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1500s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1600s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  1700s  
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1800s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1900s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
 
 
 
 
 
Angoche sultanate Mozambique 1485 - 1910 425
 
Sakalava Madagaskar
   
 
 
 
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
 
Kingdom of Lunda
1665 - 1887
222
Zambia
Kingdom of Lunda
1665 - 1887
222
Zambia

 

Kingdom of Lunda
1665 - 1887
222
Zambia
1855 Livingstone is first European to see Victoria falls, Zambia
1st Protectorate of
Northern Rhodesia

1924 - 53
29
@ Lusaka (from 1935), Livingstone (until 1935)
English
Constitutional Monarchy
1940 - 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1940 Italian conquest of British Somaliland. Ethiopia Italy, Italian East Africa 24 465X 1.5W VS UK, India, British East Somaliland, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa 4 38X 102W 120M 3+SomaliSoX * Fall of British Somoliland
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
2nd Protectorate of
Northern Rhodesia

1963 - 4
1
@ Lusaka (from 1935), Livingstone (until 1935)
English
Constitutional Monarchy
Republic of Zambia
1964 - Present
47
@ Lusaka
English, Chewa, Bemba, Lunda, Tonga, Lozi, Luvale, Kaonde
Republic
1964 Zambia independent
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
     
German South West Africa
1884 - 1915
29
@ Windhoek
Colony
German South West Africa
1884 - 1915
29
@ Windhoek
Colony
1908 Duwisib Castle
1913 Schwerinsburg
1914 Duwisib Castle
South West Africa
1915 - 90
75
@ Windhoek
English, Afrikaans, German (1984 - 90 6)
League of Nations Mandate
South West African Pound (1920 - 61 41)
South African Rand (1961 - 93 32)
1919 Sanderburg
Republic of Namibia
1990 Present
21
@ Windhoek
English, German, Rukwangali, Silozi, Setswana, Damara/Nama, Afrikaans, Herero, Oshiwambo
Presidential Republic
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
     
Bechuanaland Protectorate
1885 - 1966
81
@ Mafeking (1885 - 1965 80) in South Africa
Gaborone (1965)
English
Constitutional Monarchy
Bechuanaland Protectorate
1885 - 1966
81
@ Mafeking (1885 - 1965 80) in South Africa
Gaborone (1965)
English
Constitutional Monarchy
Republic of Botswana
1966 - Present
45
@ Gaborone
English, Setswana
Parliamentary Republic of Botswana
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Kingdom of Mutapa
1430 - 1760
330
@ Zvongombe
Shona, Ikalanga
Cult of Mwari
1494 - 1530 36 Chikuyo Chisamarengu
1530 - 50 20 Neshangwe Munembire
1550 - 60 10 Chivere Nyasoro
1560 - 89 29 Negomo Chisamharu Granted Coat of Arms by Portugal
1589 - 1623 34 Gatsi Rusere
Kingdom of Mutapa
1430 - 1760
330
@ Zvongombe
Shona, Ikalanga
Cult of Mwari
1589 - 1623 34 Gatsi Rusere
1623 - 9 6 Nyambu Kapararidze Overthrown by Portuguese
1629 Mutapa becomes a Portuguese Vassal
1629 - 52 23 Mavura Mhande Felipe Signs treaty of Vassalage with Portugues; Dies of accidental gunshot wound.
1652 - 63 11 Siti Kazurukamusapa ^
assassinated by Prazos merchants
1663 Mutapa becomes a Rozwi Vassal
1663 - 92 29 Kamharapasu Mukombwe. Allies with Rozwi & throws out Prazos
1692 - 4 2 Nyakambira Assumes throne with Rozwi support; Rozwi vassal king of Manyika
1694 Mutapa returns to Portuguese vassalage
1694 - 1707 13 Nyamaende Mhande Defeats Nyakiambira with Portuguese support
Kingdom of Mutapa
1430 - 1760
330
@ Zvongombe
Shona, Ikalanga
Cult of Mwari
1694 - 1707 13 Nyamaende Mhande Defeats Nyakiambira with Portuguese support
1707 - 11 4 Nyenyedzi Zenda
1711 - 2 1 Baroma Dangwarangwa Overthrown & retreats to Chidima
1712 Mutapa returns to Rozwi vassalge
1712 - 23 11 Samatambira Nyamhandu 1 Installed by Rozwi invasion
1720 Mutapa independent of Rozwi
1723 Moves capital to Chikova
1723 - 35 12 Samatambira Nyamhandu 1 Rules in close alliance with Portuguese at Tete
1735 - 40 5 Nyatsusu
1740 - 59 19 Dehwe Mapunzagutu Has Portuguese garrison reinstated at royal capital.
1760 Mutapa collapses in Civil War; dynasty survives in Chidima
Matabele Kingdom
1820s - 97
70s
@
British South Africa Company
1897 - 1923
26
@ London
Cecil Rhodes
British South Africa Company
1897 - 1923
26
@ London
Cecil Rhodes
1st Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1923 - 53 30
@ Salisbury
English
Constitutional Monarchy
1940 - 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland
1953 - 63
10
@ Salisbury
English
Constitutional Monarchy
2nd Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1963 - 5 2
@ Salisbury
English
Constitutional Monarchy
1964 Northern Rhodesia independent
Republic of Rhodesia
1965 - 79
14
@ Salisbury
English
Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia
1979
@
3rd Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1979 - 80 1
@ Salisbury
English
Constitutional Monarchy
Republic of Zimbabwe
31
@ Harare
English, Shona, Sindebele
1980 - Present 31 Robert Mugabe
Kingdom of Butua
1450 - 1683
233
@ Khami
iKalanga
Cult of Mwali
Torwa 1450 - 1683 233
0 *
Kingdom of Butua
1450 - 1683
233
@ Khami
iKalanga
Cult of Mwali
Torwa 1450 - 1683 233
0 *
     
