1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Spanish Inquisition 1492 - 1843 351
 

R Catholic

     
Catholic Popes 30 - Present 1981
Venetian Empire 800s - 1797 800s
     
Italian
 
 
Croatia 2 1527 - 1868 341
 
 
Serbia 1882 - 1918 36
 
Ignatius
   
Sp
 
Greece
 
Greece
 
Da Vinci
 
Kingdom of Sardinia 1720 - 1861 141
 

 
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Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
Aviz - Beja
1495 - 1580
85
1495 - 1521 26 Manuel 1 Fortunate ^^Duarte Brother in law of Joao 2
1450 - 1500 50 Pêro Vaz de Caminha Portuguese explorer that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral in discovery of Brazil.
1500 Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral 1467 1520 53 arrives in and claims Brazil for Portugal.
1445 - 1501 56 João Fernandes Lavrador Portuguese explorer. One of first Europeans to reach Newfoundland and Labrador.
1502 Portuguese settled in India.
1460 - 1509 49 João da Nova, Portuguese explorer of Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
1503 - 15 12 Afonso de Albuquerques Carreer 1453 - 1515 62 Nobleman, naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established Portuguese colonial empire in Indian ocean. Generally considered as a world conquest military genius by means of his successful strategy.
1505 - 17 12 Portuguese Mamluk naval war Portugal Mamluk Sultanate Ottoman Empire
1432 - 1518 86 Diogo de Azambuja Portuguese explorer of African coast.
1506 Lisbon Riot At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a .
1511 Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, capital of Sultanate of Malacca.
1513 Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares lands at Macau, China, during Ming Dynasty.
1519 - 22 3 1st Circumnavigation of World Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan 1480 - 1521 41 and Juan Sebastián Elcano lead the.
1521 - 57 36 João 3 Pious ^
1469 - 1524 55 Vasco da Gama reaches India for Portugal, creating first maritime alternative for Silk Road
1543 Nanban trade period begins after Portuguese traders make contact with Japan.
1549 Tomé de Souza establishes Salvador in Bahia, northeast of Brazil .
1557 - 78 21 Sebastião Desired ^^
1665 Portugal defeats Kongo Empire.
1572 Lusiads of Luís Vaz de Camões 1524 80 56, three years after author returned from East.
1578 Battle of Alcazarquivir King Sebastian of Portugal is killed at .
1578 Battle of alAqsr alKabir: Moroccans defeat Portuguese, ending latters military excursions into Africa
1578 - 80 2 Henrique Chaste CardinalKing ^Manuel 1
1580 António 1583 in Azores (disputed) Prior of CratoDeterminedFighter Independentist ^^Manuel 1
1580 - 3 3 War of Portuguese Succession. Portugal. Spain Kingdom of Portugal (Under Philip of Spain) vs Kingdom of Portugal (Portuguese Loyalists) France
Kingdom of England
Habsburg
1580
- 1640
60
1581 - 98 17 Filipe 1 Prudent ^^Manuel 1
1500 São Jorge Castle
Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
1598 - 1621 23 Filipe 2 Cruel Pious ^ Filipe 1
1602 - 61 59 Dutch–Portuguese War. Atlantic Ocean: Brazil, West Africa, Southern Africa; Indian Ocean: India, East Indies, Indochina; China. Kingdom of Portugal (initially under Habsburg domain), Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Cochin vs Dutch Republic, Kingdom of England, Johor Sultanate, Kingdom of Kandy, Kingdom of Kongo, Kingdom of NdongoMatamba, Rio Grande Tupis Nhandui, Tarairiu Tribe, Potiguar Tribe
1620 Flores de musica pera o instrumento de tecla & harpa Manuel Rodrigues Coelho 1555 - 1635 80
1621 - 40 19 Filipe 3 Felipe 4 (in Spain) Oppressor Great ^
1622 Capture of Ormuz; island of Hormuz was captured by an AngloPersian force from Portuguese.
Braganza
1640 - 1910
270
1640 - 56 16 João 4 Restoring King Fortunate ^^^Manuel 1
1640 - 68 28 Portuguese Restoration War Portugal VS Spain led to end of Iberian Union.
1656 - 83 27 Afonso 6 Victorious ^
1683 - 1706 23 Pedro 2 Pacific<
1600s New Cathedral of Coimbra

 

Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
1706 - 50 44 João 5 Magnanimous Magnific SunKing ^
1750 - 77 27 José 1 Reformer ^
1750 77 27 Sebastião de Melo 1699 - 1782 83, Prime Minister of Portugal
1755 Lisbon Earthquake
1777 - 1816 39 Maria 1 PiousMad ^
1777 - 86 9 Pedro 3 =Maria 1
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves
1815 - 22 7
Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
1801 War of Oranges 1st French Empire & Spain vs Kingdom of Portugal
1816 - 26 10 João 6 Clement ^
1826 Pedro 4 SoldierKing EmperorKing Liberator ^
1826 - 8 2 Maria 2 Educatorthe GoodMother ^
1828 - 34 6 Miguel Traditionalist Usurper AbsolutistAbsolutKing <
1828 - 34 6 Liberal Wars Portugal Liberal Forces of King Pedro 4 United Kingdom Spain VS Absolutist Forces of King Miguel
1834 - 53 19 Maria 2 Educator <
1837 - 53 16 Fernando 2 =Maria 2
Braganza Saxe Coburg Gotha
1853
- 61
8
1853 - 61 8 Pedro 5 HopefulLoved ^
1861 - 89 27 Luís 1 Popular Good <
1889 - 1908 19 Carlos 1 Martyred Diplomat Oceanographer ^
Kingdom of Portugal
1139 - 1910
771
1908 - 10 2 Manuel 2 Patriot UnfortunateScholar Missed King ^
1910 Portugese Revolution
1918 2nd Battle of Lys. Belgium UK, (+Australia, Newfoundland), Portugal, Belgium, France, USA ? 120 VS Germany 800 120
1900s Dona Chica Castle

 

 

1500 Moors in Granada Revolt over forced conversions but are suppressed by Ferdinand of Aragon.
1533 - 84 51 William Silent, William 1 of OrangeNassau, main leader of Dutch revolt against Spanish
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976

Albret
1518
- 72
54
1484 - 1516 32 John 3 ^ Alain 1 of Albret & Francoise of ChâtillonLimoges = Catherine of Navarre 13 ch X 47
1512 southern part (historical core) of Kingdom of Navarre is invaded by Castile and Aragon.
1517 - 55 38 Henry 2 ^ Margaret of Angoulême 2 ch X 52
1555 - 72 Joan 3 ^ Anthony of Navarre 5 ch X 44
Bourbon
1572 - 1620
48
1555 - 62 7 Anthony ^ Charles, Duke of Vendôme, & Françoise of Alençon = Joan 3 of Navarre 5 ch X 44
1572 - 1610 38 Henry 3 Great ^ = Margaret of Valois 0 ch & Marie de Medici 6 ch X 57
Castile
1037 1516 479
1500 Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón discovers Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by Treaty of Tordesillas.
1503 Spain defeats France at Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms.
1504 - 55 51 Joanna 1 mad in name, with her husband Philip 1 (1504 - 6).
in confinement, with regent Archbishop Cisneros (1506 - 16).
in confinement, with her son Charles 1 (1516 - 55)
1504 Drought & Famine all of Spain.
Columbian Exchange introduces many plants, animals and diseases to Old and New Worlds. Tea and coffee become popular in Europe. Spain
1513 1st European to cross Isthmus of Panama and view Pacific ocean from American shores. Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475 - 1519 44)
1513 Spanish Juan Ponce de León sights Florida
1514 Discovery of Florida by Juan Ponce de León (1460 - 1521 61) Spanish explorer. He explored Florida while attempting to locate a Fountain of Youth.
Kingdom of Valencia
1237 - 1707
470
Habsburg direct rule
1516
- 1700
184
1516 - 55 39 Joanna 1 Mad ^ =Philip 1 of Castile 6C X75
At this point, Kingdom of Valencia as a part of Crown of Aragon, is ruled by same monarch as that of Crown of Castile with de facto foundation of Crown of Spain. Listed below are monarchs of newly formed Spanish monarchy.
1516 - 54 38 Charles 1 ^Philip 1 of Castile & Joanna of Castile =Isabella of Portugal 3C X58
1554 - 98 44 Philip 1 ^Isabella =Maria of Portugal 1C & Mary 1 of England 0C & Elisabeth of Valois 2C & Anna of Austria 5C X71
1568 - 71 3 Morisco Revolt Muslims vs King.
1580 Drakes royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions, influences Philip II of Spain to build up Spanish Armada. English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded.
1580 Spain unifies with Portugal under Philip 2. struggle for throne of Portugal ends Portuguese Empire. Spanish and Portuguese crowns are united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640.
1588 Spanish Armada
Sea Hawk 1940
Fire Over England 1937
Majorca
1262 - 1349 87
Trastámara 1412 - 1516 104
1516 - 55 39 Joanna Mad ^Isabella =Philip 1 of Castile 6C X75
At this point, Kingdom of Majorca as a part of Crown of Aragon, is ruled by same monarch as that of Crown of Castile with de facto foundation of Crown of Spain. Listed below are monarchs of newly formed Spanish monarchy.
Habsburg rule 1516 - 1700 184
1516 - 54 38 Charles 1 ^Philip 1 of Castile and Joanna of Castile =Isabella of Portugal 3C X58
1554 - 98 44 Philip 1 ^ =Maria of Portugal 1C & Mary 1 of England 0C & Elisabeth of Valois 2C & Anna of Austria 5C X71
Spain
1516 - 1873
357
Under Joanna and Charles 1, two thrones of Castile and Aragon were finally united with Valencia under one monarch.
Habsburg 1516 - 1700 184
1516 - 56 40 Charles 1 ^Joanna Holy Roman EmperorKing of Romans, Italy and Spain,
Archduke of Austria,
(Titular) Duke of Burgundy
1519 Charles 1 of Spain becomes Emperor of Holy Roman Empire as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (ruled until 1556).
1519 - 22 3 Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan and Elcano first to circle Earth
1519 - 21 2 Hernán Cortés 1485 - 1547 62 leads Spanish conquest of Mexico.
1519 - 40 21 In America, Spanish Hernando de Soto (1496 - 1542 46) expeditions map Gulf of Mexico coastline and bays. Explored Florida, mainly northwest Florida, and discovered Mississippi River.
1522 1st Circumnavigation of World completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano (1476 1526 50). after his captain, Magellan, was killed.
1532 Conquering of Inca Empire by Francisco Pizarro (1475 - 1541 66)
1534 Society of Jesus founded by Ignatius of Loyola (1491 - 1556 65)
1540 - 2 2 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (1510 - 54 44) Searched for Seven Cities of Gold and discovered Grand Canyon in process
1541 - 2 1 Francisco de Orellana (1511 - 46 35) Spanish explorer insails length of Amazon River.
1542 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (New URL)
1552 Casas, Very Brief Relation of Devastation of Indies, a protest against treatment of  Indians
1556 - 98 42 Philip 2 ^ *Spain, Portugal, and Naples, England and Ireland, Spanish Netherlands; Duke of Milan (1527 98 71) selfproclaimed leader of CounterReformation
1559 - 62 3 Spanish settlements in Alabama/Florida and Georgia confirm dangers of hurricanes and local native warring tribes.
1560 Battle of Djerba Ottoman navy defeats Spanish fleet at .
1565 Spanish settlers outside New Spain (Mexico) colonize Floridas coastline at St. Augustine.
1567 Life of St Teresa Saint Teresa of Avila 371M 13;31;52
1567 Way to Perfection Saint Teresa of Avila 189M 7;13;46
1568 - 71 3 Morisco Revolt
1570 Moriscos Ejected from Grenada A royal council in Spain decides to deal with Moriscos by deporting them out of Grenada and scattering them all around Spain.
1571 Conceptions of Divine Saint Teresa 18.7M 59;14
1573 Siege of Haarlem After heavy losses on both sides ends in a Spanish victory.
1576 Sack of Antwerp by badly paid Spanish soldiers.
1577 Interior Castle Saint Teresa 197M 7;10;34
1577 El Greco 1541 1614 73 moved to Toledo to paint, sculpt, and architect for Spanish Renaissance
1582 Book of Foundations Saint Teresa 234M 8;32;09
1598 - 1602 4 Lope de Vegas Works Dramatist 1562 1635 73
1540 72 Alcázar Castle Seville
1585 Turégano Castle
1513 - 1733 220 New Cathedral Salamanca
1518 - 1667 149 Granada Cathedral
1525 - 77 Segovia Cathedral
1528 - 1782 Málaga Cathedral
1549 - 1730s Guadix Cathedral
1550 - 1960 Juan de Albacete Cathedral
1580 Córdoba Cathedral
Kingdom of Navarre
824 - 1620 976

