1600 5
1595 - 1600 5 Ieremia Movilă ^ Petru Rares
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
@ Gyulafehérvár (AlbaIulia) 1570 - 1692
Hermannstadt (Sibiu) 1692 - 1711
Latin (in administration, science & politics);
Hungarian, German, Romanian, Runian (vernacular)
Roman Catholicism, Calvinism, Luranism, Eastern Orthodoxy,
Greek Catholicism, Unitarianism, Judaism
Principality, Elective monarchy
Vassal state of Ottoman Empire (1570 - 1683)
Vassal state of Habsburg Monarchy (1699 - 1711)
Zápolya 1570 - 1 1
1570 - 1 1 John 8 Sigismund Zapólya (János Zsigmond) ^John Zápolya, renounced his royal claim in 1570 in favour of Emperor Maximilian & remained Prince of Transylvania & parts of Hungary until his death in 1571.
Báthory (Somlyó) 1stX
1571 - 98
27
1571 - 86 15 Stephen 10 Báthory elected Voivod by a diet, King of Poland since 1575
1571 - 2 1
Gáspár Bekes Rival. designated as successor by John II Sigismund Zápolya & supported by Habsburg King, defeated by Stephen Báthory
1575 - 81 6
Christopher Báthory<Stephen 10 Báthory
1586 - 98 12 Sigismund Báthory 1stX. Abdicated
1593 - 1617 24 Moldavian Magnate Wars. Moldova, Romania. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth vs Austria, Ottoman Empire.
1598 Rudolf HRE
Báthory (Somlyó) 2ndX
1598 - 9
1
1598 - 9 1 Sigismund Báthory Abdicated
1599 Andrew Cardinal Báthory << Deposed & killed
Drăculeşti 1599 - 1600 1
1599 - 1600 1 Michael 2 Brave. recognized by Transylvanian parliament (diet) only as imperial governor subject to Holy Roman Emperor, however, he was de facto ruler of Transylvania. Deposed in September 1600 by Hungarian nobles. Romanian historiography asserts that he was Prince of Transylvania.
1512 - 26 Curtea de Argeş Cadral
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
Movileşti 1600 - 1 1
1600 - 1 1 Simion Movilă 1stX
Drăculeşti 1601 2 1
1601 - 2 1 Radu 9 Mihnea 1stX ^ Minhea II Turcitul
1602 Simion Movilă 2ndX
Nondynastic 1602 - 10 8
1602 - 10 8 Radu 10 Şerban 1stX
1611 Gabriel Báthory. Prince of Transylvania
1611 Radu 9 2ndX
Nondynastic 1611
1611 Radu 10 2ndX
Drăculeşti 1611 - 16 5
1611 - 16 5 Radu 9 3rdX
1616 Gabriel Movilă 1stX ^ Simion Movilă 1stX
Nondynastic 1616 - 8 2
1616 - 8 2 Alexandru 4 Iliaş 1stX
Movileşti 1618 - 20 2
1618 - 20 2 Alexandru 4 2ndX
Drăculeşti 1620 - 7 7
1620 - 3 3 Radu 9 4thX
1623 - 7 4 Alexandru 5 Coconul "ChildPrince" ^
Nondynastic 1627 - 32 5
1627 - 9 2 Alexandru 4 Iliaş 2ndX
1629 - 32 3 Leon Tomşa
1632 Radu 11 Iliaş
Brâncoveneşti 1632 - 54 22
1632 - 54 22 Matei Basarab
Nondynastic 1654 - 9 5
1654 - 8 4 Constantin Şerban ^ Radu Şerban
1658 - 9 1 Mihnea 3
Ghica 1659 - 64 5
1659 - 60 1 Gheorghe Ghica
1660 - 4 4 Grigore 1 Ghica 1stX
Nondynastic 1664 - 72 8
1664 - 9 5 Radu 12 Leon
1669 - 72 3 Antonie Vodă din Popeşti
Ghica 1672 - 3 1
1672 - 3 1 Grigore 1 Ghica 2ndX
Nondynastic 1673 - 8 5
1673 - 8 5 George Ducas
Cantacuzene 1678 - 88 10
1678 88 10 Şerban Cantacuzino
Brâncoveneşti 1688 - 1714 26
1688 - 1714 26 Constantin Brâncoveanu
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
1593 - 1617 24 Moldavian Magnate Wars.
Drăculeşti 4thX 1600
1600 Mihai Viteazul
" Brave" also ruled Wallachia (1593 - 1600 7) & Transylvania (1599 - 1600 1)
Movileşti 2ndX 1600 - 12 12
1600 - 6 6 Ieremia Movilă 2ndX
1606 - 7 1 Simion Movilă <
1607 Mihail Movilă 1stX ^<
1607 Constantin Movilă < under regency of his mor Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz
1607 Mihail Movilă 2ndX <
1607 - 12 5 Constantin Movilă 2ndX Mor as Regent.
Nondynastic 5thX 1611 - 15 4
1611 - 15 4 Ştefan 9 Tomşa
Movileşti 3rdX 1615 - 6 1
1615 - 6 1 Alexandru 6 Movilă
Drăculeşti 5thX 1616 - 9 3
1616 - 9 3 Radu Mihnea 1stX
Nondynastic 6thX 1619 - 20 1
1619 - 20 1 Gaspar Graziani
BogdanMuşat 8thX 1620 - 1 1
1620 - 1 1 Alexandru 7 Iliaş 1stX ^< Petru 6, Aron Tiranul & Bogdan 4
Nondynastic 7thX 1621 - 3 2
1621 - 3 2 Ştefan 9 Tomşa 2ndX
Drăculeşti 6thX 1623 - 6 3
1623 - 6 3 Radu Mihnea 2ndX
Movileşti 4thX 1626 - 9 3
1626 - 9 3 Miron BarnovschiMovilă 1stX
Drăculeşti 7thX 1626 - 9 3
1626 - 9 3 Alexandru 8 Coconul
" ChildPrince" 1stX
Movileşti 5thX 1630 - 1 1
1630 - 1 1 Moise Movilă 1stX
BogdanMuşat 9thX 1631 - 3 2
1631 - 3 2 Alexandru 7 Iliaş 2ndX
Movileşti 6thX 1633 - 4 1
1633 Miron BarnovschiMovilă 2ndX
1633 - 4 1 Moise Movilă 2ndX
Nondynastic 8thX 1634 - 58 24
1634 - 53 19 Vasile Lupu 1stX
1653 Gheorghe Ştefan 1stX
1653 Vasile Lupu 2ndX
1653 - 8 5 Gheorghe Ştefan 2ndX
Ghica 1stX 1658 - 9 1
1658 - 9 1 Gheorghe Ghica
Nondynastic 9thX 1659 - 66 7
1659 Constantin Şerban 1stX
1659 - 1 2 Ştefan 10 Lupu (PapurăVodă, Bullrush Voivode) 1stX
1661 Constantin Şerban 2ndX
1659 - 61 2 Ştefan 10 Lupu 2ndX
1661 - 5 4 Eustratie Dabija
1665 - 6 1 Gheorghe Duca 1stX
BogdanMuşat 10thX
1666 - 8
2
1666 - 8 2 Iliaş 3 Alexandru ^
Alexandru 7
Nondynastic 10thX 1668 - 73 5
1668 - 72 4 Gheorghe Duca 2ndX
1672 - 3 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 1stX
Cantacuzene 1stX 1673
1673 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 1stX
Nondynastic 11thX 1673 - 4 1
1673 - 4 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 2ndX
Cantacuzene 2ndX 1674 - 5 1
1674 - 5 1 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 2ndX
Rosetti 1stX 1675 - 8 3
1675 - 8 3 Antonie Ruset
Nondynastic 12thX 1678 - 84 6
1678 - 83 5 Gheorghe Duca 3rdX
1683 - 4 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 3rdX
Cantacuzene 3rdX 1684 - 5 1
1684 - 5 1 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 3rdX
Cantemireşti 1stX 1685 - 93 8
1685 - 93 8 Constantin Cantemir
1693 Dimitrie Cantemir 1stX
Deposed by Ottomans
Nondynastic 13thX 1693 - 5 2
1693 5 2 Constantin Duca 1stX
Cantemireşti 2ndX
1695 - 1700
5
1695 - 1700 5 Antioh Cantemir 1stX
1600 Jósika Castle
1630 Sibiu Castle
1630s Mikó Castle
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
Drăculeşti 1599 - 1600 1
1599 - 1600 1 Michael 2 Brave (1558 - 1601 43) .
1600 Michael Brave, ruler of Walachia, national symbol of Romanians for uniting three provinces under his rule
1601 Michael Brave (first unificator of Romania), voivode of Wallachia, Moldavia & Transylvania, is assassinated by order of Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii.
Habsburg 2ndX 1600 - 1 1
1600 - 1 1 Rudolf HRE
Báthory (Somlyó) 3rdX 1601
1601 Sigismund Báthory
Habsburg 3rdX 1601 - 6 5
1601 - 6 5 Rudolf HRE
NonDynastic 1603
1603 Mózes Székely. rebelled against Habsburgs & defeated Basta with Tartar mercenaries & claimed title of Prince but was defeated by Radu Şerban, Voivode of Wallachia
Bocskay 1605 - 6 1
1605 - 6 1 Stephen 11 Bocksay rebelled against Habsburgs with support of Hungarian nobles & Turks, confirmed in his position in Treaty of Vienna (1606)
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 1stX
1607 - 8
1
1607 - 8 1 Sigismund Rákóczi elected by estates against wishes of Bocskay, Habsburgs & Ottomans; deposed by a military rebellion under Gabriel Báthory
Báthory (Somlyó) 4thX
1608
- 13
5
1608 - 13 5 Gabriel Báthory ally of Bocskay, came to power in a military rebellion
Bethlen (Iktár) 1613 - 30 17
1613 - 29 16 Gabriel Bethlen claimed Kingship of Hungary 16191621
1618 Bethlen Gabor, Prince of Transylvania joins Protestant Rebels.
1629 - 30 1 Stephen 12 Bethlenoriginally chosen to succeed his bror, opposed his sisterinlaw
