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Romania 1881 - 1947
 
     
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Kingdom of Poland
1025 - 1569
544
Jagiellon 1386 - 1569 173
1492 - 1501 9 Jan 1 Olbracht ^ Casimir 4 & Elisabeth of Austria
1501 - 6 5 Aleksander ^ Casimir 4 & Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492 - 1506
1506 Poland is invaded by Tatars from Crimean Khanate.
1506 - 48 42 Zygmunt 1 Old 1467 - 1548 83 ^ Casimir IV & Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor established a conscription army & bureaucracy needed to finance it
1512 Copernicus writes Commentariolus, & moves sun to center of solar system. Poland.
1519 - 21 2 Polish Teutonic War 1519 - 21 Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Knights
1537 Janowiec Castle
1473 - 1543 70 Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, developed heliocentric (Suncentered) theory using scientific methods.
1548 - 72 24 Zygmunt 2 August 1 ^ Sigismund I & Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced personal union of Kingdom of Poland & Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union & an elective monarchy (PolishLithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569
1563 - 70 7 Norrn Seven Years War DenmarkNorway Lübeck Poland–Lithuania Sweden
1569 Union of Lublin Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created lasts until 1795.
1505 - 69 64 Mikołaj Rej, Polish writer
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania. # 1582 6.5M D8 1618 10.5M D9.1 Formed by Union of Lublin in 1569, between Kingdom of Poland & Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Valois 1574 - 5 1
1574 - 5 1 Henryk Walezy
1575 Maksymilian 2 King of Bohemia, Germany, Hungary & Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor. election contested after four days
Jagiellon 1575 - 86 11
1575 - 86 11 Queen Anna daughter of Sigismund I & Bona Sforza
reigned toger with her husband Stephen Báthory
1577 Battle of Lubieszow
Báthory 1575 - 86 11
1575 - 86 11 Stefan 1 Batory ^ Stephen 8 Báthory & Carine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned toger with his wife Anna
regarded as one of greatest kings of Poland
1580 - 1631 Krasiczyn Palace
1530 - 84 54 Jan Kochanowski, Polish poet
1587 - 1645 Krzyżtopór Castle
1587 Maksymilian 3 ^ Maximilian 2 & Maria of Spain
Archduke of Austria
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Vasa 1587 - 1668 83
1587 - 1632 45 Zygmunt 3 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John 3 of Sweden & Carine Jagellon also King of Sweden 1592 - 1599, titular King 1599 - 1632
1588 Battle of Byczyna
1594 Oliwa Cadral Consecrated
1595 Wawel Castle
State of Teutonic Order
1224 - 1525
301
@ Marienburg, Poland (1308 - 1454 146),
Königsberg, Russia (1454 - 1525 101)
Roman Catholicism
ocracy
1497 - 1510 13 Frederick of Saxony
1510 - 25 15 Albert of BrandenburgAnsbach (Albert of Prussia)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795 226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania.
1587 - 1632 45 Zygmunt 3 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John 3 of Sweden & Carine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592 - 9, titular King 1599 - 1632
1606 Baranów Sandomierski Castle
1610 Battle of Klushino Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian Swedish forces at & conquers Moscow.
1613 - 7 4 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by Tatars dozens of times.
1617 Poznań Castle
1617 - 8 1 Polish Swedish War Sweden Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1620 - 1 1 Polish–Ottoman War PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire
1620 Bethlen Gabor allies with Ottomans & an invasion of Moldavia takes place. Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on River Prut.
1621 Battle of Chocim: Poles & Cossacks under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat Ottomans.
1621 - 5 4 Polish–Swedish War Sweden Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1626 Battle of Dirschau
1627 Battle of Oliwa
1629 Battle of Gorzno
1629 Battle of Trzciana
1632 - 48 16 Władysław 4 ^ Sigismund 3 & Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 16101634, titular King of Sweden 1632 - 48 16
1600s Sielecki Castle
1600s - 1904 304 St. John Baptist Cadral Przemyśl
1633 - 4 1 Polish–Ottoman War. Ukraine. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire
1635 Nowy Wiśnicz Castle
1642 Łańcut Castle
1648 - 67 19 Deluge wars leave PolishLithuanian Commonwealth in ruins.
1600s Warsaw Ostrogski Palace Chopin Museum
1648 - 68 20 Jan 2 Kazimierz
(John II Casimir) ^ Sigismund III & Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 16481660
abdicated
1648 - 57 9 Khmelnytsky Uprising. Ukraine, Belorus, Moldava. Zaporozhian Cossacks, Crimean Tatars 1649 - 54, 1656 1657 vs PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Crimean Tatars 1654 - 6
Ogniem i mieczem (With Fire & Sword) 1961
1655 Battle of Zarnow
1655 Battle of Nowy Dwor Mazoweiki
1655 Siege of Jasna Gora
1656 Battle of Lowicz
1656 Siege of Warsaw
1656 Battle of Warsaw
1656 Battle of Prostken
1655 Ogrodzieniec Castle
1660 Battle of Polonka
1660 - 1940s 280s Field Cadral of Polish Army
1666 - 71 5 Polish Cossack Tatar War
Wiśniowiecki 1669 - 73 4
1669 - 73 4 Michał Korybut
(Michael 1) ^ a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, & Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
1672 - 6 4 Polish–Ottoman War. Ukraine. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate, Rightbank, Ukraine vs PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Principality of Wallachia
Sobieski 1674 - 96 22
1674 - 96 22 Jan 3 (John 3) ^ Jakub Sobieski & Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
1683 Battle of Vienna Poland wins
Bourbon 1697
1697 Franciszek Ludwik BurbonConti (François Louis, Prince of Conti) ^ Armand de Bourbon Conti & Anne Marie Martinozzi elected king, obliged to return to France from Gdansk without crown
Wettin 1697 - 1704 7
1697 - 1704 7 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus 2 Strong) ^ John George 3 & Anna Sophie of Denmark Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus 1, 1694 1733
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795 226
Warsaw, Poland & Vilnius, Lithuania.
1697 - 1704 7 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus II Strong) ^ John George 3 & Anna Sophie of Denmark Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694 - 1733
1702 Battle of Klissow.
Leszczyński 1705 - 9 4
1705 - 9 4 Stanisław 1 (Stanislas 1) ^ Rafał Leszczyński & Anna Jabłonowska yielded to Augustus 2
1705 Battle of Warsaw
1706 Battle of Fraustadt
Wettin 1709 - 33 24
1709 - 33 24 August 2 Mocny
(Augustus 2 Strong)
1700s Szydłowiec Castle
Leszczyński 1733 - 4 1
1733 - 4 1 Stanisław 1
(Stanislas 1) restored
defeated in War of Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
1733 - 8 5 War of Polish succession Poland under Stanisław Leszczyński France (Bourbons) Spain (Bourbons) Duchy of Savoy Poland under August III of Poland Russia Habsburg Monarchy Saxony
Wettin 1734 - 63 29
1734 - 63 29 August 3 Sas
(Augustus 3) ^ Augustus 2 & Christiane Eberhardine of BrandenburgBayreuth Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, & Grand Duke of Lithuania
1740 - 2 2 1st Silesian War. Part of War of Austrian Succession. Poland. Prussia vs Austria.
1741 Battle of Mollitz
1744 - 5 1 2nd Silesian War, Part of War of Austrian Succession. Poland. Prussia vs Austria.
1745 Battle of Hohenfriedberg
1752 Niemcza Castle
1756 - 63 7 3rd Silesian War, Poland. Prussia vs Austria. Part of Seven Years War
1757 Battle of Breslau
1757 Battle of Leuthen
1758 Battle of Zorndorf
1759 Battle of Kay
1760 Battle of Landeshut
1760 Battle of Liegnitz
1761 Battle of Burkersdorf
Poniatowski 1764 - 95 31
1764 - 95 31 Stanisław 2 August
(Stanislas 2 August) ^ Stanisław Poniatowski & Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when PolishLithuanian Commonwealth ( Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist
1768 - 72 4 Bar Confederation. Poland. Russian Empire vs Bar Confederates.
1771 Battle of Lanckorona
1772 - 95 23 Partitions of Poland ended PolishLithuanian Commonwealth & erased Poland from map for 123 years.
1742 - 80 38 Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish politician
1790 Polish-Prussian Pact
1794 Polish revolt
1794 Battle of Raclawice.
1794 Warsaw Uprising.
1794 Battle of Szczecociny.
1794 Battle of Maciejowice.
1794 Battle of Praga.
1795 Subsummed into Prussia & Russia
1806 Battle of Pultusk
1807 Battle of Hailsberg
1809 Battle of Raszyn
1813 Battle of Katzbatch.
1831 Battle of Stockzek
1831 Battle of Bialoleka
1831 Battle of Olszynka Grochowska
1831 Battle of Iganie
1831 Battle of Ostroleka
1831 Battle of Warsaw
1848 Greater Poland Uprising
1863 Battle of Staszow
1863 Battle of Malogoszcz
1900 Krosno Odrzańskie Castle
1914 Battle of Krakow
1914 Battle of Tannenberg.
1914 Battle of Vistula River.
1914 Battle of Lodz.
1914 Battle of Vistula River Poland
1914 - 5 Siege of Przemysl.
1915 Battle of Bolimow Poland
2nd Polish Republic
1918 - 39 21

