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Ottoman Empire 1281 - 1923 642
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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1500 2nd Battle of Lepanto Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeatsVenetians at.
1509 - 12 3 Ottoman Civil War Forces of Selim 1 Forces of Bayezid 2 Janissaries Forces of Ahmed
1512 - 20 8 Selim 1 SternCaliph Of Muslims Since 1517 =Ayışā Hâfize (Ayşe Hafsa) Valide Sultan
1st caliph. Doubled empire, mostly in Asia & Africa.
1513 Sultan Selim I ("The Grim") ordersmassacre of Shia Muslims in Anatolia.
1514 Battle of Chaldiran Ottomans defeat Safavids at
1515 Ottoman Empire wrestes Eastern Anatolia from Safavids after Battle of Chaldiran.
1516 Ottoman Turks overthrow Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt & capture most ofcountry.
1516 - 7 1 Ottoman / Mamluk War 1516 - 7. Turkey, Egypt, Syria. Ottoman Empire vs Mamluk Sultanate. Ottomans gain control of Egypt, Arabia, andLevant.
1520 Ottomans capture Belgrade
1520 - 66 46 Suleiman 1 Magnificent Lawgiver =Hürrem (Khurram or Karima) Haseki Sultan
1522 Rhodes falls to Ottoman Turks of SuleimanMagnificent.
1526 Battle of Mohacs: SuleimanMagnificent defeats Louis 2 of Hungary after just two hours of fighting, leading toOttoman annexation of much of Hungary.
1529 Suleiman Magnificent sets off with 250,000 soldiers to lay siege to Vienna, capital of Charles Vs Holy Roman Empire. gives up against 16,000 defenders.
1529 Turkish calvary arrive at Bavarian town of Regensburg. farthest West Turkish forces ever reach.
1534 Ottomans capture Baghdad.
1541 Capture of Buda andabsorption ofmajor part of Hungary byOttoman Empire.
1550 - 7 7 Suleymaniye complex built in Istanbul
1550 - 7 7 Suleymaniye Mosque istanbul turkey
1565 Reinforcement from Sicily finally arrive at Malta, demoralizing Turkish troops & inciting them to abandonsiege ofremaining Christian forts.
1565 Hospitallers defeatOttoman Empire atSiege of Malta
1566 - 74 8 Selim 2 YellowThe Blond ^ =Afife NurBanû Valide Sultan
1566 Sultan Selim II gives Janissaries permission to marry.
1571 Pope Pius 5 completes Holy League as a united front against Ottoman Turks.
1571 Battle of Lepanto (Aynabakhti): Muslim Turks commanded by Ali Pasha defeated in Gulf of Corinth by alliance of European forces. biggest naval battle inworld since Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. Turks lose at least 200 ships, devastating their naval forces.morale of European Christians is significantly raised while that of Turks & Muslims is lowered. At least 30,000 soldiers & sailors die in about three hours, more casualties than in any other naval battle in history.battle does not, however, result in any major territorial or political shifts. Holy League destroysOttoman Empire navy atBattle of Lepanto.
1672 - 3 1 Ottoman campaign to help Ukrainian Cossacks.
1673 2nd battle of Khotyn John Sobieski defeatsOttomans
1574 - 95 21 Murad 3 ^ =Safiye Valide Sultan
1578 Battle of Cildir
1583 Battle of Torches
1585 Ottoman Empire signs a peace treaty with Spain. This would hinderOttomans from answeringcalls for help from Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth had hoped to get Ottomans to send several dozen galleys to aid indefense of England against Spanish Armada.