Hohenzollern 1629 - 30 1
1629 - 30 1 Carine of Brandenburg daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, widow of Gabriel Bethlen
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 2ndX
1630 - 48
18
1630 - 48 18 George 1 Rákóczi
Habsburg 4thX 1630 - 45 15
1630 - 45 15 Ferdinand 3 claimed Principality but accepted George I in 1645 in treaty of Linz
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 3rdX
1648 - 57
9
1648 - 57 9 George 1 Rákóczi married Sophia Báthory, niece of Gabriel Báthory, claimed Kingship of Poland in 1657, abdicated in favor of Habsburg Leopold, King of Hungary, deposed by a diet at Turkish command
Rhédey (Aba) 1557 - 8 1
1557 - 8 1 Francis Rhédey backed by Charles 10 Gustav of Sweden (1654 - 60). Francis Rhédey was a descendent from Royal House of Aba King Samuel Aba of Hungary
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 5thX
1657 - 8
1
1657 - 8 1 George 2 Rákóczi restored by a diet, deposed by Turks
Barcsay (Nagybarcsa)
1658 - 9
1
1658 - 9 1 Ákos Barcsay
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 6thX
1659 - 60
1
1659 - 60 1 George 2 Rákóczi fell in battle against Turks
Kemény 1661 - 2 1
1661 - 2 1 John 9 Kemény backed by Habsburg King Leopold
Apafi (Apanagyfalu)
1661 - 92
31
1661 - 90 29 Michael 3 Apafi backed by Turks, opposed King Leopold, made peace with Habsburg King in 1685/7
1681 - 92 11 Michael 4 Apafi
elected as heir during his fars lifetime, & accepted as such by Turks, ruled with George Bánffy as governor, moved to Vienna & forced to cede Principality to King Leopold
Thököly (Kesmarkium)
1690 - 99
9
1690 - 99 9 Imre Thököly earlier claimant of Upper Hungary, appointed Prince of Transsylvania by Turks at death of Michael I, held country with Turkish support briefly in 1690/91
1692 Habsburg Kings of Hungary permanently assumed title of Prince of Transylvania, administering country through governors.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz
Habsburg 1690 - 1705 15
1690 - 1705 15 Leopold 1
1762 Episcopal Palace, Oradea
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
Brâncoveneşti 1688 - 1714 26
1688 - 1714 26 Constantin Brâncoveanu
Cantacuzene 1714 - 5 1
1714 - 5 1 Ştefan Cantacuzino
Phanariote rule
1715 - 1821
106
Mavrocordato 1715 - 6 1
1715 6 1 Nicolae Mavrocordat 1stX
Habsburg Occupation 1716
Mavrocordato 1716 - 30 14
1716 - 9 3 Ioan Mavrocordat
1719 - 30 11 Nicolae Mavrocordat 2ndX
1730 Constantin Mavrocordat 1stX
Racoviţă 1730 - 1 1
1730 - 1 1 Mihai Racoviţă 1stX
Mavrocordato 1730 - 3 3
1730 - 3 3 Constantin Mavrocordat 2ndX
Ghica 1733 - 5 2
1733 - 5 2 Grigore 2 Ghica 1stX
Mavrocordato 1735 - 41 6
1735 - 41 6 Constantin Mavrocordat 3rdX
Racoviţă 1741 - 4 3
1741 - 4 3 Mihai Racoviţă 2ndX
Mavrocordato 1744 - 8 4
1744 - 8 4 Constantin Mavrocordat 4thX
Ghica 1748 - 53 5
1748 - 52 4 Grigore 2 Ghica 2ndX
1752 - 3 1 Matei Ghica
Nondynastic 1753 - 8 5
1753 - 6 3 Constantin Racoviţă
1756 - 8 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 5thX
Ghica 1758 - 61 3
1758 - 61 3 Scarlat Ghica 1stX
Nondynastic 1761 - 3 2
1761 - 3 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 6thX
Racoviţă 1763 - 5 2
1763 - 4 1 Constantin Racoviţă 2ndX
1764 - 5 1 Ştefan Racoviţă
Ghica 1765 - 8 3
1765 - 6 1 Scarlat Ghica 2ndX
1766 - 8 2 Alexandru Ghica
Russian Occupation 1768
Ghica 1768 - 9 1
1768 - 9 1 Grigore 3 Ghica
Russian Occupation
1769 - 70
1
Rosetti 1770 1 1
1770 - 1 1 Emanuel Giani Ruset (Manole, Manolache)
Ypsilanti 1774 - 82 8
1774 - 82 8 Alexander Ypsilantis
Caradja 1682 - 3 1
1682 - 3 1 Nicolae Caragea
Soutzos 1783 - 6 3
1783 - 6 3 Mihail Suţu 1stX
Nondynastic 1786 - 9 3
1786 - 9 3 Nicolae Mavrogheni
Habsburg occupation
1789 - 90
1
Soutzos 1791 - 3 2
1791 - 3 2 Mihail Suţu 2ndX
Mourousi 1793 - 6 3
1793 - 6 3 Alexandru Moruzi 1stX
Ypsilanti 1796 - 7 1
1796 - 7 1 Alexander Ypsilantis 2ndX
Nondynastic 1797 - 9 2
1797 - 9 2 Constantin Hangerli
Mourousi 1799 - 1801 1
1799 - 1801 1 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Nondynastic 14thX 1700 3 3
1700 - 3 3 Constantin Duca 2ndX
1703 Chancellor Ioan Buhuş 1stX
Racoviţă 1stX 1703 - 5 2
1703 - 5 2 Mihai Racoviţă 1stX
Cantemireşti 3rdX 1705 - 7 2
1705 - 7 2 Antioh Cantemir 2ndX
Racoviţă 2ndX 1707 - 9 2
1707 - 9 2 Mihai Racoviţă 2ndX
Nondynastic 15thX 1709 - 10 1
1709 - 10 1 Chancellor
Ioan Buhuş
2ndX
Mavrocordato 1stX 1709 - 10 1
1709 - 10 1 Nicolae Mavrocordat 1stX
Cantemireşti 4thX 1710 - 1 1
1710 - 1 1 Dimitrie Cantemir 2ndX
1710 - 1 1 RussoTurkish War. Moldova. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate vs Russian Empire, Principality of Moldavia
Phanariotes 1711 - 1821 110
Nondynastic 16thX 1711
1711 Caimacam Lupu Costachi
Mavrocordato 2ndX 1711 - 5 4
1711 Ioan Mavrocordat
1711 - 5 4 Nicolae Mavrocordat 2ndX
Racoviţă 3rdX 1715 - 26 11
1715 - 26 11 Mihai Racoviţă 3rdX
Ghica 2ndX 1726 - 33 7
1726 - 33 7 Grigore 2 Ghica 1stX
Mavrocordato 3rdX 1733 - 5 2
1733 - 5 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 1stX
Ghica 3rdX 1735 - 9 4
1735 - 9 4 Grigore 2 Ghica 2ndX
1735 - 9 4 RussoAustrianTurkish War
Russian occupation 1739
Ghica 1739 - 41 2
1739 41 2 Grigore 2 Ghica 3rdX
Mavrocordato 4thX 1741 - 7 6
1741 - 3 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 2ndX
1743 - 7 4 Ioan Mavrocordat 2ndX
Ghica 4thX 1747 - 8 1
1747 - 8 1 Grigore 2 Ghica 4thX
Mavrocordato 5thX 1748 - 9 1
1748 - 9 1 Constantin Mavrocordat 3rdX
Nondynastic 17thX 1749
1749 Iordache Stavrachi
Racoviţă 4thX 1749 - 53 4
1749 - 53 4 Constantin Racoviţă 1stX
Ghica 5thX 1753 - 6 3
1753 - 6 3 Matei Ghica
Racoviţă 5thX 1756 - 7 1
1756 - 7 1 Constantin Racoviţă 2ndX
Ghica 6thX 1757 - 8 1
1757 - 8 1 Scarlat Ghica
Callimachi 1stX 1758 - 64 6
1758 - 61 3 Ioan Teodor Callimachi
1761 - 4 3 Grigore Callimachi 1stX
Ghica 7thX 1764 - 7 3
1764 - 7 3 Grigore 3 Ghica 1stX
Callimachi 2ndX 1767 - 9 2
1767 - 9 2 Grigore Callimachi 2ndX
1768 - 74 6 RussoTurkish War
Mavrocordato 6thX 1769
1769 Constantin Mavrocordat 4thX
Russian occupation
1769 - 74
5
Ghica 8thX 1774 - 7 3
1774 - 7 3 Grigore 3 Ghica 2ndX
Mourousi 1stX 1777 - 82 5
1777 - 82 5 Constantin Moruzi 4thX
Mavrocordato 7thX 1782 - 6 4
1782 - 5 3 Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey
1785 - 6 1 Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris
Ypsilanti 1stX 1786 - 8 2
1786 - 8 2 Alexandru Ipsilanti
Austrian occupation
1787 - 91
4
1787 - 92 5 RussoTurkish War
Rosetti 1stX 1788 - 9 1
1788 - 9 1 Emanuel Giani Ruset (Manole, Manolache)
Russian occupation
1788 - 91
3
Mourousi 2ndX 1792
1792 Alexandru Moruzi 1stX
Soutzos 1stX 1793 - 5 2
1793 - 5 2 Mihai Suţu (Draco)
Callimachi 3rdX 1795 - 9 4
1795 - 9 4 Alexandru Callimachi
Ypsilanti 2ndX 1799 - 1801 2
1799 - 1801 2 Constantin Ipsilanti
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
Habsburg 1690 - 1705 15
1690 - 1705 15 Leopold 1
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 7thX
1704 - 11
7
1704 - 11 7 Francis 2 Rákóczi grandson of George II Rákóczi, rebelled against King Leopold, claiming titles Prince of Transylvania & Ruling Prince of Hungary
1711 Subsummed into HRE
1736 - 1774 St. Georges Cadral, Timişoara
1738 - 49 Holy Trinity Cadral, Blaj
1778 - 9 Transfiguration Cadral, ClujNapoca


Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
Mourousi 1799 - 1801 1
1799 - 1801 1 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
Soutzos 1801 - 2 1
1801 - 2 1 Mihail Suţu 3rdX
1802 Alexandru Suţu
Ypsilanti 1802 - 6 4
1802 - 6 4 Constantin Ypsilanti
Russian occupation
1806 - 12
6
Caradja 181 - 2 8 6
1812 - 8 6 Ioan Gheorghe Caragea
Nondynastic 1821
1821 Kaymakam
1821 Tudor Vladimirescu leader of antiPhanariote uprising
1821 Scarlat Callimachi
Ghica - 1822 8 6
1822 - 8 6 Grigore 4 Ghica
Russian occupation
1828 - 43
6
Organic Statute government
1832 - 56
24
Ghica 1834 - 42 8
1834 - 42 8 Alexandru 2 Ghica
Bibescu 1842 - 8 6
1842 - 8 6 Gheorghe Bibescu
1848 Wallachian Revolution Romania
Regency of three 1848
Joint Ottoman & Russian occupation 1848
Ştirbei 1stX 1848 - 53 5
1848 - 53 5 Barbu Ştirbei 1stX
Russian occupation 1853 - 4 1
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854 - 6 2
Ştirbei 2ndX 1854 - 6 2
1854 - 6 2 Barbu Ştirbei 2ndX
Protectorate established by Treaty of Paris 1856 - 9 3
1856 - 8 2 Caimacam
Alexandru 2 Ghica

