1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Danish Iceland 1380 - 1918 538
KD
Rep 1918
Eng Lordship
42
371
English Kingdom of Ireland
1542 - 1651
109
C
w
English Kingdom of Ireland
1659 - 1801
143
UK of Great Britain & Ireland
1801 - 1922 121
IFS
Republic of Ireland
1937 Present
75
7
j
m
Tudor 1485 - 1603 118
Jam
Char
Stuart 349
o
r
C
Chrls2
j
W
A
Stuart 60 - 14 47
Ge1
G4
W4
Hanover 1714 - 1901 187
E
S 114
E
Ge6
Windsor 1914 Pr 95
England 927 - 1649 722
C
E2 60 - 07 47
Great Britain 1707 - 1801 94
UK of GB & Ireland 1801 - 1922 121
UK 1922 Pr 90
J
C2
F1
C3
F2
C4
F3
C5
F4
C6
F5
C7
F6
C8
F7
Oldenburg 1448 - 1863 415
C9
F8
C10
F9
M2
SHSG 1863 - Present 149
KU
Kingdom of Denmark Norway 1536 - 1814 278
Kingdom of Denmark 1814 - Present 198
6*
KU
1
C3
F2
C4
F3
C5
F4
C6
F5
C7
F6
C8
Danish Oldenburg 1483 - 1814 331
Kingdom of Denmark Norway 1513 - 1814 301
C14
O1
C15
O
Swedish Bernadotte
SwedNor 1818 - 1905 87
Haakon
Olav
H
Glucksburg
Norway 1905 - Present 107
6*
KU
1536
G1
E14
J3
S
C9
J2
C
Vasa
1523 - 1654
131
C10
C11
C12
U
Pal Zweibrücken
1654 - 1720
66
Fred
Hesse
1720 - 51
A
G3
G4
C8
HolsteinGottorp
1751 - 1818
67
C14
O1
C15
O2
G5
G6
C16
Bernadotte
1818 - Present
194
KU
1536
Kingdom of Sweden
1536 - 1814
278
Kingdom of SwedenNorway
1814 - 1905
91
Kingdom of Sweden
1905 - Present
107
KU
Vasa
Pal Zweibrücken
Hesse
HG
Swedish Kingdom of Finland
1250 - 1809
559
Russian Romanov
Russian GD of Finland
1809 - 1917 108
S
R
S
K
R
M
P
K
K
A
Republic of Finland
1917 - Present
95
HRE Terra Mariana
1561
354
Swedish Duchy of Estonia
Swedish Duchy of Livonia
1561 - 1629
68
Swedish Duchy of Estonia
1629 - 1721
92
Romanov 1721 - 1917 196
Russian Governorate of Estonia
1721 - 1917
196
R
o
Soviet
e
Bishopric of Courland
1234 - 1562
328
J
V
J
B
V
Wi
S
We
L
We
L
We
P
Polish Lithuanian Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
1562 - 1795
233
Romanov 1795 - 1915 120
Russian Courlate Governate
1795 - 1915
120
Papal States
Archbishopric of Riga
1186 - 1561
375
Courland & Semigallia
1562 - 1795
233
V
Pal Zweibrücken
h
Swedish Livonia
1629 - 1721
192
Romanov 1721 1918 197
Russian Governate of Livonia
1721 - 1918
197
1st R
w
Soviot Lat
R
Polish GD of L
1200 - 1569
369
PolishLithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
Russian Lithuania
1795 - 1918
123
1st R
w
Soviot Lith
R
N Europe
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Brazil Country FlagBolivia Country FlagChile Country FlagArgentina Country FlagUruguay Country FlagParaguay Country Flag
Danish Iceland
1380 - 1918
538
@ Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
Danish Iceland
1380 - 1918
538
@ Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
Danish Iceland
1380 - 1918
538
@ Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
1783 Famine from eruption Laki volcano.
Danish Iceland
1380 - 1918
538
@ Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
1864 - 1929 Landakotskirkja
Danish Iceland
1380 - 1918
538
@ Þingvellir
Old Icelandic
Kingdom of Iceland
1918 - 44
26
@
1941 Action of 9 May. South of Iceland UK 40Fre 7 2D #40X, 3D 3Co 2Tr VS Germany 4Su 1C 2D #14X #32C
1941 Battle of Denmark Strait. South of Iceland UK VS Germany 1B 1D 1BC 1 1.4X #9W 1HC
Republic of Iceland
1944 - Present
68
@
Lordship of Ireland 
1171 - 1542 371
1st Kingdom of Ireland 
1541 - 1651 110
 ? - 1564 Manus Ó Domhnaill (Manus ODonnell), King of Tír Chonaill in Ulster. Irish Renaisance prince
 1569 - 73 4 1st Desmond Rebellion England & Ireland vs allied Irish clans & FitzGeralds of Desmond. Vs allied Irish clans
 1579 - 83 2nd Desmond Rebellion. Ireland. Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, allied Irish clans VS FitzGeralds of Desmond, Spain, Papal States, allied Irish clans
 1594 - 1603 9 9 Years War  England, Ireland, Lords 23,000 VS Clans 9,000, Scottish & Gallic mercenaries in Ulster 8,000, Spain 3,500 Tot 20,500
 1550 - 1616 66 Hugh ONeill (Aodh Mór Ó Néill), King of Tyrone and 2nd Earl of Tyrone an Irish prince whose armies inflicted major defeats upon English forces of Queen Elizabeth I during Nine Years War in Ulster.
1500 Clonony
1500 Desmond Castle
1500 Leap Castle
1500 Ross Castle
1500s Aughnanure Castle
1500s Ballinalacken Castle
1500s Ballycarbery Castle
1500s Blackrock Castle
1500s Castle Donovan
1500s Doe Castle
1500s Doonagore Castle
1500s Rathfarnham Castle
1520 Dunguaire Castle
1520s Foulksrath Castle
1550 Barryscourt Castle
1550s Fiddaun Castle
1550s Rockfleet Castle
1554 - 64 10 Conna
1573 bought Castle Saunderson
1580 Siege of Carrigafoyle Castle
1585 Ballinacarriga Castle
1590s pucks Castle Shankill, Dublin
1st Kingdom of Ireland 
1541 - 1651 110
 1601 - 2 1 Seige of Kinsale, one of most important battles in Irish history @KinsaleCounty Cork, Ireland. England 12K 6K+X VS Irish Alliance, Spain 9.5K 1.3KX
1607 Flight of Earls ( fleeing of most of native Gaelic aristocracy) occurs from County Donegal in west of Ulster in Ireland.
 1649 - 53 4 Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Part of Wars of Three Kingdoms English Parliamentarian New Model Army, Protestant colonists Irish Catholic Confederation, English Royalists
 1569 - 1644 75 Geoffrey Keating (Seathrún Céitinn), historian
Irish Catholic Confederation
1642 - 51 9
@ Kilkenny
Law French, Latin, Irish, English
Confederal monarchy
1642 - 9 7 Charles 1 of England
1649 - 53 4 Charles 2 of England
English Commonwealth
of Ireland 

1651 - 9  8
2nd Kingdom of Ireland 
1659 - 1801 142
1600 Moorstown Castle
1601 Kanturk
1602 Dunboy Castle seige of dunboy
1610 Parkes Castle
1633 Derry Cathedral Completed
2nd Kingdom of Ireland 
1659 - 1801 142
1710 Treatise Concerning Principles of Human Knowledge George Berkeley 4;10;31
1713 3 Dialogues Between Hylas & Philonous 3;51;05
1720 Pantheisticon by John Toland 16701722 51.8M 1;53;09
 1640 - 1721 79 Thomas Doggett, actor
 1740 - 1 1 Famine in Ireland killed ten per cent of population.
 1742 Messiah Oratorio Opera by Handel in Dublin
 1667 - 1745 78 Jonathan Swift AngloIrish Satirist & Church of Ireland Dean
 1685 - 1753 68 George Berkeley Empiricist Philosopher
 1690 - 1763 73 John Carteret AngloIrish politician
 1713 - 68 55 Laurence Sterne AngloIrish writer
 1710 - 71 61 John Russell AngloIrish Politician
 1730 - 74 44 Oliver Goldsmith AngloIrish Writer, Poet, Childrens Writer & Playwright
 1702 - 82 80 Anne Bonny Pirate
 1690 - 1797 107 Charles Macklin Actor
 1798 Irish Rebellion. UK Militia 40K, Regulars 30K, Yeomanry 25K, Hessians 1K 96K 2.2KX  VS United Irishmen 50K, Defenders, 1st French Republic 1.1K 51.1K 1015S 1050KX
 1800 Irish act of Union
1708 Shankill Castle
1716 Castle Durrow
1738 Ardgillan Castle
1743 Leixlip Wonderful Barn Leixlip
1785 Slane Castle
1712 - 33 St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral
1784 Cashel Cathedral
1793 - 2006 Waterford Cathedral
2nd Kingdom of Ireland 
1659 - 1801 142
United Kingdom of 
Great Britain & Ireland

1801 - 1922 121

 1803 Suppression of rebellion in Ireland
 1741 - 1812 71 Edmond Malone Lliterary Scholar
 1751 - 1816 65 Richard Brinsley Sheridan Playwright
 1821 Famine in Ireland
 1747 - 1833 86 John OKeeffee Playwright
 1845 - 9 4 Irish Potato Famine led to Irish diaspora.
 1767 - 1849 82 Maria Edgeworth AngloIrish novelist
 1821 - 61 40 Lola Montez Exotic Dancer
1863 Popular History of Ireland by Thomas Mcgee 860M
 1805 - 65 60 William Rowan Hamilton Physicist & Mathematician
 1881 Irish land and coercion acts 
 1820 - 90 70 Dion Boucicault, Playwright
 1846 - 91 45 Charles Stewart Parnell Political Leader
1800 - 09 Charleville Castle
1800 Moher Tower in background
1800s Minard Castle
1810 Shanbally Castle
1810s Tullynally Castle
1811 Kinnitty Castle
1820 Drymnagh Castle Dublin
1830s Dromore Castle
1835 Cliffs OBriens Tower
1835 Dromoland Castle
1837 Clontarf Castle
1845 Castle Oliver
1850 Lismore Castle
1870 - 3 3 Glenveagh Castle
1870 Castle Leslie
1808 Cork Cathedral Dedicated
1808 Skibbereen Cathedral Dedicated
1825 Saint Marys Pro Cathedral Dublin Completed
1828 - 1943 Ennis Cathedral Consecrated
1833 Carlow Cathedral Dedicated
1834 Ballina Cathedral
1840 - 56 St. Mel Cathedral
1840 - 93 Longford Cathedral
1840 - 1904 Armagh Roman Catholic Cathedral
1842 - 55 St. Marys Cathedral Killarney
1842 Enniskillen Cathedral Completed
1855 Ballaghaderreen Cathedral Commisioned
1860 - 6 Saint Peters Cathedral Belfast
1861 Limerick
1865 - 79 Saint Fin Barres Cathedral in Cork
1865 - 79 Thurles Cathedral
1867 - 1915 Cobh Cathedral
1867 - 1915 St. Colman Cathedral
1870s Tuam St Marys Cathedral
1897 - 1902 Loughrea Cathedral
1897 - 1902 St. Brendan Cathedral
United Kingdom of 
Great Britain & Ireland

1801 - 1922 121
1900 Reading Book in Irish History by Joyce, P. W. (Patrick Weston) 33,402 K
1905 Irish History and Irish Question by Smith, Goldwin 60,403 K
 1847 - 1912 65 Bram Stoker novelist
1916 Insurrection in Dublin by James Stephens 2;10;41
1921 - 4 3 Irish Civil War   Pro Treaty National Army 58.5 .8, 10P, 1Sh, Air Services, Navy, Citizens Defense Force 350 X4) VS Anti Treaty (Republican Army, Cumann na mBanNa Fianna, Éireann) 15,000 X3,000 12,000Pr
* Confirmation of Irish Free State and defeat of antitreaty IRA forces.
Parnell 1937 
Captain Boycott 1947 
Informer 1935 
Juno and Paycock 1930 
Michael Collins 1996 
Wind that Shakes Barley 2006 
Talk of Angels 1998 
My Left Foot 1989 
Nora 2000 
A Portrait Of Artist As A Young Man 1979
Irish Free State
1922 - 37
 15
Republic of Ireland 
1937 - Present 75
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1949 Ireland leaves Commonwealth.
 1856 - 1950 94 George Bernard Shaw Playwright
1901 Letterkenny Cathedral
1920 - 36 Mullingar Cathedral
1938 - 42 Cavan Cathedral
1958 - 75 Galway Cathedral



1st Kingdom of England
927 - 1649
722
Tudor
1485 - 1603 118
1485 - 1509 24 Henry 7 1457 - 1509 52
* Founder of Tudor dynasty ^^^^^Edward 3 Right of Conquest
* Taxed ruthlessly & brought England out of bankruptcy.
^ Edmund Tudor & Lady Margaret Beaufort
= Elizabeth of York
8C

1509 47 38 Henry 8 14911547 56
* Founder of Anglicanism
^ Elizabeth of York
= 1)Catherine of Aragon D1, 2)Anne Boleyn D1, 3)Jane Seymour S1, 4)Anne of Cleves, 5)Catherine Howard, 6)Catherine Parr
Henry VIII and his Six Wives 1973
Private Life of Henry VIII 1933
Six Wives of Henry VIII 1970 miniseries 
Anne of Thousand Days 1969
A Man for All Seasons 1966  1988
1509 - 10 1 Great Plague afflicts various parts of Tudor England.
1513 Battle of Spurs. @France. PO War of League of Cambrai England & HRE 30 VS France 7
1517 Sweating Sickness epidemic hits Tudor England.
1527 Portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein Younger 1497 1543 46 oil on wood Frick Collection, New York
1530 Spinning wheel at Brunswick.
1531 - 2 1 Anglicanism Church of England breaks away from Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry 8 as head of Church.
1533 Anne Boleyn becomes Queen of England & Elizabeth Tudor is born.
1478 - 1535 57 Thomas MorePolitician & Author.
1536 Anne Boleyn beheaded for adultery & treason.
1547 - 53 6 Edward 6 1537 1553 15
* Named Jane Grey as heir
^ Jane Seymour
1551 5th outbreak of sweating sickness in England. John Caius of Shrewsbury writes first full contemporary account of symptoms of disease.
1553 Jane Grey Nine Days Queen 1537 - 54 16
* ^^^Henry 7. Privy council switched allegiance after nine days
^ Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk & Frances Brandon
= Lord Guildford Dudley

1553 8 5 Mary 1 Bloody Mary 1516 - 58 42
* Englands 1st Queen Regnant by 3rd Succession Act.
* Attempt to counter Protestant Reformation by burning 300+ Protestants at stake.
^ Catherine of Aragon