Bourbon
1572 - 1620
48
1610 - 20 10 Louis 2 Just ^ = Marie Anne of Austria 6 ch Henry 3 of Navarre became Henry 4 of France and thereafter crown of Navarre passed to kings of France. In 1620, Kingdom was merged into France; however, French kings continued to use title King of Navarre until 1791, and it was revived again from 1814 to 1830 during Bourbon Restoration. Bourbon Carlist pretenders to throne of Spain had Spanish Navarre as a stronghold during Carlist Wars, but their claim was to all Spanish royal titles in general.
Kingdom of Valencia
1237 - 1707 470
Habsburg 1516 - 1700 184
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 2 ^Anna =Margaret of Austria 5C X42
1621 - 65 44 Philip 3 ^ =Elisabeth of Bourbon 7C & Mariana of Austria 5C X60
1620s José de Ribera 1591 1652 61, Painted Tenebrist paintings and prints. Lo Spagnoletto. Spain.
1665 - 1700 35 Charles 2 ^Mariana =Maria Luisa of Orléans 0C & Maria Anna of Neuburg 0C X38
Kingdom of Majorca
1262 - 1349
87
Habsburg 1516 - 1700 184
Kingdom of Spain
1516 - 1873
357
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 3 ^ *Spain, Portugal
1601 - 39 38 Francisco de Quevedos (1580 1645 65) carreer. Spanish writer
1605 Torres Straight 1st Sailed by Luis Váez de Torres 1565 1607 42 , Portuguese or Spanish Explorer. 16th17th century exploration of Pacific for Spain.
1605 1st novel Don Quixote published by Miguel de Cervantes (1547 - 1616 69). Spanish author
1607 Spanish arrive in Manila, Philipines, lead by Luis Váez de Torres (1565 - 1607 42) Spanish or Portuguese navigator. Explored Pacific for Spanish crown.
1612 History of Don Quixote, V1 P1 (Below is all of V1) by Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de 219295 K
1618 Translated Horace, Martial Ausonius by Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (1483 1541 58), Spanish poet and painter
1618 Sebastian Aguilera de Heredia (1565 - 1627 62) publishes his collection of music.
1621 - 65 44 Philip 4 *Spain, Portugal 1640
1620 - 81 61 Pedro Calderón de la Barcas (1600 - 81 81) carreer. Spanish dramatist
1627 Great altarpiece of St. Thomas Aquinas painted by Francisco Zurbarán 1598 - 1664 66
1632 True History of Conquest of New Spain by Bernal Diaz del Castillo 1498 - 1585 87
1639 Battle of Downs Republic of United Provinces fleet decisevely defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters.
1640 - 52 12 Catalan Revolt Spain Catalans France
1647 - 52 5 Great Plague of Seville
1654 - 60 6 AngloSpanish War Carribean, Spain, Netherlands, Canary Islands. Commonwealth of England, France VS Spain
1656 Las Meninas Painted by Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (1599 1660 61), lead painter in Philip 4s court.
1665 - 1700 35 Charles 2 ^ *Sp,Sp Neth
1668 Treaty of Lisbon between Spain and Portugal recognizes Portugal as independent country.
1617 - 82 55 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Painter
1624 Lugo Castle
1636 Royal Alcazar Castle Madrid
1600s Jerez de la Frontera Cathedral
1613 - 62 San Nicolas Cathedral, Alicante
1668 Valladolid Cathedral Consecrated
1681 - 6 Basilica of Our Lady of Pillar



Kingdom of Spain
1516 - 1873
357
Bourbon 1
1700 - 1808
108
1700 - 24 24 Philip 5 abdicated ^^^Philip 4 ^^Maria Theresa
1701 - 14 13 War of Spanish Succession Kingdom of Fance Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Habsburg Monarchy Great Britain Dutch Republic
Duchy of Savoy Prussia Kingdom of Portugal Hungarians
1702 - 13 11 Queen Annes War. Part of War of Spanish Succession. England British America Iroquois Confederacy Muscogee (Creek) Chickasaw
Yamasee France New France Spain New Spain Mikmaq Abenaki Caughnawaga Mohawk Choctaw Timucua Apalachee Natchez
1704 Battle of Blenheim Marlborough wins the
1704 Gibralter captured
1720 Spanish military embarks on Villasur expedition from Mexico and travel into Great Plains
1724 Louis 1 ^
1724 - 46 22 Philip 52X
1739 - 48 9 War of Jenkins Ear Part of War of Austrian Succession Great Britain Kingdom of Spain
1746 - 59 13 Ferdinand 6 ^
1759 - 88 29 Charles 3 < *Naples & Sicily
1761 - 3 2 Spanish Portuguese War Part of Seven Years War Portugal Great Britain Spain France
1767 - 93 16 Juan Franciscos Career Naval officer and explorer 1744 - 94 50 Born in Lima.
1771 - 1828 57 Francisco de Goyas Carreer Painter 1746 1828 82
1777 - 82 5 José Moñino y Redondos (1728 1808 80) reforms. Spanish statesman
1784 Relación histórica del viaje á la América Meridional published by Antonio de Ulloa (1716 95 79). Book about South American Geography and people. Spanish scientist and explorer
1788 - 1808 20 Charles 4 ^
1789 - 94 5 Alessandro Malaspina (1754 - 1810 56) sails around world and maps it. Tuscan explorer for Spain.
1790 - 1801 11 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Carreer 1744 - 1811 67 travel journalist, Philosopher
Kingdom of Majorca
1262 - 1349 87
Bourbon 1700 - 5 5
1700 - 5 5 Philip 4 ^Louis, Dauphin of France & Maria Anna of Bavaria =Maria Luisa of Savoy 4C & Elisabeth of Parma 7C X62
Austrian rule 1705 - 14 9
1705 - 14 9 Charles 3 ^Leopold 1, Holy Roman Emperor & EleonoreMagdalena of PfalzNeuburg =Elisabeth Christine 4C X55
At this point, de facto status of Kingdom of Spain is made de jure by Nueva Planta Decrees that formally unites Spain under one crown, formally disbanding Crown of Aragon and its constituent realms, including Kingdom of Majorca.
Kingdom of Valencia
1237 - 1707 470
Bourbon direct rule 1700 - 5 5
1700 - 5 5 Philip 4 ^Louis, Dauphin of France & Maria Anna of Bavaria =Maria Luisa of Savoy 4C & Elisabeth of Parma 7C X62
Austria 1705 - 14 9
1705 - 14 9 Charles 3 ^Leopold 1, Holy Roman Emperor & EleonoreMagdalena of PfalzNeuburg =Elisabeth Christine 4C X55
At this point, de facto status of Kingdom of Spain is made de jure by Nueva Planta Decrees that formally unites Spain under one crown, formally disbanding Crown of Aragon and its constituent realms, including Kingdom of Valencia.
1700s Cartagena Cathedral
1722 - 1838 116 Cádiz Cathedral


Kingdom of Spain
1516 - 1873
357
1807 - 14 7 Peninsular War part of Napoleonic Wars United Kingdom Spain Portugal French Empire
1808 Ferdinand 7 ^
Bonaparte
1808 - 13 5
1808 - 13 5 Joseph deposed *Sp,Npls,Scli,Indies,Comte de Survilliers
1808 - 14 6 Peninsular War Spanish guerrillas fight in .
Bourbon 2
1813 - 70
57
Charles IVs eldest son was restored to throne. Again title used was king of Castile, Leon, Aragon,… by Grace of God.
1813 - 33 20 Ferdinand 7 2X
1817 History of Inquisition of Spain from Time of its Establishment to Reign of Ferdinand 7 by Llorente, Juan Antonio 200,504 K
1820 - 3 3 Spanish Civil War Monarchy of Spain Kingdom of France Partisans of Cortes
1833 - 76 52 Carlist Wars in Spain.
1833 - 40 7 1st Carlist War in Spain. Liberals and Allies: Forces of Queen Isabella II of Spain United Kingdom Kingdom of French Forces of King Pedro IV of Portugal Carlists: Forces of Infante Carlos of Spain Forces of King Miguel of Portugal
1833 - 68 35 Isabella 2 ^ deposed in Revolution
1834 Spanish Inquisition Ends
1837 - 80 43 José Zorrillas Career 1817 93 76 Poet, Dramatist.
1840 History of Moors of Spain by Florian 61,600 K
1841 History of Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella Catholic V1 by Prescott, William Hickling 133,408 K
1846 - 8 2 2nd Carlist War War of Madrugadores Forces of Queen Isabella II of Spain Carlists
1859 - 60 1 Spanish Moroccan War
1858 - 69 11 Gustavo Adolfo Bécquers Carreer PostRomanticist Writer 1836 70 34
1863 - 81 18 Rosalía de Castros Carreer Romanticist, Writer, Poet 1837 85 48
1864 - 6 2 Chincha Islands War was an attempt by Spain to regain its South American colonies.
1868 - 71 3 provisional government and a regency headed by Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Savoy 1870 - 3 3
1870 - 3 3 Amadeo 1
Rep Spain 1 1873 - 4 1
1873 Estanislao Figueras
1873 Francisco Pi y Margall
1873 Nicolás Salmerón y Alfonso
1873 - 4 1 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll
1874 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Borbon (second restoration) 1874 - 1931 57
Isabella 2s eldest son was restored to throne as she had abdicated in his favour in 1870. Constitutional king of Spain.
1874 - 5 1 First Republic in Spain.
1874 - 85 11 Alfonso 12 ^Isabella 2
1886 - 1931 45 Alfonso 13 ^
1884 - 94 10 Leopoldo Alas (1852 1901 49) carreer. Austurian Realist Novelist.
1898 Short History of Spainby Parmele, Mary Platt 34,998 K
1844 Miranda de Ebro Castle
1878 Butrón Castle
1883 - 1993 Almudena Cathedral
1888 - 97 Good Shepherd Cathedral of San Sebastián
1904 - 13 La Laguna Cathedral
Kingdom of Spain
1516 - 1873
357
Borbon 3
1874 - 1931 57
1886 - 1931 45 Alfonso 13 ^
1906 History of Inquisition in Spain by Henry Charles Lea 684M 24;55;30
1906 Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852 - 1934 62) wins Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Spanish biologist. Father of nueroscience.
1910 Spanish Civil War
Land and Freedom 1995
1917 White Plumes of Navarre A Romance of Wars of Religion by Crockett, S. R. (Samuel Rutherford)
Rep Spain 2
1931 - 9 8
1931 - 6 5 Niceto AlcaláZamora
1936 - 9 3 Manuel Azaña
1936 - 39 3 Spanish Civil War
Francoist Spain 1936 - 75 39
On October 1, 1936 General Francisco Franco was proclaimed Head of State (Caudillo) in parts of Spain controlled by Nationalists (nacionales) after Spanish Civil War broke out. After end of war on April 1, 1939 General Franco took control of whole of Spain. In 1947, Franco proclaimed restoration of monarchy, but did not allow pretender, Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona, to take throne. In 1969, Franco declared that Juan Carlos, Count of Barcelonas son, would be his successor. After Francos death in 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded him as King of Spain.
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1960s Crown for Joanna by Sister Mary Jean Dorcy 19141988 50.2M 1;49;46
Spain
1975 - Present
36
Alfonso XIIIs claim descended (due to his two eldest sons renunciations) to his third son, Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, who was passed over in favour of his eldest son, whose title is King of Spain. Count of Barcelona renounced his claims in favour of his son in 1977, two years after Francos death and Juan Carloss accession.
Borbon 4
1975 Juan Carlos 1 ^^Alfonso 13
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1486 - 1501 5 Agostino Barbarigo
1499 - 1503 4 Ottoman Venetian War of 1499 1503
1501 - 21 20 Leonardo Loredan
1508 - 16 8 War of League of Cambrai. Italy, France, England, Sparin. Republic of Venice, France, Scotland, Duchy of Ferrara vs Papal States, Habsburg Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of England, Duchy of Milan, Swiss mercenaries
1521 - 3 2 Antonio Grimani
1523 - 38 15 Andrea Gritti
1521 - 6 5 Italian War of 1521 1526 Italy, France, Spain. Habsburg Spain, Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of England Papal States vs France, Republic of Venice
1526 - 30 4 War of League of Cognac. Italy. Empire of Charles V: Spain Holy Roman Empire Republic of Genoa vs France Papal States Republic of Venice Republic of Florence Kingdom of England Duchy of Milan
1538 - 45 7 Pietro Lando
1545 - 53 8 Francesco Donato
1553 - 4 1 Marcantonio Trivisan
1554 - 6 2 Francesco Venier
1556 Publication in Venice of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, Venice, Italy. secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of Indian village Hochelaga.
1556 - 9 3 Lorenzo Priuli
1559 - 67 8 Girolamo Priuli
1511 - 60 49 Titians career 1485 - 1576 91 Painter
1567 - 70 3 Pietro Loredan
1534 - 70 36 Andrea Palladios Career 1508 80 72 Architect
1570 - 7 7 Alvise I Mocenigo
1577 - 8 1 Sebastiano Venier
1556 - 78 22 Paolo Veroneses Carreer 1528 88 60. Painter
1578 - 85 7 Nicolò da Ponte
1585 - 95 10 Pasqual Cicogna
1533 - 94 61 Tintorettos Career (Jacopo Comin) 1518 94 76 Painter
1595 - 1606 11 Marino Grimani
HREs Kingdom of Italy
962 - 1648 686
Habsburg
1437 - 1648
211
1493 - 1519 26 Maximilian 1
1530 - 56 26 Charles 5 Last to be crowned.
1556 - 64 8 Ferdinand 1
1564 - 76 12 Maximilian 2
1575 - 1612 37 Rudolph 2
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1815
810