1595 - 1603 8 Mehmed 3 Just ^ =Handan Valide Sultan & Fûldâne Valide Sultan
1593 - 1606 13 Long War between Habsburg monarchy & Ottoman Turks.
1516 - 17 1 Ottoman sultan Selim conquers Syria, Egypt & Arabia including holy cities of Mecca & Medina
1520 - 66 46 Rule of SuleymanMagnificent high point of Ottoman Empire
1526 - 1600 74 Bâkî, Ottoman Turkish poet. He was known as "Sultan of poets"
1500s Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia (modern Turkey), is made. It is now kept atSaint Louis Art Museum.
1603 - 23 20 After modernizing his army, Abbas 1 expands Persian Empire by capturing territory from Ottomans & Portuguese.
1520 - 66 46 reign of Suleiman Magnificent markszenith of Ottoman Empire.
1489 - 1588 99 Mimar Sinan was a civil engineer & chief architect ofOttoman Empire
1489 - 1588 99 Mimar (Architect) Sinan. Ottoman
1611 - 82 71 Evliya Çelebi, Ottoman Explorer
1568 - 74 6 Selimiye Mosque Turkey
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1923 624
1603 - 17 14 Ahmed 1 Fortunate ^Handan =MâhFirûze Hatice (Khadija) Valide Sultan & MâhPeyker Kösem Valide Sultan
1605 fortresses of Veszprém & Visegrad are retaken by Ottomans.
1606 Long War between Ottoman Empire & Austria is ended with Peace of Zsitvatorok.
1609 - 16 7 Sultan Ahmed Mosque Turkey
1617 - 8 1 Mustafa 1 Intestable ^Fûldâne Deposed due to his nonsyndromic mental retardation in favour of his young nephew Osman 2
1618 - 22 4 Osman 2 Young ^Ahmed 1 Deposed in a Janissary riot X by Grand Vizier Kara Davud Paşa (Black Daud Pasha) from compression of his testicles
1622 - 3 1 Mustafa 1 2X Deposed X1639
1623 - 40 17 Murad 4 Warrior ^Ahmed 1 & Mâh
1640 - 8 8 Ibrahim 1 Arrage < =Turhan Hatice (Khadija) Valide Sultan & Saliha Dilâşub Valide Sultan & Hatice (Khadija) Muazzez Sultan Deposed by Sheikh ulIslam
1645 - 69 24 Ottoman war with Venice.Ottomans invade Crete & capture Canea.
1647 Seven year old Mehmed 4 becomes sultan.
1648 87 39 Mehmed 4 Hunter ^ =MâhPârā Ummatullah Deposed after Second Battle of Mohács X1693
1648 69 21 Siege of Candia Ottomans capture Crete from Venetians
1661 Mehmed Köprülü dies & is succeeded by his son Ahmed.
1663 Ottoman war against Habsburg Hungary.
1664 Battle of St. Gotthard: count Raimondo Montecuccoli defeatsOttomans.Peace of Vasvar – intended to keeppeace for 20 years.
1667 99 32 Great Turkish War haltsOttoman Empires expansion into Europe.
1669 Ottomans capture Crete.
1683 2nd siege of Vienna Ottomans defeated
1699 Treaty of Carlowitz; first permanent loss of Ottoman territory
1672 6 4 Polish / Ottoman War.
1676 Treaty of Zurawno brings PolishOttoman hostilities to a halt.
1676 Kara Mustafa becomes Grand Vizier.
1682 Sultan Mehmed IV, advised by Kara Mustafa, decides to disregardexisting peace treaty with Leopold I, due to expire in 1684.
1682 3 1 Ottomans make camp at Adrianople.
1687 91 4 Suleiman 2 ^Ibrahim 1 & Saliha
1691 5 4 Ahmed 2 Warrior Prince ^Ibrahim 1 & Hatice
1695 1703 8 Mustafa 2 Warrior ^Mehmed 4 =Saliha Sebkati Valide Sultan & Şehsuvar Valide Sultan Deposed by Janissaries on Edirne Event
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz ends Great Turkish War.
 