= Philip 2 of Spain
1555 1st major English joint stock trading company Mik Muscovy Company .
1558 Loses Calais to France after 200 years
1558 - 1603 45 Elizabeth 1 Virgin Queen ^Henry 8 & Anne Boleyn Richmond Palace X69
height of English Renaissance.
Elizabeth 1998
Virgin Queen 1955
Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex 1939
1563 Plague >20 in 80 London.
1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, imprisoned by Elizabeth 1.
1569 - 70 1 Rising of North
@ North England. England & Protestants 7 VS Scotland & Catholics 4.6 .
1568 - 1648 80 Years War United Provinces, England, Nassau, Huguenots, France VS Spain, HRE
1648 Peace of Münster
Independence of Dutch Republic
Spanish retention of Southern Netherlands
1577 - 80 3 1st Englishman to sail around world. Francis Drake 1540 96 56
Vice Admiral in Carribean.
Drake of England 1935
Seven Seas to Calais 1962
1583 - 1997 397 British Empire British Empire
1585 - 1604 19 AngloSpanish War Part of 80 yrs War Atlantic Ocean, English Channel, Low Countries, Spain, Spanish Main, Portugal, Cornwall, Ireland, Americas. Spain & Naples VS England, Dutch Republic, Portugues loyal to Prior Cato
1604 Treaty of London. Status quo Ante Bellum
1589 Stocking frame knitting machine. William Lee
1591 1st flush toilet is introduced by Sir John Harrington of England, design published under title Metamorphosis of Ajax.
1592 1st English terrestrial & celestrial Gobes by Emery Molyneux ? 1598 Also made mathematical instruments & ordnance.
1592 - 3 1 Plague in London 10.7 of 200
1564 - 93 29 Christopher Marlowe, Poet & Dramatist.
1597 1st Book of Songs about history of Lute by John Dowland 1563 - 1626 63 Composer, Singer, & Lutenist.
1598 Every Man in his Humour Ben Jonson (1572 - 1637 65), English dramatist, poet and actor
1552 - 99 49 Edmund Spenser Poet
1505 72 67 John Knox of Scotland leader of Protestant Reformation
1568 Bishops Bible.
Scotland 1
843 - 1707
1864


1513 James 5,
(Seumas 5 Stiùbhairt) son of James 4 1512 - 1542
1542 - 3 1 Mary 1 ^ (1542 - 87 45)
Mary of Scotland 1936
Mary, Queen of Scots 1971
1560 - 1 1 Scottish Reformation by John Knox 1510 - 72 62 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of Protestant Reformation who is considered founder of Presbyterian denomination.
Stuart
1567 - 1651
84
1567 - 1625 58 James 6
(also James 1 of England and Ireland)
(Seumas 6 Stiùbhairt) son of Mary I by Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
1558 - 94 36 Thomas Kyd Dramatist
1503 - 2005 St Edmundsbury Cathedral
1532 Bangor Cathedral Tower Bangor, Gwynedd
1563 Exeter Bathhouse
1st Kingdom of England
927 - 1649
722
1558 - 1603 45 Elizabeth 1
1544 - 1603 69 William Gilbert Physician & Natural Philosopher.
Stuart
1603 - 49 46
1603 - 25 22 James 1 Peacemaker 1566 1625 59
+ King Edinburgh Castle
^ Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley & Mary 1, Queen of Scots ^^^^Henry 7
= Anne of Denmark
7C
1879 History of English People, V5 Puritan England, 16031660 by Green, John Richard 95,546 K
1879 History of English People, V5 Puritan England, 16031660 by Green, John Richard 95,546 K
1603 Union of crowns of Scotland & England Elizabeth 1 of England dies & is succeeded by cousin James 6 of Scotland
1604 Tragical History of Doctor Faustus From Quarto of 1604 by Marlowe, Christopher 23,125 K
1605 Gunpowder Plot failed
1570 - 1611 41 Henry Hudson Explorer
1611 King James Bible.
1613 1st printed song, Parthenia by John Bull 1562 1628 66
1614 Logarithm introduced by John Napier to simplify calculations. Scotland.
? - 1615 Edward Wright, (baptized 1561; died ), mathematician and cartographer who determined mathematical basis of Mercator projection and produced first maps in England according to this method
1615 Four Prentises of London Thomas Heywood 1570s 1641 70s Dramatist
1564 - 1616 52 William Shakespeare Poet & Playwright
1857 Philosophy of Plays of Shakspere Unfolded by Bacon, Delia 254,939 K
1620 1st submarine made of wood and greased leather by Cornelius Drebbei, funded by King
1623 1st English dictionary Henry Cockeram
1561 - 1626 65 Sir Francis Bacon Philosopher, Statesman & Essayist.
1558 - 1625 67 Thomas Lodge Dramatist
1625 - 49 24 Charles 1 1600 49 Beheaded ^
= Henrietta Maria of France 9C
1561 - 1626 65 Francis Bacon Philosopher & Politician
1591 - 1628 37 Peter Philips Carreer 1560 1628 68. Composer, Organist, & Catholic Priest
1628 Circulatory system published William Harvey and elucidates his earlier discovery of
1572 - 1631 59 John Donne Metaphysical Poet
1633 Tis Pity Shes a Whore Tragedy by John Ford 1586 1640 54 Dramatist
1634 J introduced into alphabet
1639 - 51 12 Wars of Three Kingdoms Civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and England.
1637 Charles 1 attempts to impose Anglican services on Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Jenny Geddes starts riots
1638 Signing of National Covenant in Scotland
1639 Conflict between Covenanters and Royalists in Scotland, beginning with Covenanters seizing city of Aberdeen in February
1639 1st Bishops War England 20 0 VS Scotland 12 1
* Charles brings his troops into Scotland but decides not to attack but to negotiate instead.
1639 Siege of Towie Barclay Castle.
1639 Battle of Bridge o Dee.
1639 Treaty of Berwick.
1640 Revolt of Scots. King Charles compelled to recall Parliament to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland. Parliament agrees to fund Charles, but only on condition he answer their grievances relating to his 11year "personal rule" or "tyranny". Charles refuses and dissolves Parliament after a mere 3 weeks, hence name of "Short Parliament"
1640 Torture outlawed.
1640 2nd Bishops War or "Second War of Covenant" breaks out in August. Responding to Charles attempt to raise an army against them, an army of Covenanters crosses Tweed and overruns an English force at Battle of Newburn (28 August 1640), marching on city of Newcastle.
1640 Treaty of Ripon leaves Newcastle in hands of Scots, who also receive a large tribute from Charles. Charles has no option but to recall Parliament in order to raise necessary funds. Parliament convenes in November and remains convened, in one form or another, until 1660, thus earning name of "Long Parliament".
1565 - 1640 75 Giles Farnaby Composer & Virginalist
1641 Massacre of Protestants in Ulster by Catholics starts Irish Rebellion.
1641 Battle of Julianstown Ireland Irish Rebels 5#600 VS English Army 3.5 Low
1641 Parliament issues Grand Remonstrance to Charles, which some[who?] see as a direct challenge to Kings authority. Charles refuses to address grievances it raises.
1642 Covenanters send a Protestant Scots army to Ulster to defend Protestant plantations
1642 Charles 1, King of England, from Three Angles by Anthony van Dyck
1642 Charles enters House of Commons to arrest five "traitors". news of his "assault" on Parliament causes uproar in London. Charles leaves city in fear for his life. In his absence Parliament passes Militia Bill which, in effect, seizes control of London arsenal and places trainbands and militia under its authority. Charles retaliates by appointing individuals to take control of other regional militias in Kings name. From this moment both sides actively raise troops and gather munitions.
1642 - 6 4 1st English Civil War.
Catholic Confederation: Irish Catholics; Gaelic Irish & Old English @Kilkenny VS English Royalists
1642 Battle of Edgehill, Warwickshire Royalists 9.1, #800 Dragoons, 2.5C, 16G 12.4T #500X 1.5W VS Parliamentarians 12, #700 Dragoons, 2.3C 7G 15T #500X 1.5W
1643 Ceasefire between English Royalists and Irish Confederates declared
1643 Alliance between English Parliament and Scottish Covenanters — Solemn League and Covenant — declared. Scottish troops march into England to support English Parliamentarians
1644 Areopagitica A speech for Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to Parliament of England by John Milton 21,148 K
1644 Battle of Marston Moor Parliamentarians & Scots VS Royalists
1644 Scottish Civil War started by Scottish Royalist Montrose, with aid of Irish Confederate troops under Alasdair MacColla, including ScotsIrish forces serving under Manus OCahan
1645 English Parliament forms New Model Army
1645 Battle of Naseby Naseby, Northamptonshire Parliamentary New Model Army 7, #500 dragoons, 6C 13.5T #400XW VS Royalists 3.3, 4.1C 7.4T 1X 5C
* Ends 1st English Civil War
1645 Battle of Kilsyth. Stirling, Scotland Royalist Irish, Highland Scots 3 #500C Light VS Scots Covanters 7 #800C 4.5
1645 Battle of Philiphaugh. Covanters 1 #600C & dragoons trifling VS Royalists #600 musketeers #100 levies #100C #500
1646 King surrenders to Scots Covenanters who give him to English Parliament
1646 Battle of Benburb Benburb, County Tyrone Irish Confederate Catholics Ulster Army 5 #300 VS Scottish Covenanter army  & English & Scottish settlers 6 23K&C
1647 Battle of Dungans Hill English Parliamentarians 6 Low VS Irish Confederate Catholics Leinster & Munster 6 3+ & Highland Scots #900
1647 Battle of Knocknanauss Knocknanauss, County Cork English Parliamentarians 5.2 1 VS Irish Confederate Catholics of Leinster & Munster, Highland Scots 7 3
1583 - 1648 65 Sir Anthony Weldon courtier & politician.
1648 - 9 1 2nd English Civil War.
1648 - 9 1 Ormonde Peace formal alliance between Irish Confederates and English Royalists declared
1648 Battle of Preston Lancashire Parliamentarians 8.6 #<100 VS Royalists, Scottish Engagers 9 2X 7C
1649 Execution of Charles 1 by English Parliament
1649 Battle of Rathmines, Dublin English Parliamentarians 5 Low VS English Royalists & Irish Confederate Catholics 11 3C
1650 Montrose uprising Scotland Covenanters VS Royalists
1650 Charles 2 takes oath in support of Solemn League and Covenant and repudiates his alliance with Irish Confederates. ( Scots subsequently crown him at Scone on New Years Day, 1651.)
1650 3rd English Civil War Parliamentarians VS Royalists, Scottish Coventers
* Commonwealth
1650 Battle of Dunbar Scotland English Parliamentarians 7.5 3.5C #20X #58W VS Scottish Coventers 9.5 2.5C 9G #8003X 610C
1651 Seige of Limerick Henry Ireton
1651 Capture of Isles of Scilly by Admiral Robert Blake
1651 Battle of Worcester Parliamentarians 31 #200 VS Royalists & Scots <16 3X 10+C
* Ends 3rd Civil War
* Exiled in France
Commonwealth of England
1649 - 60
11
There was no reigning monarch between execution of Charles I in 1649 and Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Instead, from 1653 following individuals held power as Lords Protector, during period known as Protectorate.
1649 - 53 4 Cromwellian Conquest of Ireland Part of Wars of 3 Kingdoms English Parliamentarian New Model Army 30 8, Protestant Colonists 10 7 VS Irish Catholic Confederation, English Royalists 60T 20B 1520S 200 civilians 50W
1649 Seige of Drogheda. English Parliaments New Model Army 12 #150 VS English Royalists, Irish Catholic Confeddration 3.1 2.8X #200C #7800 Civilians
1649 Sack of Wexford. English Parliaments New Model Army 6 #20 VS English Royalists, Irish Catholic Confeddration 4.8 1.5 Civilians
1649 Battle of Lisnagarvey Parliamentarians 5 low VS Royalists 3 1.5
1649 - 50 1 Siege of Waterford Parliamentarians 67 3 VS Royalists 3 S&C 2.5
1650 Siege of Clonmel Parliamentarians 8 1.52.5 VS Irish Confederate Catholics from Ulster 1.5 low
1650 Battle of Macroom Parliamentarians #800 low VS Irish Confederate Catholics 2 #5600
1650 Battle of Scarrifholis Parliamentarians, Protestant Settlers 3 #100 VS Irish Confederate Catholics from Ulster 5.4 #600C 3XC
1650 Siege of Charlemont Parliamentarians #600 VS Irish Confederate Catholics from Ulster lowX, manyW
1650 1 1 Siege of Limerick Parliamentarians 8 28G 4 mortars VS Irish Confederate Catholics from Ulster, English Royalists 2 #700S #500C
1651 2 1 Siege of Galway English Parliamentarians, Protestant settlers from Ulster 67 VS Irish Confederate Catholics 2 inside 3 near
1650 Battle of Meelic IslandParliamentarians 3 some C low VS Irish Confederate Catholics 4 #500C #900
1651 Battle of Knocknaclashy Parliamentarians 2 #26X #130W VS Irish Catholic Confederates from Munster 3 #500
1652 Act for Settlement of Ireland.
1649 - 53 4 Interregnum.
1552 - 1631 79 Sir Edward Coke, Attorney General, wrote Oracle of English Law
1572 - 1637 65 Ben Jonson Dramatist
1653 - 8 5 Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell Old Ironsides 1599 1658 59
^ Robert Cromwell & Elizabeth Steward
= Elizabeth Bourchier 8C
Cromwell 1970
To Kill a King 2003 
Crimson Blade 1963
1652 - 4 2 1st AngloDutch War English Channel, North Sea, Italy Commonwealth of England 300 10 7C 2.5 VS Dutch Republic 300 33 18C 3
1652 Battle of Goodwin Sands. England 27 1,000G VS Dutch Rep. 44 1,300G 1C
1652 Battle of Plymouth. Dutch Rep. 29 ? VS England 19 ?
1652 Battle of Kentish Knock. England 10 68 2.4G VS Dutch Rep. 7 62 1.9 G 2
1652 Battle of Dungeness. Dutch Rep. 93 VS England 42 2C
1653 Battle of Leghorn. Dutch Rep. 16 ? VS England 15 2 ships sunk
3 ships captured

150 dead or injured
50 captured
1653 Battle of Portland. England 7080 13 VS Dutch Rep. 7080 812 , 2040M
1653 Battle of Gabbard. England 100 126 dead & 236 wounded VS Dutch Rep. 98 6 ships sunk
11 ships captured