 
Rozwi Empire
1660 - 1866
226
@ Danamombe
KalangaRozwi
Cult of Mwari
0 *
Rozwi Empire
1660 - 1866
226
@ Danamombe
KalangaRozwi
Cult of Mwari
0 *
Rozwi Empire
1660 - 1866
226
@ Danamombe
KalangaRozwi
Cult of Mwari
0 *
 
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Angoche Sultanate
1485 - 1910
325
@ Angoche, Moma
0 *
Angoche Sultanate
1485 - 1910
325
@ Angoche, Moma
0 *
Angoche Sultanate
1485 - 1910
325
@ Angoche, Moma
0 *
Angoche Sultanate
1485 - 1910
325
@ Angoche, Moma
0 *
Angoche Sultanate
1485 - 1910
325
@ Angoche, Moma
0 *
Portuguese Mozambique
1498 - 1975
477
@ Lourenço Marques
Portuguese
Colony; Overseas territory; State
Portuguese Mozambique
1498 - 1975
477
@ Lourenço Marques
Portuguese
Colony; Overseas territory; State
Portuguese Mozambique
1498 - 1975
477
@ Lourenço Marques
Portuguese
Colony; Overseas territory; State
Portuguese Mozambique
1498 - 1975
477
@ Lourenço Marques
Portuguese
Colony; Overseas territory; State
Portuguese Mozambique
1498 - 1975
477
@ Lourenço Marques
Portuguese
Colony; Overseas territory; State
Republic of Mozambique
1975 - Present
36
@ Maputo
Portuguese, Swahili, Makhuwa, Sena
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Kingdom of Sakalava
1500s
Madagaskar
Merina Kingdom
1540 - 1810
270
@ Antananarivo
Malagasey
Malagasy mythology, Protestantism 1869
Absolute Monarchy
1540 - 75 35 Andriamanelo
1575 - 1612 37 Ralambo

Merina Kingdom
1540 - 1810
270
@ Antananarivo
Malagasey
Malagasy mythology, Protestantism 1869
Absolute Monarchy
1575 - 1612 37 Ralambo
1612 - 30 28 Andrianjaka
1630 - 50 20 Andriantsita katrandriana
1650 - 70 20 Andriant simitoviam inandriandehibe
1670 - 5 5 Andrianjaka Razakatsitakatrandriana
1675 - 1710 35 Andriamasinavalona (Andrianjakanavalondambo)

Merina Kingdom
1540 - 1810
270
@ Antananarivo
Malagasey
Malagasy mythology, Protestantism 1869
Absolute Monarchy
1675 - 1710 35 Andriamasinavalona (Andrianjaka navalondambo)
1710 - 30 20 Andriantsimit
oviaminiandriana Andriandrazaka
1730 - 70 40 Andriambelomasina
1770 - 87 17 Andrianjafyn
andriamanitra
(Andrianjafinjanahary or Andrianjafy)
1787 - 1810 23 Andrianampo
inimerina
Merina Kingdom
1540 - 1810
270
@ Antananarivo
Malagasey
Malagasy mythology, Protestantism 1869
Absolute Monarchy
1787 - 1810 23 Andrianam
poinimerina
Kingdom of Magagascar
1810 - 97
87
@
1810 - 28 18 Radama 1
1810 - 7 7 Merina Conquest of Madagascar Merina Kingdom British Empire France
1828 - 61 33 Ranavalona 1
1861 - 3 2 Radama 2
1863 - 8 5 Rasoherina
1868 - 83 15 Ranavalona 2
1883 - 97 14 Ranavalona 3
1894 - 5 1 2nd Madagascar expedition France Merina dynasty of Madagascar
French Madagascar
1897 - 1940
43
@
French Madagascar
1897 - 1940
43
@
German Madagascar
1940 - 2
2
@
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
French Madagascar
1943 - 60
17
@
Republic of Madagascar
1960 - Present
51
@ Antananarivo
Malagasy, French
 