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1923 624
1703 - 30 27 Ahmed 3 ^Mehmed 4 =Âminā (Emine) MihrîMâh Sultan & Râbia Sharmi Sultan Deposed by Patrona Halil X1736
1710 - 11 1 War with Ottoman Empire
1718 - 30 12 Tulip period o fOttoman Empire
1730 Mahmud I takes over Ottoman Empire after Patrona Halil revolt, ending Tulip period.
1730 - 54 24 Mahmud 1 WarriorHunchback ^Mustafa 2
1735 Persians defeat Ottomans at Baghavand
1754 - 7 3 Osman 3 ^Mustafa 2 & Şehsuvar
1757 - 74 17 Mustafa 3 First Innovative ^Ahmed 3 =MihrîŞah Valide Sultan
1770 Battle of Chesma
1774 - 89 15 Abdülhamid 1 Servant of God ^Ahmed 3 & Râbia =Ayishā Sinā Pervar (Ayşe Seniyeperver) Valide Sultan & NakşîDîl Haseki Valide Sultan
1789 - 1807 18 Selim 3 Composer ^Mustafa 3 & Mihr Deposed by Kabakçı Mustafa against his reforms XX
1703 - 92 89 Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Arab Islamic theologian & founder of Wahhabism

 
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1923 624
1805 Janissaries Revolt Ottoman Empire vs Janissaries
1807 - 8 1 Mustafa 4 ^Abdülhamid 1 & Ayishā Deposed by Alemdar Mustafa Pasha XX
1807 - 9 2 AngloTurkish War Part ofNapoleonic Wars. Turkey, Greece, Egypt. United Kingdom vs Ottoman Empire
1807 Battle of Dardanelles
1807 - 8 1 Janissaries Revolt Ottoman Empire Janissaries
1808 - 39 31 Mahmud 2 Reformer ^Abdülhamid 1 & Nakş =BezmîÂlem Valide Sultan & Pertevniyal DisbandedJanissaries in consequence ofAuspicious Event in 1826
1800s Lampron Castle
1820 - 3 3 Ottoman–Persian War. Iran, Turkey. Qajar Persia vs Ottoman Empire
1832 Battle of Konya
1839 Battle of Nezib
1839 - 61 22 Abdülmecid 1 Strong Reformist ^ =Şevkefza Valide & TîrîMüjgan Kadınefendi & GülCemâl Kadınefendi & Gülistan Münire Kadınefendi launched Tanzimat period of reforms
1854 Ortaköy Mosque Turkey
1778 - 1846 68 Dede Efendi, Turkish/Ottoman composer
1855 Battle of Kars.
1861 - 76 15 Abdülaziz 1 ^Mahmud 2 & Pertevniyal Deposed &X by his ministers =HayranîDil Kadınefendi
1878 1912 St. George Cathedral Istanbul
1876 Murad 5 ^Abdülmecid 1 Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in empire
1876 - 1909 33 Abdülhamid 2 Sublime Khan ^Abdülmecid I & TîrîMüjgan Kadınefendi EstablishedFirst Constitutional Rule Deposed X1918
1877 - 8 1 Russo-Turkish War. Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey. Russian Empire, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Bulgarian volunteers vs Ottoman Empire
1877 Battle of Kizil Tepe.
1877 Battle of Kars.
1897 - 8 Bulgarian St Stephen Cathedral
Ottoman Empire
1299 - 1923 624
1909 - 18 9 Mehmed 5 True Path Follower ^Abdülmecid I & GülCemâl Kadınefendi
1913 Turkey loses most of European lands
1912 1st Battle of Catalca
1912 Battle of Elli
1912 - 3 Siege of Adrianople
1915 Naval Operations in Dardanelles
1915 Landing at Cape Helles
1915 1st Battle of Krithia
1915 Landing at Anzac Cove
1915 2nd Battle of Krithia
1915 Battle of Gully Ravine
1915 Battle of Chunuck Bair
1915 Battle of Lone Pine
1915 Battle of Krithia Vineyard
1915 Battle of Suvla Bay
1915 Battle of Nek
1915 Battle of Scimitar Hill
1915 Battle of Loos
1915 3rd Battle of Krithia