1488 - 1507 19 dogeship is vacant, Sforza rule Genoa
1451 - 1506 55 Christopher Columbus Italian explorer for Spain. Sailed in 1492 and discovered "New World" of Americas.
1507 Paolo da Nove
1507 - 11 4 French occupy Genoa, no doge
1512 - 3 1 Giano 2 di Campofregoso
1513 - 5 2 Ottaviano Fregoso
1515 - 22 7 French occupation, no doge
1522 - 7 5 Antoniotto 2 Adorno
1528 - 30 2 Oberto Cattaneo Lazzari
1531 - 3 2 Battista Spinola
1533 - 5 2 Battista Lomellini
1535 - 7 2 Cristoforo Rosso Grimaldi
1537 - 9 2 Giovanni Battista Doria
1539 - 40 2 Giannandrea Lungo Giustiniani
1541 - 3 2 Leonardo Cattaneo della Volta
1543 - 5 2 Andrea Centurione Pietrasanta
1545 - 7 2 Giovanni Battista De Fornari
1547 - 9 2 Benedetto Gentile Pevere
1549 - 50 2 Gaspare Grimaldi Bracelli
1551 - 2 2 Luca Spinola
1553 - 4 2 Giacomo Promontorio
1555 - 6 2 Agostino Pinello Ardimenti
1557 - 8 2 Pietro Giovanni Chiavica Cibo
1559 - 60 2 Girolamo Vivaldi
1561 Paolo Battista Giudice Calvi died in office
1561 - 2 2 Battista Cicala Zoaglio
1563 - 4 2 Giovanni Battista Lercari
1565 - 6 2 Odorico Ottavio Gentile
1567 - 8 2 Simone Spinola
1569 - 70 2 Paolo Giustiniani Moneglia
1571 - 2 2 Gianotto Lomellini
1573 - 4 2 Giacomo Durazzo Grimaldi
1560 - 74 14 Andrea Amatis Carreer 1520 - 78 58 Violin Maker
1575 - 6 2 Prospero Centurione Fattinanti
1577 - 8 2 Giovanni Battista Gentile Pignolo
1579 - 80 2 Nicolò Doria
1581 - 2 2 Gerolamo De Franchi Toso
1583 - 4 2 Gerolamo Chiavari
1585 - 6 2 Ambrogio Di Negro
1587 - 8 2 Davide Vacca or Vaccari
1589 - 90 2 Battista Negrone
1591 - 2 2 Gio. Agostino Campi Giustiniani
1593 - 4 2 Antonio Cebà Grimaldi
1595 - 6 2 Matteo Senarega
1597 - 8 2 Lazzaro Cebà Grimaldi
1599 - 1600 2 Lorenzo Sauli
1545 Theory of Complex Numbers by Gerolamo Cardamo
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
Spain 1516 - 1713 197
1516 - 55 39 Joanna 1 Mad ^Isabella =Philip 4 of Burgundy 6C X75
1516 - 54 38 Charles 2 ^ =Isabella of Portugal 3C X58\
1554 - 98 44 Philip 1 ^ =Maria of Portugal 1C & Mary 1 of England 0C & Elisabeth of Valois 2C & Anna of Austria 5C X71
2nd Republic of Florence
1197 - 1532
335
Florence
1498 ? Niccolò Machiavelli
1501 Statue of David Michelangelo 1475 1564 89 painter and sculptor returns to his native Florence to begin work on the.
Agony and Ecstasy 1965
Titan Story of Michelangelo 1950
1503 - 7 4 Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci 1452 - 1519 67 begins painting and completes it three or four years later.
Life of Leonardo Da Vinci 1972
1445 - 1510 65 Sandro Botticelli Painter
1454 - 1512 58 Amerigo Vespucci Italian explorer for Spain. Sailed in 1499 - 1502. He explored east coast of South America.
1513 Prince by Machiavellia treatise about political philosophy
1452 - 1519 68 Leonardo da Vinci Polymath: Scientist, Mathematician, Engineer, Inventor, Anatomist, Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Botanist, Musician, Writer
Duchy of Florence
1533 - 69
36
1532 - 7 5 Alessandro deMedici
1537 - 69 32 Cosimo deMedici
1500s Banknotes Reintroduced in Europe: Italy, Flanders
1551 - 9 8 Italian War of 1551 1559 France, Belgium, Italy Spain, HRE, England, Florence, Savoy VS France, Siena, Ottoman
1558 Autobiography by Benvenuto Cellini 281M 10;14;48
1559 Peace of Cateau Cambrésis Spain is confirmed as dominant power in Italy.
France Italy but + 3 Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun in Lorraine & Pale of Calais from England.
Republic of Siena annexed by Florence
1569 Becomes Grand Duchy of Tuscany
HREs 1st Grand Duchy of Tuscany
1569 - 1801
232
Florence
Medici
1569 - 1737 68
1569 - 74 5 Cosimo 1
1574 - 87 13 Francesco 2
1587 - 1609 22 Ferdinando 1
1597 1st Opera, Dafne by Jacopo Peri 1561 1633 72 Florence
1609 - 21 12 Cosimo 2
1621 - 70 49 Ferdinando 2
1670 - 1723 53 Cosimo 3
1723 - 37 14 Gian Gastone
HabsburgLorraine
1737 - 1801 64
1737 - 65 28 Francesco 2 Stefano
1765 - 90 25 Pietro Leopoldo 2
1790 - 1801 11 Ferdinando 3
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816 531
South Italy
ValoisAnjou
1435 - 1501 66
1496 - 1501 5 Frederick ^Ferdinand 1 =Anne of Savoy 1C & Isabella del Balzo 5C Conquered by Louis 12 of France & Ferdinand 2 of Aragon & died in exile at Tours
French
1501 - 4
3
1501 - 4 3 Louis 3
1501 Taking up Angevine claim, he conquered kingdom
1503 Battle of Garigliano Louis 3 Relinquishes Naples to his erstwhile ally Ferdinand of Aragon. His successors continued their claim until 1559.
Spanish
1504 - 1647
63
1504 - 16 12 Ferdinand 3 ^John 2 of Aragon =Isabella 1 of Castile 5C & Germaine of Foix 0C X64
1516 - 55 39 Joan 3 ^ =Philip of Austria 6C Incapacitated due to her mental instability, rule was exercised by her son, Charles, and her grandson, Philip.
1516 - 54 38 Charles 5 ** & *Spain ^ =Isabella of Portugal 3C X58 1558
1554 - 98 44 Philip 2 ^ =Maria of Portugal 1C & Mary 1 of England & Elisabeth of Valois 2C & Anna of Austria 5C X71
1558 Camera Obscura by Giambattista della Porta of Italy.
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 3 ^Philip 2 =Margaret of Austria 5C
1593 - 1610 17 Caravaggios Artistry 1571 - 1610 39 ProtoBaroque
Caravaggio 1986
Kingdom of Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Trastámara of Castile
1479
1479 - 1516 37 Ferdinand 2 of Aragon

Habsburgs of Spain
1516
1516 - 56 40 Charles 5, Holy Roman Emperor
1556 - 98 42 Philip 2 of Spain
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 3 of Spain
HREs Duchy of Milan
1395 1797 402
Milan
1528 Book of Courtier published by Baldassare Castiglione 1478 - 1529 51 Milan
1536 - 8 2 Italian War of 1536 1538 Charles 5 vs Francis 1.
1542 - 6 4 Italian War of 1542 6 England, France, Italy, Netherlands France, Ottoman Empire, JülichClevesBerg VS Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Kingdom of England
1500s Sforzesco Castle
1540 Copertino Castle
1547 Montoggio Castle
1550s Carmine Castle
1557 Brown Castle Completed
1562 Spinola Castle Mignacco
1595 Belvedere Fort
1500s Viterbo Cathedral Reconstructed
1530s - 93 Alghero Cathedral
1532 - 1670s Vigevano Cathedral
1548 - 92 San Giorgio dei Greci Cathedral
1560 Vicenza Cathedral
1575 - 1992 Santa Caterina a Magnanapoli Cathedral
1597 - 1618 Acireale Cathedral
1597 - 1700s Castelsardo Cathedral
1598 - 1700 Frascati Cathedral
1502 Roma tempietto bramante
1544 Giardini Naxos Vignazza Tower
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1595 - 1606 11 Marino Grimani
1606 - 12 6 Leonardo Donato
1612 - 5 3 Marcantonio Memmo
1615 - 8 3 Giovanni Bembo
1576 - 1617 41 Giovanni Bassanos Career 1558 - 1617 59, Composer, Cornettist
1618 Nicolò Donato
1618 - 23 5 Antonio Priuli
1623 - 4 1 Francesco Contarini
1624 30 6 Giovanni I Cornaro
1630 - 1 1 Nicolò Contarini
1631 - 46 15 Francesco Erizzo
1646 - 55 9 Francesco Molin
1655 - 6 1 Carlo Contarini
1656 Francesco Cornaro
1656 - 8 2 Bertuccio Valiero
1658 - 9 1 Giovanni Pesaro
1659 - 74 15 Domenico II Contarini
1674 - 6 2 Nicolò Sagredo
1676 - 83 7 Alvise Contarini
1683 - 8 5 Marcantonio Giustinian
1688 - 94 6 Francesco Morosini
1694 - 1700 6 Silvestro Valiero
1621 - 36 15 Dario Castellos Baroque music Career 1560 - 1640 80
1637 1st Public Opera House Teatro San Cassiano , opened in Venice
1639 - 73 34 Francesco Cavallis Career 1602 - 76 74 Opera Composer
1645 1st Rotating Stage by Giacomo Torelli
HREs Kingdom of Italy
962 - 1648 686
Habsburg
1437 - 1648
211
1575 - 1612 37 Rudolph 2
1612 - 9 7 Matthias
1619 - 37 18 Ferdinand 2
1637 - 57 20 Ferdinand 3
1648 Peace of Westphalia terminated any imperial claims to an Italian kingdom, although Holy Roman Emperor had claim to title up to dissolution of Empire
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1815
810