1927 - 55 28 Christ King Cadral Katowice
German Occupation of Poland
1939 - 44
5
1939 Invasion of Poland. Poland Germany 60Div 6Bri 1.5M 16.3X 3.5M 30.3W 9G 2.8T 2.3, Slovakia 3Div 51.3 #37X #11M #114W, USSR 33+Div 11+Bri 466.5 5.3 1.5XM 2.4W, 5G, 4.7T, 3.3 2+M 59 VS Poland 39Div 16Bri 950 904 66X 133.7W 694C 4.3G 880T 400 * Decisive German & Soviet victory. Beginning of World War II. Polish territory divided between Germany, Soviet Union, Lithuania & Slovakia
1939 Battle of Bzura. Poland Germany 12Div 5A&MDiv 425 8X 4C 50T 100C 20A VS Poland 8Div 24CBri 225 1820X 32W 170C
1939 Battle of Kock. Poland Germany MCor 30 3500 185C VS Poland 18 250300 17C
Soviot Invasion
1939 Battle of Grodno. Poland USSR ACor #57X #159W 23AFV VS Poland 24 644X 1.5C 2G
1939 Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski. Poland Germany VS Poland
1939 Battle of Szack. Ukraine Poland 4 350X 900+W A Tr VS USSR RiDiv 81X 184W 7T 2Tra 3ATG
1939 Battle of Krojanty. Germany Germany Reg 800 11X 9W ARV 30G VS Poland 4Sq 1Pla 250 1925X 450W
1939 Battle of Hel. Poland Germany 4653 1DD 1BLD VS Poland 3 46G
1939 Battle of Westerplatte. Poland Germany 3.4 #2300XW VS Poland #209 1520X 53W +C
1939 Battle of Wizna. Poland Germany 42.2 1X 350T 657M&G&H 10AV ? VS Poland #720 650X 40C 6A 42MG 6Ri
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Sourn Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belarus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR SouthFro 33 VS Germany, Poland 1PTArm 20
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1942 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1942 Battle of El Agheila. Libya UK, Poland, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Axis retreats to Tunisia
1942 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1943 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1943 - 4 1 Battle of Berlin. Germany USSR, Poland 156200 196Div 2.5M (1.5 in Berlin) 81.1XM 280.2W 2.3T&G 2 41.6A 2.1, 7.5 917 VS Germany 50Div 767 (+45So 22 40Ci 22 in Berlin) 92100X 220W 480C, 1.5AFV 9.3A 2.2
1944 Battle of Ancona. Italy Poland 50 #496X 1.8W #139M VS Germany #800X 3C
1944 Operation Totalize. France Canada, UK, Poland 85 1.3 3IDiv 2ArDiv 2Arbri 720A 2 146+T VS Germany 3IDiv 1PTDiv 1HTBat 74T 45 3
1944 Operation Tractable. France Canada, Poland 1.4, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 2IDiv 1PTDiv
1944 Battle of Hill 262. France Poland 1.5 #351 80T 11 VS Germany Remains of 20I&PTDiv 1.5
1944 Falaise pocket. France USA, UK, Canada, Poland, Free French 17Div + VS Germany 1415Div 100 60
1944 Allied advance from Paris to Rhine. France, Nerlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Market Garden. Nerlands, Germany UK, USA, Poland, Dutch Resistance 42.6PT 2IDiv 15.317.2 1ADiv 1ABri 88 144T VS Germany, German Nerlands 6.313.3 30T&SPG 159
1944 Battle of Arnhem. Netherlands Germany, German Nerlands 1Div 1For 1.3X 2WVS UK, Poland 1AiDiv 1PTBri 2X 6.8C
1944 Battle of Scheldt. Belgium, Nerlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Belostock Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany 30X 1C
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1944 Vilnius Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany 8X 5C VS Polish Home Arm
1944 Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1945 Vistula–Oder Offensive. Germany, Poland USSR, Poland 2.2M 43.4XM 150.7WS VS Germany 450 ?X ?W 150C
1945 Lower Silesian Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Osovets Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Battle of Radzymin. Poland Germany VS USSR
1944 Battle of Studzianki. Poland USSR 1Arm, Poland 1ArmBri 89 27T VS Germany 3Div 40T 26G&M 9APC
1945 Battle of Seelow Heights. Germany USSR, Poland 1M 3T 16.9G&M 20 56X VS Germany 112.1 12X 587T 2.6G
1945 East Pomeranian Offensive. Germany USSR, Poland 996.1 55.3XM 179W VS Germany
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1945 Battle of Bautzen. Germany Germany 5090 6.5X 300T 620A VS USSR 20 ?, Poland 90 4.9X 2.8M 10.5W 500T 250 110
1945 Battle of Kolberg. Germany USSR, Poland 28+ 1.2XMVS Germany 10 ?X 8C
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1945 Silesian Offensives. Poland, Germany USSR VS Germany 40X 14C
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Nerlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany. Germany USA 6th,12thArmG 3M, UK 21stArmG, France 1stArm, Canada, Poland VS Germany ArmG:B,G,H 1M
1939 - 45 6 Battle of Atlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Nerlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle of River Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Nerlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
Peoples Republic of Poland
1944 - 89 45
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
@ Prague
1471 - 1516 45 Vladislaus 2 Jagiellonian. ^< Ladislaus Posthumous. *Hungary 90
1516 - 26 10 Louis Jagiellonian ^ *Hungary
1526 - 64 38 Ferdinand 1 =< *Hungary HRE 58
1560 Hasisegn Castle Ruined in fire
1564 - 76 12 Maximilian ^ HRE *Hungary
1576 - 1611 35 Rudolph 2 ^ HRE *Hungary

1576 - 1611 35 Rudolph 2 ^ HRE *Hungary
1611 - 9 8 7 Matthias < HRE *Hungary
1618 Bohemian Revolt precipitates Thirty Years War which devastates Europe in years 1618 - 48.
1618 Battle of Pilsen
1618 - 48 30 Ricany Castle Destroyed
1619 Battle of Sablat
1619 Battle of Wisternich
1619 - 37 18 Ferdinand 2 ^< HRE *Hungary
1619 - 20 1 Frederick. Elected anti*. at beginning of Thirty Years War but after lost Battle of White Mountain he fled country.
1620 Battle of White Mountain
1627 - 57 30 Ferdinand 3 ^Ferdinand 2 HRE *Hungary
1645 Battle of Jankau
1646 - 54 8 Ferdinand 4 ^ HRE *Hungary
1648 Battle of Prague
1657 - 1705 38 Leopold 1 ^ HRE *Hungary
1631 - 1836 Zamek Kynzvart Castle Construction
1657 - 1705 38 Leopold 1 ^ HRE *Hungary
1705 - 11 6 Joseph 1 ^ HRE *Hungary
1711 - 40 29 Charles 2 < HRE *Hungary
1721 - 3 2 Karlova Koruna Castle
1730 - 6 6 Ss. Cyril & Methodius Cadral
1741 - 3 2 Charles Albert =^Joseph 1 Antiking to Maria resa during War of Austrian Succession
1742 Battle of Chotusitz
1740 - 80 40 Maria resa ^Charles 2 *Hungary
1745 Battle of Soor
1745 Dobris Castle Rebuilt
1756 Battle of Lobositz.
1757 Battle of Reichenberg.
1758 Battle of Domestadtl
1770 - 1 1 Famine in Czech lands killed hundreds of thousands.
1780 - 90 10 Joseph 2 ^ Maria resa HRE *Hungary
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 2 < HRE *Hungary
1792 - 1835 43 Francis ^ HRE 06 *Hungary **Austria 04
1700s Stramberk Castle
1792 - 1835 43 Francis ^ HRE 06 *Hungary **Austria 04
1805 Battle of Austerlitz
1813 2nd Battle of Kulm.
1835 - 48 13 Ferdinand 5 ^Francis. **Austria *Hungary. Last crowned*
1847 - 66 19 Horovice Castle
1848 Revolution * Lost power
1848 - 1916 68 Francis Joseph ^< **Austria *Hungary
1916 - 8 2 Charles 3 ^^< **Austria *Hungary. Abdicated.
1889 Divine Saviour Cadral
1866 Battle of Koniggratz.
1841 - 1904 63 Antonín Dvořák Czech
1848 - 1916 68 Francis Joseph ^< **Austria *Hungary
1916 8 2 Charles 3 ^^< **Austria *Hungary. Abdicated.

1968 Czechoslovakia invaded by Warpac
Czechoslovakia
1918 - 92 74
@ Prague
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1942 Case Blue. Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Nerlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 n 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 n 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Nerlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Czech Republic
1993 - 2011
18
@ Prague
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1500s Smolenice Castle
1527 Kolárovo Castle
1571 Nový zámok Castle
1594 KomárnoKomarno Castle
1629 - 37 St. John Baptist Cadral Trnava
1702 - 15 St Francis Xavier Cadral Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
1736 Trinitarian Cadral Bratislava
1720 Červený Kláštor Castle
1776 Diocese Established for Assumption of Mary Cadral Rožňava

1859 - 60 Temple of Exhaltation of Holy Cross
Czechoslovakia
1918 - 92 74
@ Prague, Czech Republic
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1939 Invasion of Poland. Poland Germany 60Div 6Bri 1.5M 16.3X 3.5M 30.3W 9G 2.8T 2.3, Slovakia 3Div 51.3 #37X #11M #114W, USSR 33+Div 11+Bri 466.5 5.3 1.5XM 2.4W, 5G, 4.7T, 3.3 2+M 59 VS Poland 39Div 16Bri 950 904 66X 133.7W 694C 4.3G 880T 400 * Decisive German & Soviet victory. Beginning of World War II. Polish territory divided between Germany, Soviet Union, Lithuania & Slovakia
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Nerlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1944 Battle of Ushant. English Channel UK, Canada, Poland 8D 1D VS Germany 4D 1 1Sc #140C #39X
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Nerlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 n 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 n 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Nerlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Nerlands Vs Germany
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Slovakia (Slovak Republic)
1993 - Present
18
@ Bratislava
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1st Kingdom of Hungary
1000 - 1538
538
Bohemia 1440 - 1540 100
1490 - 1516 26 Vladislaus 2 *Bohemia
1470 - 1514 44 György Dózsa, leader of peasants revolt in Hungary
1516 - 26 10 Louis 2 *Bohemia
1526 Battle of Mohács. Hungary. Ottoman Empire vs Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Bohemia Holy Roman Empire Bavaria Papal States Kingdom of Poland Louis 2 killed.
1526 - 40 14 John 1 (Szapolyai János)
1527 - 8 1 Hungarian campaign of 1527 1528. Hungary. Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Papal States, Hungary (Kingdom of Ferdinands), Voivodian Serbs vs Ottoman Turks
1530 - 52 22 Little War in Hungary. Hungary. Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Papal States, Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia, Hungarian Kingdom of Ferdinands vs Ottoman Empire, Moldavia, Hungarian Kingdom of Szapolyais, Wallachia, Serbian Despotate, France
1552 Siege of Eger
Holy Roman Empire
1526 - 38
12
1526 - 64 38 Ferdinand 1 HRE Rival
1538 Subsummed into Ottoman Empire.
1560 Erzsebet Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary.
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
Hungary was effectively split into three parts: Royal Hungary in north & west, Ottoman Hungary in south, & Principality of Transylvania in east. following, until 1699, gives rulers of "Royal Hungary".
1550 Budapest Bathhouse
1563 - 76 13 Maximilian (1. Miksa)
1566 Battle of Szigetvar
1572 - 1608 36 Rudolf 1
1593 - 1606 14 Long War (Ottoman wars). Hungary, Romania, Greece. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate, Nogai Khanate vs Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Bohemia, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Zaporozhian Host, Kingdom of Bohemia, Spain, Serbian rebels, Papal States, Venice, Saxony, Tuscany, Persia, Knights of St. Stephen, Bulgarian rebels, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Mantua, Republic of Ragusa, Duchy of Savoy
1596 Battle of Keresztes
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1608 - 19 11 Matthias 2 (2. Mátyás)
1618 - 37 19 Ferdinand 2
1625 - 57 32 Ferdinand 3
1647 - 54 7 Ferdinand 4
1655 - 1705 50 Leopold 1 (1. Lipót)Habsburgs began colonization of Serbs (1690) & Germans (1682–1699) in Sourn Hungary.
Hungary reunited under Habsburg rule after Great Turkish War in 1699.
1664 Battle of Saint Gotthard
1673 Battle of Khotyn
1681 Pasha of Buda supports Imre Thökölys rebellion in Hungary.
1686 seige Pecsbarbakan
1687 Battle of Mohacs
1580 - 1629 49 Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania
1657 - 1705 48 Imre Thököly, prince of Transylvania, leader of antiHapsburg uprising in Hungary
2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1687 - 1711 24 Joseph 1
1703 - 11 8 Rákóczis War for Independence, Hungary.
1711 - 40 29 Charles 3 Károly Large scale German settlements in Hungary begin 1720 - 1800 80
1731 Kazakh Lesser Horde accepts Russian protection.
1676 - 1735 59 Francis 2 Rákóczi, Prince of Hungary & Transylvania, revolutionary leader
1740 - 80 40 Maria 2 resa (2. Mária Terézia) Enjoyed broad support of Hungarian nobles
1780 - 90 10 Joseph 2 József
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 2 Lipót