1915 - 6 Battle of Gallipolli
1915 - 6 Siege of Kut
1915 Battle of Qurna. Iraq UK, British India 2.1 #281 VS Ottomans 1 1
1915 Battle of Gallipoli. Turkey Ottomans 315.5 6 then 15div 251 %60 VS British 489, France 79 5 then 16div 220 59%
1915 Battle of Malazgirt. Turkey Russia 22 710 VS Ottomans 40 6C
1915 Battle of Ctesiphon. Iraq Ottoman 18 6.29.5 52G VS British, British India 11 4.6 2W
1916 Battle of Magdhaba. Egypt British Empire UK, Australia, New Zealand 6 #22X #124WVS Ottomans 2 #300+X #300W 1.2C
1916 Battle of Koprukoy. Turkey Russia 75 12 VS Ottomans 65 20
1916 Battle of Erzincan. Turkey Russia VS Ottomans 17X 17C
1916 Battle of Mecca. Saudi Arabia UK, British Raj, Arab Army 5+ VS Ottomans 1
1917 Battle of Rafa. Palestine UK, Australia, New Zealand #71X #415W VS Ottomans 2 #200X #168W 1.4C
1917 Battle of Jerusalem. Israel UK, Australia, India, New Zealand 18 VS Ottomans, Germans 25
1917 Battle of Sarikamish. Turkey Russia 100 30 16X 12W VS Ottomans 118 60 32X 15W
1917 1st Battle of Gaza. Palestine Ottomans, Germans 2Div 3Reg VS British 3Div 2Bat 1Pat
1917 2nd Battle of Gaza. Palestine Ottomans, Germany 3Div 82402X 1.3W #247M #200C VS British, France 5Div 1Bri 6.4
1917 Battle of Beersheba. Palestine British Empire GB, Australia, New Zealand 4Div 40 1.2 VS Ottomans, Germany 3Reg 4.4 #500X 1.4C
1917 Battle of Mughar Ridge. Palestine British Empire GB, Australia, New Zealand 2Cor 1.2 VS Ottomans, Germany 10C 100G 80Kilo
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1918 Battle of Sardarapat. Armenia Armenia 9 VS Ottomans 103 3.5
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1918 Battle of Kara Killisse. Turkey Ottomans 40 VS Russia 40
1918 Battle of Bash Abaran. Armenia Armenia VS Ottomans 3rdReg of 11th Div
1918 Battle of Baku. Azerbaijan Ottomans 14 #500C 30G, Azerbaijan 2 VS Baku Commune 6 40G, UK 1 1AB 1MGS 3ArC 2 #200, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Armenia, Centrocaspian Dictatorship, White Russians
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1918 22 4 Mehmed 6 Unifier of Religion ^Abdülmecid I & Gülistan Münire Kadınefendi. Deposed, Sultanate abolished X in exile in Sanremo, Italy 1926 Empire.
1922 Turkish nationalists, under Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) abolishOttoman Sultanate.
1922 - 4 2 Abdülmecid 2 ^Abdülaziz I & HayranîDil Kadınefendi Elected caliph byTBMM Exiled afterabolition ofcaliphate Dissolution ofOttoman Empire
1923 End of Ottoman Empire. Republic of Turkey is proclaimed, with Mustafa Kemal as its first president.
1924 Mustafa Kemal abolishes Ottoman Caliphate.
Harem Suare (Last Harem) 1998
Lawrence of Arabia 1962
Republic of Turkey
1923 - Present
88
@ Istanbul
1987 Kocatepe Mosque Ankara turkey
1998 Sabancı Merkez Camii Mosque Turkey
Ziyyanid
1235 - 1556
321
1468 - 1504 36 Abu Abdallah 4 (brother ofprevious)
1504 - 17 13 Abu Abdallah 5 (son ofprevious)
1517 - 27 10 Abu Hammu 3 (son of Abu Abbas Ahmad)
1527 - 40 13 Abu Muh 2 <
1528 Ottomans capture Buda
1540 Abu Abdallah 6 ^
1540 - 3 3 Abu Zayyan 2 <
1543 - 4 1 Saadid conquest
1544 - 50 6 Abu Zayyan 2
1550 - 6 6 Al Hassan ben Abu Muh <
       