1601 - 2 2 Agostino Doria
1603 - 4 2 Pietro (Sacco) De Franchi
1605 - 6 2 Luca (De Castro) Grimaldi
1607 Silvestro Invrea
160 - 7 8 2 Gerolamo Assereto
1609 - 10 2 Agostino Luciani Pinello
1611 - 2 2 Alessandro Longo Giustiniani
1613 - 4 2 Tomaso Spinola
1615 - 6 2 Bernardo Clavarezza
1617 - 8 2 Giovanni Giacomo (Tartaro) Imperiale
1619 - 20 2 Pietro Durazzo
1621 Ambrogio Doria
1621 - 2 2 Giorgio Centurione
1623 - 4 2 Federico De Franchi
1625 - 6 2 Giacomo Lomellini
1627 - 8 2 Giovanni Luca Chiavari
1629 - 30 2 Andrea Spinola
1631 - 2 2 Leonardo Della Torre
1633 - 4 2 Giovanni Stefano Doria
1635 - 6 2 Gio. Francesco Brignole Sale
1637 - 8 2 Agostino Pallavicini
1587 - 1638 51 Claudio Monteverdis Career 1567 - 1643 76 Composer of Renaissance and Baroque music
1639 - 40 2 Giovanni Battista Durazzo
1641 Giovanni Agostino De Marini
1642 - 3 2 Giovanni Battista Lercari
1644 - 5 2 Luca Giustiniani
1646 - 7 2 Giovanni Battista Lomellini
1648 - 9 2 Giacomo (Toso) De Franchi
1650 - 1 2 Agostino Centurione
1652 - 3 2 Gerolamo De Franchi
1654 - 5 2 Alessandro Spinola
1656 - 7 2 Giulio Sauli
1658 - 9 2 Giovani Battista Centurione
1660 Gian Bernardo Frugoni
1661 - 2 2 Antoniotto Invrea
1663 - 4 2 Stefano De Mari
1665 - 6 2 Cesare Durazzo
166 - 7 8 2 Cesare Gentile
1669 - 70 2 Francesco Garbarino
1671 - 2 2 Alessandro Grimaldi
1673 - 4 2 Agostino Saluzzo
1675 Antonio Da Passano
1677 - 8 2 Giannettino Odone
1679 - 80 2 Agostino Spinola
1681 - 2 2 Luca Maria Invrea
1683 - 4 2 Francesco Maria Lercari Imperiale
1685 - 6 2 Pietro Durazzo
1687 - 8 2 Luca Spinola
1689 - 90 2 Oberto Della Torre
1691 - 2 2 Giovanni Battista Cattaneo
1693 - 4 2 Francesco Invrea
1695 - 6 2 Bendinelli Negrone
1697 - 8 2 Francesco Maria Sauli
1699 - 1700 2 Girolamo De Mari
1625 1st GenoeseSavoyard War. Italy. Spain, Republic of Genoa vs France, Duchy of Savoy
1634 - 65 31 Career of Francesco Borromini (1599 - 1667 68), Italian sculptor, architect
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816 686
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 2 ^Anna =Margaret of Austria 5C X42
1621 - 65 44 Philip 3 ^ =Elisabeth of Bourbon 7C & Mariana of Austria 5C X60
1665 - 1700 35 Charles 3 ^Mariana =Maria Luisa of Orléans 0C & Maria Anna of Neuburg 0C X38
1679 - 1721 42 Alessandro Scarlattis (1660 1725 65) Baroque music career. Italian opera composer
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816 531
South Italy
Spanish Rule
1504 - 1647
63
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 3 ^Philip 2 =Margaret of Austria 5C
1600 Giordano Bruno Burned at Stake 1548 - 1600 52 for heresy in Rome. Philosopher, Astronomer/Astrologer
1603 - 9 6 Ascanio Mayones Keyboarding 1565 1627 62
1621 - 47 26 Philip 4 ^ =Elisabeth of Bourbon 7C & Mariana of Austria 5C X60 Neapolitans rebelled

1631 Mount Vesuvius erupts
1647 - 8 1 Henry 2, Duke of Guise. No uncontroversial marriages. X50 Taking up Angevine claim, Henry was appointed Doge of Neapolitan Republic. He was captured when Naples was reconquered by Spanish.
Spanish rule 1647 - 1700 53
1648 - 65 17 Philip 4 ^Philip 3 =Elisabeth of Bourbon 7C & Mariana of Austria 5C
1665 Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680 82) goes to Paris at height of his popularity. Napolini sculptor, architect
1665 - 1700 35 Charles 2 ^ =Maria Luisa of Orléans 0C & Maria Anna of Neuburg 0C X39
Kingdom of Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Habsburgs of Spain
1598 - 1621 23 Philip 3 of Spain
1621 - 65 44 Philip 4 of Spain
1665 - 1700 35 Charles 2 of Spain

HREs Duchy of Milan
1395 - 1797 402
Milan
HREs 1st Grand Duchy of Tuscany
1569 - 1801
232
1610 Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642 68) and Simon Marius observe Jupiters Galilean moons
Galileo 1975
Galileo Galilei 1969  Italian 
1628 - 31 3 War of Mantuan Succession Part of 30 Yrs War. Italy. France VS Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Duchy of Savoy
1600s Polybius Histories Translated in to Italian, English, German and French.
1650s Moncalieri Castle
1600s Bologna Cathedral
1649 Acquapendente Cathedral
1650 St Marks Basilica Consecrated
1652 Alba Cathedral Renovated
1689 - 1889 Bergamo Cathedral
1642 Rome, Italy Geographicus Roma merian
1656 - 67 Rome Vatikan Kolonaden Petersdom
Republic of Venice
697 - 1797
1100

1700 - 9 9 Alvise 2 Mocenigo
1709 - 22 13 Giovanni 2 Cornaro
1722 - 32 10 Sebastiano Mocenigo
1732 - 5 3 Carlo Ruzzini
1735 - 41 6 Alvise Pisani
1741 - 52 11 Pietro Grimani
1752 - 62 10 Francesco Loredan
1762 - 3 1 Marco Foscarini
1763 - 79 16 Alvise Giovanni Mocenigo
1779 - 89 10 Paolo Renier
1789 - 97 8 Ludovico Manin
1701 Suites Opus 3 Written by Tomaso Albinoni 1671 - 1751 80
1709 1st Piano by Bartolomeo Cristofori
1719 - 68 49 Canalettos Painting 1697 - 1768 71
1722 - 40 18 Giovanni Battista Tiepolos Painting 1696 - 1770 74
1723 Four Seasons Violin Concertos by Antonio Vivaldi 1678 1741 63
1733 77 44 Carlo Goldonis Carreer 1707 93 86 Playwright, Librettist
1735 82 47 Francesco Guardis (1712 - 93 81) carreer Painter
1742 80 38 Bernardo Bellottos (1721 - 80 59) carreer Painter
1761 76 15 Carlo Gozzis (1720 - 1806 86) carreer Dramatist
1771 - 1815 44 Antonio Salieris (1750 1825 75) career Composer
1789 Story of my Life by Giacomo Casanova (1725 - 98 73) written. Adventurer, Writer, Womanizer
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1815
810

1701 - 3 2 Federico De Franchi
1703 - 4 2 Antonio Cebà Grimaldi
1705 - 6 2 Stefano Onorato Ferreti
1707 - 8 2 Domenico Maria De Mari
1709 - 10 2 Vincenzo Durazzo
1711 - 2 2 Francesco Maria Imperiale
1713 - 4 2 Giovanni Antonio Giustiniani
1715 - 6 2 Lorenzo Centurione
1717 - 8 2 Benedetto Viale
1719 - 20 2 Ambrogio Imperiale
1621 Ambrogio Doria
1621 - 2 2 Giorgio Centurione
1623 - 4 2 Federico De Franchi
1625 - 6 2 Giacomo Lomellini
1627 - 8 2 Giovanni Luca Chiavari
1629 - 30 2 Andrea Spinola
1631 - 2 2 Leonardo Della Torre
1633 - 4 2 Giovanni Stefano Doria
1635 - 6 2 Gio. Francesco Brignole Sale
1637 - 8 2 Agostino Pallavicini
1639 - 40 2 Giovanni Battista Durazzo
1641 Giovanni Agostino De Marini
1642 - 3 2 Giovanni Battista Lercari
1644 - 5 2 Giovanni Agostino De Marini
1646 - 7 2 Giovanni Battista Lomellini
1648 - 9 2 Giacomo (Toso) De Franchi
1650 - 1 2 Agostino Centurione
1652 - 3 2 Gerolamo De Franchi
1654 - 5 2 Alessandro Spinola
1656 - 7 2 Giulio Sauli
1658 - 9 2 Giovani Battista Centurione
1660 Gian Bernardo Frugoni
1661 - 2 2 Antoniotto Invrea
1663 - 4 2 Stefano De Mari
1665 - 6 2 Cesare Durazzo
1667 - 8 2 Cesare Gentile
1669 - 70 2 Francesco Garbarino
1671 - 2 2 Cesare Gentile
1673 - 4 2 Agostino Saluzzo
1675 - 6 2 Antonio Da Passano
1677 - 8 2 Giannettino Odone
1679 - 80 2 Agostino Spinola
1681 - 2 2 Luca Maria Invrea
1683 - 4 2 Francesco Maria Lercari Imperiale
1685 - 6 2 Pietro Durazzo
1687 - 8 2 Luca Spinola
1689 - 90 2 Oberto Della Torre
1691 - 2 2 Giovanni Battista Cattaneo
1693 - 4 2 Francesco Invrea
1695 - 6 2 Bendinelli Negrone
1697 - 8 2 Francesco Maria Sauli
1699 - 1700 2 Girolamo De Mari
1701 - 2 2 Federico De Franchi
1703 - 4 2 Antonio Cebà Grimaldi
1705 - 6 2 Stefano Onorato Ferreti
1707 - 8 2 Domenico Maria De Mari
1709 - 10 2 Vincenzo Durazzo
1711 - 2 2 Francesco Maria Imperiale
1713 - 4 2 Giovanni Antonio Giustiniani
1715 - 6 2 Lorenzo Centurione
1717 - 8 2 Benedetto Viale
1719 - 20 2 Ambrogio Imperiale
1721 - 2 2 Cesare De Franchi
1723 - 5 3 Domenico Negrone
1726 - 7 2 Gerolamo Veneroso
1728 - 9 2 Luca Grimaldi
1730 - 1 2 Francesco Maria Balbi
1732 - 3 2 Domenico Maria Spinola
1734 - 5 2 Stefano Durazzo
1736 - 7 2 Nicolò Cattaneo
1738 - 9 2 Costantini Balbi
1740 - 1 2 Nicolò Spinola
1742 - 3 2 Domenico Canevaro
1744 - 5 2 Lorenzo De Mari
1668 - 1745 77 Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt AustrianItalian Architect
1746 - 7 2 Gian Francesco Brignole Sale II
1748 - 9 2 Cesare Cattaneo Della Volta
1750 - 1 2 Stefano Lomellini
1752 - 3 2 Giovanni Battista Grimaldi
1754 - 5 2 Gian Giacomo Veneroso
1756 - 7 2 Giovanni Giacomo Grimaldi
1758 - 9 2 Matteo Franzoni
1760 - 1 2 Agostino Lomellini
1762 - 3 2 Rodolfo Giulio Brignole Sale
1765 - 6 2 Francesco Maria Della Rovere
1767 - 8 2 Marcello Durazzo
1769 - 70 2 Giovanni Battista Negrone
1771 - 2 2 Giovanni Battista Cambiaso
1773 - 4 2 Pier Franco Grimaldi
1775 - 6 2 Brizio Giustiniani
1777 - 8 2 Giuseppe Lomellini
1779 - 80 2 2Giacomo Maria Brignole
1781 - 2 2 Marco Antonio Gentile
1783 - 4 2 Giovanni Battista Ayroli
1785 - 6 2 Gian Varlo Pallavicino
1787 - 8 2 Raffaele De Ferrari
1789 - 90 2 Alerame Maria Pallavicini
1791 - 2 2 Michelangelo Cambiaso
1793 - 4 2 Giuseppe Maria Doria
1795 - 7 3 Giacomo Maria Brignole
1748 Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana (anylizing finite and infinite quantities) published by Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1711 - 87 76). Milano linguist, mathematician & philosopher
1789 - 94 5 Alessandro Malaspina (1754 - 1810 56) sails around world and maps it. Tuscan explorer for Spain.
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
1700 - 13 13 Philip 4 ^Louis, Dauphin of France & Maria Anna of Bavaria =Maria Luisa of Savoy 4C & Elisabeth of Parma 7C X62
At end of War of Spanish Succession, by Treaty of Utrecht, Sicily was ceded to Duke of Savoy
Savoy
1713 - 20
7
1713 - 20 7 Victor Amadeus ^Charles Emmanuel 2, Duke of Savoy & Marie Jeanne Baptiste de SavoieNemours =Anne Marie of Orléans 6C X66
Spanish invaded kingdom in 1718 during War of Quadruple Alliance. Duke of Savoy ceded it to Austria in 1720 by Treaty of Hague.
Austria
1720 - 35
15
1720 - 35 15 Charles 4 ^Leopold 1, Holy Roman Emperor & EleonoreMagdalena of PfalzNeuburg =Elisabeth Christine 4C X55
Conquered by Spanish during War of Polish Succession kingdom was ceded together with Naples to a cadet son of King of Spain.
Bourbon
1735 - 1816
81
1735 - 59 24 Charles 5 ^Philip 4 & Elizabeth of Parma =Maria Amalia of Saxony 13C X72
1759 - 1816 57 Ferdinand 3 ^Charles 5 & Maria Amalia of Saxony =Marie Caroline of Austria 17C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X73
In 1816 Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sicily were merged as new Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816 531
Naples
1701 - 14 13 War of Spanish Succession During War of Spanish Succession, Spanish crown was contested by Philip of Anjou, of House of Bourbon, and Charles of Austria, of House of Habsburg. was concluded with the
1714 Treaty of Rastatt
Philip + Spain Proper
Charles + Netherlands, Naples
1710 Verum Factum principle formulated by Giambattista Vico 1668 - 1744 76 Philosopher
Austrian Rule
1714 - 34 20
1714 - 34 20 Charles 6 ^**Leopold 1 X55 ^^^Philip 2 & Habsburg claimant to Spanish *, won Naples in War of Spanish Succession, but lost it to Spain in War of Polish Succession.
1701 - 57 56 Domenico Scarlattis Carreer 1685 - 1757 72 Composer
1725 New Science by Giambattista Vico 1668 - 1744 76
1732 Redemptorists Order founded by Alphonsus Liguori 1696 - 1787 91 Bishop, Saint
1732 - 53 21 Luigi Vanvitellis Career 1700 - 73 73 Architect
Bourbon
1734 - 99 65
1734 - 59 Charles 7 ^Philip 5 of Spain =Maria Amalia of Saxony 13C X72 His armies conquered Naples in 1734 during War of Polish Succession. In 1738, Treaty of Vienna recognized Naples as an independent kingdom under a cadet branch of Spanish Bourbons.
1737 - 9 2 Leonardo Coccorante Painted Palaces at Naples 1680 - 1750 70
1748 Pompeii Excavated
1759 - 99 40 Ferdinand 4 1stX ^ =Marie Caroline of Austria 7C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X74 Fled in face of French invasion, which installed Parthenopaean Republic.
1799 Installed by French army but ended by a peasant counterrevolution.