Kingdom of Tsitambala
1600s
@ Madagaskar
   
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
 
Netherlands Protectorate
1652 - 1795
143
1652 Cape Town founded by Dutch East India Company in South Africa.
Netherlands Protectorate
1652 - 1795
143
1652 Cape Town founded by Dutch East India Company in South Africa.
1779 - 1879 100 Xhosa Wars between British & Boer settlers & Xhosas in South African Republic
1795 1st seizure of Cape Colony from Dutch
1779 - 81 2 1st Xhosa War. South Africa. Britain vs Xhosa.
1789 - 93 4 2nd Xhosa War. South Africa.
1799 - 1803 4 3rd Xhosa War. South Africa.
1795 Battle of Muizenberg.
Cape Colony
1795 - 1910
115
@ Cape Town
English, Dutch
Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican
Constitutional Monarchy
1779 - 1879 100 Xhosa Wars between British & Boer settlers & Xhosas in South African Republic
1795 1st seizure of Cape Colony from Dutch
1799 - 1803 4 3rd Xhosa War. South Africa.
Cape Colony
1795 - 1910
115
@ Cape Town
English, Dutch
Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican
Constitutional Monarchy
1806 Battle of Blaauwberg
1810 Seizure of Cape Colony
1811 - 12 1 4th Xhosa War. South Africa. British Empire vs Xhosa Tribes
1818 - 9 1 5th Xhosa War. South Africa. British Empire, Khoikhoi Forces, Forces of Xhosa, Chief Maqana Nxele
1834 - 62 6th Xhosa War British Empire Free Khoikhoi Xhosa Tribes
1835 Boers start Great Trek
1846 - 7 1 7th Xhosa War War of Axe British Empire Xhosa Tribes South Africa
1848 Battle of Boomplaats
1850 - 3 3 8th Xhosa War Mlanjenis War British Empire Xhosa Tribes Khoikhoi Tribes Native Kafir Police South Africa
1880 - 1 1 Basuto Gun War Basotho Tribes Cape Colony
1873 - 4 1 3rd AngloAshanti War. South Africa. British Empire vs Ashanti Empire
Cape Colony
1795 - 1910
115
@ Cape Town
English, Dutch
Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican
Constitutional Monarchy
1900 Battle of Paardeberg
1900 Battle of Sanna's Post
1900 Battle of Spion Kop
1901 Battle of Elands River
1901 Battle of Groenkop
Union of South Africa
1910 - 61
51
@ Cape Town (legislative)
Pretoria (administrative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Pietermaritzburg(archival)
Dutch, English, Afrikaans (after 1925)
Constitutional Monarchy
1915 Battle of Kakamas South Africa
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1924 Northern Rhodesia becomes a protectorate
1934 Purified National Party advocates Apharteid in South Africa
1940 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
1942 1st Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa 150 13.3 179T 1+A 1.5+ VS Germany 10, Italy 90 70T 500
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1943 Dodecanese Campaign. Off Greece Germany, Italian Rep 1.2 15L VS UK, Kingdom of Italy, South Africa, Greece 4.8 6D 4CLD 4CHD 2Su 10MS&CD 113
1944 Gothic Line. Italy UK, USA, India, Canada, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Italian Resistance, Greece 40 VS Germany, Italy
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1965 Southern Rhodesia declares unilateral independence
1936 Restriction of representation of Black South Africans
1948 Afrikaner National Party win power in South Africa
1961 South Africa leaves Commonwealth
Republic of South Africa
1961 - Present
50
@ Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)

Constitutional Parliamentary Republic
1996 South Africa rejoins Commonwealth
1979 Rhodesian settlement reached
1990 Nelson Mandela freed
1985 Britain isolated in Commonwealth over South African sanctions
     
Mtetwa Empire
1807 - 18
11
Expansion Mtetwa Paramountcy Other Tribes South Africa
 