2nd Kingdom of Hungary
1538 - 1867 329
1792 - 1835 43 Francis Ferenc
1822 - 69 47 Esztergom Basilica
1830 - 48 18 Ferdinand 5 Ferdinánd Being epileptic & mentally ill, abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph (son of his younger bror Franz Karl). Died in 1875. merged into Austro-Hungarian Empire
1848 - 9 1 Hungarian Revolution Austrian Empire Hungarian Rebels
1848 Battle of Pakozd
1849 Battle of Kapolna
1849 Battle of Szolnok
1849 Battle of Isaszeg
1849 Battle of Buda
1802 - 60 58 János Bolyai, mamatician Hungarian
1818 - 65 47 Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian proponent of hygienic practices
1802 - 94 92 Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of war of independence
1791 - 1860 69 István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of Hungarian reform movement
1811 - 86 75 Franz Liszt Hungarian Composer
   


1905 St. Stephens Basilica Consecrated
1916 Battle of Asiago. Italy Italy 172Bat 850G 140Cas 12X 80W 50C VS AustriaHungary 300Bat 2G 100Cas 15X 75W 15MC
1915 1st Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225 14.9VS AustriaHungary 115 10
1915 2nd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 130Bat 420G 45XW VS Italy 260Bat 840G 42XW
1915 3rd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 184Bat 643AP 40.4 9X VS Italy 338Bat 130CSq 1.4AP 67.1 11X
1915 4th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 370Bat 1.4G 49.5 7.5X VS AustriaHungary 155Bat 626G 32.1 4X
1916 5th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 100Bat (+30R) 470G 2XW VS Italy 286Bat (+90R) 1.4G 1.9XWM
1916 6th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 9Div 42 8X VS Italy 22Div 51 21X
1916 7th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 150Bat 770AP 15 VS Italy 240Bat 1.2AP 17
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1917 8th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 14Div 25 VS Italy 20Div 24
1917 9th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225Bat 1.4A 39 VS AustriaHungary 170Bat 990A 33
1917 10th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 400 150 35X VS AustriaHungary 200 75 17X
1917 11th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1930 Votive Church of Szeged Consecrated
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1942 Operation Uranus. Russia USSR 1.14M 894T 13.5A 1.5 VS Germany 250+ 732 402Ser, Italy 220 ?A ?, Romania 143.3 827A 134T ?, Hungary 200 ?A&T 803+134+T 732+
1942 Case Blue. Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 n 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A n 13.5 15.7 400T n 894 4.3T 300 n 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 n 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A n 10.3 6 600 n 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1942 Battle of Voronezh. Russia Germany, Hungary VS USSR 568.3 370.5XC 197.8W
1943 Battle of Voronezh. Russia USSR VS Germany, Hungary
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Battle of Nikolayevka. Russia USSR 6 1XW VS Italy, Germany, Hungary 40 (4CR) 30XWC
1943 OstrogozhskRossosh Operation. Russia USSR VS Hungary, Italy
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Battle of Dukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Operation Margare. Hungary Germany, Hungary VS Russia German Occupation of Hungary
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungary, Germany
1944 - 5 Budapest Offensive . Hungary USSR VS Germany 49X 110C 269TC
1944 - 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1945 Operation Konrad. Hungary USSR VS Germany, Hungary Part of Battle of Budhapest
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1956 Hungarian revolt
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1514 Battle of Orsha
1581 Lyubcha Castle
1590s Ruzhany Zamok Castle Panorama
1600s Lachowicze Castle
1604 Nesvizh Castle
1610s Halshany Castle
1734 - 51 HrodnaNew & Old Castles
1710 Saint Virgin Mary Cadral Minsk
1708 Battle of Lesnaya.
1812 Battle of Ostrovno.
1812 Battle of Klyastitsy.
1812 2nd Battle of Polotsk.
1812 Battle of Chasniki.
1812 Battle of Smoliani.
1812 Battle of Berezina.
1810 - 36 26 Babruysk Fortress
1825 Piszczalauski Castle
1830 Brest Fortress
1830 Kosava Castle
1882 Euxinograd Palace Benkovski Castle
1898 - 1918 20 Tsarska Bistritsa Gruev Castle
1918 Battle of Bobruysk.
Republic of Belarus
1991 - 2011
20
@ Minsk
Belorusian, Russian
1926 - 37 11 Balchik Palace
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belarus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Pripyat swamps. Belarus Germany VS Jews 17.3X Punitive operation
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Bobruysk Offensive. Belarus USSR ? VS Germany 90 50X 20C
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Minsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 100 60WC 40XM
1944 Mogilev Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 33X 3.3C
1944 Polotsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 37X 7C
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1515 - 23 8 Mehmed 1 Giray,
1523 - 4 1 Ğazı 1 Giray,
1524 - 32 8 Saadet 1 Giray,
1531 Battle of Obertyn
1532 İslâm 1 Giray,
1532 - 51 19 Sahib 1 Giray,
1540 Ternopil Castle
1540s Berezhany Castle
1551 - 77 26 Devlet 1 Giray,
1500s Pomoriany Castle
1564 Olyka Castle
1577 - 84 7 Mehmed 2 Giray,
1584 Saadet 2 Giray,
1584 - 8 4 İslâm 2 Giray,
1588 - 96 8 Ğazı 2 Giray, (first reign)
1596 Fetih 1 Giray,
1596 - 1607 11 Ğazı 2 Giray, (second reign)
1598 Letychiv Fortress
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1594 - 1606 12 Zhovkva Castle
1607 - 8 1 Toqtamış Giray,
1608 - 10 2 Selâmet 1 Giray,
1610 - 23 13 Canibek Giray, (first reign)
1610s Kudryntsi Castle
1621 Battle of Khotyn
1623 - 8 5 Mehmed 3 Giray,
1628 - 35 7 Canibek Giray, (second reign)
1631 Zbarazh Castle
1630 - 5 5 Brody Castle
1635 Kodak Fortress
1635 - 7 2 İnayet Giray,
1634 - 6 2 Zolochiv Castle
1635 - 40 5 Pidhirtsi Castle
1637 - 41 4 Bahadır 1 Giray,
1641 - 4 3 Mehmed 4 Giray, (first reign)
1644 Battle of Ochmatow
1651 Battle of Berestechko
1644 - 54 10 İslâm 3 Giray,
1640s Sydoriv Castle
1654 - 66 12 Mehmed 4 Giray, (second reign)
1660 Battle of Chudnov
1666 - 71 5 Adil Giray,
1671 - 8 7 Selim 1 Giray, (first reign)
1675 Battle of Lwow
1678 - 83 5 Murad Giray,
1683 - 4 1 Hacı 2 Giray,
1684 - 91 7 Selim 1 Giray, (second reign)
1691 Saadet 3 Giray,
1691 - 2 1 Safa Giray,
1692 - 9 7 Selim 1 Giray, (third reign)
Crimean Khanate
1441 - 1783
339
1700 Medzhybizh Fortress
1699 - 1702 3 Devlet 2 Giray, (first reign)
1702 - 4 2 Selim 1 Giray, 1(fourth reign)
1704 - 7 3 Ğazı 3 Giray,
1699 - 1706 YeniKale Castle
1707 - 8 1 Qaplan 1 Giray, (first reign)
1709 - 13 4 Devlet 2 Giray, (second reign)
1709 Battle of Poltava.
1713 - 5 2 Qaplan 1 Giray, (second reign)
1716 - 7 1 Devlet 3 Giray,
1717 - 24 7 Saadet 4 Giray,
1724 - 30 6 Meñli 2 Giray, (first reign)
1730 - 6 6 Qaplan 1 Giray, (third reign)
1736 - 7 1 Fetih 2 Giray,
1737 Battle of Stavuchany
1737 - 40 3 Meñli 2 Giray, (second reign)
1740 - 3 3 Selamet 2 Giray,
1743 - 8 5 Selim 2 Giray,
1748 - 56 8 Arslan Giray, (first reign)
1747 - 54 7 St Andrews Cadral Kiev
1756 - 8 2 Halim Giray,
1758 - 64 6 Qırım Giray, (first reign)
1765 - 7 2 Selim 3 Giray, (first reign)
1767 Arslan Giray, (second reign)
1767 - 8 1 Maqsud Giray,
1768 - 9 1 Qırım Giray, (second reign)
1769 - 70 1 Devlet 4 Giray, (first reign)
1770 Qaplan 2 Giray,
1770 - 1 1 Selim 3 Giray, (second reign)
1771 - 5 4 Sahib 2 Giray, †
1775 - 7 2 Devlet 4 Giray, (second reign)
1777 - 82 5 Şahin Giray, (first reign)
1782 Bahadır 2 Giray,
1782 - 3 1 Şahin Giray, (second reign)
Taurida Governorate of Russia
1783 - 1921
138
@ Kiev