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Kingdom of Imereti
1455 - 1810 355
Georgia
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1478 - 1510 32 Alexander 2
1510 - 65 55 Bagrat 3
1565 - 85 20 George 2
1585 - 8 3 Leon
1588 - 9 1 Rostom
1590 - 1605 15 Rostom
Kingdom of Imereti
1455 - 1810 355
Georgia
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1605 - 39 34 George 3
1639 - 60 21 Alexander 3
1660 - 1 1 Bagrat 5
1663 - 8 5 Bagrat 5
1669 - 78 9 Bagrat 5
1679 - 81 2 Bagrat 5
1661 - 3 2 Vakhtang Tchutchunashvili
1661 - 3 2 Archil
1678 - 9 1 Archil
1690 - 1 1 Archil
1695 - 6 1 Archil
1698 Archil
1663 - 4 1 Demetre
1681 - 3 2 George 4
1683 - 90 7 Alexander 4
1691 - 5 4 Alexander 4
1699 - 1701 2 Simon
Kingdom of Imereti
1455 - 1810 355
Georgia
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1701 - 2 1 Mamia
1711 George 6
1713 George 6
1702 - 7 5 George 6
1707 - 11 4 George 7
1712 - 3 1 George 7
1713 - 6 3 George 7
1719 - 20 1 George 7
1716 George 8
1720 George 8
1720 - 41 21 Alexander 5
1742 - 52 10 Alexander 5
1741 George 9
1752 - 66 14 Solomon 1
1768 - 84 16 Solomon 1
1766 - 8 2 Teimuraz
1784 - 9 5 David 2
1790 - 1 1 David 2
1789 - 90 1 Solomon 2
1792 - 1810 18 Solomon 2
1795 Battle of Krtsanisi.
Kingdom of Imereti
1455 - 1810 355
Georgia
2nd Imereti
1463 - 1810
347
1792 - 1810 18 Solomon 2
 