1,350 prisoners
1653 Battle of Scheveningen. Netherlands Dutch Rep. 127 1214 2C VS England 120 2 250X 700W
1654 Treaty of Westminster. Navigation Acts recognized
1658 - 9 1 Richard Cromwell Tumbledown Dick 1626 - 1712 85 ^
= Dorothy Maijor May 9C
2nd Kingdom of England
1660 - 1707
47
1660 Commonwealth of England ends & monarchy brought back in English Restoration.
Stuart 2
1660 - 1707
47
1649 - 85 36 Charles 2 Merrie Monarch 1630 85 55
^ Charles 1
= Catherine of Braganza 3C (none survived infancy)
* Recognized by Parliament in 1660
Charles II: Power and Passion 2003 
Restoration 1995
Forever Amber 1947 
Stage Beauty 2004 
1660 Royal Society of London for Improvement of Natural Knowledge founded.
1662 1st paper on production of sparkling wine Christopher Merret presents.
1663 Cells discovered by Hookes Microscope
1663 Designs for a reflecting telescope by James Gregory . Scotland.
1664 Sylva forestry book by John Evelyns
1665 Great Plague of London.
1665 7 2 2nd AngloDutch War Dutch Republic 131 23 5.2X, 3W, 2.5C, DenmarkNorway #250 Fortress 18, France VS England 21 7.2X, 7W, 2C 4.2 Guns, 139 29, 2C
1658 Battle of Sound. Dutch Rep., Denmark 35 1.3G 2 4S 2L #296X #503W VS Sweden 44 1.6G 4 4S 2.5L 6.5T #350X #850
1665 Battle of Lowestoft. England 109 1 English ship lost, 300–500 killed VS Dutch Rep. 103 17 Dutch ships lost, 2000–2500 killed, c. 2000 taken prisoner
1665 Battle of Vågen. Fortress in Norway Dutch Rep. 50 #100 Norway #18 VS England 30 #500
1666 Four Days Battle. Dutch Rep. 84 4 1.5X 1.3W VS England 79 10 1.5X 1.5W 1.8C
1666 St. James Day Battle. England England 90 +16F 106T 1 #300 VS Dutch Rep. 89 20F 9Y 118T 2C #800
1667 Raid on Medway. Dutch Rep. 60 8F 1.5 #50 VS England 15 2C
1666 Great Fire of London.
1667 Treaty of Breda. Dutch have monopoly on nutmeg as England gives up Run, Banda Island. Dutch can ship German goods to England.
1669 Reflecting telescope Isaac Newton
1608 - 72 66 John Milton Poet
1672 4 2 3rd AngloDutch War Part of FrancoDutch War Dutch Republic DenmarkNorway England France
1672 Battle of Solebay England Dutch Rep. 75 1D 1C VS England, France 93 1D
1673 Battles of Schooneveld North Sea Dutch Rep. 64 1 3.2C 14.7 VS England, France 86 2 4.8C 24.3
1673 Battle of Texel Netherlands Dutch Rep. 75W 30Fi 1X VS England, France 92W 30Fi 2X
1674 Treaty of Westminster Netherlands formed an alliance with Spain and French withdrew from territory of Republic
1608 - 74 66 John Milton Author & Poet
1609 - 76 67 Gerard Winstanley  Religious Reformer & Political Activist
Winstanley 1975
1676 Bacteria discovered Antoni van Leeuwenhoek .
1685 Monmouth Rebellion. Revolt of West King VS Rebels .
1578 - 1657 79 William Harvey Doctor
1588 - 1679 91 Thomas Hobbes Philosopher & Mathematician
1647 - 80 33 John Wilmot Poet, 2nd Earl of Rochester
1605 - 82 77 Sir Thomas Browne Author, Philosopher & Scientist
1896 History of English People, V7 Revolution, 16831760; Modern England, 17601767 by Green, John Richard 87,598 K
1684 1st solo violin song, Coral by William Brade 1560 1630 70 composer, violinist, and viol player
1685 - 8 3 James 21633 1701 67 <
* Deposed
=
1)Anne Hyde Strand 8C 2)Mary of Modena 7C
1688 History of England, from Accession of James 2 by Macaulay, Thomas Babington K
1688 History of England in Three Volumes, V3 From Accession of George 3 to 23rd Year of Reign of Queen Victoriaby Nolan, E. H. (Edward Henry), Farr, Edward 101,395 K
1688 V1 PC Henry 7 to Mary 193,230 K
1688 V1 PA Britons of Early Times to King John by David Hume 202,865 K
1688 Glorious Revolution Parliament gets right to choose monarch.
1671 - 1734 63 Rob Roy
Rob Roy 1995
Rob Roy, Highland Rogue 1954
1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton
1688 - 97 9 9 Yrs War Grand Alliance: Dutch Republic, England, HRE, Spain, PiedmontSavoy, Sweden 91, Scotland VS France, Irish & Scottish Jacobites.
1689 - 97 8 King Williams War Second Indian War North America Part of Nine Years War France, New France, First Nations allies VS England, English America, Iroquois Confederacy
1690 Battle of Port Royal Canada Massachusetts Bay Colony 7W 78C #446M #226Sa 0 VS French colony of Acadia >#90 18C AllC
1690 Battle of Quebec Canada France 2M #7X #12W VS England, Massachusetts Bay Colony 2.3RM 60N 6G 34W
1696 Battle of Fundy Bay Canada France 2L ? VS England 2L ?
1696 Siege of Pemaquid Main, USA New France #100, Abenaki #400 #500T ? VS English colonists #93 ?
1697 Treaty of Ryswick France recognizes William 3 of Orange as King of England, Scotland and Ireland.Territorial
changes France retains Alsace (including Strasbourg) and surrenders Freiburg, Breisach and Philippsburg to Holy Roman Empire, regains Pondicherry (after paying Dutch a sum of 16,000 pagodas) and Nova Scotia, Spain recovered Catalonia from France, and barrier fortresses of Mons, Luxembourg and Kortrijk. Duchy of Lorraine was restored to Leopold Joseph from France.
1689 1st Letter Concerning Toleration John Locke
1689 - 92 3 Jacobite Rising Scotland
1689 - 1702 13 William 3 William of Orange 1650 1702 52
William 2, Prince of Orange
& William 3 of Scotland

^ William 2 Prince of Orange & Mary Princes Royal of England ^^Charles 1
= Mary
2 of England
* Ruled joinly with Mary 2.
* Appointed by Parliament.

1689 94 5 Mary 2 Mary of Modena 1662 94 32 Smallpox
^ James 2 & Anne Hydethree ^^Charles 1
= William 3 of England
1689 Battle of Killiecrankie. Scotland Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) 2.4 #600 VS Orange Covenantor Royalists (Highlanders & Lowlanders) 3.5 2
1659 - 95 36 Henry Purcell, composer
1697 1st known 1stclass cricket match Sussex
Scotland
843 - 1707
1864
Stuart 1
1567 - 1651
85
1567 - 1625 58 James 6
James 1 of England & Ireland
1625 - 49 24 Charles 1 of England
1649 - 51 2 Charles 2 of England
1644 - 51 7 In Wars of Three Kingdoms Scotland, UK Covenanters VS Scottish Royalists & Irish Catholic Confederate troops
Stuart 2 1660 - 1707 47
1651 - 85 34 Charles 2 Horacio Nelson of England
1685 - 9 4 James 7 of England
1689 - 1702 13 William 3 of England
1689 - 94 5 Mary 2 of England
1675 - 1720 London Cathedral
2nd Kingdom of England
1660 - 1707
47
Stuart 2
1707
1631 - 1700 69 John Dryden Poet, Literary Critic, Translator, & Playwright
1702 - 7 5 Anne
1701 - 2 1 1st daily newspapers in England. Daily Courant & Norwich Post
1633 - 1703 70 Samuel Pepys Civil Servant & Diarist
1632 - 1704 72 John Locke Philosopher
1704 A Tale of a Tub Jonathan Swift
1707 Act of Union Scottish & English Parliaments merge, starts Great Britain.
Scotland 2
1660 - 1707 47
Stuart 2 1660 - 1707 47
1702 - 7 5 Anne (also Anne of England and Ireland) (Anna Stiùbhairt) daughter of James 7 1665 1714 Acts of Union, creation of Great Britain
From 1707, titles King of Scots and Queen of Scots are incorrect. Hence, this list runs up to 1707; for monarchs after that date, see List of British monarchs.

1707 Act of Union between England & Scotland
Great Britain
1707 - 1801
94
Stuart 1 1707

1700 - 21 21 Great Northern War
@ North, East & Central Europe
*
Part of Russo, Polish & Danish Swedish wars.
Russia 170 75, Kalmyk, Cossak, Denmark Norway 1700 & 170920 40D 8 60T, Saxony 06 & 9, PolandLithuania 04 & 9, 100P&S, Cossack, Prussia 1520 50, Hanover 159 20, Britain 179
00 310 1520 +70 163
VS Sweden 77 25, Luneburgers 10 Poland Lithuania 16P 414, Ottoman 104 150 Pruth, Cossack 89 39, GB 00, 07, 1921, United Provinces 00, Brunswig Luneburg 00 10.
00 90 28 0414 +175 16P 39C, 150O, 25C, 175S, 200T

1721 Treaty of Nystad
Russia + Estonia, Livonia, & Ingria & parts of Kexholm & Viborg.
Prussia + parts of Swedish Pomerania.
Hanover + BremenVerden.
HolsteinGottorp part of Duchy of Schleswig to Denmark.
1707 - 14 7 Anne < X49
17C
1649 - 1708 59 John Blow Composer
1708 Company of Merchants of London Trading into East Indies and English Company Trading to East Indies merged to form United Company of Merchants of England Trading to East Indies.
1709 Great Frost of 1709 Coldest winter in 500 years.
1711 Rinaldo Handels 1st opera for London stage, premiered
1711 Tuning Fork John Shore
1712 Steam Engine invented by Thomas Newcomen
1712 Rape of Lock by English Alexander Pope (publication of first version)
1714 Mercury thermometer by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Hanover
1714 - 1901
187
1714 - 27 13 George 1 X67
^ Augustus, Elector of BrunswickLüneburg & Sophia of Hanover ^^ *James 1 & 6
= Sophia Dorothea of BrunswickLueneburgCelle 2C
Saraband for Dead Lovers 1948
1715 Francesco Geminiani (1687 - 1762 75) plays in court of King of England. Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist.
1636 - 1715 79 Thomas Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury
1715 1st Jacobite Rising Fifteen GB VS Jacobite Rebels, France
1678 - 1717 39 Abraham Darby 1 Ironmaster, Introduced first cokeconsuming blast furnace
1717 Diving bell successfully tested by Edmond Halley, sustainable to a depth of 55 ft
1680 - 1718 38 Edward Teach (Blackbeard) Pirate
1719 Jacobite rebellion fails. Spanish attempt to restart.
1719 Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
1718 - 20 2 War of Quadruple Alliance HRE 11.3XW, France 3XW Sardinians 2.3XW, GB 6XW, Dutch Republic 1.5XW, Savoy VS Spain, Jacobites 4.4C
1720 Treaty of Hague. Spain abandoned Italian claims
1682 - 1720 38 Calico Jack John Rackham Pirate
1720 British South Sea company collapses
1721 1st Prime Minister of GB Robert Walpole becomes
1722 Bartholomew Roberts killed in Sea battle Welsh African coast.
1722 5 3 Irish economic independence from England movement from Controversy over William Woods halfpence leads to Drapiers Letters
1632 - 1723 91 Christopher Wren, architect & scientist
1726 Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift
1642 - 1727 85 Sir Isaac NewtonDiscovered law of gravitation 1666.
1727 - 60 33 George 2 X76 ^
= Caroline of Ansbach 8C
1727 - 9 2 AngloSpanish War g
1727 Blockade of Porto Bello. Spain 2 VS GB 11L 1F 2S 1Sn 1
4.8 4+X
* Safe passage of Spanish treasure fleet
1727 Seige of Gibralter. GB 1.5 Then 5.5 118X, 207W VS Spain 12 then 17.5 392X, 1W
1729 Treaty of Seville.
1728 Dunciad Alexander Pope
1671 1729 58 John Law Scottish Economist
1729 - 35 6 Methodism by Charles Wesley and John Wesley
1683 - 1730 47 Anne Oldfield Actress
1730 Octant navigational tool by John Hadley in England & Thomas Godfrey in America
1659 - 1731 72 Daniel Defoe Novelist & Journalist
1731 Wickliffes New Testament
1665 - 1732 67 Robert Wilks Actor
1685 - 1732 47 John Gay Dramatist & Poet
1681 - 1733 52 Barton Booth Actor
1733 Flying shuttle John Kay
1657 - 1737 80 William Wake Archbishop of Canterbury
1676 - 1745 69 Robert Walpole PM
1739 - 48 9 War of Jenkins Ear Part of War of Austrian Succession Carribean Great Britain 20C 407 VS Spain 4.5X, 5W, 186
1746 Battle of Culloden Charles Edward Stuart defeated
Battle of Culloden 1964 GB 8 #50X #259W VS Jacobites 7 1.52XW #154C , France #222C
1744 - 8 4 1st Carnatic War India GB VS French VS Nizam of Hyderabad
1748 Treaty of AixlaChapelle. Status quo ante bellum
1740 Siege of St. Augustine British attempt to capture fort. Spain
750 50G 6 small sail ? VS GB 1SM
#900 sailors, 1.2 warriors, 56G 56GC 5 frigates, 3 sloops, 1 schooner 122X, 16C, 14 deserters
1740 Modern steel Benjamin Huntsman
1688 - 1744 56 Alexander Pope Poet
1744 Jacobite rebellion failed by French
1744 A Little Pretty PocketBook One of 1st childrens books
1745 - 6 1 2nd Jacobite Rising of 1745 Also called " FortyFive" Hanoverians Scottish clans loyal to Government: Clan Campbell Clan Scott Jacobites
Jacobite clans: Clan Cameron Clan MacDonald of Keppoch Clan Stewart of Appin France began by Charles Edward Stuart in Scotland.
1674 - 1747 73 John Potter Archbishop of Canterbury
1679 - 1748 69 Charles Johnson Playwright
1748 - 54 6 2nd Carnatic War India Britian, France, Marathas VS Mysore
1754 Treaty of Pondicherry
1748 Clarissa Novel by Samuel Richardson
1674 - 1748 74 Isaac Watts, hymnist
1749 History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding
1750 Peak of Little Ice Age
1751 Elegy published Thomas Gray
1753 Jewish naturalization laws
1707 - 54 47 Henry Fielding, novelist
1754 - 63 9 French & Indian war 7 Years War North America. Anglo-French War GB, Iroquois Confederacy, Catawba, Cherokee 58 42 VS France 10 7.9 Mil, Wabanaki Confederacy, Abenaki, Mikmaq, Algonquin, Caughnawaga, Mohawk,
Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee
Wyandot
2.2 Natives 19.9 Tot
Broken Chain 1993
Last of Mohicans 1936
Last of Mohicans 1992
Northwest Passage 1940 
Mohawk 1956
Frontier Times 1987 
Barry Lyndon 1976
1754 Battle of Jumonville Glen. Uniontown, Pennsylvania Colony of Virginia 40 1X 23W, Mingo Ohio Iroquois 12 VS France 35 Most
1755 Dictionary of English Language Samuel Johnson
1756 Battle of Fort Bull. Rome, NY France 84 Troupes de la Marine
166 militia
90 Iroquois
20 Huron 1X 2W
VS GB 111 76 dead
35 taken prisoner
1758 Battle of Carillon. France 3.6 #100X #500W
#150C
VS GB 6R 12MRI 1X 1.5W #100M
1759 Battle of Plains of Abraham GB 4.8 #60X #600W VS France 2R #600Co 1.8MI #200X #400W
1896 History of English People, V7 Revolution, 16831760; Modern England, 17601767 by Green, John Richard 87,598 K
1760 Battle of SainteFoy. France 2.6R 2.4M #193X #640W VS GB 3.8R 27G #259X #829W
1760 Battle of Restigouche. GB 3L 2F VS France 1F 5M #400SMI
1762 Battle of Signal Hill. GB #200 45X 19W VS France #295 2040XW
1693 1756 62 Eliza Haywood Writer
1763 Treaty of Paris. France cedes New France to Great Britain, retaining Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and transfers Louisiana to Spain
1730 - 60 30 1st Great Awakening in GB & North America.
1671 - 1757 86 Colley Cibber Actor, Poet, Playwright
1693 - 1757 63 Thomas Herring Archbishop of Canterbury

1757 Battle of Plassey Beginning of formal British rule in India British East India Company 750 #3 Topasses 100 Indian Sepoys 2.1 #13
3 #22 #100G 8C VS Nawab of Bengal 42, 20 Calvary & French East India Company 50 6C
60 w/ 20C .5 59C