 
Taurida Governorate of Russia
1783 - 1921
138
@ Kiev
1830 - 5 35 Transfiguration Cadral, Dnipropetrovsk
1854 - 6 2 Crimean War
Charge of Light Brigade 1968 1936
Charge of Lancers 1954
1854 Battle of Citate.
1854 Battle of Alma.
1854 Battle of Balaclava.
1854 Battle of Inkerman.
1854 - 5 Siege of Sevastopol.
1855 Battle of Eupatoria.
1855 Battle of Chernaya River.
1855 Battle of Malakoff.
1882 St Volodymyrs Cadral
1864 - 84 20 Popov Castle
1888 Annunciation Cadral, Kharkiv
Taurida Governorate of Russia
1783 - 1921
138
@ Kiev
1912 Swallows Nest Castle Crimea
1914 Battle of Galicia Ukraine
1917 Battle of Zborov Ukraine
1918 Battle of Bakhmach Ukraine
1918 Battle of Lemberg Ukraine
1939 Battle of Szack. Ukraine Poland 4 350X 900+W A Tr VS USSR RiDiv 81X 184W 7T 2Tra 3ATG
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of Brody . Ukraine Germany 800T 200 VS USSR 2.5T 800
1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1941 Battle of Uman. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Hungary 400 600T VS USSR 300 203 103C 100WX 317TC 858GC
1941 2 Crimean Campaign. Ukraine Germany VS USSR
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 KamenetsPodolsky Pocket. Ukraine USSR 500 399T&AG 280G VS Germany 220 14.2 5.9XM
1941 2 Battle of Kerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 First Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 2Div 1030 12T VS USSR 1Div
1942 Second Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1943 Third Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 70 11.5XWM VS USSR 346 86.5 45.2X 42.3W
1943 Fourth Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine USSR 4Arm 800T 450 VS Germany 2ArnGr
1941 Occupation of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany VS USSR 30CiX
1941 Battle of Kiev . Ukraine Germany 500 VS USSR 627 700.5 616.3XC 84.2W Occupation of city for next 2 years.
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1943 Battle of Kiev. Ukraine USSR VS Germany 1PTArm 15X 6.2C 286T 156
1944 KorsunCherkassy Pocket Ukraine USSR 336.7 80.2 5.3A&M 524T 1 Rien 400T 728T VS Germany 58 30XWM 242A 59T Rien 259T 156T 50
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1999 2003 Odessa Cadral
Southwestern Krai of Russia  
1832 - 1914 82
West Ukrainian People's Republic 
1918 - 19 1
Ukrainian People's Republic
1917 - 21 4
Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic
1919 - 36 17
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 
1936 - 91 55
Independent Ukraine
1991 - 6 5
Republic of Ukraine
1996 - Present 23
Lithuanian Kiev Voivodeship
1471 - 1569 98
@ Kiev
2nd Hetmans of
Ukrainian Cossacks

1614 - 1775
161
1614 - 22 8 Petro KonashevychSahaidachny 1570 - 1622
1623 - 8 5 Mykhailo Doroshenko
1628 - 30 2 Hryhoriy Chorny, elected by Registered Cossacks
1629 - 30 1 Taras Fedorovych, elected by unregistered Cossacks ? - 1636
1630 - 5 5 Ivan Sulyma
1638 Dmytro Hunia

     
1st Hetmans of
Ukrainian Cossacks

1506 - 96
90
A Hetman was a military & civil leader, democratically elected by Cossacks.
Several Cossack regiments were operating in Ukraine at this time that were largely independent of each or, so some of Hetmans tenures overlap.
1506 - 12 6 Przecław Lanckoroński, was a member of Zadora Polish szlachta family & starosta of Khmilnyk ?1531
1506 - 35 29 Ataman Ostap Dashkevych, was a commander of Cossacks, sometimes referred to as Hetman 1495 - 1535
1550 - 3 3 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, 1st to be officially & casually referred to as Cossack Hetman ?1553
1567 - 74 7 Ivan Svirgovsky
1577 - 8 1 Ivan Pidkova, first Hetman to be elected by entire Sich, thus establishing first direct democratic rule in modern Europe
1579 - 91 12 Ivan Orishevsky
1586 - 94 8 Bogdan Mikoshinsky
1591 - 3 2 Kryshtof Kosynsky 1545 - 93 48
1593 - 6 3 Hryhory Loboda
1596 Severyn Nalyvaiko ?
1696 Conquered by Poland
Cossack Hetmanate
1648 - 1764
116
@ Kiev
1648 - 57 9 Bohdan Khmelnytsky
1657 Yurii Khmelnytsky
1657 - 9 2 Ivan Vyhovsky
1659 - 62 3 Yurii Khmelnytsky
1662 - 3 1 Pavlo Teteria
1663 - 8 5 Ivan Briukhovetsky
1668 - 76 8 Petro Doroshenko
1676 - 87 9 Ivan Samoylovych
1687 - 1708 21 Ivan Mazepa

Cossack Hetmanate
1648 - 1764
116
@ Kiev
1708 - 22 14 Ivan Skoropadsky
Collegium of Little Russia (Stepan Velyaminov) 1722-1727
1727 - 34 7 Danylo Apostol
1734 - 49 15 Yakiv Lyzohub
1750 - 64 14 Kyrylo Rozumovsky
1764 Subsumed into Poland

   
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
Polish Kiev Voivodeship
1569 - 1793
224
@ Kiev
1792 Battle of Zielence
1793 Annexed by Russia
   
 
United Cossack Hetmanate
1648 - 60 12
@ Chyhyryn, Baturyn, Hlukhiv
Ukrainian
Greek Orthodox
Following Khmelnytsky uprising a new Cossack republic, Hetmanate, was formed.
1648 - 57 9 Bohdan Khmelnytsky, first sole ruler of Ukrainian Cossack state who adopted title of Hetman of Zaporozhian Host 1595 - 1657
1651 Ivan Bohun, was Acting Hetman during Battle of Berestechko ? - 1664
1657 - 9 2 Ivan Vyhovsky, 2nd Hetman of Cossack Hetmanate, coauthor of Treaty of Hadiach signed in 1658, Voivode of Kiev (1660 - 4) ?1664
1659 - 60 1 Yurii Khmelnytsky, third Hetman of Cossack Hetmanate who adopted title of Hetman of Zaporozhian Host & Prince of Sarmatia 1641 - 85
1660 Hetmanate breaks up into Right & Left Bank
1660 - 3 3 Yakym Somko, Acting Hetman of Leftbank Ukraine ? - 28 September 1664
1663 - 8 5 Ivan Briukhovetsky, was a proRussian hetman of Leftbank Ukraine
1668 - 9 1 Petro Doroshenko 1627 1698
1669 - 72 3 Demian Mnohohrishny 1630 1701
1672 - 87 15 Ivan Samoylovych 1630 - 90 60
Hetmans after Ruin & reunification of Ukraine
1687 - 1709
22
1687 - 1709 22 Ivan Mazepa, was last hetman to actively fight against Russian domination 1639 - 1709 70
1709 Ukraine Subsumed into Russia & AustriaHungary
     
 
@
1660 - 3 3 Yurii Khmelnytsky
1663 - 5 2 Pavlo Teteria, succeeded Yurii Khmelnytsky as first ruler of Rightbank Ukraine ? – 1670
1665 - 76 11 Petro Doroshenko, united Cossack state for a short period of time until accepting Ottoman suzerainty1627 98
1669 - 74 5 Mykhailo Khanenko, proclaimed Hetman (1669) & nominated by Polish authorities (1670)1620–1680
1678 - 81 3 1683 Yurii Khmelnytsky, nominated by Ottomans in 1678, & reinstaled by Poles in 1683 1641 - 85 44
1683 - 4 1 Stepan Kunytsky, nominated by Polish authorities1640 - 84
1684 - 9 5 Andriy Mohyla, nominated by Polish authorities
1692 - 1704 12 Samuel Samus, Acting Hetman of Rightbank Ukraineca. 1688 - 1713
     
         
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
1495 - 1508 13 Radu 4 cel Mare " Great" ^
1508 - 9 1 Mihnea 1 cel Rău " Mean" ^ Vlad 3
1509 - 10 1 Mircea 3 ^
1510 - 2 2 Vlad 5 cel Tânăr " Younger" (Vlăduţ) ^< Radu cel Mare
Craioveşti 1512 - 21 9
1512 - 21 9 Neagoe Basarab 5
Teodosie 1521 - 2 1
1521 - 2 1 Teodosie
Drăculeşti 1522 - 3 1
1522 - 3 1 Radu 5 ^ Radu cel Mare; allied with Craioveşti; 1stX
Dăneşti 1523
1523 Vladislav 3 ^< Vladislav 2 1stX
Nondynastic 1523 4 1
1523 - 4 1 Radu 6 Bădica
1524 Radu 5 2ndX
Dăneşti 1524
1524 Vladislav 3 2ndX
Craioveşti 1524 - 5 1
1524 - 5 1 Radu 5 3rdX
Dăneşti 1525
1525 Vladislav 3 3rdX
Craioveşti 1525 - 9 4
1525 - 9 4 Radu 5 4thX
Nondynastic 1529 - 30 1
1529 Basarab 6
1529 - 30 1 Moise
Drăculeşti 1530 - 91 60
1530 - 2 2 Vlad 6 Înecatul " Drowned" ^ Vlad cel Tânăr
1532 - 5 3 Vlad 7 Vintilă de la Slatina ^ Radu cel Mare
1535 - 45 10 Radu 7 Paisie ^
1545 - 52 7 Mircea 4 Ciobanul " Shepard" 1stX ^ Radu cel Mare; 1stX
1552 - 3 1 Radu 8 Ilie Haidăul " Cowherd" ^ Radu de la Afumaţi
1553 - 4 1 Mircea 4 2ndX
1554 - 8 3 Pătraşcu cel Bun " Kind" ^ Radu Paisie; 3rdX
1558 - 9 1 Mircea 4 3rdX
1559 - 68 9 Petru 1 cel Tânăr " Younger" ^
1568 - 74 6 Alexandru 2 Mircea (Oaie Sea) 1stX ^ Mircea 2
1574 Vintilă ^ Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
1574 - 7 3 Alexandru 2 Mircea 2ndX
1577 - 83 6 Mihnea 2 Turcitul
(Mihnea TurnedTurk) 1stX ^
1583 - 5 2 Petru 2 Cercel (Peter 2 Earring) ^ Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
1585 - 91 6 Mihnea 2 Turcitul 2ndX
Nondynastic 1591 - 3 2
1591 - 2 1 Ştefan Surdul " Deaf"