Kingdom of Kakheti
1465 - 1762 297
Bagratid
1511 - 3 2 George 2 "the Bad"
1513 - 20 7 Annexation by Kingdom of Kartli
1520 - 74 54 Leon
1574 - 1602 28 Alexander 2
Kingdom of Kakheti
1465 - 1762 297
Bagratids (Bagrationi)
Georgia
1602 David 1
1602 - 5 3 Alexander 2 (restored)
1605 Constantine 1
1605 - 14 9 Teimuraz 1
1614 - 5 1 Annexation by Persia
1615 - 48 33 Teimuraz 1 (restored)
1616 - 23 7 Annexation by Persia
1623 - 33 10 Teimuraz 1 (restored)
1633 - 6 3 Annexation by Persia
1636 - 8 2 Teimuraz 1 (restored)
1648 - 56 8 Annexation by Kartli
1656 - 64 8 Annexation by Persia
1664 - 75 11 Archil (Shāh Nazar Khān)
1675 - 6 1 Erekle 1 (Nazar Alī Khān)
1676 - 1703 17 Annexation by Persia
Kingdom of Kakheti
1465 - 1762 297
Bagratids (Bagrationi)
1703 - 22 19 David 2 (Imām Qulī Khān)
1722 - 32 10 Constantine 2 (Mahmūd Qulī Khān)
1732 - 44 12 Teimuraz 2
1744 - 62 18 Erekle 2
1796 Persian Expedition. Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran. Russian Empire vs Persian Empire.
Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
1762 - 98 36
1727 - 32 5 Konstantini 2
1732 - 62 30 Teimuraz 2
1762 - 98 36 Irakli 2
1795 Mohammad Khan Qajar razes Tbilisi, Georgia to ground.
Russian Georgia
1801 - 1918
117
1826 - 8 2 RussoPersian War part ofRussoPersian Wars. Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Russian Empire vs Persian Empire
1828 Battle of Akhalzic
Democratic Republic of Georgia
1918 - 21 3
Chairman
1918 - 21
3
1918 Noe Ramishvili
1918 - 1921 3 Noe Zhordania

Georgian SSR
1921 - 90 59
Republic of Georgia
1991 - Present
20
@ Tbilisi
Georgian
Unitary semipresidential Republic
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
         
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1483 - 1556 73 Fuzuli, Azerbaijani poet
 