1858 - 9 1 Caimacam of three
1859 Unioned with Moldova
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Ypsilanti 2ndX 1799 - 1801 2
1799 - 1801 2 Constantin Ipsilan
Soutzos 2ndX 1801 - 2 1
1801 - 2 1 Alexandru Suţu
Nondynastic 18thX 1802
1802 Chancellor Iordache Conta
Mourousi 3rdX 1802
1802 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
Callimachi 4thX 1806
1806 Scarlat Callimachi 1stX
Mourousi 4thX 1806 - 7 1
1806 - 7 1 Alexandru Moruzi 3rdX
Russian occupation
1806 - 12
6
1806 - 12 6 RussoTurkish War part of Napoleonic Wars. Moldova, Romania, Armenia, Turkey. Russian Empire vs Ottoman Empire
1812 Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in .
(See also President of Moldova, for rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in 20th century.)
Nondynastic 18thX 1807
1807 Alexandru Hangerli
Callimachi 5thX 1807
1807 Scarlat Callimachi. Deposed by Russians
Rosetti 2ndX 1807
1807 Caimacam
Iordache RusetRoznovanu
Nondynastic 19thX 1807 - 12 5
1807 - 12 5 Caimacam Metropolitan Veniamin Costache 1stX
Callimachi 6thX 1812 - 9 7
1812 - 9 7 Scarlat Callimachi
Soutzos 3rdX 1819 - 1 2
1819 - 1 2 Mihail Suţu
Nondynastic 20thX
1819 - 34
15
1819 Stolnici Manu & RizosNerulos
1821 Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
2ndX
1821 Filiki Eteria occupation
1821 - 2 1 Caimacam Stefan Bogoridi (Ştefan Vogoride)
1822 - 8 6 Ioan Sturdza
1828 - 34 6 Russian occupation
Organic Statute government
1832 - 56
24
Nondynastic 21stX 1834 - 9 5
1834 - 9 5 Mihail Sturdza
Ghica 9thX 1849 - 53 4
1849 - 53 4 Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1stX
Russian occupation 1853 - 4 1
1853 - 4 1 Crimean War
Ghica 10thX 1854 - 6 2
1854 - 6 2 Grigore Alexandru Ghica 2ndX
Protectorate established by Treaty of Paris 1856 - 9 3
Nondynastic 22ndX
1856 - 62
6
1856 Extraordinary Administrative Council
1856 - 7 1 Caimacam Teodor Balş
1857 - 8 1 Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride

1858 - 9 1 Caimacams
1859 - 62 3 Alexander John Cuza. Also ruled Wallachia in personal union
1862 Formal union of Moldavia & Wallachia
1800 - 65 65 Evangelis Zappas, GreekRomanian Founder of International Modern Olympic Games
1856 Worlds first oil refinery in Romania
Kingdom of Romania
1881 - 1947 66
Bucharest
(1881 - 1916 / 1918 - 47)
Iaşi 1916 - 8 2
1881 - 1914 43 Carol 1
1896 Iulia Hasdeu Castle
1833 - 87 55 Metropolitan Cadral, Iaşi
1840 - 52 12 Dormition of otokos Cadral, Giurgiu
1883 - 95 12 Saints Peter & Paul Cadral Constanţa
Kingdom of Romania
1881 - 1947 66
1881 1914 43 Carol 1

1903 Pelişor Castle
1914 Peleş Castle
1914 27 13 Ferdinand 1

1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1918 Treaty of Bucharest.