1592 - 3 1 Alexandru 3 cel Rău
" Mean" also ruled Moldavia (1592)
Drăculeşti 1593 - 1600 7
1593 - 1600 7 Michael Brave
(Mihai Viteazul) illegitimate ^ Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599 - 1600) & Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting three principalities.
1543 Bonţida Bánffy Castle
1512 - 26 Curtea de Argeş Cadral
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
Movileşti 1600 - 1 1
1600 - 1 1 Simion Movilă 1stX
Drăculeşti 1601 2 1
1601 - 2 1 Radu 9 Mihnea 1stX ^ Minhea II Turcitul
1602 Simion Movilă 2ndX
Nondynastic 1602 - 10 8
1602 - 10 8 Radu 10 Şerban 1stX
1611 Gabriel Báthory. Prince of Transylvania
1611 Radu 9 2ndX
Nondynastic 1611
1611 Radu 10 2ndX
Drăculeşti 1611 - 16 5
1611 - 16 5 Radu 9 3rdX
1616 Gabriel Movilă 1stX ^ Simion Movilă 1stX
Nondynastic 1616 - 8 2
1616 - 8 2 Alexandru 4 Iliaş 1stX
Movileşti 1618 - 20 2
1618 - 20 2 Alexandru 4 2ndX
Drăculeşti 1620 - 7 7
1620 - 3 3 Radu 9 4thX
1623 - 7 4 Alexandru 5 Coconul "ChildPrince" ^
Nondynastic 1627 - 32 5
1627 - 9 2 Alexandru 4 Iliaş 2ndX
1629 - 32 3 Leon Tomşa
1632 Radu 11 Iliaş
Brâncoveneşti 1632 - 54 22
1632 - 54 22 Matei Basarab
Nondynastic 1654 - 9 5
1654 - 8 4 Constantin Şerban ^ Radu Şerban
1658 - 9 1 Mihnea 3
Ghica 1659 - 64 5
1659 - 60 1 Gheorghe Ghica
1660 - 4 4 Grigore 1 Ghica 1stX
Nondynastic 1664 - 72 8
1664 - 9 5 Radu 12 Leon
1669 - 72 3 Antonie Vodă din Popeşti
Ghica 1672 - 3 1
1672 - 3 1 Grigore 1 Ghica 2ndX
Nondynastic 1673 - 8 5
1673 - 8 5 George Ducas
Cantacuzene 1678 - 88 10
1678 88 10 Şerban Cantacuzino
Brâncoveneşti 1688 - 1714 26
1688 - 1714 26 Constantin Brâncoveanu
1600 Jósika Castle
1630 Sibiu Castle
1630s Mikó Castle
Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
1688 - 1714 26 Constantin Brâncoveanu
Cantacuzene 1714 - 5 1
1714 - 5 1 Ştefan Cantacuzino
Phanariote rule
1715 - 1821
106
Mavrocordato 1715 - 6 1
1715 6 1 Nicolae Mavrocordat 1stX
Habsburg Occupation 1716
Mavrocordato 1716 - 30 14
1716 - 9 3 Ioan Mavrocordat
1719 - 30 11 Nicolae Mavrocordat 2ndX
1730 Constantin Mavrocordat 1stX
Racoviţă 1730 - 1 1
1730 - 1 1 Mihai Racoviţă 1stX
Mavrocordato 1730 - 3 3
1730 - 3 3 Constantin Mavrocordat 2ndX
Ghica 1733 - 5 2
1733 - 5 2 Grigore 2 Ghica 1stX
Mavrocordato 1735 - 41 6
1735 - 41 6 Constantin Mavrocordat 3rdX
Racoviţă 1741 - 4 3
1741 - 4 3 Mihai Racoviţă 2ndX
Mavrocordato 1744 - 8 4
1744 - 8 4 Constantin Mavrocordat 4thX
Ghica 1748 - 53 5
1748 - 52 4 Grigore 2 Ghica 2ndX
1752 - 3 1 Matei Ghica
Nondynastic 1753 - 8 5
1753 - 6 3 Constantin Racoviţă
1756 - 8 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 5thX
Ghica 1758 - 61 3
1758 - 61 3 Scarlat Ghica 1stX
Nondynastic 1761 - 3 2
1761 - 3 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 6thX
Racoviţă 1763 - 5 2
1763 - 4 1 Constantin Racoviţă 2ndX
1764 - 5 1 Ştefan Racoviţă
Ghica 1765 - 8 3
1765 - 6 1 Scarlat Ghica 2ndX
1766 - 8 2 Alexandru Ghica
Russian Occupation 1768
Ghica 1768 - 9 1
1768 - 9 1 Grigore 3 Ghica
Russian Occupation
1769 - 70
1
Rosetti 1770 - 1 1
1770 - 1 1 Emanuel Giani Ruset (Manole, Manolache)
Ypsilanti 1774 - 82 8
1774 - 82 8 Alexander Ypsilantis
Caradja 1682 - 3 1
1682 - 3 1 Nicolae Caragea
Soutzos 1783 - 6 3
1783 - 6 3 Mihail Suţu 1stX
Nondynastic 1786 - 9 3
1786 - 9 3 Nicolae Mavrogheni
Habsburg occupation 1789 - 90 1
Soutzos 1791 - 3 2
1791 - 3 2 Mihail Suţu 2ndX
Mourousi 1793 - 6 3
1793 - 6 3 Alexandru Moruzi 1stX
Ypsilanti 1796 - 7 1
1796 - 7 1 Alexander Ypsilantis 2ndX
Nondynastic 1797 - 9 2
1797 - 9 2 Constantin Hangerli
Mourousi 1799 - 1801 1
1799 - 1801 1 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
1762 Episcopal Palace, Oradea
1736 - 1774 St. Georges Cadral, Timişoara
1738 - 49 Holy Trinity Cadral, Blaj
1778 - 9 Transfiguration Cadral, ClujNapoca

Principality of Wallachia
1330 - 1859
529
1799 - 1801 1 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
Soutzos 1801 - 2 1
1801 - 2 1 Mihail Suţu 3rdX
1802 Alexandru Suţu
Ypsilanti 1802 - 6 4
1802 - 6 4 Constantin Ypsilanti
Russian occupation
1806 - 12
6
Caradja 181 - 2 8 6
1812 - 8 6 Ioan Gheorghe Caragea
Nondynastic 1821
1821 Kaymakam
1821 Tudor Vladimirescu leader of antiPhanariote uprising
1821 Scarlat Callimachi
Ghica 1822 - 8 6
1822 - 8 6 Grigore 4 Ghica
Russian occupation
1828 - 43
6
Organic Statute government
1832 - 56
24
Ghica 1834 - 42 8
1834 - 42 8 Alexandru 2 Ghica
Bibescu 1842 - 8 6
1842 - 8 6 Gheorghe Bibescu
1848 Wallachian Revolution Romania
Regency of three 1848
Joint Ottoman & Russian occupation 1848
Ştirbei 1 1848 - 53 5
1848 - 53 5 Barbu Ştirbei 1stX
1853 Battle of Oltanita
Russian occupation 1853 - 4 1
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854 - 6 2
Ştirbei 2 1854 - 6 2
1854 - 6 2 Barbu Ştirbei 2ndX
Protectorate established by Treaty of Paris 1856 - 9 3
1856 - 8 2 Caimacam
Alexandru 2 Ghica