1751 Askeran fortress Castle
1751 Shushi Fort Castle
1700s Hampartsoum Limondjian, Armenian/Ottoman composer
1764 8 Blue Mosque armenia
1804 Battle of Ganja
1826 Battle of Ganja
1844 Persian ProphetBáb of Azerbaijan announces his revelation on May 23, founding Bábísm. He announced toworld ofcoming of "He whom God shall make manifest". He is consideredforerunner of Baháulláh,founder ofBaháí Faith.
1807 28 Sardari Berd Castle Armenia
1868 - 87 Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
1918 Battle of Sardarapat. Armenia Armenia 9 VS Ottomans 103 3.5
1918 Battle of Bash Abaran. Armenia Armenia VS Ottomans 3rdReg of 11th Div
1918 Battle of Baku. Azerbaijan Ottomans 14 #500C 30G, Azerbaijan 2 VS Baku Commune 6 40G, UK 1 1AB 1MGS 3ArC 2 #200, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Armenia, Centrocaspian Dictatorship, White Russians
1909 Holy Myrrhbearers Cathedral Baku
1918 Battle of Baku. Azerbaijan Ottomans 14 #500C 30G, Azerbaijan 2 VS Baku Commune 6 40G, UK 1 1AB 1MGS 3ArC 2 #200, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Armenia, Centrocaspian Dictatorship, White Russians
2007 Virgin Marys Immaculate Conception Cathedral Baku
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1500s Kyrenia Castle Cyprus
1500s Kyrenia Castle
1571 Cyprus ended its time as a Venetian colony.Having been put under siegeprevious year, Famagusta was captured & Cyprus was subjected to Ottoman rule.first Ottoman settlers arrived.Ottomans took Famagusta; Cyprus became a part ofOttoman Empire. Greeks onisland of Cyprus sided with Venetians to fight offattacking Ottomans.
1572 A period began during which twenty eight bloody uprisings occurred.
1625 plague, which would claim over halflives of Cyprus, appeared.
1668 bloody uprisings ended.
1700 plague ran its course.
1821 Cypriots sided with Greece in a revolt against Turkish rule.islands leading churchmen & notables were executed as punishment. 20,000 Christians fledisland.
1878 British occupation began.British took overadministration ofisland, by mutual agreement, in order to protect their sea route to India viaSuez Canal. In exchange, Britain agreed to help Turkey against future Russian attacks.
1878 Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley became Crown commissioner.
1879 Sir Robert Biddulph became Crown commissioner.
1886 Sir Henry Ernest Bulwer became Crown commissioner.
1892 Sir Walter Sendall became Crown commissioner.
1898 Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith became Crown commissioner.
Republic of Cyprus
1960 - Present
51
1904 Sir Charles KingHarman became Crown commissioner.
1911 Sir Hamilton Goold Adams became Crown commissioner.
1914 Britain annexed Cyprus in response to Turkeys alliance with Germany & AustroHungary in World War I.
1915 Sir John Eugene Clauson became Crown commissioner.
1920 Sir Malcolm Stevenson became Crown commissioner.
1925 Cyprus became a British Crown Colony. Sir Malcolm Stevenson was made governor.
1926 ir Ronald Storrs became governor.
1931 Greek Cypriots demanding Enosis,union with Greece, instigated their first serious riots.governmenthouse in Nicosia was burned down; martial law was declared afterwards andlegislative council was abolished.Greek National Anthem anddisplay of Greek flag were banned.British inventedterms "Greek Cypriot" & "Turkish Cypriot" & usedlatter against"Greek Cypriots" so as to cease Enosis demands.
1932 Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs became governor.
1933 Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer became governor.
1939 Greek Cypriots fought withBritish in World War II, demanding Enosis at wars end.Turkish Cypriots wanted British rule to continue.
1939 Sir William Denis Battershill became governor.
1941 Sir Charles Campbell Woolley became governor.
1946 British Government began to imprison thousands of displaced Jews in camps on Cyprus.
1946 Sir Reginald Fletcher, Lord Winster, became governor.
1949 British Government finished imprisoning displaced Jews.
1949 Sir Andrew Barkworth Wright became governor.
1950 Archbishop Makarios III was electedpolitical & spiritual leader of Cyprus,head ofautocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church & leader ofcampaign for Enosis withsupport of Greece.
1954 Sir Robert Perceval Armitage became governor.
1955 A series of bomb attacks markedstart of a violent campaign for Enosis byNational Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA) under George Grivas, a Cypriot excolonel inGreek army. Grivas tookname Dighenis & conducted guerrilla warfare from a secret hideout inTroodos Mountains.
1955 Sir John Harding became governor.
1956 Britain deported Makarios toSeychelles in an attempt to quellrevolt.
1957 Field Marshal Sir John Harding was replaced bycivilian governor Sir Hugh Foot in a conciliatory move.
1958 Turkish Cypriots, alarmed by British conciliation, began demands for partition. There were intercommunal clashes & attacks on British.
1960 British occupation ended.British, Greek & Turkish governments signed a Treaty of Guarantee to provide for an independent Cypriot state withinCommonwealth of Nations & allow forretention of two Sovereign Base Areas at Akrotiri & Dhekelia. Undertreaty, each power receivedright to take military action inface of any threat toconstitution. Cyprus became independent of foreign rule.Greek Cypriot Archbishop Makarios becamefirst president, with Turkish Cypriot Dr. Kutchuk his vice president. Both hadright of veto. Turkish Cypriots, who formed 18% ofpopulation, were guaranteedvicepresidency, three out of ten ministerial posts & 30% of jobs inpublic service. They were further guaranteed 40% representation inarmy & separate municipal services infive major towns. Overall, a very complex constitution was drafted, which demanded a majority of votes overall as well as within each community for many decisions.
1914 Cyprus annexed by Britain.
1955 EOKA terrorist campaign in Cyprus
1959 Cyprus joins Commonwealth
1974 Cyprus invade d by Turkey
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1963 Greek Cypriots began to viewconstitution as unworkable & proposed changes abolishing all veto rights & many ethnic clauses; these proposals were rejected by Turkish Cypriots andTurkish government. Intercommunal fighting erupted. Tylliria was bombarded with napalm bombs. A UN Peace Keeping Force was sent in, but soon proved powerless to prevent incidents. Thousands of Turkish Cypriots retreated into enclaves where they were embargoed byGreek Cypriots.UN attempted to supply them with food & medicine. Akritas plan
1964 Battle of Tylliria takes place. GreekCypriot forces stormTurkishheld Kokkina enclave, prompting a Turkish military intervention & airstrikes onGreek forces. However, Soviet pressure preventedTurks from going any further, & whenbattle ended after four days of fierce fighting,Kokkina enclave had been reduced to 5040% of its original size.
1973Turks emerged from their enclaves.
1974 own page for that timeline
1975 Turks announced a Federate State innorth, with Rauf Denktaş as leader. UN Forces remained as buffer betweentwo zones.
1977 Makarios died. He was succeeded by Spyros Kyprianou.
1983Turkish Federated State declared itselfindependent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), with Denktaş as President.new state was not recognised by any country except Turkey & was officially boycotted.
1992 UN sponsored talks began betweentwo sides.
1995 UN talks ran intosand, but with a commitment to resume.
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1516 Battle of Yaunis Khan
1541 Construction ofwalls surroundingOld City of Jerusalem is completed.
 