House of Bourbon
1799 - 1806
1799 - 1806 7 Ferdinand 4 Restored ^Charles 7 =Marie Caroline of Austria 7C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X

French Naples
1806 - 15 9
1806 - 8 2 Joseph Bonaparte ^Carlo Buonaparte =Julie Clary 3C X76 1844 Installed by brother Napoleon Bonaparte as King of Naples, later replaced by brotherinlaw, Joachim Murat
1808 - 15 7 Joachim Murat ^Pierre MuratJordy =Caroline Bonaparte 3C X48 Installed by his brotherinlaw Napoleon Bonaparte. Deposed & executed after Hundred Days war.
Bourbon
1815 - 6 1
1815 - 6 1 Ferdinand 4 Restored 2ndX Merged two Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily into new Kingdom of Two Sicilies in 1816, taking new title of Ferdinand 1, King of Two Sicilies.

Kingdom of Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
1700 - 13 13 Philip 5 of Spain

Habsburgs of Spain
1713 - 20 7
1713 - 20 7 Charles 6 Holy Roman Emperor

Savoy
1720 - 1802 82
1720 - 30 10 Victor Amadeus 2 of Sardinia
1730 - 73 43 Charles Emmanuel 3 of Sardinia
1773 - 96 23 Victor Amadeus 3 of Sardinia
1796 - 1802 6 Charles Emmanuel 4 of Sardinia
1796 Battle of Montenotte Engagement in War of First Coalition. Napoleon Bonapartes first victory as an army commander.
1796 Considerations on France by Joseph de Maistre 1753 1821 68 Philosopher, Diplomat
HREs Duchy of Milan
1395 1797 402
Milan
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
1569 - 1801 232
1700 - 20s 20s Antonio Stradivaris Violin Making 1644 - 1737 93
1715 Giuseppe Castiglione Goes to China to Paint 1688 - 1766 78 Painter, Architect, Missionary in China
1728 - 40 12 Carreer of Giuseppe Grisoni 1699 1769 70 Flemish painter who worked in Florence.
1687 - 1762 75 Francesco Geminiani plays in court of King of England. Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist.
1730 - 62 32 Bartolomeo Rastrellis Architecture for Russia 1700 71 71 Italian/Russian
1764 Teatise On Crimes and Punishments by Cesare Beccaria (1738 - 94 56). Philosopher & Politician
1700 Conversano Castle
1788 Marmi Fort
1797 Santo Stefano Castle dAveto
1711 Catania Cathedral Rebuilt
1721 Albano Cathedral Consecrated
1771 - 6 Subiaco Abbey
1710s Piedmont
1732 - 62 Rome Trevi Pano
French Kingdom of Italy
1805
- 14
9
1805 - 14 9 Napoleon 1
Kingdom of Sicily
1130 - 1816
686
1759 - 1816 57 Ferdinand 3 ^Charles 5 & Maria Amalia of Saxony =Marie Caroline of Austria 17C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X73
1816 Naples & Sicily Merged = Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Republic of Genoa
1005 - 1815
810
1809 - 41 32 Amedeo Avogadros Career 1776 - 1856 80 Physicist
1815 Relative Masses of Elementary Molecules (Suggested Densities of Their Gases), Constituents of Some of Their Compounds
1815 Annexed by Sardinia
Kingdom of Naples
1285 - 1816 531
South Italy
House of Bourbon 1799 - 1806 7
1799 - 1806 7 Ferdinand 4 Restored ^Charles 7 =Marie Caroline of Austria 7C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X

Napoleonic client state
1806 - 15
9
1806 - 8 2 Joseph Bonaparte ^Carlo Buonaparte =Julie Clary 3C X76 1844 Installed by brother Napoleon Bonaparte as King of Naples, later replaced by brotherinlaw, Joachim Murat
1808 - 15 7 Joachim Murat ^Pierre MuratJordy =Caroline Bonaparte 3C X48 Installed by his brotherinlaw Napoleon Bonaparte. Deposed & executed after Hundred Days war.
1815 Neapolitan War. Italy. Austria, Tuscany, United Kingdom, Sicily vs Naples, France.
Bourbon
1815 - 6 1
1815 - 6 1 Ferdinand 4 Restored 2ndX Merged two Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily into new Kingdom of Two Sicilies in 1816, taking new title of Ferdinand 1, King of Two Sicilies.

Kingdom of Sardinia
1297 - 1861
564
Savoy
1720 - 1802 82
1796 - 18026 Charles Emmanuel 4 of Sardinia
1802 - 21 19 Victor Emmanuel 1 of Sardinia
1821 - 31 10 Charles Felix of Sardinia
1828 - 31 3 European Tour of Niccolò Paganini (1782 1840 58) Genoese violinist, violist, guitarist, & composer
1831 - 49 18 Charles Albert of Sardinia
1839 - 93 54 Giuseppe Verdis Music 1813 - 1901 88
1848 Revolutions of 1848 in Italian states
1849 - 61 12 Victor Emmanuel 2 of Sardinia

1859 2nd Italian War of Independence Second French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
1815 - 59
44
Kingdom of 2 Sicilies
1816 - 61
45
After Congress of Vienna
1816 -
25 9 Ferdinand 1 ^ Charles 7 & Maria Amalia of Saxony =Marie Caroline of Austria 17C & Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia 0C X73
1825 - 30 5 Francis 1 ^ =Maria Isabel
la of Spain
12C X53
1830 - 59 29 Ferdinand 2 ^ =Maria Christina of Savoy 1C & Maria Theresa of Austria 12C X49
1848 Sicilian revolution of independence
1849 1st Italian War of Independence Austrian Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Grand Duchy of Tuscany Papal States Kingdom of Two Sicilies
1859 - 61 2 Francis 2 ^Maria =Maria Sophie of Bavaria 1C X58
1855 Austria invades Italy
Senso 1968
Kingdom of Italy
1861 - 1946
75
1861 Italy Unified by Giuseppe Garibaldi 1807 82 75 Piedmontese Soldier
1861 - 78 17 Victor Emmanuel 2 ^Charles Albert of Sardinia & Maria Theresa of Tuscany =Adelaide of Austria 8C & Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri 2C X57
1866 - 8 2 3rd Italian War of Independence Part of AustroPrussian War Kingdom of Italy Austrian Empire
1870 Italian Army took Rome
1878 - 1900 22 Umberto 1 ^Adelaide =Margherita of Savoy 1C X56X
1885 - 1943 58 Italian Rome
1895 - 6 1 1st Italo–Ethiopian War Ethiopia VS Italy
1896 Battle of Adwa Ethiopia VS Italy
Austrian Rule
1815 - 66
51
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
1815 - 66
51
1806 - 40 34 Alessandro Manzonis Carreer 1785 - 1873 88 Poet, Novelist
1828 History of Painting in Italy, V1 From Period of Revival of Fine Arts to End of Eighteenth Century by Lanzi, Luigi Antonio 138,376 K
1800 Palazzolo sullOglio torre
1821 Compiano Castle
1860 Miramare Castle
1880 Runkelstein Castle
1886 - 92 Albertis Castle
1809 Bosa Cathedral Reconstructed
1821 Spoleto Cathedral
1822 Amelia Cathedral Facade
1863 - 2009 Novara Cathedral
1891 Amalfi Cathedral Facade
1835 Fontana Fraterna Isernia