Bengal Annexed by British East India Company.
1693 - 1758 65 Matthew Hutton Archbishop of Canterbury
1758 Wolfes Manifesto Colonel James Wolfe
1727 - 59 28 James Wolfe Officer
1759 Theory of Moral Sentiments Scottish Adam Smith
1760 - 1820 60 George 3 1738 1820 81 ^^
= Charlotte of MecklenburgStrelitz 15C
Madness of King George III 1994
1713 - 67 54 John Newbery Childrens Literature Publisher
1689 - 1761 72 Samuel Richardson Novelist
1686 - 1761 75 William Law Theologian
1761 Longitude problem resolved by fourth chronometer John Harrison
1697 - 1764 67 William Hogarth Painter & Engraver
1764 Industrial Revolution Started by Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves
1764 Castle of Otranto Horace Walpole 1717 97 80 Writer & Politician.
1688 - 1765 77 Lionel Sackville AngloIrish Politician
1765 Stamp Act in American colonies.
1765 Enhancement of Newcomens steam engine New steel technologies Scottish James Watt
1766 - 99 33 AngloMysore Wars
1759 - 67 8 Tristram Shandy Laurence Sterne
1767 - 9 2 1st AngloMysore War. Sultanate of Mysore VS East India Company, Maratha Confederacy, Nawab of Carnatic
Hyderabad State
1767 Short View of Laws Now Subsisting with Respect to Powers of East India Company To Borrow Money under their Seal, and to Incur Debts in ... Ships or other Mercantile Transactions by Anonymous 9217 K
1767 Battle of Chengam.
1767 Battle of Tiruvannamalai.
1767 Siege of Ambur.
1768 Battle of Ooscota.
1768 Battle of Mulwagul.
1768 Battle of Baugloor.
1769 Treaty of Madras. British must assist Hyder Ali if he is attacked
1711 - 68 57 Hannah Pritchard Actress
1771 1st waterpowered mill at Cromford. Richard Arkwright
1713 - 68 55 Laurence Sterne AngloIrish Writer
1693 - 1768 75 Thomas Secker Archbishop of Canterbury
1716 - 71 55 Thomas Gray Poet Scholar, & Educator
1690 - 1773 83 Hester Santlow Actress, Ballerina, Dancer
1774 Oxygen discovered Dephlogisticated Air Joseph Priestley
1775 1st synthesis of Nitrous Oxide phlogisticated nitrous air, laughing gas Joseph Priestley
1775 Speech on American War of Independence
1776 Wealth of Nations Scottsman Adam Smith
* Foundation of modern theory of economy
1711 - 76 65 David Hume Scottish Philosopher
1777 Circular Saw Samuel Miller
1717 - 79 58 David Garrick Actor
1728 - 79 49 James Cook Explorer & Cartographer
1779 Amazing Grace John Newton
1779 - 82 3 Lives of Most Eminent English Poets Samuel Johnson
1713 - 83 70 Frederick Cornwallis Archbishop of Canterbury
1775 - 83 8 American war of Independence American war of Independence
USA 35Co, 44.5M, 5Sa, 8B 17O 53 25T 50W France 7883 5 12 2 (F&S in Europe 60 6+), Spain 7983 4, Dutch Republic 803 3, Cobelligerents Mysore 7984 5, Vermont 7783 6, Oneida, Tuscarora, Watauga, Association, Catawba, Lenape
156.5 33X +25W
VS GB 56R 20+XW, 78 171Sa 19.7SaX 42SaD, Loyalists 50,
German auxiliaries
30 7.5, Cobelligerents Onondaga, Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca, Cherokee 13T
320 47.2XW 78T
Howards of Virginia 1940
April Morning 1988
John Paul Jones 1959
Crossing 2003
Lafayette 1962
Buccaneer 1938
Drums Along Mohawk 1939
Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor 2003
Patriot 2000
Revolution 1984
Sade 2000)  1794, Marquis de Sade faces execution by Robespierres regime
Quills 2000
1783 Treaty of Paris Britain loses area east of Mississippi River and south of Great Lakes & St. Lawrence River to independent United States & to Spain; Spain gains East Florida, West Florida and Minorca; Britain cedes Tobago and Senegal to France.
Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Britain.
1709 - 84 75 Samuel Johnson Writer, Lexicographer, Poet, & Literary Critic
1785 Power loom Edmund Cartwright
1786 Poems, Chiefly in Scottish Dialect Robert Burns
1786 Threshing machine Andrew Meikle
1787 Freetown founded Sierra Leone by Freed slaves from London.
1720 - 88 68 Charles Edward Stuart Jacobite Exile
1713 - 88 75 John Whitehurst Geologist
1727 - 88 61 Thomas Gainsborough Painter
1776 - 89 12 History of Decline and Fall of Roman Empire Edward Gibbon
1789 Nootka Crisis Vancouver, Canada GB VS Spain
1789 Songs of Innocence Poems by William Blake
1723 - 90 67 Adam Smith Scottish Economist & Philosopher
1703 - 91 88 John Wesley Theologian, +Methodism
1791 - 5 4 George Vancouver explores world Vancouver Expedition.
1791 - 5 4 London symphonies Haydn
1723 - 92 69 Joshua Reynolds Painter
1724 - 92 68 John Smeaton Civil Engineer & Physicist
1792 - 7 5 War of 1st Coalition. France. French Rep., French satellite states & Polish Legions Vs HRE, Prussia, GB, French Royalists, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Naples, Sicily, Other Italian states, Ottomans, Dutch Rep.
1793 Britain declares war on France.
1793 - 5 2 Flanders Campaign. Belgium, France, Netherlands France VS Dutch Rep., HRE,
GB, Prussia, Hanover, HesseKassel
1793 Battle of Famars France Austria, Hanover, GB 53 1.1XW VS France 27 3XW #300C 17C 14AW 3S
1793 Battle of Hondschoote France France 40 3 VS GB, Hanover, HesseKassel 24 4
1794 Battle of Tourcoing France France 70 3XW 7GC VS GB, Austria 74 4X 1.5W 60GC
1794 Battle of Fleurus Belgium French Rep. 70 12C 5 100G 1G VS Austria, Dutch Rep., BrunswickLüneburg, GB 52.5 18C 5 111G 1G
1794 Battle of Boxtel Netherlands French Rep. VS GB, Dutch Rep., Austria 32
1794 Heads of Lectures on a Course of Experimental Philosophy: Particularly Including Chemistry by Priestley, Joseph 35,773 K
1793 - 6 3 War in Vendée. France. Republic Coasts of La Rochelle, Coasts of Brest, Mainz,
West, Coasts of Cherbourg,
Republican Vendeans, Local National Guards
13050 30X Vs Royalists, Catholics, Chouans, Royalist Vendeans, Émigrés, GB 80 130TX
170200TX Both Sides
1797 Battle of Cape St Vincent Portugal GB 15L 5F 1S 1C #73X #327W VS Spain 27L 7F 4C #250X #550W 3C
1746 - 94 48 William Jones Philologist
1737 - 94 57 Edward Gibbon Historian
1794 Scottish martyrs transported to Australia at NSW
1794 Jays Treaty GB & USA. Western outposts @ Great Lakes returned to USA & commerce regulated.
1794 Songs of Experience William Blake
1740 - 95 55 James Boswell Scottish Biographer
1759 - 96 47 Robert Burns Scottish Poet
1796 1st smallpox vaccination Edward Jenner
* 400 Europeans each year In 1700S (W/ 5 reigning monarchs).
1796 1st European to see Niger River Africa. Scottish Mungo Park, $ African Association
1796 Zoonomia, Vol. I Or, Laws of Organic Life by Erasmus Darwin 196,106 K
1729 - 97 68 Edmund Burke Statesman & Philosopher
1759 - 97 38 Mary Wollstonecraft Writer & Feminist
1757 - 98 41 George Vancouver Captain & Explorer
1798 Smallpox vaccination treatise Edward Jenner
1798 Irish Rebellion fails to overthrow British rule Ireland
1798 Lyrical Ballads William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1798 An Essay on Principle of Population Thomas Malthus
1798 Creation, Oratorio Performance Haydn
1728 - 99 71 Joseph Black Scottish Chemist (discovered carbon dioxide)
1710 - 25 Birmingham Cathedral
1740 Stanton Drew stone circles Surveyed
1760 Arthurs Oven Temple Scotland
17759 Ironbridge
1789 Nempnett Thrubwell



United Kingdom of
Great Britain & Ireland

1801 - 1922
121
1760 1820 60 George 3 1738 1820 81 ^^
= Charlotte of MecklenburgStrelitz 15C
1731 - 1800 69 William Cowper Hymnist & Poet
1800 Royal College of Surgeons of England started when Company of Surgeons awarded Royal Charter
1801 United Kingdom formed from Kingdom of Great Britain & Kingdom of Ireland merge to form .
1731 - 1802 71 Erasmus Darwin Philosopher, Poet & Scientist
1736 - 1802 66 George Fordyce Scottish Physician & Chemist
1742 - 1802 60 Samuel Arnold, Composer & Musician
1803 Emmets Insurrection UK VS Robert Emmet
1733 - 1804 71 Joseph Priestley Dissenting minister and chemist
1730 - 1804 74 Charlotte Lennox Novelist & poet
1730 - 1805 75 John Moore Archbishop of Canterbury
1803 - 6 3 War of 3rd Coalition Part of Napoleonic Wars. France, Batavia, Italy, Etruria, Spain, Bavaria & Württemberg VS HRE, Russia, UK, Naples, Sicily, Portugal & Sweden
1805 Battle of Trafalgar. Spain UK 27L 6O 33T #458X 1.2W 1.7T
VS France 18L 8O 41T 10C 1D 2.2X 1.15W 4C, Spain 15L 11C 1X 1.4W 4C 13.78
1805 Battle of Austerlitz. Austerlitz, Moravia, Austrian Empire France 72 1.3X, 6.9W, #573C,
1 standard lost
VS Russia & Austria 85 15XW, 12C 180G, 50 st
* End of 3rd Coalition
1805 Battle of Schöngrabern. France 45.8 present, 20.7 engaged
1.2Cas VS Russia, Austria 7.3
1.2X, 1.5C
1806 Battle of Campo Tenese. Italy France Italy, Etruria, Polish Legions, Switzerland 6 #500C VS Naples & Sicily 11 3C
1805 Battle of Wertingen. Germany France 12 200+XW VS Austria 5.5 40XW, 2.9C
1805 Battle of Günzburg. Germany France 8 6G #700 VS Austria 7+ 2 26G 6
1805 Battle of HaslachJungingen. Germany France 5 1C 8G VS Austria 35 1.1X 4WC 5.1 2G
1805 Battle of Elchingen. Germany France 20 #854 VS Austria 8 6
1805 Battle of Ulm. Germany France 150 6 VS Austria 72 12XW,
30C

1805 Battle of Trafalgar. Spain UK 27L 6 33T #458X 1.2W 1.66 VS France 18L 8 10C 1X 2.2X 1.2W 4C & Spain 15 11C 1X 1.4W 4C 41 13.8

1805 Battle of Nile GB 13L, 1FR, 1s #218x # 677w VS France 13L 2 9C, 4F 2 2 5Cas 3 3.9C

1805 Battle of Cape Finisterre. Spain UK 15 #198C VS France 14, Spain 6 2 2 #647C 1.2C
1805 Popular Lectures on Zoonomia Or Laws of Animal Life, in Health and Disease by Thomas Garnett 101,357 K
1806 Battle of Campo Tenese. Italy France Italy, Etruria, Polish, Legions, Switzerland 6 #500 VS Naples, Sicily 11 3C
1805 Treaty of Pressburg Dissolution of HRE & Creation of Confederation of Rhine
1758 - 1805 47 Horacio Nelson British admiral
Nelson Affair 1973
That Hamilton Woman 1941
1749 - 1806 57 Charlotte Turner Smith, writer
1807 Prohibition of shipment of slaves in British ships to British colonies
1737 - 1809 72 Thomas PainePhilosopher
1731 - 1810 79 Henry CavendishChemist (recognized Hydrogen as its own elemental substance)
1808 - 10 2 Rum Rebellion United Kingdom vs New South Wales Corps
1729 - 1811 82 Thomas Percy Bishop & Editor
1807 - 12 5 AngloRussian War Part of Napoleonic Wars. UK & Sweden VS Russia & Denmark
Result: French invasion of Russia
1814 Observations on Effects of Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in Price of Corn on Agriculture and General Wealth of Country by T. R. (Thomas Robert) Malthus 10,450 K
1807 - 14 7 Gunboat War Part of Napoleonic Wars United Kingdom VS DenmarkNorway
1726 - 1814 88 Charles Burney Musician & Music Historian
1812 - 15 3 War of 1812 USA 7 35.8E 3R 458.5M, Choctaw #125, Cherokee, Creek allies
497 6F 14O 20T 2.2K 4.5W 15T

VS
British Empire UK 5.2 48.2E 10R 4M, British Canada 9, Shawnee, Creek Red Sticks, Ojibway, Chickamauga, Fox, Iroquois, Miami, Mingo, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Delaware (Lenape), Mascouten, Potawatomi, Sauk, Wyandot 10T
72 11L 34F 52Ot 97T 1.6X 3.7W 3.3D 8.6T
Buccaneer 1938
Buccaneers Girl 1950
1814 - 6 2 AngloNepalese WarBritish East India Company, Garhwal Kingdom, Patiala State VS Gorkha Kingdom (Nepal).
Treaty of Sugauli .
1815 Napoleon banished from England after Battle of Waterloo.
1775 - 1817 42 Jane Austen Writer
1738 - 1818 84 William Herschel Astronomer
1735 - 1819 84 Edward "Lumpy" Stevens Cricketer
1736 - 1819 83 James Watt Scottish Scientist & Inventor
1743 - 1820 77 Joseph Banks Botanist
1820 - 30 10 George 4 ^ X67
= Maria Anne Fitzherbert & Caroline of Brunswick 1D
1795 - 1821 26 John Keats Poet
1741 - 1821 80 Hester ThraleMemoirist
1792 - 1822 30 Percy Shelley Poet
1749 - 1823 74 Edward Jenner Inventor of vaccination
1764 - 1823 59 Ann Radcliffe Novelist
1788 - 1824 36 Lord Byron Writer
1743 - 1825 82 Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Poet, Essayist & Childrens Author
1737 - 1826 89 John Small Cricketer
1757 - 1827 70 William Blake Artist & Poet
1830 - 7 7 William 4 X71<
= Adelaide of SaxeMeiningen 2C
1745 - 1831 96 Henry Mackenzie Scottish Novelist
1771 - 1832 61 Walter Scott Scottish Novelest & Poet
1832 Great Reform Act British Parliament passes the.
1759 - 1833 74 William Wilberforce Abolitionist, Philanthropist
1833 Abolition of slavery throughout Empire
1833 Falklands annexed
1789 - 1833 44 Edmund Kean Actor
1766 - 1834 68 Thomas Malthus Economist
1772 - 1834 62 Samuel Taylor Coleridge poet, literary critic and philosopher
1756 - 1836 80 William Godwin Philosopher & Novelist
1776 - 1837 61 John Constable Painter
1837 - 1901 64 Victoria 1819 1901 81 ^<
= Albert of SaxeCoburg & Gotha
* Apex of British Empire. "Victorian Era".
Victoria Great 1937
Sixty Glorious Years 1938
Mrs. Brown 1997
Mudlark 1950
1838 Philosophy of Moral Feelings by Abercrombie, John 61,331 K
1840 Practical Enquiry into Philosophy of Education by Gall, James 120,423 K
1752 - 1840 88 Frances Burney Novelist
1841 negative / positive photographic process. 1800 - 77 77 William Fox Talbot, British inventor o
1774 - 1843 69 Robert Southey Poet & Biographer
1748 - 1842 94 Jeremy Bentham Philosopher & Reformer
1845 - 6 1 1st AngloSikh War. Punjab British East India Company,
Patiala State, Jind State
VS Sikh Empire
1848 Wickliffes Old Testament

1818 - 48 30 Emily Brontë Novelist & Poet

1848 - 9 1 2nd AngloSikh War . British East India Company VS Sikh Empire.
End of Sikh Empire
1849 Battle of Gujrat. Gujrat, Punjab British East India Company 24 96+G 4+X #682W VS Sikh Empire 25 1.5 Afghans 2+ 60G 57G
1820 - 49 29 Anne Brontë Novelist & Poet
1770 - 1850 80 William Wordsworth Writer
1851 Worlds first international Expo Worlds Fair. London
1797 - 1851 54 Mary Shelley
1775 - 1851 76 Joseph Mallord William Turner Landscape Painter, WaterColourist, & Printmaker.
1769 - 1852 83 Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General & PM
1854 Laws Of War, Affecting Commerce And Shipping by H. Byerley Thomson 40,038 K
1855 Bessemer process mass production of steel
1816 - 55 39 Charlotte Brontë Novelist & Poet
1855 Various Readings Soren Kierkegaard 1813 - 1855 122M 4;27;41
1856 Sketch of Life of late Henry Cooper BarristeratLaw, of Norfolk Circuit; as also, of his Fatherby William Cooper 42,870 K
1813 - 58 48 Dr. John Snow Epidemiology
1858 desolution of East India Company
1859 Origin of Species Darwin
1806 - 61 55 Elizabeth Barret Browning Poet
1863 Salvation Army
1827 - 64 37 John Hanning Speke Explorer
1785 - 1865 80 Sir William Jackson Hooker Botanist, Explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker
1810 - 65 55 Elizabeth Gaskell Novelist
1791 - 1867 76 Michael Faraday Scientist
1867 Time and Tide by Weare and Tyne Twentyfive Letters to a Working Man of Sunderland on Laws of Work by John, 18191900 Ruskin 50,998 K
1811 - 68 57 Charles Kean Actor
1812 - 70 58 Charles Dickens Writer & Social Critic.
1872 V2 Fall of Wolsey to Death of Elizabeth by Froude, James Anthony 165,590 K
1813 - 73 60 David Livingstone Scottish Missionary
1806 - 73 67 John Stuart Mill Philosopher
1873 Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism Maxwell. Scotland
1874 British East India Company is dissolved.
1820 - 75 55 Thomas Baines Artist, Explorer
1875 Early Kings of Norway by Thomas Carlisle 112M 4;06;37
1877 Queen Victoria is proclaimed "Empress of India."
1879 AngloZulu War South Africa.
* End of Zulu GB VS Zulu
1st Invasion
1879 Battle of Inyezane. GB #10x #16w VS Zulu 6 #350
1879 Battle of Isandlwana. GB VS Zulu
1879 Battle of Rorkes Drift. GB

139 to 141 British troops + 11 African and colonial troops + 4 civilians

One NNC company of 100 to 350 men
One NNH troop of about 100

17 killed or mortally wounded
15 others recorded wounded
NNH troop of about 100 men
NNC company of 100 to 350 men, and several civilians fled station as battle began.

