1500s
1600s
1700s
1800s
1900s
 
30 yrs
 
 
 
P
J
A
A
J
A
J
A
J
G
M
A
I
S
A
W
J
P
P
L
Dutch Republic 1581 - 1795 227
 
Kingdom ofNetherlands 1815 - Present 196

ML
 
Voltaire
 
Nietzsche
 
 
Austrian Empire
 
German
 
 
French Empire - 1605
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County of Holland
922 - 1795
873
Habsburg 1482 - 1581 99
1494 - 1506 12 Philip 2Handsome
1515 - 55 40 Charles 2, HRE Charles 5 * Spain.
1543 OnWorkings ofHuman Body (De humani corporis fabrica) puplished by Andreas Vesalius (1514 64 50). Dutch anatomist, physician, and author of one ofmost influential books on human anatomy,
1555 - 81 26 Philip 3
1566 - 1648 82 Eighty Years War between Spain andNetherlands.
1581 Dutch Republic declares independance.
Dutch Republic
1581 - 1795
227
1572 - 84 12 Paulus Buys (held predecessor office of Lands Advocate)
1574 Siege of Leiden 4 monthsends in a comprehensive Dutch victory.
1584 - 5 1 Siege of Antwerp many of its merchants flee to Amsterdam.
1579 Union of Utrecht unifiesnorthern Netherlands, a foundation forlater Dutch Republic.
1579 Union of Arras unifiessouthern Netherlands, a foundation forlater states ofSpanish Netherlands,Austrian Netherlands and Belgium
1500s Fraeylemaborg
1500s Vredenburg Castle
1504 - 09 Maurick Castle
1540 Breda Castle
1580 Seiged Bleijenbeek Castle