1923 - 33 10 Dormition of otokos Cadral, ClujNapoca
1925 - 32 7 Ascension of Lord Cadral, Târgu Mureş
1927 - 30 3 Michael 1 (1st reign)
1930 - 40 10 Carol 2
1934 - 7 6 Holy Trinity Cadral, Sighişoara
1937 - 40 3 Timişoara Orthodox Cadral
1940 7 7 Michael 1 (2nd reign)

1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1941 - 2 Battle of Kerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 2nd Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Battle of Dnieper. Russia USSR 2.65M(Ini) 51G 2.4T 2.9 1.29MCa 348.8X 937.3WSVS Germany, Romania 1.25M(Ini) 12.6G 2.1T 2 4001.2M
1942 - 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1942 - 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 n 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A n 13.5 15.7 400T n 894 4.3T 300 n 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 n 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A n 10.3 6 600 n 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1944 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 JassyKishinev Operation. Romania USSR, Romania 239th Aug 1.31M 13.2XM 54WS 16G 1.9T 2.2 111 VS Germany, Romania 203rd Aug 40Div 1.22M 170 100X 115C 800 T Romania: 8.3X 25W 170CM 25
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungary, Germany
1944 1st Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania 3Div 2ArDiv 1PTDiv VS USSR 14RiDiv T 1AiDiv
1944 2nd Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania VS USSR
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Republic of Romania
1947 - Present
64
@ Bucharest
1860 Genoese Lighthouse Constanţa
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
@
1830 6 Nativity Cadral, Chişinău
Russian Guberniya of Bessarabia
1871 - 1917 46
@ Chişinău
Russian Guberniya of Bessarabia
1871 - 1917 46
@ Chişinău
Moldavian Democratic Republic
1917 - 8 1
@ Chişinău
Romanian, Russian
1917 - 8 1 Ion Inculeţ
1918 Subsummed into Kingdom of Romania
Romanian Moldova
1918 - 24
6
@ Chişinău
Soviot Moldavian ASSR
1924 - 40 16
Balta 1924 - 8 4
Birzula 1928 - 9 1
Tiraspol 1929 - 40 11
Moldavian, Ukrainian, Russian
Satelite State of USSR. Socialist republic
Ruble
1940 Subsummed into USSR
Moldavian SSR
1940 - 91 51
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
Republic of Moldova
1991 - 2011
20
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
1780s Soroca
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Post Rumelia Ottoman Bulgaria
1826 - 78
52
@ Sofia
1850s St Louis Cadral Plovdiv
1876 Bulgarian revolt against Ottoman rule.
Principality of Bulgaria
1878 - 1908
30
@ Veliko Turnovo, Sofia
1886 Dormition of otokos Cadral Varna
Principality of Bulgaria
1878 - 1908
30
@ Veliko Turnovo, Sofia
Kingdom of Bulgaria
1908 - 46 38
@ Sovia
Orthodox Christianity
Constitutional Monarchy
1908 - 18 10 Ferdinand 1
1912 Alexander Nevsky Cadral, Sofia
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8

1918 - 43 25 Boris 3
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X

1943 - 6 3 Simeon 2
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1945 Vienna Offensive. Austria USSR 644.7, Bulgaria 100.9 4Arm 85Div 3Bri 746 18X VS Germany 19X 52C 20%Ci
Soviot Peoples
Republic of Bulgaria

1946 - 90
44
@ Sofia
Bulgarian
Satellite State of USSR
Republic of Bulgaria
1991 - Present
20
@ Sofia
2004 St Paul of Cross Cadral
2006 St Joseph Cadral Sofia
2006 Saint Vissarion Cadral Smolyan
Grand Duchy of Moscow
1340 - 1547
207
1500 - 3 3 Second Muscovite Lithuanian War Moscow wins
1502 Golden Horde is destroyed by Crimean Khanate
1505 - 33 28 Vasiliy 3 ^Sophia =Solomonia Yuryevna Saburova 0C & Elana Vasilyevna Glinskaya 2S X54
1507 - 8 1 3rd Muscovite Lithuanian War Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian rebels led by Michael Glinski
1512 - 22 10 4th Muscovite–Lithuanian War. Russia. Grand Duchy of Moscow Livonian Order vs Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Poland Crimean Tatars
1533 - 47 12 Ivan 4 Terrible ^Elana =0 X51
1534 - 7 3 5th Muscovite–Lithuanian War. Russia. Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland, Crimean Tatars vs Grand Duchy of Moscow
1541 Sahib I Giray of Crimea invade Russia.
1547 Grand Prince Ivan Terrible is crowned tsar of (All)Russia, nceforth becoming first Russian tsar.
Kingdom of Russia
1547 - 1721
174
1547 - 84 47 Ivan 4 Terrible 1544 1584 =Anastasia Romanovna ZakharyinaYurieva 6C & Maria Temryukovna 1S & Marfa Vasilevna Sobakina & Anna Alexeievna Koltovskaya & Anna Vasilchikova & Vasilisa Melentyeva & Maria Dolgorukaya & Maria Feodorovna Nagaya 1S X51
Ivan Terrible, Part 1 1943 Part 2 1946
Tsar Ivan Grozny 1993
1552 - 6 4 Kazan War. Russia. Muscovite Russia, Hill Cheremisa vs People of Kazan, Chyuvasha, Meadow Cheremisa, Hill Cheremisa, Ar people, Nogai Horde
1552 Siege of Kazan. Russia. Tsardom of Russia, Qasim Khanate, Taw yağı vs Kazan Khanate, Cheremis & Ar warriors, Nogay cavalry Russian conquers khanate of Kazan
1554 - 7 3 RussoSwedish War
1556 Russian conquers khanate of Astrakhan
1556 Russians capture Tartar city of Astrakhan, ending Astrakhan Khanate. far south along Volga river, giving m access to Caspian Sea.
1556 Russia conquers Astrakhan Khanate.
1570 Ivan Terrible orders massacre of inhabitants of Novgorod.
1571 Russo / Crimean War
1571 Crimean Tatars attack & sack Moscow, burning everything but Kremlin.
1582 Yermak Timofeyevich conquers Siberia Khanate on behalf of Stroganovs.
1584 98 14 Feodor 1 =Irina Feodorovna Godunova 1D X41
1590 - 5 5 RussoSwedish War
1591 Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow.
2nd Pskov Republic
1348 - 1510
162
@ Pskov
Khanate of Khazan
1438 - 1552
114
@ Kazan
Tatar, Chuvash, Mari
Sunni Islam
Great Horde
1466 - 1502
34
1499 - 1502 Murtada
1502 Shaykh Ahmad
1502 final collapse of Great (Golden) Horde at hands of khan of Crimean Tatar Khanate.
Khanate of Sibir
1490 - 1598
108
@ Tyumen (until 1493)
Sibir (from 1493
Siberian Tatar, Khanty, Mansi,
Nenets, Selkup
Shamanism n Islam
Monarchy
1590s Kazakh Empire divides into three hordes: Great Horde (east), Middle Horde (center), & Lesser Horde (west).
1563 - 98 reign of last Shaybanid ruler of Siberian Khanate, Kuchum Khan.
1558 - 59 first Russian commercial contacts with Transoxiana under Anthony Jenkinson.
1584 Yermak, Russian Cossack leader, defeats Kuchum Khan at Battle of Tobol River.
1500s Pskov Kremlin
1514 Goritsky Monastery
1515 Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
1531 Kolomna Kremlin
1531 Zaraysk Kremlin
1556 Serpukhov Kremlin
1564 Vyborg Castle
1567 Vologda Kremlin
1580 1807 Astrakhan Kremlin
1591 Donskoy Monastery
1591 Saints Boris & Gleb Monastery
1594 1833 Stolobny Island
1595 PskovoPechersky Monastery