Kingdom of Italy 2
1861 - 1946 85
1900 - 46 46 Victor Emmanuel 3 ^ =Elena of Montenegro 5C X78
1909 Popes and Science History of Papal Relations to Science During Middle Ages and Down to Our Own Time by Walsh, James J. (James Joseph) 139,484 K
1915 1st Battle of Isonzo Slovenia Italy 225 14.9VS AustriaHungary 115 10
1915 2nd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 130Bat 420G 45XW VS Italy 260Bat 840G 42XW
1915 3rd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 184Bat 643AP 40.4 9X VS Italy 338Bat 130CSq 1.4AP 67.1 11X
1915 4th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 370Bat 1.4G 49.5 7.5X VS AustriaHungary 155Bat 626G 32.1 4X
1916 5th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 100Bat (+30R) 470G 2XW VS Italy 286Bat (+90R) 1.4G 1.9XWM
1916 6th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 9Div 42 8X VS Italy 22Div 51 21X
1916 7th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 150Bat 770AP 15 VS Italy 240Bat 1.2AP 17
1917 8th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 14Div 25 VS Italy 20Div 24
1917 9th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225Bat 1.4A 39 VS AustriaHungary 170Bat 990A 33
1917 10th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 400 150 35X VS AustriaHungary 200 75 17X
1917 11th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1917 12th Battle of Isonzo. Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, AustriaHungary 350 70XW 2.2A VS Italy 400 10X 30W 265C 2.2A
1918 Battle of Piave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End of AustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1916 Battle of Asiago. Italy Italy 172Bat 850G 140Cas 12X 80W 50C VS AustriaHungary 300Bat 2G 100Cas 15X 75W 15MC
1918 Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, Austria 350 2.2A 70XW VS Italy 400 2.2A 10X 30W 265C
1920 Italian unification
Leopard 1936
1858 - 1924 66 Eleonora Duse Actress, 1st woman & Italian on cover of Time magazine, 1923
1927 39 Pescara Cathedral
1929 Mussolini signed a treaty that officially separated church and state. It also secularized Italy and relegated church to a tiny defined area of sovereignty in Rome. Thus Vatican City was formed. This action fundamentally cancelled final remnants of Theodosus decree, even in Roman capitol itself.
1932 Union of Fascists formed
Benito: Rise and Fall of Mussolini 1993
1940 Battle of France Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 Battle of Britain UK UK, Canada 2, 1.5 #544X #422W VS Germany, Italy 2.6 1.9 2.7X #967C #638B
1940 Battle of Cape Matapan. Off Greece UK, Australia 1AC 1To 3B 7LC 4LD 17D #3X VS Italy 1B HD 6HC 3 2LC 17D 2 2.3+X 5 2HD
1940 - 2 2 Battles of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Changes hands 4X
1940 Capture of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand 1CReg 1TReg 1Sq VS Germany, Italy
1940 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1940 1 1 Operation Compass. Egypt, Libya UK, India, Australia, Free France 36 500X 55M 1.4W 275T 120A 142 15 VS Italy 150 3X 115C 600T 400 1.6A 1.3 331 1.2
1940 Italian conquest of British Somaliland. Ethiopia Italy, Italian East Africa 24 465X 1.5W VS UK, India, British East Somaliland, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa 4 38X 102W 120M 3+SomaliSoX * Fall of British Somoliland
1940 Italian conquest of British Somaliland. Ethiopia Italy, Italian East Africa 24 465X 1.5W VS UK, India, British East Somaliland, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa 4 38X 102W 120M 3+SomaliSoX * Fall of British Somoliland
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1941 Siege of Tobruk Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Battle of Keren. Eritrea UK, India 2Div, Free French 2Bat 13 536X 3.2W VS Italy 23 12.1X 21.7W
1941 Battle of Gondar Ethiopia UK KenyaACReg, Ethiopians VS Italy 40
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1941 Operation Brevity. EgyptLibya Border UK, Australia 3Bat 53T 5 6 206+ VS Germany, Italy +Bat 3050T 3 605+
1941 Operation Battleaxe. Libya Germany, Italy 13.2 169T 12 130Fi 84B 114T 10 698 VS UK, India 25 190T 9198 98Fi 105B 203T 36 969
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Bir Hakeim. Libya Germany, Italy 45 3.3X 277C 52TVS Free France 3.7 900C
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1941 Battle of Greece Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1941 Battle of Crete. Greece Germany 14PT 15MT 280DB Fi180 500T 80Gl, Italy 2.7 6.7 3.7 370D VS Greece 11.5 1.3TXW, UK 15, Australia 7.1, New Zealand 6.7 40 Inc10NC 23.8 4X 17C
1941 - 5 4 Battle of Caribbean. USA, UK, Canada, + VS Germany, Italy
1941 - 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1941 - 4 3 Continuation War. Finland, Russia USSR, UK VS Finland 530 63.3XM 158W #939Ci fm Pl #190Ci fm Soviots 2.43.5C , Germany 220, 14XM 37W ?NC Italy 275+
1941 - 4 3 Battle of Leningrad. Russia USSR 1XCM 2.4WS 1.14MCiX (642 Siege 400 Evacuation) 2.14T VS Germany, Finland, Italy
1942 Operation Uranus. Russia USSR 1.14M 894T 13.5A 1.5 VS Germany 250+ 732 402Ser, Italy 220 ?A ?, Romania 143.3 827A 134T ?, Hungary 200 ?A&T 803+134+T 732+
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 Second Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1942 1st Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa 150 13.3 179T 1+A 1.5+ VS Germany 10, Italy 90 70T 500
1942 Battle of Alam el Halfa. Egypt UK, New Zealand 4Div Cor 1.8XWC 68T 67 VS Germany 6TDiv, Italy 2.9XWC 49T 60G 400Tran 36
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1942 Battle of El Agheila. Libya UK, Poland, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Axis retreats to Tunisia
1942 Battle of Kasserine Pass. Tunisia Germany, Italy 22 2 34T VS USA 6.5, UK, Free French 30 10 183T
1942 Battle of Medenine. Tunisia UK, New Zealand, Free French VS Germany, Italy
1942 Operation Pugilist. Tunisia UK India, Free French, New Zealand 51T 952 w/ 7AC VS Germany, Italy
1942 Battle of El Guettar. Tunisia USA 3555T 45XWVS Germany, Italy 46XW 40+T
1942 Battle of Hill 609. Tunisia USA 2.5 VS Germany
1942 Operation Vulcan. Tunisia UK, USA VS Germany, Italy
1942 Battle of Medenine. Tunisia UK, New Zealand, Free French VS Germany, Italy
1942 Operation Pugilist. Tunisia UK India, Free French, New Zealand 51T 952 w/ 7AC VS Germany, Italy
1942 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1942 - 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 then 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A then 13.5 15.7 400T then 894 4.3T 300 then 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 then 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A then 10.3 6 600 then 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1942 - 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1943 Operation Fustian. Sicily, Italy UK 1PTBri 1Div 141X 168MW 42T 5GlVS Germany 1PTDiv, Italy 1Div
1943 Battle of Ortona. Italy Canada 2Bat #650VS Germany 2Bat ? 1.3CiX
1943 Bernhardt Line. Italy UK, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Free French, India, + VS Germany
1943 Moro River Campaign. Italy UK ?, Canada 2.3, India 3.4, New Zealand 1.6 4Div 2ArB VS Germany 1PaDiv 2GrDiv 1TpDiv
1943 Battle of Nikolayevka. Russia USSR 6 1XW VS Italy, Germany, Hungary 40 (4CR) 30XWC
1943 OstrogozhskRossosh Operation. Russia USSR VS Hungary, Italy
1943 Battle of Sicily. Italy UK, USA, Canada, Newfoundland, Free French 160467 24.8 5.8X 15.7W 3.3C 14V 600T 1.8G VS Italy 230 131.4147 +C, Germany 60 20 260T 1.4
1943 Operation Ladbroke. Syracuse, Italy UK 1PTBri 2 313X 174WM VS Italy 1Bat 1Reg
1943 Battle of Troina. Sicily, Italy USA 2Div 80100 #40C 165A + VS Germany, Italy
1943 Allied invasion of Italy. UK, USA, Canada 189 2X 7W 3.5M VS Germany, Italy 100 3.5
1943 Operation Slapstick. Italy UK 1AiDiv 1CSq 1 2.2 #106X #154W VS Germany 1PTDiv
1943 Dodecanese Campaign. Off Greece Germany, Italian Rep 1.2 15L VS UK, Kingdom of Italy, South Africa, Greece 4.8 6D 4CLD 4CHD 2Su 10MS&CD 113
1943 Battle of Leros. Off Greece Germany 520X 45W VS Italy 8So&Sa, UK 1Bri 3 2Sq 115, Greece 20CiX 419X 4.8W 8.5C 115
1943 Battle of Kos. Off Greece Germany 4 15X 70W VS UK 1.4 1.4C, Italy 3.5 3.1C, South Africa 4.9 4.5C 91OX
1943 Battle of Naples. Four days of Naples Italy Italian Ci 30+ VS Germany 8
1943 Volturno Line. Italy USA 1Arm, UK 1Bri VS Germany 1TDiv
1943 Barbara Line. Italy USA 1Arm, UK 1Div, India 1Div VS Germany 1TDiv
1943 Air Raid on Bari. Italy Germany 1VS UK, USA 23 1HarHD 1So&SaX 1CiX
1943 - 4 1 Operation Strangle. Rome, Italy USA 2AF VS Italy, Germany
1944 Battle of Monte Cassino Italy UK, USA, Free French, Poland, Canada, India, New Zealand, Italian Royalists 1.9T 4 55 VS Germany, Italy 20
1944 Operation Diadem. Italy USA, UK VS Germany
1944 Battle of Anzio Italy USA, UK, Canada 36 then 150 2.31.5V 43 7X 36WM VS Germany 20 then 135, Italy 4.6 40 5X 30.5WM 4.5C
1944 Battle of Cisterna. Italy Germany 4Div 1PaDiv VS USA 1Div 1PaReg 1RaFor
1944 Trasimene Line. Italy USA, UK, France VS Germany
1944 Battle of Ancona. Italy Poland 50 #496X 1.8W #139M VS Germany #800X 3C
1944 Gothic Line. Italy UK, USA, India, Canada, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Italian Resistance, Greece 40 VS Germany, Italy
1944 Battle of Gemmano. Italy British Empire UK, India 3Div 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 4Div
1944 Battle of Rimini. Italy UK, Canada, Greece, New Zealand 3.4 VS Germany
1944 Battle of Garfagnana. Italy Germany, Italy 9.1 100A 1XM VS USA, UK, India 18 120T 140A 1XM #300+C
Territory in northern Tuscany falls back into Axis hands.
1944 - 5 Battle of Monte Castello. Italy Brazil 1Div #443, USA 1Div VS Germany 1Div 9 1.5+
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1945 Battle of Bologna. Italy UK, USA VS Italy, Germany
1945 Battle of Collecchio. Italy Brazil 2Reg, USA 1TBat, Italian Partisan 1Brig VS Germany, Italy 1Div 15
1945 Battle of Argenta Gap. Italy UK VS Germany #600+C
1939 - 45 6 Battle of Atlantic Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle of River Plate Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
1946 Umberto 2 ^ =MarieJosé of Belgium 4C X78
1994 Rome Mosque
 