VS Zulu

4 Zulu regiments, 3,000 to 4,000 men:

iNdluyengwe ibutho: 500 to 700 men

uThulwana, iNdlondo, uDluko amabuthos: about 3,000 men

351 confirmed killed
about 500 wounded

1879 Siege of Eshowe. GB 6.7 #44 VS Zulu 12 1.3
1879 Battle of Intombe, Zulu #5800 Min VS GB #104 #6280
1879 Battle of Hlobane, Zulu 25T
2E
Min VS GB #675 #225X 8W
#12OX #80RX

1879 Battle of Kambula, GB 2
#180A
6C 29X 54W VS Zulu 20 1
1879 Battle of Gingindlovu. GB 5.7 11X 62W VS Zulu 11 1
2nd Invasion
1879 Battle of Ulundi. GB

4200 British
1000 Africans
2 Gatling Guns
10 cannons

82103.
1318 killed
6985 wounded

VS Zulu 1215 1.5T #473X #1+W
1831 - 79 48 James Clerk Maxwell Scottish physicist
1879 History of English People, V5 Puritan England, 16031660 by Green, John Richard 95,546 K
1819 - 80 59 George Eliot Novelist, Journalist, Translator
1848 - 80 32 Adelaide Neilson Actress
1880 Mysteries of All Nations Rise and Progress of Superstition, Laws Against and Trialsof Witches, Ancient and Modern Delusions Together With Strange Customs, Fables, and Talesby James Grant 224,166 K
1881 A Political Diary 18281830, Volume 2 by Edward (Lord Ellenborough) Law 116,274 K
1804 - 81 77 Benjamin Disraeli Novelist & Politician
1881 First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain.
1804 - 81 77 Ben Disraeli PM
Disraeli 1929
1882 AngoEgyptian War. GB 40.5 VS Egypt ?
Britain Occupies Egypt
1882 Bombardment of Alexandria. GB France 9B 1T 1St 5G 6X 27W VS Egypt 11F #680700Cas
Battle of Tel elKebir UK 18.5 70G #57X #380W #22M VS Egypt 15 60G 1.4X #681W
1826 - 81 55 Edward Askew Sothern Actor
1884 George Eliot; a Critical Study of Her Life, Writings & Philosophy by Cooke, George Willis 164,038 K
1885  Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson is published. Scotland
1886 Romance of Mathematics Being Original Researches of a Lady Professor of Girtham College in Polemical Science, with some Account of Social Properties ... Forces; and Laws of Political Motion by P. Hampson 17,246 K
1821 1889 78 Churchill Babington Archaeology
1890 Picture of Dorian Grey 1854 1900 46 Oscar Wilde
1809 - 92 83 Alfred, Lord Tennyson Poet
1825 - 92 67 Henry Walter Bates Naturalist, explorer
1821 - 93 72 Samuel Baker Explorer
1893 Law and Lawyers of Pickwick A Lecture by Frank Lockwood 17,992 K
1850 - 94 44 Robert Louis Stevenson Scottish Novelist, Poet, Essayist & Travel Writer
1894 History of Plague in London by Defoe, Daniel 97,557 K
1875 Law and Lady by Wilkie Collins 144,569 K
1893 Advancement of Learning by Bacon, Francis 86,721 K
1895 Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Bart., K.C.S.I. A Judge of High Court of Justice by Leslie Stephen 173,047 K
1834 96 62 William Morris Social Reformer
1896 History of English People, V7 Revolution, 16831760; Modern England, 17601767 by Green, John Richard 87,598 K
1896 1st Professor of Anthropology Oxford. Edward Burnett Tylor 1832 1917 85
1897 Legal Lore Curiosities of Law and Lawyers by Various and William Andrews 60,545 K
1809 - 98 89 William Ewart Gladstone PM
1898 Full Revelations of a Professional RatCatcher by Ike Matthews 16.3M 1;11;32
1899 River War by Winston Churchill 18741965 391M 14;14;09
1800s Channel Islands Grey Guernsey Castle
1822 - 4 Camden Town Cathedral
1825 - 32 Gibraltar Anglican Cathedral
1839 - 42 Cardiff Cathedral
1840 - 64 Northampton Cathedral
1841 - 4 Nottingham Cathedral
1843 London Cathedral NW1
1844 8 Salford Cathedral
1848 St Georges Roman Catholic Cathedral Southwark
1856 - 8 Plymouth Cathedral
1856 Shrewsbury Cathedral
1857 - 1901 Lancaster Cathedral
1857 Wrexham Cathedral
1873 Arundel Cathedral
1873 Birmingham Orthodox Cathedral
1876 - 8 Middlesbrough Cathedral
1879 - 84 Peel Cathedral
1880 - 1910 Truro Cathedral
1892 Aldershot Cathedral
1892 Stanley Cathedral
1895 1903 Westminster Cathedral
1849 - 51 Millport Cathedral Scotland
1853 - 5 Dundee Cathedral Scotland
1860 St Marys Cathedral, Aberdeen Scotland
1866 - 9 Inverness Cathedral Scotland
1873 - 80s Edinburgh Cathedral Scotland
1825 - 32 Cathedral of Holy Trinity, Gibraltar
1892 Goughs Cave Discovered
United Kingdom of
Great Britain & Ireland