1605 - 18 13 Polish Muscovite War Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth vs Tsardom of Russia V
1654 - 67 13 RussoPolish War Tsardom of Russia Ukrainian Cossacks PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate
1656 - 8 2 RussoSwedish War Part of Second Norrn War Swedish Empire Tsardom of Russia
1645 Russians reach Pacific Ocean.
Kingdom of Russia
1547 - 1721
174
Time of Troubles
1598 - 1613
15
1598 - 1605 7 Boris Godunov ^Feodor Ivanovich Godunov & Stepanida =Maria Grigorievna SkuratovaBelskaya 2C X54
1601 - 3 2 Russian famine of 1601 - 3 2 kills perhaps a third of Russia.
1605 Feodor 2 ^ =0 X16
1605 - 6 1 Dmitry 2 known as False Dmitry 1 =Marina Mniszech 0C X25
Shuysky branch of Rurik
1606 - 10 4 Vasiliy 4 =0 X60
1607 - 10 3 Dmitry 3 known as False Dmitry 2 =Marina Mniszech 1S X28
1611 - 2 1 Dmitry 4 known as False Dmitry 3 =? X?
Polish Control 1610 - 12 2
1610 - 2 2 Vladislaus of Poland deposed =Cecilia Renata of Austria 0C & Marie Louise Gonzaga 0C X53
1613 Time of Troubles in Russia ends with establishment of House of Romanov which rules until 1917.
1613 - 45 22 Michael 1 ^Nikitich Romanov & Kseniya Ioannovna Shestova =Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova 1CX & Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva 10C X49
1619 - 21 2 1st diplomatic contacts between Moscow & Bukhara.
1632 - 4 2 Smolensk War. Russia. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth vs Tsardom of Russia
1643 Oyrats who stayed in Jungaria conquer Semirechye, Turkestan.
1645 - 76 31 Alexis 1 ^ =Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya 13C & Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina 3C X46
1670 - 1 1 Stenka Razin Rebellion. Russia. Stenka vs Nobility.
1676 - 82 6 Feodor 3 ^Maria =Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya 1S & Marfa Matveievna Apraksina 0C X20
1676 - 81 5 RussoTurkish War. Ukraine. Russia vs Ottomon Empire.
1682 - 96 14 Ivan 5 shared with Peter 1 ^Alexis 1 & Maria =Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova 5D X29
1680s Clashes between Russian & Chinese troops in Manchuria.
1686 - 1700 4 RussoTurkish War. Ukraine, Russia. Tsardom of Russia, Habsburg Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cossack Hetmanate vs Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate
1687 - 9 2 Crimean campaigns. Russia vs Crimean Khanate.
1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk between Russia & China ends border clashes in Manchuria.
1695 - 6 1 Azov campaigns. Russia. Russia vs Ottoman Empire.
East Russia
1644 KhooOrlog

1644 - 61 17 ShikirDaichung
1661 - 9 8 Puntsog
1669 - 1724 55 Ayuukhi
1600s Vyazma Kremlin
1602 Smolensk Kremlin
1626 Mozhaysk Kremlin
1636 Terem Palace
1646 Khutyn Monastery
1672 Kazan Kremlin
1683 - 1799 116 Tobolsk Kremlin
1683 Rostov Veliky Kremlin
1683 Syzran Kremlin
1697 New Jerusalem Monastery
1691 - 9 Trinity Cadral in Pskov
1115 - 00s fortress of Staraya Ladoga Built
1707 - 8 1 Bulavin Rebellion, Russia.
Russian empire 1721 - 1917 196
Saint Petersburg Successor state of Tsardom of Russia.
Kingdom of Russia
1547 - 1721
174
@ Moscow
1682 - 1721 39 Peter 1 Great shared with Ivan 5 ^Alexis 1 & Natalia =Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina 3C & Marta Helena Skowrońska 9C X52
1700 - 21 21 Russia supplants Sweden as dominant Baltic power after Great Norrn War.
1703 Saint Petersburg founded by Peter Great. Russian capital until 1918.
1715 1st Russian military expedition to Kazakh Steppe under Peter Great.
1717 1st Russian military expedition to Khiva ends in a massacre of Tsarist troops.
1718 Oyrats defeat Kazakh Middle Horde north of Lake Balkash.
1721 Peter I reforms Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Empire
1721 - 1917
196
@ Saint Petersburg
Also Grand Dukes of Finland 1809 - 1917 108
Also * Poland 1815 - 1916 101
monarchs listed below reigned with absolute power until 1905, & n with executive & administrative powers from 1905 - 17
1721 - 5 4 Peter 1 Great ^Alexis 1 & Natalia =Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina 3C & Marta Helena Skowrońska 9C X52
1722 Treaty of Kiakhta defines Russian Chinese border
1682 - 1725 43 Peter Great
Peter Great 1986
1722 - 3 1 RussoPersian War. Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran. Russian Empire, Ukrainian Cossacks, Georgia, Armenia vs Safavid Persian Empire
1723 Slavery abolished in Russia. Peter Great converted household slaves into house serfs.
1735 - 9 4 RussoAustrianTurkish War Balkans & Eastern Europe. Russian Empire, Cossack Hetmanate (Vassal of Russian Empire), Hapsburg Empire vs Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate (Ottoman protectorate)
1725 27 2 Carine 1 of Livonia ^ Samuel Skowroński & Elisabeth Moritz =Peter 1 9C X43
1727 - 30 3 Peter 2 ^ Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich & Princess Charlotte Christine of BrunswickWolfenbüttel =0 X14
1730 - 40 10 Anna ^Tsar Ivan 5 & Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova =Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland =0 X47
1730 - 62 32 Bartolomeo Rastrellis (1700 71 71) carreer as main architect for Russia. Florentineborn Russian architect
1732 - 4 2 Crimean Tatar raids into Russia.
1734 Founding of Russian fort at Orenburg.
1735 - 9 4 RussoTurkish War.
1740 - 1 1 Ivan 6 ^Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick & Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna =0 X23m
1740 Kazakh Middle Horde accepts Russian protection.
1740 Frederick Great comes to power in Prussia.
1741 Russians began settling Aleutian Islands.
1741 62 21 Elizabeth ^Peter 1 & Empress Carine 1 =Alexey Razumovsky 0C X52
1742 Part of Kazakh Great Horde accepts Russian protection.
1762 Peter 3 ^Charles Frederick, Duke of HolsteinGottorp & Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna X34m
1762 - 96 34 Carine 2 Great of Prussia Christian August, Prince of AnhaltZerbst & Princess Johanna Elisabeth of HolsteinGottorp =Peter 3 1S X67
Young Carine 1991
Scarlet Empress 1934
Carine Great 1934
Carine Great 2000
Tempest 1959
1768 - 74 6 RussoTurkish War. Ukraine & Russia. Russian Empire vs Ottoman Empire & Crimean Khanate (Ottoman protectorate)
1771 Plague Riot in Moscow.
1773 - 5 2 Pugachevs Rebellion was largest peasant revolt in Russias history.
1774 - 5 1 Pugachevs Rebellion. Russian Empire Cossack & peasant rebels Tatar & Bashkir nobles
1775 Pugachev uprising
Captains Daughter 2000
1782 - 3 1 Crimean Tatar Khanate is absorbed by Russia.
1783 Russian Empire annexed Crimean Khanate.
1785 - 91 6 Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen warrior & Muslim mystic, led a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout Caucasus in a holy war against Russian invaders.
1787 92 5 RussoTurkish War. Russia. Russia & Austria Vs Ottoman Empire & Algeria.
1788 - 90 2 RussoSwedish War Sweden Russia
1792 Polish Russian War Russia Targowica Confederates Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
1790 Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow by Russian Alexander Radishchev
1792 Poor Liza by Russian Nikolai Karamzin
1794 Kościuszko Uprising. Russia Prussia Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1796 - 1801 5 Paul 1 Mad ^ =Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of HesseDarmstadt 1DX & Princess Sophie Doroa of Württemberg 10C X46
1711 - 65 54 Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist
1729 - 1800 71 Alexander Suvorov, Russian military leader
1698 - 1760 62 Baal Shem Tov, Ukrainian rabbi
1753 - 1802 49 Mikhail Ivanovich Kozlovsky, Russian sculptor
1759 - 1831 72 Ferenc Kazinczy, Hungarian writer
East Russia
1724 - 35 11 TserenDondog
1735 - 41 6 DondugOmbo
1741 - 61 20 DondugDashi
1762 - 71 9 Ubashi
1700s Oreshek Fortress
1703 - 1907 204 Peter & Paul Fortress
1704 Kronstadt Fortress
1755 Königsberg Castle
1781 Gatchina Castle
1798 Bip Castle
1799 Priory Castle
1718 - 35 17 Annunciation Cadral, Voronezh
1741 - 85 44 Odigitrievsky Cadral