Republic of San Marino
1631 - Present
380
@ San Marino, Italy
Republic of San Marino
1631 - Present
380
@ San Marino, Italy
Republic of San Marino
1631 - Present
380
@ San Marino, Italy
Republic of San Marino
1631 - Present
380
@ San Marino, Italy
1944 Battle of San Marino. San Marino British Empire India 1Div VS Germany 1Div
Papal States
752 - 1870
1218
1476 - 1513 37 Leonardo da Vincis Career 1452 1519 67 Famous artist and inventor and scientist
1503 - 13 10 Julius 2
1503 Design of St. Peters Cathedral by Donato Bramante 1444 - 1514 80
Cesare Borgia 1475 - 1507 32 Condottiero, Nobleman, Politician, Cardinal
Prince of Foxes 1949
Il Duca Nero (The Black Duke) 1963
Bride of Vengeance 1948
1504 - 8 4 Raphaels Painting Carreer 1483 - 1520 37 Florence
1506 St. Peters Cathedral began Rome
1508 - 12 4 Cistene Chapel Painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 - 1564 79 Painter, Sculptor Rome
1512 14 20th Council at Lateran addressed Church reform
1513 Prince published by Niccolò Machiavelli 1469 - 1527 58, Florentian historian, author & humanist.
1513 - 22 9 Leo 10
1517 Holy League created. union of several European powers, Christian fighting force designed to combat growing threat of Turkish expansion.
1522 - 3 1 Adrian 6
1523 - 34 11 Clement 8
1534 - 49 15 Paul 3
1534 Jesuits founded by Ignatius of Loyola (1491 1556 65) founder of Jesuits
Loyola: Soldier Saint 1948
1537 Sack of Rome by Charles 5
1544 - 94 40 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrinas Carreer 1525 - 94 69 Sacred Musician
1545 Theory of Complex Numbers 1st developed by Gerolamo Cardamo
1545 - 63 18 19th Council of Trent Trento Trent tried to reform Roman Catholic Church and quell protest, but to no avail. This Vatican Council decreed faith necessary, but retained church sacraments as essential components of Christian religion.
1546 Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peters Basilica
1549 - 55 6 Julius 3
1555 Marcellus 2
1555 - 9 4 Paul 4
1559 - 65 6 Pius 4
1565 - 72 7 Pius 5
1572 - 85 13 Gregory 13
1570s - 90s 20 Emilio de Cavalieris Career 1550 1602 52 Composer, Producer, Organist, Diplomat, Choreographer, Dancer
1579 - 1605 26 Giulio CaccinisMusic Career 1545 - 1618 73
1582 Gregorian Calendar adopted by catholic countries.
1582 Matteo Ricci Traveled to Macau, China 1552 - 1610 58 Jesuit
1583 Identification of Constant Swing Pendulum by Galileo Galilei Pisa Leads to development of reliable timekeepers.
1585 - 90 5 Sixtus 5
1580s - 90s 10 Giovanni Bernardino Naninos Composing 1560 - 1623 63 Rome
1585 1604 19 Felice Anerios Composing 1560 - 1614 54
1590 Della transportatione dellobelisco Vaticano e delle fabriche di Sisto V by Domenico Fontana Rome 1543 - 1607 64 Architect.
1590 Urban 7
1590 1 1 Gregory 14
1591 Innocent 9
1592 - 1605 13 Clement 8
1593 Thermometer by Galileo Galilei
1590s Alfonso Fontanellis Carreer 1557 - 1622 65 Composer, writer, diplomat, courtier, and nobleman
Papal States
752 - 1870
1218
1592 - 1605 13 Clement 8
1600 Giordano Bruno (1548 - 1600 52) burned at stake for heresy in Rome. Napolini philosopher and astronomer/astrologer
1602 Cento concerti con il basso continuo published by musician Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1564 - 1627 63) Italy
1605 - 21 16 Paul 5 16
1605 - 30 25 Adriano Banchieris (1557 - 1634 77) Organ music carreer. Bolognese musician.
1606 Il carro di fedeltà damore, first secular azione scenica by Paolo Quagliati 1555 - 1628 73
1610 Jupiters Galilean Moons Observed by Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642 68) and Simon Marius
1616 Niccolò Zucchi describes experiments with a bronze parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope. Italy.
1621 - 3 2 Gregory 15 2
1623 - 44 21 Urban 8 21
1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano (1485 - 1528 43) Explored northeast coast of America, from about present day South Carolina to Newfoundland. Italian explorer for France.
1626 St. Peters Basilica Completed Rome
1527 Sack of Rome End of Italian Renaissance
1633 Galileo Galileis Trial
1634 - 65 31 Francesco Borrominis Scupting, Arcitecture 1599 - 1667 68
1641 - 9 7 Wars of Castro Disagreements between Farnese and Barberini Pope Urban 8
1641 - 4 3 1st War of Castro Barberini Pope Urban 8 and Pamphili Pope Innocent 10 their papal armies and relatives. Farnese Dukes of Parma
1643 Mercury Barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli 1608 47 39 of Florence
1649 2nd War of Castro. Italy. Pope vs Ranuccio 2 Farnese, Duke of Parma
1644 - 55 11 Innocent 10 11
1651 Giovanni Riccioli renames Lunar mare
1652 - 87 35 JeanBaptiste Lullys Career 1632 87 55 Italian/French Composer Father of French opera
1655 - 67 12 Alexander 7 12
1667 - 70 3 Clement 9 3
1670 - 6 6 Clement 10 6
1676 - 89 13 Innocent 11 13
1681 - 1713 32 Arcangelo Corellis Career 1653 1713 60 Composer
1689 - 91 2 Alexas 8 2
1691 - 1700 9 Innocent 12 9
Papal States
752 - 1870
1218
1700 - 21 21 Clement 11
1715 Pope Clement XI declares Catholicism and Confucianism incompatible.
1719 - 25 6 Giovanni Paolo Paninis Career 1691 1765 74 Painter, Architect
1721 - 24 3 Innocent 13
1724 - 30 6 Benedict 13
1730 - 40 10 Clement 12

1731 1st Female College Teacher in Europe Laura Bassi 1711 - 78 66 becomes professor of anatomy at U of Bologna Scientist
1738 Eminenti Apostolatus Specula prohibites Catholics from becoming Freemasons
1740 - 58 4 18 Benedict 14
755 - 1529 774 Catholic Church Omnipotence Age
1736 - 80 44 Roger Joseph Boscovichs Carreer 1711 - 87 66 Physicist, Astronomer, Mathematician, Philosopher, Diplomat, Poet, Jesuit Croatian/Italian
1741 Immensa Pastorum Principis Against Slavery
1758 - 69 11 Clement 13
1769 - 74 6 Clement 14
1775 - 1800 25 Clement 14
1735 - 7 2 Giovanni Battista Piranesis 1720 - 78 58 Roman etchings appear in Paris. Italian painter
1798 Napoleon Took Pope Prisoner
Papal States
752 - 1870
1218
1800 - 23 23 Pius 7
1813 - 37 24 Giacomo Leopardis (1798 1837 39) carreer as a poet, essayist, philosopher, and philologist from Papal States
1823 - 29 6 Leo 12
1825 - 27 2 Pius 8
1831 - 46 15 Gregory 16 "one of greatest Pontiffs."
1846 - 78 32 Pius 9
1870 Italian Army took Rome
1870 20th 1st Council of Vatican Rome
1870 - 1960 22nd Council at Vatican defined Papal governance
Popes
1870 - Present
141
1846 - 78 32 Pius 9
1878 - 1903 25 Leo 13
Vatican City
1929 - Present
84
1878 - 1903 25 Leo 13
1903 - 14 11 Saint Pius 10
1914 - 22 8 Benedict 15
1922 - 39 17 Pius 11
1939 - 58 19 Ven. Pius 12
1958 - 63 5 Bd. John 23
1962 - 5 3 23rd Council at Vatican addressed mdern world
1963 - 78 15 Servant of God Paul 6
1978 Servant of God John Paul 1
1978 - 2005 27 Bd. John Paul 2
2005 - Present 6 Benedict 16
1428 1530 102 Last incorporation into Royal Domain.
1530 Knights of St. John take possession.
1551 Draguts raid on Gozo.
1561 Inquisition officially established.
1565 Great Siege. Malta besieged by Turks but Knights helped by Maltese resist and win.
1566 Founding of Valletta.
1568 Jean Parisot de la Valette buried in Valletta.
1571 Battle of Lepanto occurs. Christian victory over Turks.
1573 Foundation stone laid for St. Johns CoCathedral.
1578 Consecration of St. Johns CoCathedral.
1592 Founding of Jesuits College.
1572 7 St. Johns CoCathedral

 

1615 Wignacourt Aqueduct completed.
1676 School of Anatomy and Surgery founded at Sacred Infirmary.
1697 1702 St. Pauls Cathedral, Mdina
1600s New Cathedral of Coimbra


1732 Manoel Theatre dedicated.
1768 Jesuits expelled and property transferred to Knights by Papal Order.
1769 Conversion of Jesuits College to a University.
1775 Uprising of priests.
1784 Creation of a legal code.
1792 Possessions of Knights of St. John located in France seized by government.
1798 French invasion. Knights of St. John expelled. Inquisition abolished.
1799 French occupation. revolt against French. Dun Mikiel Xerri executed by French.

 

British take islands under their protection in name of King of Two Sicilies. Battle of Aboukir Bay.
1800 French occupation ends. British rule begins.
1802 Treaty of Amiens.
1813 Bathurst Constitution.
1814 Treaty of Paris. Malta declared free of plague.
1815 Congress of Vienna affirms Treaty of Paris.
1819 Università dissolved.
1828 Vatican ChurchState proclamation. Right of Sanctuary revoked.
1831 See of Malta made independent of See of Palermo.
1833 Construction begins on Mosta dome.
1835 First Council of Government under British rule.
1839 Abolition of Press censorship. Laying of cornerstone for St. Pauls Anglican Cathedral.
1846 Carnival riots.
1849 Council of Government with elected members under British rule.
1869 Opening of Suez Canal.
1870 Referendum on Ecclesiastics serving on Council of Government.
1881 Creation of Executive Council under British rule.
1882 AngloEgyptian Bank founded in Malta.
1883 Malta Railway begins operation.
1885 First postage stamps issued.
1886 Surgeon Major David Brucediscovers microbe causing Malta Fever.
1887 Council of Government with "dual control" under British rule.
1888 Construction begins on Royal Opera House.
SimmonsRampolla agreement.
1839 44 St Pauls ProCathedral

 

Republic of Malta
1964 Present
47
1964 Malta becomes independent
1903 Return to 1849 form of Council of
Government under British rule.
1904 Tram service begins.
1905 Dr. Themistocles Zammit discovers source of Malta Fever.
1912 Dun Karm writes his first poem in Maltese.
1914 8 4 World War 1 starts; Malta becomes known as Nurse of Mediterranean.
1919 Sette Giugno riots. National Assembly convened by Dr. Filippo Sciberras.
1921 Selfgovernment granted under British rule.
First Parliament opens. Joseph Howard named Prime Minister.
1923 "Innu Malti" played first time in public.
Dr. Francisco Buhagiar becomes Prime Minister.
1924 Sir Ugo P. Mifsud becomes Prime minister.
1927 Sir Gerald Strickland becomes Prime Minister.
1930 Constitution suspended because of Church actions under British rule.
1931 Malta railway closes.
1932 Constitution restored under British rule.
Sir Ugo Mifsud becomes Prime Minister.
1933 Constitution withdrawn under British rule.
Malta reverts to Crown Colony status it held in 1813.
1934 Malti and English become dual official languages.
1935 Rediffusion Radio begins.
1936 Constitution revised to provide for nomination of members to Executive Council under British rule.
1939 Constitution revised to provide for an elected Council of Government under British rule.
1939 45 6 World War II begins. Germany invades Poland.
1940 First air raids of Great Siege of World
1940 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Italian eboat attack on Grand Harbour. HMS Illustrious damaged, bombed, repaired and departs. Pearl Harbour bombed by Japanese.
1942 Award of George Cross to people of Malta. Operation Pedestal Convoy arrives in Grand Harbour.
1943 Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill visit Malta. George VI arrives in Grand Harbour for a visit. Invasion of Sicily from Malta. Surrender of Italian Fleet in Malta.
1945 Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Malta prior to Yalta Conference with Joseph Stalin.
1946 National Assembly results in 1947 constitution under British rule.
1947 Selfgovernment restored under British rule.
Dr. Paul Boffa becomes Prime Minister.
1948 Red Flag incident.
1949 N.A.T.O. Treaty signed.
1950 Dr. Enrico Mizzi becomes Prime Minister from September to December. Dr. Georgio Borg Olivier becomes Prime minister in December.
1953 Coronation incident.
1955 Dom Mintoff becomes Prime Minister. Roundtable Conference held.
1956 Referendum on Integration with Britain.
Incident at Rediffusion.
1958 Caravaggio incident. Dom Mintoff resigns as Prime Minister. Dr. Georgio Borg Olivier declines forming alternative government.
Colonial governor takes direct administration under British rule.
1959 Interim Constitution provides for an Executive Council under British rule.
1961 Blood Commission provides for a new constitutionallowing for a measure of selfgovernment and recognizing "State" of Malta.
1962 Dr. Georgio Borg Olivier becomes Prime Minister.
Stolper report delivered.
1964 "Innu Malti" recognized as national anthem. Referendum on Independence Constitution. Malta granted independence, becoming a sovereign nation within British Commonwealth.
1968 Central Bank established.
1970 Malta enters an Association agreement with European Community.
1971 Dom Mintoff becomes Prime Minister. Sir Anthony Mamo becomes first Maltese national to be named GovernorGeneral.
1972 Military base agreement signed by Malta, United Kingdom and other N.A.T.O. nations. Kings Own Malta Regiment disbanded. Change to decimal monetary system. Government bars United States Naval Forces from using Malta as a liberty port.
1973 Formation of Air Malta.
1974 Malta becomes a Republic, remaining in Commonwealth. Sir Anthony Mamo elected first President. Government increases its control over University.
1975 Barclays Bank International, Ltd. taken over to become MidMed Bank.
1976 Dr. Anton Buttigieg becomes second President.
1979 Military base agreement terminated. British forces leave. First Referendum Day celebrated.
1981 Malta Labour Party wins general election by its majority of seats in Parliament, but Opposition Nationalist Party has absolute majority of votes.
1982 Agatha Barbara becomes third, and first female, President.
1984 Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici becomes Prime Minister after resignation of Prime Minister Dom Mintoff.
1987 Dr. Eddie Fenech Adami becomes Prime Minister.
1988 Freeport Corporation organized.
1989 First gathering of Knights of St. John in Malta since their departure in 1798. U.S./Soviet Summit meets in Malta. Dr. Vincent Tabone elected fourth President.
1990 Government formally applies for full membership in European Community. Pope John Paul II makes first Papal visit. Prof. Guido De Marco elected President of 45th Annual UN General Assembly.
1991 Agreement signed for Malta Cable Television.
Two Vatican Agreements between Malta Government and Holy See signed in Rome. New Delimara Power Station opened.
1992 Nationalist Party wins election. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip in Malta for 50th Anniversary of awarding of George Cross.
New Air Terminal opened. 50th Anniversary of Operation Pedestal celebrated. Stock Exchange opened. Maritime Museum opened in Vittoriosa. Dr. Alfred Sant elected Leader of Malta Labour Party.
1993 Malta receives positive response, subject to a list of prior conditions, from European Community. First University degree courses offered in Gozo. Government signs International Convention banning use of chemical weapons. Fifth Games of Small States of Europe held in Malta. First elections for Local Councils held.
1994 Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici elected fifth President.
1996 Malta Labour Party wins elections Dr. Alfred sworn in as Prime Minister of Malta.
1997 Maltas application to join EU is frozen. MLP government instead seeks industrial free trade
zone and closer relations to EU but not membership.
1998 Dr. Alfred Sant calls for election following vote of noconfidence. Dr. Eddie Fenech Adami is elected Prime Minister.
1999 Prof. Guido de Marco appointed President of Malta.
 