1801 - 1922 121
1819 - 1900 81 John Ruskin Artist & Philanthropist
SaxeCoburg & Gotha
1901 - 14
13
1901 - 10 9 Edward 7 1841 - 1910 68 ^ = Alexandra of Denmark 6C
1853 - 1902 49 Cecil Rhodes English/South African businessman
1834 - 1903 69 James Abbott McNeill Whistler AmericanBritish artist
1830 - 1904 74 Eadweard Muybridge Motion Photographer, Chronophotographer
1841 - 1904 63 Henry M. Stanley Journalist, Welsh Explorer
1905 Childs History of England by Dickens, Charles 167,198 K
1907 Short History of England, Ireland and Scotland by Parmele, Mary Platt History of England from Norman Conquest to Death of John (10661216) by Adams, George Burton 57,289 K
1909 History of Witchcraft in England from 1558 to 1718 by Notestein, Wallace 143,836 K
1813 - 1907 94 contest Great Game British Empire VS Russia To control Central Asia.
1824 - 1907 83 William Thomson Lord Kelvin, Scottish Physicist
1820 - 1910 90 Florence Nightingale Nursing Pioneer
1829 - 1912 83 William Booth Social Reformer, Founder of Salvation Army
1913 Spencers Philosophy of Science Herbert Spencer Lecture Delivered at Museum 7 November, 1913 by Morgan, C. Lloyd (Conwy Lloyd) 16,835 K
1913 Short History of English Liberalism by Blease, Walter Lyon
Windsor
1914 - Present
95
1910 - 36 26 George 5 1865 1936 70 ^ = Mary of Teck 6C
1912 V8 First Invasion by Romans to Accession of King George 5 by Lingard, John, Belloc, Hilaire 219,381 K
1912 History of England from First Invasion by Romans to Accession of King George 5 V8 by Belloc, Hilaire, Lingard, John 219,381 K
1914 Our Knowledge of External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophyby Russell, Bertrand 75,139 K
1914 Cyprus annexed .
1914 Law and Poor by Edward Abbott Parry 92,537 K
1914 - 8 4 World War 1. Allied (Entente) Powers France 8.66M 5.66, British Empire 8.84M, Russia 12M 6.76M 147, Italy 5.6M 1.6M 15–8, USA 4.74M 322 178, Romania 1.23M 370 168, Japan 800 1.3, Serbia 707 408, Belgium 380 82.9, Greece 250 47 178, Portugal 100 21 168 Australia 413 214, Canada 629 215, India 1.44M 143, Montenegro 50 13, Nepal 200 50, South Africa 136 21.5, UK 6.2M 2.5M
43M 5.5MX, 12.8MW, 4.1MM 22.48MT
VS Central Powers Germany 13.25M 7.2m, AustriaHungary 7.8M 6.74m, Ottoman Empire 3M 975, Bulgaria 1.2M 255 158, Jabal Shammar, Finland 18, Lithuania 18, Ukraine, Courland & Semigallia 18,
Azerbaijan, Northern Caucasus
25.25M 4.4MX, 8.4MW, 3.6MM, 16.4MT
1915 Battle of Qurna. Iraq UK, British India 2.1 #281 VS Ottomans 1 1
1915 Battle of Gallipoli. Turkey Ottomans 315.5 6 then 15div 251 %60 VS British 489, France 79 5 then 16div 220 59%
1915 Battle of Ctesiphon. Iraq Ottoman 18 6.29.5 52G VS British, British India 11 4.6 2W
1916 Battle of Magdhaba. Egypt British Empire UK, Australia, New Zealand 6 #22X #124WVS Ottomans 2 #300+X #300W 1.2C
1916 Battle of Mecca. Saudi Arabia UK, British Raj, Arab Army 5+ VS Ottomans 1
1917 Ancient Law Its Connection to History of Early Societyby Henry Sumner Maine 101,901 K
1917 Battle of Rafa. Palestine UK, Australia, New Zealand #71X #415W VS Ottomans 2 #200X #168W 1.4C
1917 Battle of Jerusalem. Israel UK, Australia, India, New Zealand 18 VS Ottomans, Germans 25
1917 Battle of Cambrai. France UK, Newfoundland 2Cor 55.2 476T (378CT) 179 VS Germany 1Cor 45
1918 Battle of Soissons . France France, UK, USA 125 VS Germany 168
1918 2nd Battle of Somme. France UK, (+Australia, Canada), USA 5.6 VS Germany + #600+C
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Baku. Azerbaijan Ottomans 14 #500C 30G, Azerbaijan 2 VS Baku Commune 6 40G, UK 1 1AB 1MGS 3ArC 2 #200, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Armenia, Centrocaspian Dictatorship, White Russians
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1918 2nd Battle of Lys. Belgium UK, (+Australia, Newfoundland), Portugal, Belgium, France, USA ? 120 VS Germany 800 120
1918 Battle of Amiens. France UK 3Div 800, (Australia 5Div, Canada 4Div), France 12Div 1.1, USA 1Div 24Div 1.9 532T VS Germany 10ADiv 4RDiv 365 30XWM
1914 1st Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1916 2nd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1917 Battle of Vimy Ridge. France UK, Canada 5Div 170 3.6X 7W VS Germany 3Div 3045 ?XW 4C
1918 3rd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1817 - 1911 94 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Botanist, Explorer, friend of Charles Darwin
1848 - 1915 67 Dr William Gilbert WG Grace, Cricketer
1851 - 1917 66 Frederick Selous Explorer
1863 - 1917 54 Bob Fitzsimmons Heavyweight Boxer
1775 - 1818 43 Matthew Lewis Novelist & Playwright
1920 Humorous History of England by Harrison, Charles 11475 K
1832 - 1922 90 Sir John Kirk Scottish Explorer, Physician, companion of David Livingston
1922 BBC founded
1844 - 1923 79 Sarah Bernhardt Actress
1856 - 1925 69 Henry Rider Haggard Adventure Novelist
1850 - 1925 75 Oliver Heaviside Electrical Engineer, Physical Mathematician
1926 Imperial conference gives Dominion status to settler colonies
1840 - 1928 88 Thomas Hardy Novelist & Poet
1847 - 1928 81 Ellen Terry Actress
1853 - 1929 76 Lillie Langtry Actress, Socialite
1929 Secretary of State for Dominions instituted
1859 - 1930 71 Arthur Conan Doyle Scottish Physician & Writer
1931 St Mirins Cathedral in Paisley Scotland
1931 Statute of Westminster gives Dominions control over own parliaments
1931 Great Depression.
1932 - 59 27 St Columbas Cathedral in Oban Scotland 1936 Edward 8 ^ =Wallis Warfield Simpson X77
1939 - 45 6 World War II. Allies Soviet Union 60M 415, United States 20.4M 415, British Empire, China 4.4M 3745, France 2.5M, Poland 1.95M, Canada 1M, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Yugoslavia 850 415, Greece 405, Norway 405, Netherlands 500 405, Belgium 800 405, Czechoslovakia,
Brazil
425
16MX, 45MCX, 61T
VS
Axis Germany, Japan 3745, Italy 403, Hungary 405, Romania 414, Bulgaria 414 Finland 414, Thailand 425, Iraq 41, Manchukuo, Italy 435, Croatia 415, Slovakia
8+X, 4+CX, 12+TX
1940 - 2 2 Battles of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Changes hands 4X
1940 Capture of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand 1CReg 1TReg 1Sq VS Germany, Italy
1940 - 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1940 Battle of Dakar. Senegal German France 1B 1D 2C 4D 1 3Su 2 1Fre F VS UK, Australia, Free French 2B 2D 1AC 6To 5C 2D 10D
1940 Battle of Cape Matapan. Off Greece UK, Australia 1AC 1To 3B 7LC 4LD 17D #3X VS Italy 1B HD 6HC 3 2LC 17D 2 2.3+X 5 2HD
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1940 Battles of Narvik. Norway Germany 10D 0 VS Norway 2CD 2 #343X
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Battle of Britain. UK, Canada 1,963, 1,547 544X 422W VS Germany, Italy 2,550 1,887 2,698X 967C 638M
1940 Battle of Belgium. Germany 141Div 7.4G 2.4T 5.4 4Wor ?Ca #43PTX #100PTW VS Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands 144Div 14G 3.4T 2.5 222.4 #900 200C
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 Battle of Sedan. France Germany 60 #647XW 41V 771T 1.5 141A 96RB 81 VS France, UK 10 ? 174A 152B 250F 167
1940 Battle of Arras. France Germany #300XW #400C VS UK, France 74T 35 5075XW #170C then X
1940 Siege of Calais. France Germany 1PTDiv #775XW VS UK, France 4T 40 #300X #200W 3.5C
1940 Battle of Dunkirk. France Germany 800 2020XW 100T 240 VS France, UK, Belgium 400 338E 11X 40C 50V 177 9D 200MV
1940 Battle of Britain. UK UK, Canada 2, 1.5 #544X #422W VS Germany, Italy 2.6 1.9 2.7X #967C #638B
1940 Hardest Day. UK UK 2734F 39FD 29G 23GD #10X #8LW #11SW VS Germany 6971 31D #94X #40C #25W
1940 Battle of Britain Day. UK UK 50Ob 630Fi 29 21D #15X #14W #1CVS Germany 620Fi 500B 1.1 5761 20SD #6381X #635C #301W #21M #25479
1940 Battle of Graveney Marsh. UK UK 1Bat 0 VS Germany 1BoPl 1PlC 4 #1W
1940 Italian conquest of British Somaliland. Ethiopia Italy, Italian East Africa 24 465X 1.5W VS UK, India, British East Somaliland, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa 4 38X 102W 120M 3+SomaliSoX * Fall of British Somoliland
1940 1 1 Operation Compass. Egypt, Libya UK, India, Australia, Free France 36 500X 55M 1.4W 275T 120A 142 15 VS Italy 150 3X 115C 600T 400 1.6A 1.3 331 1.2
1941 Battle of Crete. Greece Germany 14PT 15MT 280DB Fi180 500T 80Gl, Italy 2.7 6.7 3.7 370D VS Greece 11.5 1.3TXW, UK 15, Australia 7.1, New Zealand 6.7 40 Inc10NC 23.8 4X 17C
1941 Operation Battleaxe. Libya Germany, Italy 13.2 169T 12 130Fi 84B 114T 10 698 VS UK, India 25 190T 9198 98Fi 105B 203T 36 969
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1941 Operation Brevity. EgyptLibya Border UK, Australia 3Bat 53T 5 6 206+ VS Germany, Italy +Bat 3050T 3 605+
1941 Operation Skorpion. Egypt Germany VS UK 1Bat #173 12A 5T
1941 Operation Battleaxe. Libya Germany, Italy 13.2 169T 12 130Fi 84B 114T 10 698 VS UK, India 25 190T 9198 98Fi 105B 203T 36 969
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Iran Campaign. AngloSoviet invasion of Iran USSR 3Arm #40X 3, UK 2Div 3Bri #22X #50W 1T, India, Australia #62X #50W 3 1T VS Iran 9Div #800X 200CiX 60 6 (2G 4D)
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1941 Battle of Keren. Eritrea UK, India 2Div, Free French 2Bat 13 536X 3.2W VS Italy 23 12.1X 21.7W
1941 Battle of Hong Kong. China Japan 52 2X 6W VS UK, Hong Kong, Bitish India 14 2.1XM 2.3W 10C 4CiX 3CiW
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
1942 1st Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa 150 13.3 179T 1+A 1.5+ VS Germany 10, Italy 90 70T 500
1942 Battle of Alam el Halfa. Egypt UK, New Zealand 4Div Cor 1.8XWC 68T 67 VS Germany 6TDiv, Italy 2.9XWC 49T 60G 400Tran 36
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1942 Battle of El Agheila. Libya UK, Poland, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Axis retreats to Tunisia
1942 Operation Torch. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK, Free French, Canada, Netherlands 107 479+X 720W VS Germany 2Sub in Mor., Vichy France 60 1.3X 2W
1942 Operation Terminal. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK 2D 1 622 VS German Empire Vichy France
1940 Attack on MerselKebir. Off Algeria UK 1AC 2B 1BC 2LC 11D 6 #2X VS German Empire Vichy France 2BC 1D 2B 1 1D 6D 1Gr 3D 1.3X 350W
1942 - 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1942 Battle of Kasserine Pass. Tunisia Germany, Italy 22 2 34T VS USA 6.5, UK, Free French 30 10 183T
1943 Operation Fustian. Sicily, Italy UK 1PTBri 1Div 141X 168MW 42T 5GlVS Germany 1PTDiv, Italy 1Div
1940 1 Blitz. UK UK 403CiX 46139CiW VS Germany 3.4ACX 2.3
1940 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 4 3 Continuation War. Finland, Russia USSR, UK VS Finland 530 63.3XM 158W #939Ci fm Pl #190Ci fm Soviots 2.43.5C , Germany 220, 14XM 37W ?NC Italy 275+
1941 Battle of Gondar. Ethiopia UK KenyaACReg, Ethiopians VS Italy 40
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1942 Operation Cerberus. English Channel Germany 2B 1D 1LD 1HC 6D 1HD 14To 2LD 26E 32B 252Fi 22 38 #13SaX #2SaW #23ACX VS UK 6D 3DE 32MTo 450 42 61 #40XM #21W
1942 Operation Donnerkeil. English Channel, North Sea & north Germany Germany 252M&FWF 30MTF 17 32DoBo 5 22 #23X VS UK 450 41
1942 St. Nazaire Raid. France UK #265Com 4D 1G 1, 1To 1, 3Flot 13 15, 5Sq 2Pl #169X #215C VS Germany 1Brig 1Bat 1Div 5 #3602UBFlot 2MS 1To 2Ju 2Ta 2Tu 6 1Dock
1942 Dieppe Raid. France Germany 1Div 1.5 #311 #280W VS Canada 1Div 3.4XWC, UK 3ComB 10.5 8D 1 237 33LC 34 74Sq 94Fi 6B #887X #30W #17C, Polish Forces 4.3X
1942 Battle of Medenine. Tunisia UK, New Zealand, Free French VS Germany, Italy
1942 Operation Pugilist. Tunisia UK India, Free French, New Zealand 51T 952 w/ 7AC VS Germany, Italy
1943 Battle of Sicily. Italy UK, USA, Canada, Newfoundland, Free French 160467 24.8 5.8X 15.7W 3.3C 14V 600T 1.8G VS Italy 230 131.4147 +C, Germany 60 20 260T 1.4
1943 Operation Ladbroke. Syracuse, Italy UK 1PTBri 2 313X 174WM VS Italy 1Bat 1Reg
1943 Allied invasion of Italy. UK, USA, Canada 189 2X 7W 3.5M VS Germany, Italy 100 3.5
1943 Operation Slapstick. Italy UK 1AiDiv 1CSq 1 2.2 #106X #154W VS Germany 1PTDiv
1943 Dodecanese Campaign. Off Greece Germany, Italian Rep 1.2 15L VS UK, Kingdom of Italy, South Africa, Greece 4.8 6D 4CLD 4CHD 2Su 10MS&CD 113
1943 Battle of Leros. Off Greece Germany 520X 45W VS Italy 8So&Sa, UK 1Bri 3 2Sq 115, Greece 20CiX 419X 4.8W 8.5C 115
1943 Battle of Kos. Off Greece Germany 4 15X 70W VS UK 1.4 1.4C, Italy 3.5 3.1C, South Africa 4.9 4.5C 91OX
1944 Battle of Rimini. Italy UK, Canada, Greece, New Zealand 3.4 VS Germany
1944 Battle of San Marino. San Marino British Empire India 1Div VS Germany 1Div
1944 Battle of Garfagnana. Italy Germany, Italy 9.1 100A 1XM VS USA, UK, India 18 120T 140A 1XM #300+C
Territory in northern Tuscany falls back into Axis hands.
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Battle for Caen. France UK, Canada 11Div 3ArDiv 5ArBri 3TBri 50.5Cas VS Germany 7Div 8PTDiv 3HTBat 550T 50.5Cas
1944 Operation Perch. France Germany 1Div 3PTDiv 1HTBat VS UK 2Div 1ArDiv 2ArBri
1944 Battle of VillersBocage. France Germany 2BatG 1HTBat 3141T 815 VS UK 1Bri #270 60T 237 +Civ
1944 Operation Epsom. France UK 2IDiv 1ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri 4 VS Germany 1BatG 3PTDiv 1HTBat 123T 3+
1944 Operation Charnwood. France UK, Canada 3IDiv 3ArBri 80T 3.8 VS Germany 1IDiv 1ArDiv 61T 1821 2+ #3400CivX
1944 Operation Jupiter. France UK 2 VS Germany
1944 2nd Battle of Odon. France UK 3.5 VS Germany 2
1944 Operation Goodwood. France UK 1IDiv 3ArDiv 1.11.3T 253314 3.5 VS Germany 4IDiv 3ArDiv 2HTBat 377T 75100T ?Cas 22.5C
1944 Operation Spring. France Germany 3PTDiv VS Canada, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri #450X 1.1W
1944 Operation Totalize. France Canada, UK, Poland 85 1.3 3IDiv 2ArDiv 2Arbri 720A 2 146+T VS Germany 3IDiv 1PTDiv 1HTBat 74T 45 3
1944 Operation Lüttich. France USA 9thAF, UK 2ndAF 5IDiv 3ArCC VS Germany 2IDiv 3PTDiv 5PT&IDiv 150T
1944 Operation Tractable. France Canada, Poland 1.4, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 2IDiv 1PTDiv
1944 Falaise pocket. France USA, UK, Canada, Poland, Free French 17Div + VS Germany 1415Div 100 60
1944 Battle for Brest. France USA, UK 3IDiv 1RaBat 4 VS Germany 3Div 1+X 4W 38C
1944 Operation Dragoon. France USA 2XCM 7.8OCO, Free French 10<, UK, Canada 175200 VS Germany 85100P 285300A 7X 20W 130+C
1944 Allied advance from Paris to Rhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 Clearing Channel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Netherlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Astonia. France Canada, UK 45 >#500 AFV 35 VS Germany 12 #600X 1.3C
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Operation Wellhit. France Canada, UK 2Brig + Ar, A, 1 #600 VS Germany 10 <#500 9.5C
1944 Operation Undergo. France Canada, UK #260 VS Germany 7.5 (Calais) 9.1C
1944 Operation Market Garden. Netherlands, Germany UK, USA, Poland, Dutch Resistance 42.6PT 2IDiv 15.317.2 1ADiv 1ABri 88 144T VS Germany, German Netherlands 6.313.3 30T&SPG 159
1944 Battle of Arnhem. Netherlands Germany, German Netherlands 1Div 1For 1.3X 2WVS UK, Poland 1AiDiv 1PTBri 2X 6.8C
1944 Battle of Hill 400. Germany USA, UK VS Germany
1944 Battle of Overloon. Netherlands USA, UK 2Div 1.9 3 40 VS Germany 1Div?
1944 Battle of Scheldt. Belgium, Netherlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 Operation Queen. Germany Germany 38.5VS USA, UK 38.5 340T
1944 Battle of Ushant. English Channel UK, Canada, Poland 8D 1D VS Germany 4D 1 1Sc #140C #39X
1944 - 5 Operation Clipper. Germany UK, USA 2 #169X #752M #500NC VS Germany
1944 - 5 Battle of Bulge. Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 89.5 19X 47.5W 23CM 800T, UK 1.4 #200X #969W #239M, Canada, Free Belgians, Free Luxembourg 83 4IDiv 1ADiv 394A#242T To 610 20IDiv 9ADiv 4.2A 1.6T 182AFV 6 VS Germany 200 8IDiv 5ADiv 340+T 280+AFV 1.6A 955RL Rien 100 12IDiv 3⅔ADiv 440+T 440+AFV 600T&AG 2.4 500T 67.2100XMC 100s 3CiX
1944 Battle of St. Vith. Belgium Germany 2GrDiv 1Bri 1PTDiv 100+ 500T VS USA, UK 1IDiv 2ADiv 22 12.5XWCM 88T 25AC
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1945 Battle of Bologna. Italy UK, USA VS Italy, Germany
1945 Battle of Argenta Gap. Italy UK VS Germany #600+C
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Netherlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1945 Operation Blackcock. Netherlands, Germany UK, Canada 2Div ComBri ArDiv 1.2 VS Germany 2Div 2PTReg HPTBat 2
1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany. Germany USA 6th,12thArmG 3M, UK 21stArmG, France 1stArm, Canada, Poland VS Germany ArmG:B,G,H 1M
1945 Operation Veritable. Germany UK, Canada 200 15.6 VS Germany 90 44.2
1945 Operation Plunder. Germany UK, Canada, USA VS Germany
1945 Operation Varsity. Germany UK, USA, Canada 16.9 2.42.7 72 VS Germany 8 ? 3.5C
1945 Ruhr Pocket. Germany USA, UK, German Res. 300+ 4.1Ca #928X 3.3W VS Germany 400 ? 300+C
1939 - 45 6 Battle of Atlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle of River Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
1940 Altmark Incident. Norway UK D #1W VS Germany S #4X #5W #299 POWs Rescued
1940 Convoy SC 7. West of UK Germany 7U VS UK 35M 20 79.6GRT #141X5E
1940 Convoy HX 84. North Atlantic Germany HC VS UK 38M 5 1D, AMC 1 7
1941 Convoy HX 106. Atlantic UK 41M 1B VS Germany 2B
1941 Operation Berlin. Atlantic Germany 2B 5S&T VS UK 22M
1941 Action of 4 April. Mid Atlantic Germany 1AuC 1D VS UK 1AuC 1 #74X #100W #195C
1941 Action of 9 May. South of Iceland UK 40Fre 7 2D #40X, 3D 3Co 2Tr VS Germany 4Su 1C 2D #14X #32C
1941 Battle of Denmark Strait. South of Iceland UK VS Germany 1B 1D 1BC 1 1.4X #9W 1HC
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1942 Operation Drumbeat. 2nd Happy Time. Atlantic Germany 22U VS UK, USA 609 3.1MGRT
1942 Battle of Barents Sea. Norway UK 2C 6D 1 2Co 1MS 1 2Tr #250 VS Germany 2HC 1D 6D 1 #330
1943 Battle of North Cape. Norway UK, Canada, Norway 1B LD 1HC 1D 3LC 9D 1D #11X #11W VS Germany 1B 1 1.9X #36C
1945 Action of 9 February. Off Norway UK 1Su VS Germany, Japan 2Su 1 #73
1942 5 3 Battle of Torpedo Alley. Off North Carolina Germany 3Sub #100X #40CVS UK, USA 397 5X
1947 91 44 Cold War.
1866 1946 80 HG Wells Novelist
1936 52 16 George 6 X56 < = Elizabeth BowesLyon 2C.
1938 IRA bombings in England
1940 Winston Churchill takes office
Young Winston 1972
1865 1940 75 Mrs Patrick Campbell Actress
1952 present 59 Elizabeth 2 ^
= Philip of Greece & Denmark 4C
1959 Antarctic treaty .
1962 Commonwealth immigrants act
1962 Beatles .
1966 England wins World Cup .
1969 Ulster troubles .
1971 N. Ireland Internment policy
1973 Britain joins European Community
1974 IRA bombing of mainland
1975 IMF assists Britain
1997 Hong Kong handed back to Chinese. End of empire.
1979 Thatcher 1st female PM
RiffRaff 1990
Los Chicos de la Guerra 1985
1901 - 4 Leeds Cathedral
1904 - 78 Liverpool Cathedral
1936 - 61 Guildford Cathedral
1956 - 62 Coventry Cathedral
1958 Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral
1970 3 Clifton Cathedral
1977 Blackburn Cathedral
1991 Brentwood Cathedral
2003 Baitul Futuh Mosque UK
Kalmar Union
1397 - 1523
126

1511Praise of Folly by Erasmus 102M 3;42;49
1513 - 23 10 Christian 2 deposed ^2 = Isabella of Austria 6C X 77
1521 - 3 2 Swedish War of Liberation Sweden Free City of Lübeck Denmark Kalmar Union
1523 Denmark & Norway separate from Sweden.
Union of DenmarkNorway
1523 - 36
13

Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814 278
@ Copenhagen
1523 - 33 10 Frederick 1 ^4 Christian 1 & Dorothea = Anna of Brandenburg 2 ch & Sophie of Pomerania 6C X61
Interregnum 1533 - 4 1
1534 - 59 25 Christian 3 ^ Anna = Dorothea of SaxeLauenburg 5C X55
1534 - 6 2 Counts Feud. Christian 2 vs Christian 3.
1554 Egeskov Castle
1559 - 1607 48 Rosenholm Castle
1559 - 88 29 Frederick 2 ^ Dorothea = Sophie of MecklenburgGüstrow 8C X 53
1558 - 83 35 Livonian War Livonian Confederation, Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, DenmarkNorway, Sweden, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Transylvania 77 VS Russia, Livonia
1573 Meilgaard Castle
1578 Battle of Wenden Latvia Sweden, PolandLithuania 5.56 ?small VS Russia 158 7
1581 - 2 1 Siege of Pskov Russia Russia 16 VS PolandLithuania, Transylvania 27 4 Cossacks
1582 Truce of Jam Zapolski.
Cession of: Estonia to Sweden, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia to Poland–Lithuania, Ösel to Denmark–Norway
1572 Supernova SN 1572 observed by Dane Tycho Brahe in Milky Way.
1500 Aarhus Cathedral
1586 St. Canutes Cathedral
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814 278
Interregnum
1533 4 1

1588 1648 60 Christian 4 12 ^ = Anne Catherine of Brandenburg 7C & Kirsten Munk 12C X70
1546 1601 55 Tycho Brahe, astronomer.
1602 20 Fredriksborg Castle
1603 Grasten Castle
1606 24 Rosenborg Castle

1618 48 30 Thirty Years War Protestant States & Allies Dutch Rep. 75, Sweden 150, Bohemia 1820 2 3040, DenmarkNorway 259 4 50 France 35 150, Saxony, Electoral Palatinate, BrunswickLüneburg, England 2530 5, BrandenburgPrussia, Transylvania 6, Hungarian AntiHabsburg Rebels 2030, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Ottoman Empire 100150 Germans 61T VS Roman Catholic States and Allies HRE, Catholic League, Austria, Bavaria, Hungary, Croatia, Spain 300T, DenmarkNorway 43 5 2 20 Hungarian & Croatian c 100200 Germans 450T
8M Both Sides
1639 44 Valdemars Castle

1648 70 22 Frederick 3 ^3 Anne = Sophie Amalie of BrunswickLüneburg 8 ch X 60
1655 60 5 2nd Northern War. Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania Sweden, BrandenburgPrussia, Transylvania & Ukrainian Cossacks VS DenmarkNorway, Habsburg monarchy, PolandLithuania, Russia, BrandenburgPrussia & Dutch Republic.
1657 8 1 DanoSwedish War of 578 Denmark, Sweden, Germany Sweden VS DenmarkNorway
1658 Swedish Capture of Funen.
1658 Treaty of Roskilde DenmarkNorway losses 1/2 of land. Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bohuslän, Bornholm and Trøndelag becomes Swedish territories
1658 60 2 DanoSwedish War Part of 5860 DenmarkNorway Dutch Rep., BrandenburgPrussia, PolandLithuania VS Sweden
1658 Battle of Sound Denmark Denmark, Dutch Rep. 3Sq 35 2 1.3G 4Sa 2So #296X #503W VS Sweden 44 4Sq 4 1.6G 4Sa 2.4So #350X #850W
1659 Assault on Copenhagen
Battle of Nyborg
1660 Treaty of Copenhagen Bornholm & Trøndelag returned to DenmarkNorway. Current borders between Denmark & Sweden.
1670 99 29 Christian 5 ^ Charlotte Amalie of HesseKassel 8C X 53
1673 Nysoe Castle
1676 First measurement of speed of light.
1699 1735 Frederiksberg Castle
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814 278
1808 - 39 31 Frederick 6 ^ = Marie Sophie of HesseKassel 8C X 70
1809 DanoSwedish War of 1808 1809 Part of Napoleonic Wars DenmarkNorway, France 36 #210400 dead and wounded, 152C VS Sweden, UK 23 #200 dead and wounded, #9001.2C
1809 Treaty of Jönköping. Status quo ante bellum
1839 - 48 9 Christian 8 61 ^
= Charlotte Frederica of MecklenburgSchwerin 2S & Caroline Amalie of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg 0C
1848 - 63 15 Frederick 7 X55 ^
= Vilhelmine Marie of Denmark & Caroline of Mecklenburg & Louise Rasmussen.
1813 - 55 42 Søren Kierkegaard Philosopher
1863 - 1906 43 Christian 9 87 ^ 4 Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg & Princess Louise Caroline of HesseKassel
= Louise of HesseKassel
6C
1864 2nd Schleswig War 2nd DanishGerman War. Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia 61 158 Guns Later 20
64 guns VS Denmark 38 #100+ Guns
1864 Treaty of Vienna.
Denmark Schleswig, Holstein, & Lauenburg to Prussia & Austria
1868 Fuglsang Castle
1805 - 75 70 Hans Christian Andersen .
1846 - 96 50 Karl Verner Danish Linguist
1899 - 1902 Marselisborg Castle
Kingdom of Denmark
1814 - Present
198
1829 Church of Our Lady Cathedral Copenhagen
1842 St. Ansgars Cathedral
1849 Nuuk Cathedral
1876 Viborg Cathedral
Kingdom of Denmark
1814 - Present
198
1906 - 12 6 Frederick 8 ^ = Louise of Sweden 8C X68
1912 - 47 35 Christian 10
^ = Alexandrine of MecklenburgSchwerin 2S X76
1915 7 Egelund Castle
1939 - 40 Winter War. East Finland USSR, Russian Finland 998.1 126.9XM 188.7W 5.6C 2.56.5T 3.5 3.9 261515 323CaVS Finland, Swedish V, Danish V, Norwegian V 337346.5 25.9XM 43.6W 1C #957Ci32T 2030 114 62 70Ca
Moscow Peace Treaty
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1947 - 72 25 Frederick 9 ^ = Ingrid of Sweden 3D X72
1972 present 38 Margre 2 ^G = Henri de Laborde de Monpezat 2S
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814
278
Norwegian Empire
1536 - 1814
722
Oldenburg
1483 - 1814
331
1513 - 23 10 Christian 2
1523 - 33 10 Frederick 1
1503 Tønsberg Fortress
1532 Steinvikholm Castle
1534 - 59 25 Christian 3
1559 - 88 29 Frederick 2
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 1814
278
Norwegian Empire
1536 1814
722
Oldenburg
1483 1814
331
1588 1648 60 Christian 4
1596 William Barents discovers Spitsbergen, Norway.
1648 70 22 Frederick 3
1650s Barony Rosendal Castle
1670 99 29 Christian 5
1685 Kristiansten Fortress
1694 7 Oslo Cathedral
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814 278
Norwegian Empire
1536 - 1814
722
Oldenburg
1483 - 1814
331
1699 - 1730 31 Frederick 4
1700s Damsgård Manor
1730 - 46 16 Christian 6
1746 - 66 20 Frederic 5
1767 Refsnes Gods Castle
1766 - 1808 42 Christian 7
1778 Stiftsgården Castle
Kingdom of
Denmark Norway

1536 - 1814 278
Norwegian Empire
1536 - 1814
722
Oldenburg
1483 - 1814
331
1803 Ledaal Castle
1808 - 14 6 Frederick 6
1814 Norwegian / Swedish War Part of Napoleonic Wars Sweden 45,523 men
117 field batteries
5 ships of line
70 gunboats 400 dead and wounded 300 capturedVS Norway 30,000 men
8 field batteries
7 brigs
150 gunboats 1,600 dead and wounded 300 captured
1814 Convention of Moss. Norway enters Personal Union w/ Sweden.
HolsteinGottorp
1814 - 8
4
Charles 2
Bernadotte
1818 - 1905 87
1818 - 44 26 Charles 3 John
1844 - 59 15 Oscar 1
1849 Royal Palace, Oslo
1859 - 72 13 Charles 4
1872 - 1905 33 Oscar 2
1880 Vækerø Gård Castle
Kingdom of
SwedenNorway

1818 - 1905
88
1849 - 66 Hamar Cathedral
Kingdom of Norway
1905 - Present
107
1900 Gamlehaugen Castle
1901 Egeberg Castle
Glucksburg
1905 - Present
106
1905 Norway breaks from Sweden.
1905 - 57 52 Haakon 7
1843 - 1907 64 Edvard Grieg Composer & Pianist
1828 - 1906 78 Henrik Ibsen, playwright
1872 - 1928 56 Roald Amundsen Explorer
1932 Skaugum Castle
1863 - 1944 81 Edvard Munch Painter & Printmaker
1939 - 40 Winter War. East Finland USSR, Russian Finland 998.1 126.9XM 188.7W 5.6C 2.56.5T 3.5 3.9 261515 323CaVS Finland, Swedish V, Danish V, Norwegian V 337346.5 25.9XM 43.6W 1C #957Ci32T 2030 114 62 70Ca
Moscow Peace Treaty
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Battle of Scheldt. Belgium, Netherlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1939 - 45 6 Battle of Atlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle of River Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
1940 Altmark Incident. Norway UK D #1W VS Germany S #4X #5W #299 POWs Rescued
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1942 Battle of Barents Sea. Norway UK 2C 6D 1 2Co 1MS 1 2Tr #250 VS Germany 2HC 1D 6D 1 #330
1943 Battle of North Cape. Norway UK, Canada, Norway 1B LD 1HC 1D 3LC 9D 1D #11X #11W VS Germany 1B 1 1.9X #36C
1945 Action of 9 February. Off Norway UK 1Su VS Germany, Japan 2Su 1 #73
1957 - 91 34 Olav 5
1991 - Present 20 Harald 5
1st Kingdom of Sweden
1536 - 1814
278
1523 Independence from Kalmar Union
Vasa
1523 1654 132
1523 - 60 37 Gustav 1 1496 - 1560 64 restored Swedish sovereignty and introduced Protestantism in Sweden
1527 Protestant Reformation begins in Sweden.
1560 - 8 8 Eric 14
1568 - 92 24 John 3
1592 - 9 7 Sigmund 1566 - 1632 66 1st & only monarch of Polish–Swedish union; his long reign in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth coincided with apex of Commonwealths prestige, power and economic influence
1599 - 1604 5 Duke Charles
1594 - 1632 38 Gustavus Adolphus
1542 - 3 1 Dacke War King VS Peasants
Kingdom of PolandSweden
1592 - 9 7
1598 Battle of Stångebro Started PolandSweden War Sweden Swedish Rebels 812 #500XW VS PolandSweden 58 2X
1500s Bogesund Castle
1500s Bellinga Castle
1500s Ericsberg Castle
1500s Högestad Castle
1500s Smedstorp Castle
1500s Torup Castle
1500s Ulvåsa
1530 Malmö Castle
1530s Svaneholm Castle
1530s Trolleholm Castle
1537 Gripsholm Castle
1544 Vaxholm Castle
1545 - 1620 Vadstena Castle
1548 Rydboholm Castle
1549 Uppsala Castle
1550s Rössjöholm Castle
1550s Strömsholm Palace
15537 Vittskövle Castle
1559 Landskrona Citadel
1559 Trollenäs Castle
1573 Örebro Castle
1580 Drottningholm Palace
1580 Svartsjö Palace
1597 Sövdeborg Castle
1572 Diocese of Visby Established Cathedral
1593 - 1846 Härnösand Cathedral

Midieval Bridge at Alby, Öland







1st Kingdom of Sweden
1536 -
1814 278
Vasa
1523 - 1654 132
1599 - 1604 5 Duke Charles
1600 - 11 11 PolandSwedish War of 16001611. Sweden 12 Then 9 VS PolandLithuania, CorlandSemigallia
1601 Battle of Kokenhausen Latvia PolandLithuania #300 2.7C #1200XW 9G VS Sweden #900 4C 2XW 17G
1604 Battle of Weissenstein Estonia PolandLithuania 2.3 #50X #100W VS Sweden 5 3XWC 6C 6C 26B
1604 - 11 7 Charles 9

1605 Battle of Kircholm Part of 30 yrs War Latvia PolandLithuania, CorlandSemigallia
1, 2.6C 3.6T 5G #100X #200W VS Sweden 9 2C 11T 11G 59XWMC 11G 60B

1610 - 17 7 Ingrian War. Russia Sweden VS Russia
1617 Treaty of Stolbovo.
1611 - 32 21 Gustav 2 Adolph
1632 - 54 32 Christina 1626 89 63 high profile Catholic convert, matron of arts
1632 - 54 22 Queen Cristina of Sweden Abdicates
Queen Christina 1933
Abdication 1974
PalatinateZweibrücken
1654 1720 66
1654 - 60 6 Charles 10 Gustav
1660 - 97 37 Charles 11
1697 - 1718 21 Charles 12
Swedish Empire
1611 - 1718
107
1611 - 3 2 Kalmar War Denmark Norway VS Sweden
1600 - 11 11 Polish Swedish War Sweden VS PolandLithuania
1632 Battle of Lützen death of king of Sweden Gustav II Adolf. Sweden Protestant Union 12.8 6.2C 60G 3.4X 1.6W&M VS HRE Catholic League 10
7C, Then 3 2C
24G Same
1655 - 61 6 Northern Wars cement Swedens rise as a Great Power.
1675 - 9 4 Scanian War Part of FrancoDutch War. Scandinavia. DenmarkNorway, United Provinces, Brandenburg, Holy Roman Empire, Spain VS Swedish Empire, France
1676 Battle of Halmstad Sweden 6 #50X #130W VS DenmarkNorway 4 1.5X 2C
1676 Battle of Öland DenmarkNorway, Dutch Rep. 42 1F #100 VS Sweden 57 5 6C 12 1.4
1677 Battle of Landskrona Sweden 5 4C 4P #650 VS Denmark 5 7C 2.5
1677 Battle of Møn DenmarkNorway, Dutch Rep. 17 671G negligible VS Sweden 12 404G 1W 7C 1.5
1677 Battle of Køge Bay DenmarkNorway 34 6.7 #375XW VS Sweden 457 8 9.2 3
1643 - 5 2 Torstenson War Part of Thirty Years War Sweden Dutch Republic DenmarkNorway Holy Roman Empire
1629 Cardinal Richelieu allies with Swedish Protestant forces in Thirty Years War to counter Ferdinand IIs expansion.
1600s Ekebyholm Castle
1600s Jordberga Castle
1600s Örbyhus Castle
1600s Torpa stenhus
1609 Halmstad Castle
1614 Johannisborg
1617 - 23 Viderup Castle
1620s Tyresö Palace
1625 - 45 Tidö Castle
1630 Edsberg Castle
1632 Koberg Castle
1633 Vrams Gunnarstorp Castle
1634 - 8 Rosersberg Palace
1634 - 40s Tunbyholm Castle
1634 Karlberg Castle
1637 Brahehus
1637 Råbelöv Castle
1638 Maltesholm Castle
1640s Hässelby Castle
1642 Fiholm Castle
1643 - 5 Ulriksdal Palace
1648 Marsvinsholm Castle
1650 Åkeshov Castle
1650 Älvsborg Castle
1651 Charlottenborg Castle
1654 Häringe Castle
1654 - 76 Skokloster Castle
1655 - 62 Stjärnorp Castle
1660 Löfstad Castle
1660s Gripenberg Castle
1660s Hässelbyholm Castle
1660s Mälsåker Castle
1660s Mariedal Castle
1667 Årsta Castle
1667 Carlsten Fortress
1668 ÖsterMalma Castle
1670 Ekebyhov Castle
1670 Johannishus Castle
1676 Svenstorp Castle
1679 Pålsjö Castle
1679 Rudbeck Uppsala Castle garden
1685 Finspång Castle
1694 - 8 Steninge Palace
1697 - 1760 Stockholm Palace
1627 - 1700 Gothenburg Cathedral
1st Kingdom of Sweden
1718
- 1814 278
Swedish Empire