1801 Saint Michaels Castle
1805 Mirozhsky Monastery
1812 Konevsky Monastery
1834 Solovetsky Monastery
1836 Yuriev Monastery
Russian Empire
1721 - 1917
196
1801 - 25 21 Alexander 1 Blessed ^ =Princess Louise of Baden 2D X47
1804 - 13 9 RussoPersian War part of RussoPersian Wars. Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia & Iran. Russian Empire vs Persian Empire
1807 - 12 5 Anglo - Russian War part of Napoleonic Wars United Kingdom Russian Empire
1808 - 9 1 Finnish War Russian Empire Vs Sweden
1812 4 2 War of Sixth Coalition part of Napoleonic Wars. Europe. Original Coalition: Russian Empire, Prussia, Austrian Empire, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland, Spain, Kingdom of Portugal, Sicily, Kingdom of Sardinia. After Battle of Leipzig: Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Bavaria, Württemberg, First French Empire, Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Duchy of Warsaw, Naples. Until January 1814: DenmarkNorway, Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic), Confederation of Rhine. (Many member states defected after Battle of Leipzig)
1812 French invasion of Russia part of Napoleonic Wars. Russia. Russian Empire First French Empire Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of Rhine Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic) Austrian Empire Prussia
1817 - 64 47 Caucasian War. Russia. Russian Empire vs Avar Khanate, Adyghea Kingdom of KartliKakheti, Or Tribes of North Caucasus
1825 Constantine 1 (disputed) < =Princess Juliane of SaxeCoburgSaalfeld 0C X52
1825 - 55
30 Nicholas 1 Conqueror < =Princess Charlotte of Prussia 7C X58
1826 - 8 2 Final Russo / Persian War Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia from previous war.
1828 9 1 RussoTurkish War. Eastern Europe. Russian Empire vs Ottoman Empire
1830 - 1 1 November Uprising Russian Empire Polish insurgents
1830 November Uprising in Poland against Russia.
1853 - 6 3 Crimean War. Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Balkans. British Empire French Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia vs Russian Empire Bulgarian Legion
1854 Founding of AlmaAta (n called Fort Vernoe) by Russians.
1855 - 81 26 Alexander 2 Liberator ^ =Princess Marie of Hesse & by Rhine 8C X62m
1860 - 73 13 Russian Conquests of Central Asia. Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakstan. Russian Empire vs Bukharan Emirate, Khivan Khanate, Kokand Khanate
1861 Russia abolishes serfdom.
1863 - 5 2 Polish uprising against Russian Empire.
1863 Uprising against Russians
On Banks of Niemen 1986
1865 Russians create Province of Turkestan.
1865 Russians capture Tashkent.
1867 Russians create GovernorateGeneral of Turkestan, with Tashkent as its capital.
1868 Russians create GovernorateGeneral of Kazakh Steppe, with Orenburg as its capital.
1868 Russians capture Samarkand.
1868 Khanate of Bukhara becomes a Russian protectorate.
1869 Russians establish a fort at Krasnovodsk on Caspian Sea.
1873 Khanate of Khiva becomes a Russian protectorate.
1876 Khanate of Kokand is annexed by Russia.
1876 God & State by Mikhail Bakunin 18141876 88.6M 3;13;32
1867 USA purchased Alaska from Russia.
1871 Russian forces occupy Ili Valley.
1877 - 8 1 Following RussoTurkish War, Treaty of Berlin recognizes formal independence of Principality of Serbia, Montenegro & Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous.
1878 Congress of Berlin halts furr Russian advancement into Afghanistan.
1880 Transcaspian Railroad is begun.
1880 Brors Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoyevski 1821 81 60 362M 13;12;20
1881 Russian slaughter of Turkmens at Battle of GokTepe, resulting in creation of Transcaspian province.
1881 Treaty of St. Petersburg between Russia & China results in return of Ili Valley to China.
1881 - 94 13 Alexander 3 PeaceMaker ^ =Princess Dagmar of Denmark 6C X49
1863 - 5 2 January Uprising. Russian Empire Vs PolishLithuanianRunian Commonwealth
1884 Russians introduce American cotton into Turkestan.
1884 Russians occupy Merv oasis, thus completing conquest of Turkestan.
1885 Muslim revolt in Ferghana Valley against Tsarist rule.
1885 TransCaspian Railroad reaches Mary (Merv).
1886 RussianCircassian War ended with defeat & exile of many Circassians. Imam Shamil defeated.
1887 border between Afghanistan & Russian Turkestan is determined by British & Russians.
1888 TransCaspian Railroad reaches Samarkand.
1890 92 2 Mass immigration of Russian & Ukrainian settlers into Kazakh steppe.
1891 TransSiberian railway begun
1892 Riots in Tashkent due to a cholera epidemic.
1894 1917 23 Nicholas 2 ^ =Princess Alix of Hesse & by Rhine 5C X50
1898 Muslim uprising in Andijan against Russians.
1846 88 42 Nicholai MiklukhoMaklai, UkrainianRussian Anthropology
1839 88 49 Nikolai Przhevalsky, Russian explorer
1833 87 54 Alexander Borodin Russian
1839 81 42 Modest Mussorgsky Russian
1840 93 53 Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Russian
1809 52 43 Nikolai Gogol UkrainianRussian
1799 1837 38 Aleksandr Pushkin Russian
1828 1920 92 Leo Tolstoy Russian
1792 1856 64 Nikolai Lobachevsky, Russian mamatician
1834 1907 73 Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist
1814 76 62 Mikhail Bakunin, Russian anarchist
1836 1912 76 Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, Russian religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan
1860 1904 44 Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright
1834 59 25 Imam Shamils rebellion in Russianoccupied Caucasus.
1801 18 Kazan Cadral, St Petersburg
1818 23 Alexander Nevsky Cadral Izhevsk
1837 45 Yelokhovo Cadral
1860 83 Christ Saviour Cadral