     
Zulu Kingdom
1818 - 97
79
@ Kwa Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, & Ulundi, South Africa. Shaka forms West Zimbabwe & South Africa KwaBulawayo later Ulundi
1816 - 28 12 Zulu Wars of Conquest Zulu Kingdom Other remnants of Mtetwa Paramountcy. Shakas Zulu Kingdom becomes largest in Southern Africa.
1816 - 28 12 Shaka Zulu
Shaka Zulu 1987
Shaka Zulu: Last Great Warrior 2005
1817 - 9 2 Ndwandwe Zulu War Forces of Shaka Zulu Forces of King Zwide
1838 ZuluBoer War Battle of Blood River Voortrekkers Zulu kingdom
1838 Battle of Blood River Voortrekkers #464 #200S 3W VS Zulu 1020 3X
1879 AngloZulu War British Empire Colony of Natal Zulu Kingdom
1897 Zulu War
Zulu Dawn 1979
Zulu 1964
 
     
Orange Free State
1854 - 1902
48
@ Bloemfontein
Dutch (official), English, Sesotho,
Zulu
Dutch Reformed, Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, African religions
Republic
1854 - 5 1 J. P. Hoffman
1855 - 9 4 J. N. Boshoff
1860 - 3 3 M. W. Pretorius 1
1864 - 88 24 J. H. Brand
1865 - 8 3 BasutoBoer War Basuto Kingdom British Empire Orange Free State
1889 - 95 6 F. W. Reitz
1896 - 1902 6 M. T. Steyn
1899 - 1902 3 2nd Boer War British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic, Foreign volunteers
Untamed 1955
Breaker Morant 1980
Orange Free State
1854 - 1902
48
@ Bloemfontein
Dutch (official), English, Sesotho,
Zulu
Dutch Reformed, Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, African religions
Republic
1896 1902 6 M. T. Steyn
     
1st South African Republic
1856 - 77
21
@ Pretoria
Dutch, Afrikaans
Dutch Reformed Church
Republic
British South Africa
1877 - 81
4
@ Pretoria
Dutch, Afrikaans
Dutch Reformed Church
Colony
1877 - 9 2 9th Xhosa War. South Africa. British Empire, Mfengu Tribe vs Xhosa Gcaleka Tribe
1879 Battle of Isandlwana.
1879 Battle of Itombe.
1879 Battle of Rorke's Drift.
1879 Battle of Hlobane.
1879 Battle of Ginginglovu.
1879 Siege of Eshow.
1879 Battle of Kambula.
1879 Battle of Ulundi.
1880 - 1 1 1st Boer War South African Republic British Empire
1880 Battle of Bronkhorstpruit.
1881 Battle of Laing's Nek.
1881 Battle of Schuinshoogte.
1881 Battle of Majuba Hill.
2nd South African Republic
1881 - 1902
21
@ Pretoria
Dutch, Afrikaans
Dutch Reformed Church
Republic
1888 De Beers diamonds founded by Cecil Rhodes (1853 1902 49), mining magnate. EnglishSouth African
Rhodes of Africa 1936
Rhodes 1996 TV
1896 - 7 1 2nd Matabele War United Kingdom British South Africa Police Northern Ndebele people, Shona people
1899 - 1902 3 2nd Boer War
1899 Battle of Talana Hill
1899 Battle of Elanslaagte
1899 Battle of Modder River
1899 Battle of Stormberg
1899 Battle of Magersfontein
1899 Battle of Colenso
1899 - 1900 Battle of Ladysmith
1899 - 1900 Siege of Mafeking
 
   

 

1893 - 4 1 1st Matabele War United Kingdom British South Africa Police Tswana people Northern Ndebele people
Republic of Stellaland
1882 - 5
3
@ Vrijburg (Vryburg)
Dutch (written), Afrikaans, (spoken), Tswana
Dutch Reformed, Indigenous
1824 - 1952 28 St. Michael & St. George Cathedral
1830 - 4 4 St. Georges Cathedral, Cape Town
1840 Battle of Magango

1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
     
English Territory of Basutoland
1884 - 1966
82
@ Maseru
English
Constitutional Monarchy
English Territory of Basutoland
1884 - 1966
82
@ Maseru
English
Constitutional Monarchy
1966 Lesotho independence
Kingdom of Lesotho
1966 - Present
45
@ Maseru
English, Sesotho
Unitary Parliamentary Democracy & Constitutional Monarchy
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
 
1679 Castle of Good Hope
   
1968 Swaziland Independence
Kingdom of Swaziland
1968 - Present
43
@ Lobamba (royal & legislative), Mbabane (administrative; coordinates below)
English, Swati
Unitary parliamentary democracy within Constitutional & Absolute monarchy
Mswati 3
1
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