1858 - 9 1 Caimacam of three
1859 Unioned with Moldova
1800 - 65 65 Evangelis Zappas, GreekRomanian Founder of International Modern Olympic Games
1856 Worlds first oil refinery in Romania
1833 - 87 55 Metropolitan Cadral, Iaşi
1840 - 52 12 Dormition of otokos Cadral, Giurgiu
1883 - 95 12 Saints Peter & Paul Cadral Constanţa
Kingdom of Romania
1881 - 1947 66
Bucharest
(1881 - 1916 / 1918 - 47)
Iaşi 1916 - 8 2
1881 - 1914 43 Carol 1
1896 Iulia Hasdeu Castle
Kingdom of Romania
1881 - 1947 66
1881 1914 43 Carol 1
1903 Pelişor Castle
1914 Peleş Castle
1914 27 13 Ferdinand 1
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1918 Treaty of Bucharest.
1923 - 33 10 Dormition of otokos Cadral, ClujNapoca
1925 - 32 7 Ascension of Lord Cadral, Târgu Mureş
1927 - 30 3 Michael 1 (1st reign)
1930 - 40 10 Carol 2
1934 - 7 6 Holy Trinity Cadral, Sighişoara
1937 - 40 3 Timişoara Orthodox Cadral
1940 7 7 Michael 1 (2nd reign)
1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1941 - 2 Battle of Kerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 2nd Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Battle of Dnieper. Russia USSR 2.65M(Ini) 51G 2.4T 2.9 1.29MCa 348.8X 937.3WSVS Germany, Romania 1.25M(Ini) 12.6G 2.1T 2 4001.2M
1942 - 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1942 - 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 n 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A n 13.5 15.7 400T n 894 4.3T 300 n 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 n 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A n 10.3 6 600 n 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1944 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 JassyKishinev Operation. Romania USSR, Romania 239th Aug 1.31M 13.2XM 54WS 16G 1.9T 2.2 111 VS Germany, Romania 203rd Aug 40Div 1.22M 170 100X 115C 800 T Romania: 8.3X 25W 170CM 25
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungary, Germany
1944 1st Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania 3Div 2ArDiv 1PTDiv VS USSR 14RiDiv T 1AiDiv
1944 2nd Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania VS USSR
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
Republic of Romania
1947 - Present
64
@ Bucharest
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
1457 - 1504 47 Ştefan 3 cel Mare " Great" ^ Bogdan 2
1504 - 17 13 Bogdan 3 cel Chior ^
1517 - 27 10 Ştefan 4 ^ Bogdan 3
1527 - 38 11 Petru 4 Rareş
1538 - 40 2 Ştefan 5 Lăcustă ^^
1540 - 1 1 Alexandru 3 Cornea ^ Bogdan 3
1541 - 6 5 Petru 4 Rareş 2ndX
1546 - 51 5 Ilie II Rareş ^
1551 - 2 2 Ştefan 6 Rareş <
Nondynastic 3 1552
1552 Ioan 1 Joldea
Bogdan-Muşat 4
1552 - 61
9
1552 - 61 9 Alexandru 4 Lăpuşneanu 1stX ^ Bogdan 3
Nondynastic 3 1561 - 4 3
1561 - 3 2 Ioan 2 Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides) " Despot"
1563 - 4 1 Ştefan 7 Tomşa
Bogdan-Muşat 5
1564 - 74
10
1564 - 8 4 Alexandru 4 Lăpuşneanu 2ndX
1568 - 72 4 Bogdan 4 ^
1572 - 4 Ioan 3 cel Cumplit (John 3 Terrible) " Brave" ^ Ştefan 4
Drăculeşti 1 1574 - 7 3
1574 - 7 3 Petru 5 Şchiopul
(Peter 5 Lame) 1stX
Hetman 1 1577
1577 Ioan 4 Potcoavă (Ivan Pidcova)
Drăculeşti 2 1578 - 9 1
1578 - 9 1 Petru 5 Şchiopul 2ndX
Bogdan-Muşat 6
1579 - 82
3
1579 - 82 3 Ioan 5 Sasul
(John 5 Saxon) ^ Petru Rares
Drăculeşti 3 1582 - 91 9
1582 - 91 9 Petru 5 Şchiopul 3rdX
BogdanMuşat 7 1591 - 5 4
1591 - 2 1 Aron Tiranul
" Tyrant 1stX ^ Alexandru Lăpuşneanu
1592 Alexandru 5 cel Rău
" Wrongdoer" ^ Bogdan 4. *Wallachia (92 3 1)
1592 Petru 6 Cazacul " Cossack" ^
1592 - 5 3 Aron Tiranul " Tyrant" 2ndX
Nondynastic 4 1595
1595 Ştefan 8 Răzvan
Movileşti 1 1595 - 1600 5
1595 - 1600 5 Ieremia Movilă ^ Petru Rares
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
1593 - 1617 24 Moldavian Magnate Wars.
1600 Mihai Viteazul
" Brave" also ruled Wallachia (1593 - 1600 7) & Transylvania (1599 - 1600 1)
Movileşti 2 1600 - 12 12
1600 - 6 6 Ieremia Movilă 2ndX
1603 Battle of Brasov
1606 - 7 1 Simion Movilă <
1607 Mihail Movilă 1stX ^<
1607 Constantin Movilă < under regency of his mor Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz
1607 Mihail Movilă 2ndX <
1607 - 12 5 Constantin Movilă 2ndX Mor as Regent.
Nondynastic 5 1611 - 15 4
1611 - 15 4 Ştefan 9 Tomşa
Movileşti 3 1615 - 6 1
1615 - 6 1 Alexandru 6 Movilă
Drăculeşti 5 1616 - 9 3
1616 - 9 3 Radu Mihnea 1stX
Nondynastic 6 1619 - 20 1
1619 - 20 1 Gaspar Graziani
BogdanMuşat 8 1620 - 1 1
1620 - 1 1 Alexandru 7 Iliaş 1stX ^< Petru 6, Aron Tiranul & Bogdan 4
Nondynastic 7 1621 - 3 2
1621 - 3 2 Ştefan 9 Tomşa 2ndX
Drăculeşti 6 1623 - 6 3
1623 - 6 3 Radu Mihnea 2ndX
Movileşti 4 1626 - 9 3
1626 - 9 3 Miron BarnovschiMovilă 1stX
Drăculeşti 7 1629 - 30 1
1626 - 9 3 Alexandru 8 Coconul
" ChildPrince" 1stX
Movileşti 5 1630 - 1 1
1630 - 1 1 Moise Movilă 1stX
BogdanMuşat 9 1631 - 3 2
1631 - 3 2 Alexandru 7 Iliaş 2ndX
Movileşti 6 1633 - 4 1
1633 Miron BarnovschiMovilă 2ndX
1633 - 4 1 Moise Movilă 2ndX
Nondynastic 8 1634 - 58 24
1634 - 53 19 Vasile Lupu 1stX
1653 Gheorghe Ştefan 1stX
1653 Vasile Lupu 2ndX
1653 - 8 5 Gheorghe Ştefan 2ndX
Ghica 1 1658 - 9 1
1658 - 9 1 Gheorghe Ghica
Nondynastic 9 1659 - 66 7
1659 Constantin Şerban 1stX
1659 - 1 2 Ştefan 10 Lupu (PapurăVodă, Bullrush Voivode) 1stX
1661 Constantin Şerban 2ndX
1659 - 61 2 Ştefan 10 Lupu 2ndX
1661 - 5 4 Eustratie Dabija
1665 - 6 1 Gheorghe Duca 1stX
BogdanMuşat 10
1666 - 8
2
1666 - 8 2 Iliaş 3 Alexandru ^
Alexandru 7
Nondynastic 10 1668 - 73 5
1668 - 72 4 Gheorghe Duca 2ndX
1672 - 3 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 1stX
1673 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 1stX
Nondynastic 11 1673 - 4 1
1673 - 4 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 2ndX
Cantacuzene 2 1674 - 5 1
1674 - 5 1 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 2ndX
Rosetti 1 1675 - 8 3
1675 - 8 3 Antonie Ruset
Nondynastic 12 1678 - 84 6
1678 - 83 5 Gheorghe Duca 3rdX
1683 - 4 1 Ştefan 11 Petriceicu 3rdX
Cantacuzene 3 1684 - 5 1
1684 - 5 1 Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 3rdX
Cantemireşti 1 1685 - 93 8
1685 - 93 8 Constantin Cantemir
1693 Dimitrie Cantemir 1stX
Deposed by Ottomans
Nondynastic 13 1693 - 5 2
1693 5 2 Constantin Duca 1stX
Cantemireşti 2
1695 - 1700
5
1695 - 1700 5 Antioh Cantemir 1stX

Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Nondynastic 14 1700 3 3
1700 - 3 3 Constantin Duca 2ndX
1703 Chancellor Ioan Buhuş 1stX
Racoviţă 1 1703 - 5 2
1703 - 5 2 Mihai Racoviţă 1stX
Cantemireşti 3 1705 - 7 2
1705 - 7 2 Antioh Cantemir 2ndX
Racoviţă 2 1707 - 9 2
1707 - 9 2 Mihai Racoviţă 2ndX
Nondynastic 15 1709 - 10 1
1709 - 10 1 Chancellor
Ioan Buhuş
2ndX
Mavrocordato 1 1709 - 10 1
1709 - 10 1 Nicolae Mavrocordat 1stX
Cantemireşti 4 1710 - 1 1
1710 - 1 1 Dimitrie Cantemir 2ndX
1710 - 1 1 RussoTurkish War. Moldova. Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate vs Russian Empire, Principality of Moldavia
Phanariotes 1711 - 1821 110
Nondynastic 16 1711
1711 Caimacam Lupu Costachi
Mavrocordato 2 1711 - 5 4
1711 Ioan Mavrocordat
1711 - 5 4 Nicolae Mavrocordat 2ndX
Racoviţă 3 1715 - 26 11
1715 - 26 11 Mihai Racoviţă 3rdX
Ghica 2 1726 - 33 7
1726 - 33 7 Grigore 2 Ghica 1stX
Mavrocordato 3 1733 - 5 2
1733 - 5 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 1stX
Ghica 3 1735 - 9 4
1735 - 9 4 Grigore 2 Ghica 2ndX
1735 - 9 4 Russo-Austrian Turkish War
Russian occupation 1739
Ghica 1739 - 41 2
1739 41 2 Grigore 2 Ghica 3
Mavrocordato 4 1741 - 7 6
1741 - 3 2 Constantin Mavrocordat 2ndX
1743 - 7 4 Ioan Mavrocordat2ndX
Ghica 4 1747 - 8 1
1747 - 8 1 Grigore 2 Ghica 4thX
Mavrocordato 5 1748 - 9 1
1748 - 9 1 Constantin Mavrocordat 3rdX
Nondynastic 17 1749
1749 Iordache Stavrachi
Racoviţă 4 1749 - 53 4
1749 - 53 4 Constantin Racoviţă 1stX
Ghica 5 1753 - 6 3
1753 - 6 3 Matei Ghica
Racoviţă 5 1756 - 7 1
1756 - 7 1 Constantin Racoviţă 2ndX
Ghica 6 1757 - 8 1
1757 - 8 1 Scarlat Ghica
Callimachi 1 1758 - 64 6
1758 - 61 3 Ioan Teodor Callimachi
1761 - 4 3 Grigore Callimachi 1stX
Ghica 7 1764 - 7 3
1764 - 7 3 Grigore 3 Ghica 1stX
Callimachi 2 1767 - 9 2
1767 - 9 2 Grigore Callimachi 2ndX
1768 - 74 6 RussoTurkish War
Mavrocordato 6 1769
1769 Constantin Mavrocordat 4thX
Russian occupation
1769 - 74
5
Ghica 8 1774 - 7 3
1774 - 7 3 Grigore 3 Ghica 2ndX
Mourousi 1 1777 - 82 5
1777 - 82 5 Constantin Moruzi 4thX
Mavrocordato 7 1782 - 6 4
1782 - 5 3 Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey
1785 - 6 1 Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris
Ypsilanti 1 1786 - 8 2
1786 - 8 2 Alexandru Ipsilanti
Austrian occupation
1787 - 91
4
1787 - 92 5 RussoTurkish War
Rosetti 1 1788 - 9 1
1788 - 9 1 Emanuel Giani Ruset (Manole, Manolache)
Russian occupation
1788 - 91
3
Mourousi 2 1792
1792 Alexandru Moruzi 1stX

Soutzos 1 1793 - 5 2
1793 - 5 2 Mihai Suţu (Draco)

Callimachi 3 1795 - 9 4
1795 - 9 4 Alexandru Callimachi
Ypsilanti 2 1799 - 1801 2
1799 - 1801 2 Constantin Ipsilanti

Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
1799 - 1801 2 Constantin Ipsilan
Soutzos 2 1801 - 2 1
1801 - 2 1 Alexandru Suţu
Nondynastic 18 1802
1802 Chancellor Iordache Conta
Mourousi 3 1802
1802 Alexandru Moruzi 2ndX
Callimachi 4 1806
1806 Scarlat Callimachi 1stX
Mourousi 4 1806 - 7 1
1806 - 7 1 Alexandru Moruzi 3rdX
Russian occupation
1806 - 12
6
1806 - 12 6 RussoTurkish War part of Napoleonic Wars. Moldova, Romania, Armenia, Turkey. Russian Empire vs Ottoman Empire
1812 Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in .
(See also President of Moldova, for rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in 20th century.)
Nondynastic 18 1807
1807 Alexandru Hangerli
Callimachi 5 1807
1807 Scarlat Callimachi. Deposed by Russians
Rosetti 2 1807
1807 Caimacam
Iordache RusetRoznovanu
Nondynastic 19 1807 - 12 5
1807 - 12 5 Caimacam Metropolitan Veniamin Costache 1stX
Callimachi 6 1812 - 9 7
1812 - 9 7 Scarlat Callimachi
Soutzos 3 1819 - 1 2
1819 - 1 2 Mihail Suţu
Nondynastic 20
1819 - 34
15
1819 Stolnici Manu & RizosNerulos
1821 Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
2ndX
1821 Filiki Eteria occupation
1821 - 2 1 Caimacam Stefan Bogoridi (Ştefan Vogoride)
1822 - 8 6 Ioan Sturdza
1828 - 34 6 Russian occupation

Organic Statute government
1832 - 56
24
Nondynastic 21 1834 - 9 5
1834 - 9 5 Mihail Sturdza
1849 Battle of Segesvar
1849 Battle of Temesvar
Ghica 9 1849 - 53 4
1849 - 53 4 Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1stX
Russian occupation 1853 - 4 1
1853 - 4 1 Crimean War
Ghica 10 1854 - 6 2
1854 - 6 2 Grigore Alexandru Ghica 2ndX
Protectorate established by Treaty of Paris 1856 - 9 3
Nondynastic 22
1856 - 62
6
1856 Extraordinary Administrative Council
1856 - 7 1 Caimacam Teodor Balş
1857 - 8 1 Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
1858 - 9 1 Caimacams
1859 - 62 3 Alexander John Cuza. Also ruled Wallachia in personal union
1862 Formal union of Moldavia & Wallachia
1860 Genoese Lighthouse Constanţa
 
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
@ Gyulafehérvár (AlbaIulia) 1570 - 1692
Hermannstadt (Sibiu) 1692 - 1711

Latin (in administration, science & politics);
Hungarian, German, Romanian, Runian (vernacular)
Roman Catholicism, Calvinism, Luranism, Eastern Orthodoxy,
Greek Catholicism, Unitarianism, Judaism
Principality, Elective monarchy
Vassal state of Ottoman Empire (1570 - 1683)
Vassal state of Habsburg Monarchy (1699 - 1711)
Zápolya 1570 - 1 1
1570 - 1 1 John 8 Sigismund Zapólya (János Zsigmond) ^John Zápolya, renounced his royal claim in 1570 in favour of Emperor Maximilian & remained Prince of Transylvania & parts of Hungary until his death in 1571.
Báthory (Somlyó) 1
1571 - 98
27
1571 - 86 15 Stephen 10 Báthory elected Voivod by a diet, King of Poland since 1575
1571 - 2 1 Gáspár Bekes Rival. designated as successor by John II Sigismund Zápolya & supported by Habsburg King, defeated by Stephen Báthory
1575 - 81 6 Christopher Báthory<Stephen 10 Báthory
1586 - 98 12 Sigismund Báthory 1stX. Abdicated
1593 - 1617 24 Moldavian Magnate Wars. Moldova, Romania. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth vs Austria, Ottoman Empire.
1598 Rudolf HRE
Báthory (Somlyó) 2
1598 - 9
1
1598 - 9 1 Sigismund Báthory Abdicated
1599 Andrew Cardinal Báthory << Deposed & killed
Drăculeşti 1599 - 1600 1
1599 - 1600 1 Michael 2 Brave. recognized by Transylvanian parliament (diet) only as imperial governor subject to Holy Roman Emperor, however, he was de facto ruler of Transylvania. Deposed in September 1600 by Hungarian nobles. Romanian historiography asserts that he was Prince of Transylvania.
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
1599 - 1600 1 Michael 2 Brave (1558 - 1601 43) .
1600 Michael Brave, ruler of Walachia, national symbol of Romanians for uniting three provinces under his rule
1601 Michael Brave (first unificator of Romania), voivode of Wallachia, Moldavia & Transylvania, is assassinated by order of Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii.
Habsburg 2 1600 - 1 1
1600 - 1 1 Rudolf HRE
Báthory (Somlyó) 3 1601
1601 Sigismund Báthory
Habsburg 3 1601 - 6 5
1601 - 6 5 Rudolf HRE
NonDynastic 1603
1603 Mózes Székely. rebelled against Habsburgs & defeated Basta with Tartar mercenaries & claimed title of Prince but was defeated by Radu Şerban, Voivode of Wallachia
Bocskay 1605 - 6 1
1605 - 6 1 Stephen 11 Bocksay rebelled against Habsburgs with support of Hungarian nobles & Turks, confirmed in his position in Treaty of Vienna (1606)
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 1
1607 - 8
1
1607 - 8 1 Sigismund Rákóczi elected by estates against wishes of Bocskay, Habsburgs & Ottomans; deposed by a military rebellion under Gabriel Báthory
Báthory (Somlyó) 4
1608
- 13
5
1608 - 13 5 Gabriel Báthory ally of Bocskay, came to power in a military rebellion
Bethlen (Iktár) 1613 - 30 17
1613 - 29 16 Gabriel Bethlen claimed Kingship of Hungary 16191621
1618 Bethlen Gabor, Prince of Transylvania joins Protestant Rebels.
1629 - 30 1 Stephen 12 Bethlenoriginally chosen to succeed his bror, opposed his sisterinlaw
Hohenzollern 1629 - 30 1
1629 - 30 1 Carine of Brandenburg daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, widow of Gabriel Bethlen
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 2
1630 - 48
18
1630 - 48 18 George 1 Rákóczi
Habsburg 4 1630 - 45 15
1630 - 45 15 Ferdinand 3 claimed Principality but accepted George I in 1645 in treaty of Linz
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 3
1648 - 57
9
1648 - 57 9 George 1 Rákóczi married Sophia Báthory, niece of Gabriel Báthory, claimed Kingship of Poland in 1657, abdicated in favor of Habsburg Leopold, King of Hungary, deposed by a diet at Turkish command
Rhédey (Aba) 1557 - 8 1
1557 - 8 1 Francis Rhédey backed by Charles 10 Gustav of Sweden (1654 - 60). Francis Rhédey was a descendent from Royal House of Aba King Samuel Aba of Hungary
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 5
1657 - 8
1
1657 - 8 1 George 2 Rákóczi restored by a diet, deposed by Turks
Barcsay (Nagybarcsa)
1658 - 9
1
1658 - 9 1 Ákos Barcsay
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 6
1659 - 60
1
1659 - 60 1 George 2 Rákóczi fell in battle against Turks
Kemény 1661 - 2 1
1661 - 2 1 John 9 Kemény backed by Habsburg King Leopold
Apafi (Apanagyfalu)
1661 - 92
31
1661 - 90 29 Michael 3 Apafi backed by Turks, opposed King Leopold, made peace with Habsburg King in 1685/7
1681 - 92 11 Michael 4 Apafi elected as heir during his fars lifetime, & accepted as such by Turks, ruled with George Bánffy as governor, moved to Vienna & forced to cede Principality to King Leopold
Thököly (Kesmarkium)
1690 - 99
9
1690 - 99 9 Imre Thököly earlier claimant of Upper Hungary, appointed Prince of Transsylvania by Turks at death of Michael I, held country with Turkish support briefly in 1690/91
1692 Habsburg Kings of Hungary permanently assumed title of Prince of Transylvania, administering country through governors.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz
Habsburg 1690 - 1705 15
1690 - 1705 15 Leopold 1
Principality of Transylvania
1570 - 1711
141
Habsburg 1690 - 1705 15
1690 - 1705 15 Leopold 1
Rákóczi (Felsõvadász) 7
1704 - 11
7
1704 - 11 7 Francis 2 Rákóczi grandson of George II Rákóczi, rebelled against King Leopold, claiming titles Prince of Transylvania & Ruling Prince of Hungary
1711 Subsummed into HRE
   
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
1710 Battle of Prut.
1770 Battle of Larga
1770 Battle of Kagul
Principality of Moldavia
1346 - 1859 113
Capital in Romania
@ Chişinău
Moldavian Democratic Republic
1917 - 8 1
@ Chişinău
Romanian, Russian
1917 - 8 1 Ion Inculeţ
1918 Subsummed into Kingdom of Romania
Romanian Moldova
1918 - 24
6
@ Chişinău
Soviot Moldavian ASSR
1924 - 40 16
Balta 1924 - 8 4
Birzula 1928 - 9 1
Tiraspol 1929 - 40 11
Moldavian, Ukrainian, Russian
Satelite State of USSR. Socialist republic
Ruble
1940 Subsummed into USSR
Moldavian SSR
1940 - 91 51
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
Republic of Moldova
1991 - 2011
20
     
@ 1830- 6 Nativity Cadral, Chişinău
@ Chişinău
 
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Ottoman Eyalet of Rumelia
1362 - 1826
464
@ Adrianople (Edirne), Turkey, Monastir (Bitola), Macedonia, Sofia Bulgaria
Post Rumelia Ottoman Bulgaria
1826 - 78
52
@ Sofia
1829 Battle of Kulevicha.
1850s St Louis Cadral Plovdiv
1876 Bulgarian revolt against Ottoman rule.
1877 Battle of Nicopol.
1874 1st Battle of Shipka Pass.
1877 Battle of Lovecha.
1877 2nd Battle of Shipka Pass.
1877 3rd Battle of Shipka Pass.
1877 Battle of Gorni Dubnik.
1877 Siege of Plevna.
1877 4th Battle of Shipka Pass.
1877 Battle of Philippopolis.
1885 Battle of Slivnitsa.
Principality of Bulgaria
1878 - 1908
30
@ Veliko Turnovo, Sofia
1886 Dormition of otokos Cadral Varna
Principality of Bulgaria
1878 - 1908
30
@ Veliko Turnovo, Sofia
Kingdom of Bulgaria
1908 - 46 38
@ Sovia
Orthodox Christianity
Constitutional Monarchy
1908 - 18 10 Ferdinand 1
1912 Alexander Nevsky Cadral, Sofia
1913 Battle of Kresna Gorge
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 - 43 25 Boris 3
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1943 - 6 3 Simeon 2
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1945 Vienna Offensive. Austria USSR 644.7, Bulgaria 100.9 4Arm 85Div 3Bri 746 18X VS Germany 19X 52C 20%Ci
Soviot Peoples
Republic of Bulgaria