Russian Empire
1721 - 1917
196
1894 - 1917 23 Nicholas 2 ^ =Princess Alix of Hesse & by Rhine 5C X50
1900 Russia annexes eastern Pamirs.
1901 3 Sisters Drama Fiction by Anton Chekhov 18601904 64.8M 2;21;35 Acts 14
1904 Bethink Yourselves By Tolstoy 46.6M 1;41;52 12Pts
1905 Russian Revolution.
1905 2 Tactics by Vladimir Lenin 1870 - 1924 175M 6;30;57
1905 Russo / Japanese War.
1906 completion of OrenburgTashkent Railroad, linking Turkestan to European Russia.
1908 A comet struck Russia. Thousands of miles of forest were leveled.
1915 Battle of Malazgirt. Turkey Russia 22 710 VS Ottomans 40 6C
1916 Battle of Koprukoy. Turkey Russia 75 12 VS Ottomans 65 20
1916 Battle of Erzincan. Turkey Russia VS Ottomans 17X 17C
1917 Battle of Sarikamish. Turkey Russia 100 30 16X 12W VS Ottomans 118 60 32X 15W
1917 Russian revolution Bolshevik "October" Revolution in Russia, resulting in Tashkent Soviet seizing power from Tashkent Committee.
Strike 1924
Nicholas & Alexandra 1971
Rasputin 1996 1985
Agony: Life & Death of Rasputin 1975
I Killed Rasputin 1967
Rasputin  Mad Monk 1966
Nights of Rasputin 1960
Rasputin & Empress 1932
Fall of Eagles 1974 (TV miniseries) 
Reds 1981
Dr. Zhivago 1965
October 1928
End of St. Petersburg 1934
Red & White 1967 
Anastasia 1956 1997
Anastasia: Mystery of Anna 1986
1917 Michael 2 (disputed) < =Natalia Brassova 1S X39m
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1917 - 22 5
@ Petrograd 1917 - 8 1
Moscow 1918 - 22 4
1917 - 22 5 Vladimir Lenin
1917 Bolshevik Party affirms it support of right of all nations within Russia to separate & form independent states.
1917 First Central Asian Muslim Congress in Tashkent demands cessation of Russian colonization & return of confiscated lands.
1917 Third Regional Congress of Soviets in Tashkent decides to exclude Muslims from local government.
1917 Fourth Central Asian Muslim Congress in Kokand results in creation of Muslim Provisional Government of Autonomous Turkestan.
1918 Battle of Kara Killisse. Turkey Ottomans 40 VS Russia 40
1918 Battle of Baku. Azerbaijan Ottomans 14 #500C 30G, Azerbaijan 2 VS Baku Commune 6 40G, UK 1 1AB 1MGS 3ArC 2 #200, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Armenia, Centrocaspian Dictatorship, White Russians
1918 Treaty of BrestLitovsk.
1918 From October to Brest Litovsk by Leon Trotsky 110M 4;01;06
1918 Muslim government in Kokand is crushed by Tashkent Soviet & Red Army, resulting in slaughter of many Muslims.
1918 Russian Civil War begins.
1918 Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) is established
1919 Third Congress of Communist Party of Turkestan decides to exclude Muslims from government posts in Turkestan.
1920 Reds emerge victorious in Russian
1920 Soviet troops capture Khiva, resulting in abolition of Khanate of Khiva & end of Kungrat dynasty.
1920 Alash Orda government gives up resistance to Bolsheviks.
1922 USSR formed
1922 Beasts, Men & Gods by Ferdynand Ossendowski 247M 8;59;37
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
1922 - 91
69
1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is created, with Turkestan & Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSRs included as parts of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR).
1922 - 4 2 Vladimir Lenin
1924 Alexei Rykov
1924 - 53 29 Joseph Stalin
Utomlyonnye solntsem (Burnt by Sun) 1994
Inner Circle 1991
Csend és kiáltás (Silence & Cry) 1967 soldiers
A Tanú ( Witness) 1969
Animal Farm 1955 1999
East/West 1999
1928 Soviet antiIslamic campaign launched, resulting in disbanding of Islamic courts & waqfs.
1928 - 30 2 Latin script replaces Arabic alphabet in Soviet Central Asia.
1928 - 33 5 forced collectivization of Soviet Central Asians.
1930 completion of TurkestanSiberian Railroad.
1937 - 38 Stalin purges Muslim Communist leaders.
1939 - 40 1 Cyrillic script replaces Latin Alphabet in Soviet Central Asia.
1939 Trotsky Assasination
Assassination of Trotsky 1972
Frida 2000
1942 Soviet government grants Islam official legal status in USSR & establishes four Spiritual Directorates.
1939 - 40 Winter War. East Finland USSR, Russian Finland 998.1 126.9XM 188.7W 5.6C 2.56.5T 3.5 3.9 261515 323CaVS Finland, Swedish V, Danish V, Norwegian V 337346.5 25.9XM 43.6W 1C #957Ci32T 2030 114 62 70Ca
Moscow Peace Treaty
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belarus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Operation Arctic Fox. North Finland Germany 1Div 2PTDiv, Finland 3Div 2Bat VS Russia 4RiDiv 1Bri 1TDiv
1941 - 2 Battle at Borodino Field . Russia Germany 1Div 1PTDiv 2PTBri VS USSR 2RiDiv 1ATReg 1MCReg
1941 Defense of Brest Fortress . Russia Germany 1720 #414X VS USSR 9+ 2+ 56C
1942 Convoy PQ 17. Arctic Ocean Germany 9U(w/X) 33To 6B 5 VS UK, USA, USSR, Nerlands, Panama 6D 2AntAi 2Sub 11Sm 35M 24 #154 6Au
1943 - 4 Battle of Berlin. Germany USSR, Poland 156200 196Div 2.5M (1.5 in Berlin) 81.1XM 280.2W 2.3T&G 2 41.6A 2.1, 7.5 917 VS Germany 50Div 767 (+45So 22 40Ci 22 in Berlin) 92100X 220W 480C, 1.5AFV 9.3A 2.2
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Nerlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 n 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 n 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Nerlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Bobruysk Offensive. Belarus USSR ? VS Germany 90 50X 20C
1944 Battle of Bay of Viipuri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany VS USSR Soviets capture main Viborg Bay islands
1944 Belostock Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany 30X 1C
1945 Battle of Bautzen . Germany Germany 5090 6.5X 300T 620A VS USSR 20 ?, Poland 90 4.9X 2.8M 10.5W 500T 250 110
1945 Siege of Breslau . Germany USSR 87.3 6 VS Germany 50 30So&Ci
1941 Battle of Brody . Ukraine Germany 800T 200 VS USSR 2.5T 800
1941 Battle of Bryansk . Russia Germany 50thArm VS USSR 1TDiv 1TReg 1MecCor 80X 50C Inspired invention of AK47
1944 - 5 Budapest Offensive . Hungary USSR VS Germany 49X 110C 269TC
1944 - 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Operation Concert. Russia USSR #Det 210 VS Germany Destroying German Infrustructure
1942 - 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1941 - 4 3 Continuation War. Finland, Russia USSR, UK VS Finland 530 63.3XM 158W #939Ci fm Pl #190Ci fm Soviots 2.43.5C , Germany 220, 14XM 37W ?NC Italy 275+
1944 - 5 1 Courland Pocket. Red Armys blockade or encirclement of Axis forces on Courland Peninsula
1941 - 2 Crimean Campaign. Ukraine Germany VS USSR
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 Battle of Debrecen. Hungary Germany 15, Hungary 20 80 35 18C 200T 490G VS USSR 84, Romania 33.5 260 117.4 5C 500T 1.7G
1942 Demyansk Pocket. Russia Germany 100ini 48X 140W VS USSR 400ini 200X 400W
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1944 Operation Doppelkopf. Lithuania Germany VS USSR
1943 Battle of Dnieper. Russia USSR 2.65M(Ini) 51G 2.4T 2.9 1.29MCa 348.8X 937.3WSVS Germany, Romania 1.25M(Ini) 12.6G 2.1T 2 4001.2M
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1945 East Pomeranian Offensive. Germany USSR, Poland 996.1 55.3XM 179W VS Germany
1945 East Prussian Offensive. Germany USSR 1.67M 126.5XM 458.3WS VS Germany 580So 200M 780T ?XW 220C
1942 Operation Edelweiss. Russia USSR VS Germany 167 1.1T 4.5G 1 Geman attempt to capture oil fields of Baku
1943 Operation Iskra. Russia USSR 20Div 15Bri 33.9XM 81.1WS 4.6A 500T 900 VS Germany 26Div 12X700A 50T
1944 Gumbinnen Operation . Germany Germany VS USSR 404.5 16.8X 62.7W
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1944 Gumbinnen Operation . Germany Germany VS USSR 404.5 16.8X 62.7W
1944 JassyKishinev Operation. Romania USSR, Romania 239th Aug 1.31M 13.2XM 54WS 16G 1.9T 2.2 111 VS Germany, Romania 203rd Aug 40Div 1.22M 170 100X 115C 800 T Romania: 8.3X 25W 170CM 25
1944 Heiligenbeil Pocket. USSR VS Germany 150? 80X 50C 605T 128
1944 - 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1945 Battle of Halbe. Germany USSR 280 20X VS Germany 80 30+X 25C 10CiX
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1944 KamenetsPodolsky Pocket. Ukraine USSR 500 399T&AG 280G VS Germany 220 14.2 5.9XM
1944 Kaunas Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1941 2 Battle of Kerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 First Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 2Div 1030 12T VS USSR 1Div
1942 Second Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1943 Third Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 70 11.5XWM VS USSR 346 86.5 45.2X 42.3W
1943 Fourth Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine USSR 4Arm 800T 450 VS Germany 2ArnGr
1941 Occupation of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany VS USSR 30CiX
1941 Battle of Kiev . Ukraine Germany 500 VS USSR 627 700.5 616.3XC 84.2W Occupation of city for next 2 years.
1943 Battle of Kiev. Ukraine USSR VS Germany 1PTArm 15X 6.2C 286T 156
1945 Battle of Kolberg. Germany USSR, Poland 28+ 1.2XMVS Germany 10 ?X 8C
1945 Battle of Königsberg. Germany USSR 250 60 VS Germany 60130 50 80C
1945 Operation Konrad. Hungary USSR VS Germany, Hungary Part of Battle of Budhapest
1944 KorsunCherkassy Pocket Ukraine USSR 336.7 80.2 5.3A&M 524T 1 Rien 400T 728T VS Germany 58 30XWM 242A 59T Rien 259T 156T 50
1943 Battle of Krasny Bor. Russia Germany 1Div 5.9 3.6XW #300M 1PolDiv Rein 1Div+ VS USSR 39 10XWM 90T 1A&M
1942 Operation Kremlin. Russia Germany VS USSR Recon. flights over Moscow
1943 Battle of Kursk. Russia USSR 1.41M 863.3 5.1T 6T&AG 25G&M 5.2G 2.8 1.6 VS Germany 780.9 203 2.9T 720T&AG 10G&M 2.1 681
1943 Operation Kutuzov. Russia USSR 928 430 2.4T&AG 2.6T 26.4A 892 2.23 11.7 VS Germany 300.7 86 625T&AG 5.5G 610 218
1941 4 3 Battle of Leningrad. Russia USSR 1XCM 2.4WS 1.14MCiX (642 Siege 400 Evacuation) 2.14T VS Germany, Finland, Italy
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1945 Lower Silesian Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Operation Margare. Hungary Germany, Hungary VS Russia German Occupation of Hungary
1944 Battle of Memel. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1944 Minsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 100 60WC 40XM
1944 Mogilev Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 33X 3.3C
1944 Moonzund Landing Operation. Estonia USSR, Finland VS Germany
1941 2 Battle of Moscow. Russia USSR 1.25M 5001.3 3.2T 7.6G 1.4 VS Germany 1.93M 280750 1.7T 14G 599 1.29V
1943 Malaya Zemlya. Russia USSR 800 VS Germany
1942 Operation Mars. Russia Germany 40XM VS USSR 415 70.4X 145.3W 1.3T
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1944 Battle of Narva . Estonia Germany, Estonian Partisans 123.5 68 14XM 54WS 32T 137 VS Russia 200 480 (Ci Incl) 100XM 380WS 2.5G 100T 300 800 230
1944 Battle for Narva Bridgehead. Estonia USSR 205 65XM 235WS 2.5AG 100T 130AV 800 230 VS Germany 123.5 12XMC 46WS32T 137
1944 Battle of Tannenberg Line. Estonia Germany, Estonian Conscripts 22.3 10 2.5XM 7.5WS 7T 6 7080AG 49 VS USSR 136.8 170 35XM 135WS 150AV 157164T 1.7AG 546
1942 3 Nevsky Pyatachok. Russia USSR 260 VS Germany 160
1943 Battle of Nikolayevka. Russia USSR 6 1XW VS Italy, Germany, Hungary 40 (4CR) 30XWC
1942 Operation Nordlicht. Leningrad, Russia USSR VS Germany
1945 Battle of OderNeisse. Germany USSR VS Germany
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1944 Osovets Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1943 OstrogozhskRossosh Operation. Russia USSR VS Hungary, Italy
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungar, Germany
1941 Operation Platinum Fox. North Finland Germany, Finland 27.5 VS USSR 3Div
1944 Polotsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 37X 7C
1943 Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda. Saint Petersburg, Russia USSR VS Germany
1944 Battle of Porkuni. Estonia USSR 10 1 VS Estonia 1.5 #500X #700C
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
1943 Battle of Prokhorovka. Russia USSR 5.5 4TArm 2TCor 207334T 420TD VS Germany 2Div 1PTDiv #522 #97XM 36T 4189TD
1944 Battle of Radzymin. Poland Germany VS USSR
1941 Battle of Raseiniai. Lithuania Germany 245T VS USSR 749T 704
1941 Operation Renntier. Finland Germany 2Div 27.5 VS USSR
1944 Riga Offensive. Latvia, Estonia USSR VS Germany
1941 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR SouthFro 33 VS Germany, Poland 1PTArm 20
1942 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1943 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1942 3 Battles of Rzhev. Russia.
1942 RzhevVyazma Strategic Offensive Operation.
1942 SychevskVyazma offensive operation.
1942 MozhaiskVyazma offensive operation.
1942 ToropetsKholm Offensive Operation. Russia USSR 122.1 29.2 10.4XM 18.8W VS Germany 12
1942 Vyazma airborne operation.
1942 Rzhev operation.
1942 Operation Seydlitz.
1942 First RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation.
1942 3 Second RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation. See Operation Mars
1942 - 3 Battle for Velikiye Luki. Russia USSR 100 104 31.7XM 72.3W VS Germany 20 1759XWM
1943 Operation Büffel . Third RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation Germany retreats 230KM
1942 - 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1945 Defense of Schwedt Bridgehead. Germany Germany VS USSR Successful Deception
1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1945 Battle of Seelow Heights. Germany USSR, Poland 1M 3T 16.9G&M 20 56X VS Germany 112.1 12X 587T 2.6G
1941 - 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belorus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
1945 Silesian Offensives. Poland, Germany USSR VS Germany 40X 14C
1941 Operation Silver Fox. North Finland USSR 7Div 1Bri Navy VS Germany 21.5, Finland 5 6Div 3Bat
1941 Battle of Smolensk. Russia Germany 430 1T 100200T VS USSR 581.6 300C 1.43T Encirclement & capture of Soviots
1943 Battle of Smolensk. Russia USSR 1.25M 451.4 107.6XMC 343.8W 20.6G 1.4T 1.1 VS Germany 850 20050 8.8G 500T 700 Recapture
1945 Operation Solstice. Germany USSR VS Germany
1942 Battle of Someri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany 23X 68W 2G 2LMSD VS USSR 2P 11D 1GD 1LMSD 5 #328X #149C
1942 - 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 n 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A n 13.5 15.7 400T n 894 4.3T 300 n 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 n 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A n 10.3 6 600 n 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1944 Battle of Studzianki. Poland USSR 1Arm, Poland 1ArmBri 89 27T VS Germany 3Div 40T 26G&M 9APC
1941 - 4 3 Bombing of Tallinn in World War II.
1941 Luftwaffe raids
1942 3 2 Red Air Force raids
1944 Red Air Force raids 300 dropped 3Bombs #757X
Japan
1938 Battle of Wuhan. China Japan 350 100 120 500 150 VS China, USSR 120Div 1.1M 225 30 200
1938 Battle of Lake Khasan. Russia USSR 23 236X 611WVS Japan 77.3 526X 913W
1939 Battles of Khalkhin Gol. SovietJapanese Border War Mongolia USSR 8X 15.3W, Mongolia 274 57 500T 809 VS Japan, Manchukuo 75 8.4X 8.8W 135T 250
1941 Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact.
1941 Evacuation of Tallinn. Gulf of Finland Germany, Finland VS USSR 12+X 12W 34M
1944 Tallinn Offensive. Estonia USSR 195 VS Germany 50 50, Estonian Cons. VS Estonian Independence 2
1944 1st Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania 3Div 2ArDiv 1PTDiv VS USSR 14RiDiv T 1AiDiv
1944 2nd Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania VS USSR
1942 Tatsinskaya Raid. Russia USSR 190T VS Germany 12X 5C ?W 84T 106G 300
1942 ToropetsKholm Operation. Russia USSR 122.1 29.2 10.4XM 18.8W VS Germany 12
1941 Battle of Uman. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Hungary 400 600T VS USSR 300 203 103C 100WX 317TC 858GC
1941 Iran Campaign. AngloSoviet invasion of Iran USSR 3Arm #40X 3, UK 2Div 3Bri #22X #50W 1T, India, Australia #62X #50W 3 1T VS Iran 9Div #800X 200CiX 60 6 (2G 4D)
1945 Upper Silesian Offensive. Germany USSR 408.4 66.8 15.9X VS Germany 40X 14C
1942 Operation Uranus. Russia USSR 1.14M 894T 13.5A 1.5 VS Germany 250+ 732 402Ser, Italy 220 ?A ?, Romania 143.3 827A 134T ?, Hungary 200 ?A&T 803+134+T 732+
1945 Vienna Offensive. Austria USSR 644.7, Bulgaria 100.9 4Arm 85Div 3Bri 746 18X VS Germany 19X 52C 20%Ci
1944 Vilnius Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany 8X 5C VS Polish Home Arm
1945 Vistula–Oder Offensive. Germany, Poland USSR, Poland 2.2M 43.4XM 150.7WS VS Germany 450 ?X ?W 150C
1944 Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany
1942 Battle of Voronezh. Russia Germany, Hungary VS USSR 568.3 370.5XC 197.8W
1943 Battle of Voronezh. Russia USSR VS Germany, Hungary
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1944 forced evacuation of Crimean Tatars, Meskhetian Turks, & or Caucasian Muslims to Soviet Central Asia.
1953 - 5 2 Georgy Malenkov
1955 - 64 9 Nikita Khrushchev
1962 Mass exodus of Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Soviet Central Asia.
1964 - 82 18 Leonid Brezhnev
1982 - 4 2 Yuri Andropov
1984 - 5 1 Konstantin Chernenko
1985 - 91 6 Mikhail Gorbachev
Russian Federation
1992 - Present 19
@ Moscow
1991 - 9 8 Boris Yeltsin
1999 - 2008 9 Vladimir Putin
2008 - Present 13 Dmitry Medvedev
1996 President of Russia led Easter mass in resurrected Moscow church.
2006 Christ Saviour Cadral Kaliningrad
1904 Moscow Cadral Mosque
2005 Qolsharif Mosque Russia
Central:
Carribean:

Lesser Antilles

Greater Antilles

Lucayan Archipelago