1687 Ptuj Castle Slovenia
1701 6 Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Ljubljana
   
     
Kingdom of Illyria
1816 49 33
Ljubljana
Italian, Slovene, Croatian, German
Roman Catholic
Monarchy
1816 35 19 Francis 1 HRE
1835 48 13
Ferdinand 1 of Austria
1848 9 1
Francis Joseph 1 of Austria
1858 67 Shkodër Cathedral Albania
1915 1st Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225 14.9VS AustriaHungary 115 10
1915 2nd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 130Bat 420G 45XW VS Italy 260Bat 840G 42XW
1915 3rd Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 184Bat 643AP 40.4 9X VS Italy 338Bat 130CSq 1.4AP 67.1 11X
1915 4th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 370Bat 1.4G 49.5 7.5X VS AustriaHungary 155Bat 626G 32.1 4X
1916 5th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 100Bat (+30R) 470G 2XW VS Italy 286Bat (+90R) 1.4G 1.9XWM
1916 6th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 9Div 42 8X VS Italy 22Div 51 21X
1916 7th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 150Bat 770AP 15 VS Italy 240Bat 1.2AP 17
1917 8th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 14Div 25 VS Italy 20Div 24
1917 9th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 225Bat 1.4A 39 VS AustriaHungary 170Bat 990A 33
1917 10th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy 400 150 35X VS AustriaHungary 200 75 17X
1917 11th Battle of Isonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1917 12th Battle of Isonzo. Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, AustriaHungary 350 70XW 2.2A VS Italy 400 10X 30W 265C 2.2A
1918 Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, Austria 350 2.2A 70XW VS Italy 400 2.2A 10X 30W 265C
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1945 Bahttle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945 - 92 47
@ Belgrade
Republic of Ragusa
1358 - 1808
250
2nd Kingdom of Croatia
1527 - 1868
341
1573 CroatianSlovenian peasant revolt
1500s Veliki Tabor Castle
1558 Nehaj Castle
Republic of Ragusa
1358 - 1808
250
2nd Kingdom of Croatia
1527 - 1868
341
1600s Bajnski Dvori Chateau de Bajna Castle
1638 Rijeka Cathedral
1667 - 97 Dubrovnik Cathedral
Republic of Ragusa
1358 - 1808
250
1736 - 80 44 Roger Joseph Boscovichs Carreer 1711 87 66 physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit Croatian in Italy.
2nd Kingdom of Croatia
1527 1868
341
1749 - 51 2 Eltz Vukovar Castle
1750s Tkalec Manor Castle
1756 Dvorac Orsic Castle
1763 Požega Cathedral
1791 Luznica Castle
Republic of Ragusa
1358 - 1808
250
2nd Kingdom of Croatia
1527 - 1868
341
1800 - 4 Dvorac Pejacevic Castle
1800 Trsat Castle
1865 - 6 Zagreb Orthodox Cathedral
1866 - 82 Đakovo Cathedral
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 - 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 then 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A then 13.5 15.7 400T then 894 4.3T 300 then 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 then 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A then 10.3 6 600 then 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1942 - 4 2 Battle of Caucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945 - 92 47
@ Belgrade
1500s Ostrozac Castle
1550 Bijela Tabija Castle
1557 Karađozbey Mosque Bosnia
1560 Ali Pashas Mosque Bosnia herzegovina
1579 Ferhadija Mosque Bosnia Herzegovina
 
1765 Gradacac Castle
1863 8 Church of Nativity Cathedral Theotokos
1889 Jesus Heart Cathedral
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1970s Saint Bonaventure Cathedral
Bosnia & Herzegovina
1992 - Present 21
Sarajevo
 
1654 - 61 7 Mehmed Köprülü is Grand Vizier. Albania
1662 Porto Palermo Castle
 
1819 Ali Pasha Castle
1823 Tirana Ethem beu Mosque Albania
Principality of Albania
1914
@ Durrës
1914 William
WWI Confusion
1914 - 9
5
Albanian Republic
1924 - 8
4
1924 8 4 Ahmed Bey Zogu
Kingdom of Albania
1928 - 39 11

1928 39 11 Zog
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
       
1st Kingdom of Montenegro
1910 - 8 8
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
2nd Kingdom of Montenegro (Independent State of Montenegro)
1941 - 3 2
@ Cetinje
Serbian, Montenegrin, Italian, German
Roman Catholic,
Serbian Orthodox
0*
Prime Ministers 1941 - 43 2
1941 Sekula Drljević
1941 - 3 2 Blažo Đukanović
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945 - 92 47
@ Belgrade
Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Republic of Montenegro
2006 - Present
5
1521 Belgrade is captured by Ottoman Empire.
1575 Bajrakli Mosque Serbia
1692 - 1780 Petrovaradin Fortress Built
Kingdom of Serbia
Under Hapsburg Monarchy

1718 - 39
21
Belgrade
Serbian
1787 - 91 4 AustroTurkish War. Serbia. Austria & Russia Vs Ottoman Empire.
1780 Petrovaradin Fortress
1734 - 1905 Saint Georges Cathedral Novi Sad
1804 - 15 11 Serbian Revolution erupts against Ottoman rule. Suzerainty of Serbia recognized in 1817.
1804 - 6 2 1st Serbian Uprising part of Serbian revolution Ottoman Empire First French Empire Serbian revolutionaries Volunteers from Habsburg Empire Russian Empire
1814 Hadži Prodans Revolt part of Serbian revolution Ottoman Empire Forces of Hadži Prodan Gligorijević
1815 - 7 2 2nd Serbian Uprising part of Serbian revolution Principality of Serbia Ottoman Empire
1817 Principality of Serbia becomes suzerain from Ottoman Empire. Officially independent in 1867.
1867 Principality of Serbia passes a Constitution which defines its independence from Ottoman Empire. International recognition followed in 1878.
Kingdom of Serbia
1882 - 1918 36
1882 - 9 7 Milan 1
1885 SerboBulgarian War Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia
1889 - 1903 14 Alexander 1
1837 - 40 St. Michaels Cathedral Belgrade
1864 - 8 Zrenjanin Cathedral
1870 - 83 Our Lady of Perpetual Succour Cathedral , Prizren
Kingdom of Serbia
1882 - 1918 36

1889 - 1903 14 Alexander 1
1903 - 18 15 Peter 1
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
Yugoslavia 1918 - 43 25
@ Belgrade
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 1944 - 5 1
@ Belgrade
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945 - 92 47
@ Belgrade
       
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1944 - 91 47
@ Belgrade
1945 Battle of Transdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
1991 - Present
20
1522 Siege of Rhodes Greece Ottoman Empire VS Knights Hospitaller
1570 - 3 3 Ottoman–Venetian War Greece Ottoman Empire VS Holy League Republic of Venice, Spain, Papal States, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Savoy, Knights of Malta
1500s Rethymno Fortezza gate
1571 NaupactusLepanto naupactus venecian fortress Venetians capture island
1645 - 69 24 Cretan War Greece Ottoman Empire, Barbary States vs Republic of Venice, Knights of Malta, Papal States, France, Maniots
1684 - 99 15 Morean War Part of Great Turkish War Greece Republic of Venice, Knights of Malta, Duchy of Savoy, Papal States, Knights of St. Stephen, Himariotes, Maniots, +other Greek rebels vs Ottoman Empire.
1600s Bridge of Arta, Greece by Ottomans
1714 - 8 4 Ottoman–Venetian War Croatia, Greece. Ottoman Empire VS Republic of Venice, Kingdom of Portugal, Order of Malta, Papal States
1821 - 30 9 Greek War of Independence Greek revolutionaries European Forces United Kingdom United States of Ionian Islands Kingdom of France 1827 only Russian Empire 1827 only Ottoman Empire Eyalet of Egypt Vilayet of Tunisia (Only in naval battles)
Greece 1st country to break away from Ottomans
Greece 1
1832 - 1924 102

1842 - 62 Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens
1896 1st Olympics in Athens
1897 GrecoTurkish War 30 Days War Greece Ottoman Empire VS Kingdom of Greece
1910 Palace of Knossos excavated
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
Greece 2
1935 - 74 39
1940 Battle of Cape Matapan. Off Greece UK, Australia 1AC 1To 3B 7LC 4LD 17D #3X VS Italy 1B HD 6HC 3 2LC 17D 2 2.3+X 5 2HD
1941 Battle of Crete. Greece Germany 14PT 15MT 280DB Fi180 500T 80Gl, Italy 2.7 6.7 3.7 370D VS Greece 11.5 1.3TXW, UK 15, Australia 7.1, New Zealand 6.7 40 Inc10NC 23.8 4X 17C
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1942 - 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1943 Dodecanese Campaign. Off Greece Germany, Italian Rep 1.2 15L VS UK, Kingdom of Italy, South Africa, Greece 4.8 6D 4CLD 4CHD 2Su 10MS&CD 113
1943 Battle of Leros. Off Greece Germany 520X 45W VS Italy 8So&Sa, UK 1Bri 3 2Sq 115, Greece 20CiX 419X 4.8W 8.5C 115
1943 Battle of Kos. Off Greece Germany 4 15X 70W VS UK 1.4 1.4C, Italy 3.5 3.1C, South Africa 4.9 4.5C 91OX
1944 Gothic Line. Italy UK, USA, India, Canada, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Italian Resistance, Greece 40 VS Germany, Italy
1944 Battle of Rimini. Italy UK, Canada, Greece, New Zealand 3.4 VS Germany
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
Central:
Carribean:

Lesser Antilles

Greater Antilles

Lucayan Archipelago