1664 Curtezan Unmasked, Whoredoms of Jezebel by Anonymous26M 57;11
1799 Battle Jaffa
1799 Siege of Acre
1860 - 4 Russian Compound Cathedral
1883 Jewish Children by Sholem Aleichim208M 7;36;12
1899 St. Georges Cathedral, Jerusalem Established
1909 Legends of Jews by Louis Ginsberg 380M 13;50;26
1912 Making of Nation by Jenks & Kent 140M 5;06;08
1913 Omar Mosque Jerusalem, Israel
1926 Pictures of Jewish Homelife by Hannah Trager 44M 1;36;06
1931 Mahmood Mosque Israel
1948 Israel created
1967 Six day war
       
1916 Balfour declaration promises Palestine toJews
1993 Palestinian Israeli peace accords
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
Ottoman Lebanon
1516 - 1850s 330s
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
Ottoman Lebanon
1516 - 1850s 330s
1600s Mseilha Fort
Maans
1120 - 1697
577
Shihabs
1697 - 1842
145
Ottoman Lebanon
1516 - 1850s 330s
Shihabs
1697 - 1842
145
1750 Toron Castle Lebanon
Ottoman Lebanon
1516 - 1850s 330s
Shihabs
1697 - 1842
145
Republic of Lebanon
1943 - Present
68
@ Beirut
Arabic
Arabic (Lebanese dialect), French, Armenian
Unitary confessionalist & Parliamentary republic
20027 Mohammad AlAmin Mosque Lebanon
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1982 Israel invades Lebanon
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
     
1800s Al Karak Castle Jordan
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1946 - Present 65
@ Amman
Arabic
English, French, Circassian, Chechen, Persian, Kurdish, Turkish
Constitutional Monarchy

1946 51 5 Abdullah (1882 1951 69)
1951 2 1 Talal (1909 72 63) Abdicated
1952 99 47 Hussein (1935 99 64)
1961 Abu Darweesh Mosque Jordan
1982 9 King Abdullah 1 Mosque Jordan
1999 Present 12 Abdullah 2 (1962 Present 49)
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1516 Battle of Marj Dibiq
   
1873 Saint Elias Cathedral

1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
1532 - 55 23 Ottoman/Safavid War 1532 - 55 23. Iraq, Armenia, Iran. Ottoman Empire, France vs Safavid Empire
1578 - 90 12 Ottoman–Safavid War. Iraq, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia. Ottoman Empire vs Safavid Empire

1603 - 18 15 Ottoman–Safavid War. Iraq. Safavid Empire vs Ottoman Empire
1623 - 39 16 Ottoman–Safavid War. Iraq. Ottoman Empire vs Safavid Empire

1781 Jezzar Pasha Mosque Israel
1817 - 92 75 Baháulláh foundedBaháí Faith in Persia Iraq
1914 Battle of Fao Landing
1915 Battle of Qurna. Iraq UK, British India 2.1 #281 VS Ottomans 1 1
1915 Battle of Ctesiphon. Iraq Ottoman 18 6.29.5 52G VS British, British India 11 4.6 2W
1916 Hassan Bek Mosque Israel
1915 Battle of Ctesiphon Iraq
1916 Battle of Dujaila Iraq
1917 2nd Battle of Kut Iraq
1917 Fall of Bagdhad Iraq
1932 Iraqi Independence
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1980 - 8 8 Iran vs Iraq war
Soraya 2003
1991 Gulf War
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
       
1961 Saudis take over defence of Kuwait from Britain
1979 - 86 Grand Mosque Of Kuwait
1986 Imam Hussein Mosque Kuwait
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1700s
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1900s
         
1500s
1600s
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1900s
         
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1900s
   
1744 1st Saudi State is founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud.
1803 Wahhabis ofFirst Saudi State capture Mecca & Medina.
1817 - 18 Nejd Expedition.
1891 Battle of Mulayda.
1901 Battle of Holy Apostles Monestary
1901 Battle of Riyadh
1903 Battle of Dilam
1904 Battle of Bekeriya
1904 Battle of Shinanah
1905 Battle of Rawdat Muhanna
1907 Battle of Tarafiyah
1912 Battle of Kirk Kilisse
1912 Battle of Lule Burgas
1915 Battle of Jarrab. Saudi Arabia Al Rashid 1.51.8 VS Emirate of Riyadh 2
1916 Battle of Mecca. Saudi Arabia UK, British Raj, Arab Army 5+ VS Ottomans 1
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1932 Saudi Arabia Independence
1960 OPEC formed
1987 King Saud Mosque Saudi Arabia
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
         
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
       
1971 Qatar independent
1998 Dubai Grand Mosque UAE
2000 Sheikh Zayed Mosque UAE
2001 Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque Oman
1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
     
1817 Capture of Mawiyah.
1967 Aden independence
1914 Al Muhdhar Mosque Yemen