1611 - 1718
107
Stockholm
Swedish
Constitutional monarchy,
Unitary parliamentary representative democracy
PalatinateZweibrücken
1654 - 1720 66
1697 - 1718 21 Charles 12
1718 20 2 Ulrica Eleanor
1700 - 21 21 Great Northern War RussoSwedish War
Taras Bulba 1962
Potop ( Deluge) 1975
Pan Tadeusz 2000 
1709 Battle of Poltava Russia 24.5, 14.6 dragoons, 3 Kalmyks
86 Can 42 Seige: 4.2R, 2 Cossacks
28 Ca 1.4X 3.3W VS Sweden 8.7, 7.8 Cal 16.5 Seige: 1.1 #200 Cal 6.9 Cal 2.8 Cap
* Swedish * flees to Ottoman Empire * of Cossack Hetmanate autonomity
Hesse
1720 - 51 31
1720 - 51 31 Frederick
1751 - 71 20 Adolph Frederick
1772 Coup détat by Gustav 3 becoming almost an absolute monarch.
1771 - 92 21 Gustav 3
assassinated by a conspiracy of noblemen.
1707 - 78 71 Carolus Linnaeus Biologist
1792 - 1809 17 Gustav 4 Adolph
1741 - 3 2 RussoSwedish War, Hats Russian War.
* Part of War of Austrian Succession. Finland Russia VSSweden, Finland
1701 - 44 43 Anders Celsius Astronomer
HolsteinGottorp
1751 - 1818 67
1760 Swedenborgism Emmanuel Swedenborg
1688 - 1762 74 Emanuel Swedenborg Swedish scientist, thinker and mystic
1742 - 86 44 Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish chemist (discovered oxygen)
1700 Skokloster Castle
1700s Björksund Castle
1720s Krageholm Castle
1720s Toppeladugård Castle
1720s Tullgarn Palace
1731 Brokind Castle
1740 Christinehof Castle
1750 Kristineberg Castle
1752 Björnstorp Castle
1754 Gävle Castle
1757 Gåsevadholm Castle
1758 Herrevad Abbey
1760 Kronovall Castle
1760s Erstavik
1766 Bjärsjölagård Castle
1774 Ljung Castle
1775 Kavlås Castle
1776 Almnäs Castle
1776 Övedskloster Castle
1780 Heby Castle
1791 BjärkaSäby Castle
1794 Östanå Castle
1796 Gunnebo Castle
1798 Löberöd Castle







1st Kingdom of Sweden
1718
- 1814 278
Stockholm
Swedish
Constitutional monarchy,
Unitary parliamentary representative democracy
HolsteinGottorp
1751 - 1818 67
1792 - 1809 17 Gustav 4 Adolph
1809 - 18 9 Charles 13
1808 - 9 1 Finnish War Russia, France, Spain 95+ VS Sweden, UK, Portugal 36+
1809 Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
Sweden Finland to be autonomous part of Russia
Kingdom of
SwedenNorway

1814 - 1905
91
Stockholm
Swedish
Constitutional monarchy,
Unitary parliamentary representative democracy
HolsteinGottorp
1751 - 1818 67
1809 - 18 9 Charles 13
Bernadotte
1818 Present 194
1818 - 44 22 Charles 14 John
1844 - 59 15 Oscar 1
1859 - 72 13 Charles 15
1872 - 1907 35 Oscar 2
1820 - 87 67 Jenny Lind Opera singer called Swedish Nightingale
1833 - 96 63 Alfred Nobel Chemist, Engineer, Inventor
1800s Solliden Palace
1800s TrolleLjungby Castle
1804 Ovesholm Castle
1805 Haga Palace
1807 - 13 TaxingeNäsby Castle
1811 Rönneholm Castle
1819 Karlsborg Fortress
1827 Rosendal Palace
1827 Rosendal Castle, Helsingborg
1835 Nääs Castle
1849 Charlottenlund Castle
1850s Rånäs Manor
1854 Kulla Gunnarstorp Castle
1858 Helliden Castle
1861 Örtofta Castle
1862 Karsholm Castle
1862 Alnarp Castle
1865 Sofiero Castle
1870s Snogeholm Castle
1872 Stora Sundby Castle
1873 Gärsnäs Castle
1874 Dagsnäs Castle
1875 Häckeberga Castle
1890 Vannaröd Castle
1897 Hjularöd Castle
1898 - 1904 Tjolöholm Castle
1892 Saint Erics Cathedral, Stockholm
1893 Luleå Cathedral Consecrated
1860s Uppåkra church
Kingdom of
SwedenNorway

1814 - 1905 91
Stockholm
Swedish
Constitutional monarchy,
Unitary parliamentary representative democracy
Bernadotte
1818 - Present 194
1872 - 1907 35 Oscar 2
2nd Kingdom of Sweden
1905 - Present
107
Stockholm
Swedish
Constitutional monarchy,
Unitary parliamentary representative democracy
Bernadotte
1818 - Present 194
1872 - 1907 35 Oscar 2
1907 - 50 43 Gustaf 5
1939 - 40 Winter War. East Finland USSR, Russian Finland 998.1 126.9XM 188.7W 5.6C 2.56.5T 3.5 3.9 261515 323CaVS Finland, Swedish V, Danish V, Norwegian V 337346.5 25.9XM 43.6W 1C #957Ci32T 2030 114 62 70Ca
Moscow Peace Treaty
1950 - 73 23 Gustaf 6 Adolf
1973 - Present 39 Carl 16 Gustaf
1900 Teleborg Castle
Swedish Finland
1250 - 1809
559

1590 Oulu
1596 Cudgel War Nobels 1.53.3+ VS Peasants 14+
Swedish Finland
1250 - 1809
559
1604 - 19 15 Kajaanin
1696 7 1 Famine kills almost a third of population.
Swedish Finland
1250 - 1809
559
1720s Hamina Fortress
1748 Suomenlinna
1749 - 64 Svartholma
1777 Oulu Cathedral
Russian
Grand Duchy of Finland

1809 - 1917
108
@ Turku (1809 - 12 3)
Helsinki (1812 - 7 5)
Swedish, Finnish, Russian
Evangelical Lutheran and Russian Orthodox
Constitutional meritocratic grand principality of Russian Empire
1854 Bormasund battle
1866 - 8 2 Famine
1806 - 15 Kuopio Cathedral
1827 Lapua Cathedral
1852 Helsinki Cathedral
1858 - 60 St. Henrys Cathedral
1862 - 8 Uspenski Cathedral, Helsinki
1874 - 8 Savonlinna Cathedral
1896 - 7 Mikkeli Cathedral
Russian
Grand Duchy of Finland

1809 - 1917
108
@ Turku (1809 - 12 3)
Helsinki (1812 - 7 5)
Swedish, Finnish, Russian
Evangelical Lutheran and Russian Orthodox
Constitutional meritocratic grand principality
1902 - 7 Tampere Cathedral
Republic of Finland
1917 - Present
95
@ Helsinki
Finnish, Swedish, Saami
1939 - 40 1 Winter War. East Finland USSR, Russian Finland 998.1 126.9XM 188.7W 5.6C 2.56.5T 3.5 3.9 261515 323CaVS Finland, Swedish V, Danish V, Norwegian V 337346.5 25.9XM 43.6W 1C #957Ci32T 2030 114 62 70Ca
Moscow Peace Treaty
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Operation Arctic Fox. North Finland Germany 1Div 2PTDiv, Finland 3Div 2Bat VS Russia 4RiDiv 1Bri 1TDiv
1941 Operation Platinum Fox. North Finland Germany, Finland 27.5 VS USSR 3Div
1941 Operation Renntier. Finland Germany 2Div 27.5 VS USSR
1941 Operation Silver Fox. North Finland USSR 7Div 1Bri Navy VS Germany 21.5, Finland 5 6Div 3Bat
1941 4 3 Continuation War. Finland, Russia USSR, UK VS Finland 530 63.3XM 158W #939Ci fm Pl #190Ci fm Soviots 2.43.5C , Germany 220, 14XM 37W ?NC Italy 275+
1941 - 4 3 Battle of Leningrad. Russia USSR 1XCM 2.4WS 1.14MCiX (642 Siege 400 Evacuation) 2.14T VS Germany, Finland, Italy
1942 Battle of Someri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany 23X 68W 2G 2LMSD VS USSR 2P 11D 1GD 1LMSD 5 #328X #149C
1944 Battle of Bay of Viipuri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany VS USSR Soviets capture main Viborg Bay islands
1944 Moonzund Landing Operation. Estonia USSR, Finland VS Germany
Terra Mariana
1207 - 1561
354
@Riga, Latvia
Swedish Duchy of Livonia
1561 - 1621
60
@ Fellin (Viljandi), Estonia
Vassal of Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
then of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Swedish Duchy of Estonia
1561 - 1721
160
@ Reval
German, Estonian, Swedish
Lutheranism
Dominion
151527 Hapsals Castle
Swedish Duchy of Livonia
1561 - 1621
60
@ Fellin (Viljandi)
Vassal of Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
then of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Swedish Duchy of Estonia
1561 - 1721
160
@ Reval
German, Estonian, Swedish
Lutheranism
Dominion
Swedish Duchy of Estonia
1561 - 1721
160
@ Reval
German, Estonian, Swedish
Lutheranism
Dominion
Russian Governorate of Estonia
1721 - 1917
196
Duchy of Livonia
1721 - 1917
196
1778 - 9 1 St Marys Cathedral Spire & Nave, Tallinn
Russian Governorate of Estonia
1721 - 1917
196
Duchy of Livonia
1721 - 1917
196
1894 - 1900 6 Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn
Russian Governorate of Estonia
1721 - 1917
196
Duchy of Livonia
1721 - 1917
196
Russian
Governorate of Estonia

1917 - 8 1
@ Tallin
Autonomous Governate
Governate of Russian Republic
Estonian
Soviet Socialist Republic

1940 - 90
50
@ Tallin
Estonian & Russian
Soviot Socialist Republic
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 4 3 Bombing of Tallinn in World War II. Estonia.
1941 Luftwaffe raids.
1942 3 2 Red Air Force raids.
1944 Red Air Force raids. 300 dropped 3Bombs #757X
1941 Evacuation of Tallinn. Gulf of Finland Germany, Finland VS USSR 12+X 12W 34M
1944 Tallinn Offensive. Estonia USSR 195 VS Germany 50 50, Estonian Cons. VS Estonian Independence 2
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Moonzund Landing Operation. Estonia USSR, Finland VS Germany
1944 Battle of Narva . Estonia Germany, Estonian Partisans 123.5 68 14XM 54WS 32T 137 VS Russia 200 480 (Ci Incl) 100XM 380WS 2.5G 100T 300 800 230
1944 Battle for Narva Bridgehead. Estonia USSR 205 65XM 235WS 2.5AG 100T 130AV 800 230 VS Germany 123.5 12XMC 46WS32T 137
1944 Battle of Tannenberg Line. Estonia Germany, Estonian Conscripts 22.3 10 2.5XM 7.5WS 7T 6 7080AG 49 VS USSR 136.8 170 35XM 135WS 150AV 157164T 1.7AG 546
1944 Battle of Porkuni. Estonia USSR 10 1 VS Estonia 1.5 #500X #700C
1944 Riga Offensive. Latvia, Estonia USSR VS Germany
Republic of Estonia
1990 - Present
22
@ Tallin
Archbishopric of Riga
1186 - 1561
375
@Riga, Latvia
Latin, Low German,
Livonian, Latvian
Terra Mariana
1207 - 1561
354
Riga
Latin, Low German, Estonian, Latvian, Livonian
Roman Catholicism
N/A
State of
Tuotonic Order

1224 - 1525
301
@Marienburg, Poland 1308 - 1454 146 &
@Königsberg, Russia 1454 - 1525 71
Bishopric of Courland
1234 - 1562
328
@Piltene, Latvia
Latin, Low German, Curonian
Ferding, Schilling
Duchy of Livonia
1561 - 1621
60
Fellin (Viljandi), Estonia
1560 Battle of Ergeme Part of 30 yrs war Latvia Russia 12 VS Livonia 330K 261

Polish Lithuanian Duchy of
Courland and Semigallia

1562 - 1795
233
@ Mitau (Jelgava), Latvia
German, Latvian
Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism
Duchy
Kingdom of Livonia
1570 - 8
8
Latvia
1570 - 8 8 Magnus of Livonia
Polish Lithuanian Duchy of
Courland and Semigallia

1562 - 1795
233
@ Mitau (Jelgava), Latvia
German, Latvian
Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism
Duchy
PolishLithuanian
Livonian Voivodeship

1621 - 1772
151
@ Dyneburg
Swedish Livonia
1629 - 1721
92
@ Riga
Swedish, Estonian, Latvian, Livonian, Low German (Latin as lingua franca)
Lutheranism
Inflanty Voivodeship
1621 - 1772
151
@Dyneburg
Polish Lithuanian Duchy of
Courland and Semigallia

1562 - 1795
233
@ Mitau (Jelgava)
German, Latvian
Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism
Duchy
PolishLithuanian
Livonian Voivodeship

1621 - 1772
151
@ Dyneburg
Swedish Livonia
92
@ Riga
Swedish, Estonian, Latvian, Livonian, Low German (Latin as lingua franca)
Lutheranism
Russian Governorate of Livonia
1721 - 1918
197
@ Riga
Russian Courland Governorate
1795 - 1915
120
@ Jelgava
Russian Governorate of Livonia
1721 - 1918
197
@ Riga
Russian Courland Governorate
120
@ Jelgava
1876 - 83 Nativity Cathedral, Riga
Russian Governorate of Livonia
1721 - 1918
197
@ Riga
Russian Courland Governorate
120
@ Jelgava
Latvian Provisional Government
1918 - 20
2
Agrarian Union
Kārlis Ulmanis
Republic of Latvia
1919 - 40
21
Russian Latvia
1940 - 1
1
@ Vilnius
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Riga Offensive. Latvia, Estonia USSR VS Germany
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
German Latvia
1941 - 4
3
@ Vilnius, Lithuania
Russian Latvia
1944 - 90
46
@ Vilnius, Lithuania
Republic of Latvia
1990 - Present
22
@ Riga
1904 5 Ss. Boris and Gleb Cathedral, Daugavpils
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1200 - 1569
369
@ Vilnius
Jagiellon 1440 - 1569 129
1492 - 1506 14 Alexander 1 ^ *Poland 1501
1506 - 48 42 Sigismund 2 <
1548 - 69 21 Sigismund 3 ^
1564 Battle of Ula Part of 30 yrs War Belarus. Lithuania 46 VS Russia 1724 9
1569 Becomes PolishLithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
@Kraków, Warsaw, Poland
1558 - 83 35 Livonian War Livonian Confederation, Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, DenmarkNorway, Sweden, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Transylvania 77 VS Russia, Livonia
Cession of: Estonia to Sweden, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia to Poland–Lithuania, Ösel to Denmark–Norway
1500s Raudonė Castle
1500s Siesikai Castle
1586 Biržai Castle
1586 Norviliškės Castle



Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
@Kraków, Warsaw, Poland
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569 - 1795
226
@Kraków, Warsaw, Poland
Russian Lithuania
1795 - 1918
123
@ Vilnius
Russian Lithuania
1795 - 1918
123
@ Vilnius

 

Russian Lithuania
1795 - 1918
123
@ Vilnius
Republic of Lithuania
1918 - 40
22
@
German Lithuania
1940 - 4
4
@
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of Raseiniai. Lithuania Germany 245T VS USSR 749T 704
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Operation Doppelkopf. Lithuania Germany VS USSR
1944 Kaunas Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1944 Battle of Memel. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
1944 Vilnius Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany 8X 5C VS Polish Home Arm
Soviot Lithuania
1944 - 90
46
@
Republic of Lithuania
1990 - Present
22
@ Vilnius
Lithuanian