1946 - 90
44
@ Sofia
Bulgarian
Satellite State of USSR
Republic of Bulgaria
1991 - Present
20
@ Sofia
2004 St Paul of Cross Cadral
2006 St Joseph Cadral Sofia
2006 Saint Vissarion Cadral Smolyan
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Grand Duchy of Moscow
1340 - 1547
207
1500 Battle of Vedrosha
1500 - 3 3 2nd Muscovite Lithuanian War Moscow wins
1502 Golden Horde is destroyed by Crimean Khanate
1505 - 33 28 Vasiliy 3 ^Sophia =Solomonia Yuryevna Saburova 0C & Elana Vasilyevna Glinskaya 2S X54
1507 - 8 1 3rd Muscovite - Lithuanian War Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian rebels led by Michael Glinski
1512 - 22 10 4th Muscovite–Lithuanian War. Russia. Grand Duchy of Moscow Livonian Order vs Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Poland Crimean Tatars
1514 Goritsky Monastery
1515 Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
1531 Kolomna Kremlin
1531 Zaraysk Kremlin
1533 - 47 12 Ivan 4 the Terrible ^Elana =0 X51
1534 - 7 3 5th Muscovite–Lithuanian War. Russia. Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland, Crimean Tatars vs Grand Duchy of Moscow
1541 Sahib 1 Giray of Crimea invade Russia.
1547 Grand Prince Ivan Terrible is crowned tsar of (All)Russia, nceforth becoming first Russian tsar.
@ Moscow
Rurikids 1547 - 98 51
1547 - 84 47 Ivan 4 the Terrible 1544 1584 =Anastasia Romanovna ZakharyinaYurieva 6C & Maria Temryukovna 1S & Marfa Vasilevna Sobakina & Anna Alexeievna Koltovskaya & Anna Vasilchikova & Vasilisa Melentyeva & Maria Dolgorukaya & Maria Feodorovna Nagaya 1S X51
Ivan Terrible, Part 1 1943 Part 2 1946
Tsar Ivan Grozny 1993
1552 - 6 4 Kazan War. Russia. Muscovite Russia, Hill Cheremisa vs People of Kazan, Chyuvasha, Meadow Cheremisa, Hill Cheremisa, Ar people, Nogai Horde
1552 Siege of Kazan. Russia. Tsardom of Russia, Qasim Khanate, Taw yağı vs Kazan Khanate, Cheremis & Ar warriors, Nogay cavalry Russian conquers khanate of Kazan
1554 - 7 3 RussoSwedish War
1556 Russian conquers khanate of Astrakhan
1556 Russians capture Tartar city of Astrakhan, ending Astrakhan Khanate. far south along Volga river, giving m access to Caspian Sea.
1556 Serpukhov Kremlin
1558 - 59 first Russian commercial contacts with Transoxiana under Anthony Jenkinson.
1564 Vyborg Castle
1567 Vologda Kremlin
1570 Ivan Terrible orders massacre of inhabitants of Novgorod.
1571 Russo / Crimean War
1571 Crimean Tatars attack & sack Moscow, burning everything but Kremlin.
1572 Battle of Molodi
1575 - 6 1 Simeon Bekbulatovich Muslim-born Khan of Qasim Khanate Proclaimed Grand Prince of All Rus' in 1575 & abdicated within a year
1580 - 1807 27 Astrakhan Kremlin
1582 Yermak Timofeyevich conquers Siberia Khanate on behalf of Stroganovs.
1584 - 98 14 Feodor 1 =Irina Feodorovna Godunova 1D X41
1584 Battle of Tobol River. Yermak, Russian Cossack leader, defeats Kuchum Khan
1500s Pskov Kremlin
1590 - 5 5 Russo-Swedish War
1591 Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow.
1591 Donskoy Monastery
1591 Saints Boris & Gleb Monastery
1594 - 1833 239 Stolobny Island Castle
1595 Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery
1563 - 98 reign of last Shaybanid ruler of Siberian Khanate, Kuchum Khan.









Russia
1547 - 1721
174
1598 - 1613 15 Time of Troubles
1602 Smolensk Kremlin

1598 - 1605 7 Boris Godunov ^Feodor Ivanovich Godunov & Stepanida =Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya 2C X54
1601 - 3 2 Russian famine of 1601 - 3 2 kills perhaps a third of Russia.
1605 Feodor 2 ^ =0 X16
Shuysky branch of Rurik
1606 - 10 4 Vasiliy 4 =0 X60
1607 - 10 3 Dmitry 3 known as False Dmitry 2 =Marina Mniszech 1S X28
1608 - 10 2 Siege of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra
1609 - 11 2 Siege of Molensk
1610 Battle of Klushino. Russia
1611 - 2 1 Dmitry 4 known as False Dmitry 3 =? X?
Polish Control 1610 - 12 2
1610 - 2 2 Vladislaus of Poland deposed =Cecilia Renata of Austria 0C & Marie Louise Gonzaga 0C X53
1613 Time of Troubles in Russia ends with establishment of House of Romanov which rules until 1917.
Romanov 1613 - 1917 304
1613 - 45 22 Michael 1 ^Nikitich Romanov & Kseniya Ioannovna Shestova =Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova 1CX & Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva 10C X49
1619 - 21 2 1st diplomatic contacts between Moscow & Bukhara.
1626 Mozhaysk Kremlin
1632 - 4 2 Smolensk War. Russia. PolishLithuanian Commonwealth vs Tsardom of Russia
1643 Oyrats who stayed in Jungaria conquer Semirechye, Turkestan.
1645 - 76 31 Alexis 1 ^ =Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya 13C & Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina 3C X46
1670 - 1 1 Stenka Razin Rebellion. Russia. Stenka vs Nobility.
1676 - 82 6 Feodor 3 ^Maria =Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya 1S & Marfa Matveievna Apraksina 0C X20
1676 - 81 5 RussoTurkish War. Ukraine. Russia vs Ottomon Empire.
1682 - 1721 39 Peter 1 "the Great" shared with Ivan 5 ^Alexis 1 & Natalia =Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina 3C & Marta Helena Skowrońska 9C X52
Peter Great 1986
1600s Vyazma Kremlin
1682 - 96 14 Ivan 5 shared with Peter 1 ^Alexis 1 & Maria =Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova 5D X29
1680s Clashes between Russian & Chinese troops in Manchuria.
1686 - 1700 4 RussoTurkish War. Ukraine, Russia. Tsardom of Russia, Habsburg Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cossack Hetmanate vs Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate
1687 - 9 2 Crimean campaigns. Russia vs Crimean Khanate.
1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk between Russia & China ends border clashes in Manchuria.
1695 - 6 1 Azov campaigns. Russia. Russia vs Ottoman Empire.
1605 - 18 13 Polish Muscovite War Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth vs Tsardom of Russia V
1605 Battle of Dobrynichi
1654 - 67 13 Russo-Polish War Tsardom of Russia Ukrainian Cossacks PolishLithuanian Commonwealth Crimean Khanate
1656 - 8 2 Russo-Swedish War Part of Second Norrn War Swedish Empire Tsardom of Russia
1645 Russians reach Pacific Ocean.
1646 Khutyn Monastery
1672 Kazan Kremlin
1683 - 1799 116 Tobolsk Kremlin
1683 Rostov Veliky Kremlin
1683 Syzran Kremlin
1697 New Jerusalem Monastery
1691 - 9 Trinity Cadral in Pskov
1115 - 00s fortress of Staraya Ladoga Built
1700 - 21 21 Great Norrn War Russia supplants Sweden as dominant Baltic power after.
1703 Saint Petersburg founded by Peter Great. Russian capital until 1918.
1703 - 1907 204 Peter & Paul Fortress
1704 Kronstadt Fortress
1707 - 8 1 Bulavin Rebellion, Russia.
1715 1st Russian military expedition to Kazakh Steppe under Peter Great.
1717 1st Russian military expedition to Khiva ends in a massacre of Tsarist troops.
1718 Oyrats defeat Kazakh Middle Horde north of Lake Balkash.
1721 Peter 1 reforms Russian Orthodox Church
Russian empire
1721 - 1917
196
Saint Petersburg Successor state of Tsardom of Russia.@ Saint Petersburg
Also Grand Dukes of Finland 1809 - 1917 108
Also * Poland 1815 - 1916 101
monarchs listed below reigned with absolute power until 1905, & n with executive & administrative powers from 1905 - 17 12
1722 Treaty of Kiakhta defines Russian Chinese border
1722 - 3 1 RussoPersian War. Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran. Russian Empire, Ukrainian Cossacks, Georgia, Armenia vs Safavid Persian Empire
1723 Slavery abolished. Peter converted household slaves into house serfs.
1735 - 9 4 RussoAustrianTurkish War Balkans & Eastern Europe. Russian Empire, Cossack Hetmanate (Vassal of Russian Empire), Hapsburg Empire vs Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate (Ottoman protectorate)
1725 27 2 Carine 1 of Livonia ^ Samuel Skowroński & Elisabeth Moritz =Peter 1 9C X43
1727 - 30 3 Peter 2 ^ Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich & Princess Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel =0 X14
1730 - 40 10 Queen Anna ^Tsar Ivan 5 & Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova =Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland=0 X47
1700s Oreshek Fortress
1730 - 62 32 Bartolomeo Rastrellis 1700 - 71 71 carreer as main architect for Russia. Florentineborn Russian architect
1732 - 4 2 Crimean Tatar raids into Russia.
1734 Founding of Russian fort at Orenburg.
1735 - 9 4 Russo-Turkish War.
1740 - 1 1 Ivan 6 ^Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick & Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna =0 X23m