Dutch Republic
1581 - 1795
227
1586 - 1619 33 Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (held predecessor office of Lands Advocate)
1602 Dutch East India Company founded. Its success contributes toDutch Golden Age.
1606 Captain Willem Janszoon and his crew aboardDutch East India Company ship Duyfken becomesfirst recorded Europeans to sight and make landfall in Australia.
1609 12 Ys Truce Netherlands and Spain agree to a inEighty Years War.
1619 - 92 Biljoen Castle
1622 Ilpenstein Castle
1568 - 1625 57 Jan BrueghelElder Flemish Painter Netherlands
1542 - 1619 77 Johan van Oldenbarnevelt Dutch Politician & Grand Pensionary, played a pivotal role in organizingDutch revolt against Spain
1619 - 21 3 Andries de Witt
1621 - 9 8 Anthonie Duyck (or Anthonis Duyck)
1629 - 31 2 Jacob Cats
1631 - 6 5 Adriaan Pauw
1469 - 1536 65 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam), Rotterdam– July 12, Basel was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic Christian theologian.
1636 - 51 15 Jacob Cats
1637 Dutch Bible.
1639 Battle ofDowns. Dutch Rep. 1 90 ? VS Spain 6 53 27, 16C
1642 1st recorded European sighting of New Zealand Abel Janszoon Tasman
1648 - 79 31 Jan Steens carreer (1626 - 79 53). Painter.
1649 - 57 8 Paintings of Ruisdael (1628 82 54). Dutch Golden Age Landscape Painter.
1651 - 3 2 Adriaan Pauw
1652 - 4 2 1st AngloDutch War Commonwealth of England Republic ofSeven United Netherlands
1651 - 86 35 335 Years War Isles of Scilly Republic ofSeven United Netherlands
1653 - 72 19 Johan de Witt
1656 Christiaan Huygens describestrue shape ofrings of Saturn.
1657 1st functional pendulum clock based onlearnings of Galileo Galilei by Christiaan Huygens
1659 1st observation of surface details of Mars Christiaan Huygens
1662 Huize Almelo
1665 Heeze Castle
1665 - 7 2 2nd AngloDutch War Dutch Republic Denmark Kingdom of England
1580 - 1666 86 Frans Hals Painter
1606 - 69 63 Rembrandt van Rijn Painter
Dutch Empire
1568 - 1975
407
1672 - 88 16 Gaspar Fagel
1672 - 4 2 3rd AngloDutch War Part ofFrancoDutch War Dutch Republic DenmarkNorway England France
1673 Amerongen Castle
1672 - 8 6 FrancoDutch War France England Sweden Bishopric of Münster Archbishopric of Cologne Dutch Republic Holy Roman Empire Spain
Brandenburg
1632 - 75 43 Johannes Vermeer Painter
1607 - 76 69 Michiel de Ruyter Admiral
1632 - 77 45 Baruch Spinoza Jewish/Dutch Philosopher Amsterdam
1683 - 4 1 War ofReunions. Netherlands. France vs Spain
1688 - 9 1 Michiel ten Hove
1688 - 9 1 Glorious Revolution starts withDutch Republic invading England, England becomes a constitutional monarchy.
Dutch Republic
1581 - 1795
227
1689 - 1720 31 Anthonie Heinsius
1700 Menkemaborg
1700 Middachten Castle
1700s Huis Doorn
1720 - 7 7 Isaac van Hoornbeek
1632 - 1723 91 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Scientist, 1st person to use a microscope to view bacteria
1727 - 36 9 Simon van Slingelandt 1729 Rechteren Castle
1686 - 1736 50 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit Physicist, Engineer, Glass Blower B in Danzig
1736 - 46 10 Anthonie van der Heim
1746 Willem Buys
1746 - 9 3 Jacob Gilles
1749 - 72 23 Pieter Steyn
1752 Slot Teylingen
1772 - 87 15 Pieter van Bleiswijk
1779 Photosynthesis was first discovered by Dutch Jan Ingenhousz
1787 - 95 8 Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel
1795 Invaded and annexed by France.
1799 Dutch East India Company is dissolved.
Batavian Republic
1795 - 1806
11
Client ofFrench Republic
13 - 1500 Slangenburg Castle
Batavian Republic
1795 - 1806
11
Client ofFrench Republic
Kingdom of Holland
1806 - 10
4
Client ofFrench Empire
French Netherlands
1810 - 3
3
Transition Period
1813 - 6
3
1815 British East India Company take Ceylon from Dutch .
United Kingdom ofNetherlands
1816 - 1939
123
1815 - 40 35 William 1
1840 - 9 9 William 2
1849 - 90 41 William 3
1860 Max Havlaar published by Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker) (1820 - 87 67) Writer.
1885 - 90 5 Vincent van Goghs Carreer 1853 - 90 37. Post Impressionist Painter
1890 - 1948 58 Wilhelmina
1892 - 1907 De Haar Castle Or 1391
1895 - 1930 Saint Bavo Cathedral
United Kingdom ofNetherlands
1816 - 1939
123
1890 - 1948 58 Wilhelmina
1948 - 80 32 Juliana
1980 - present 31 Beatrix

1940 Battle ofNetherlands. Germany 22Div 1.4G 759T 830 22575 750 2.1X 7.3W1.4C VS Netherlands 2.3X 89W, UK #43X, France #216X 9Div 700G 1T 5ST 32AC 145 280 2+CivX
1940 Battle of Gabon. French Equatorial Africa (CAR, Chad, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon) UK, Free French VS German France 1Sl 1Su
1940 Battle of Rotterdam. Netherlands Germany 1 #123 VS Netherlands 7 12A #185X
1940 Battle of Zeeland. Netherlands Germany 7.5 #97X #300W VS Netherlands 10 #38X #115W, France 15 #229X #700W 3C, UK ? 25 #265X #815W 3C
1940 Battle ofAfsluitdijk. Netherlands Netherlands #225 1GB 1X #2W 2CivX #10CivW VS Germany #500 69H 4 #5X #25+W
1940 Battle ofGrebbeberg. Netherlands Germany 1Div 1Bri 23 #275X VS Netherlands 1Div 1Bri 15 #417X
1940 Battle forHague. Netherlands Netherlands VS Germany
1940 Battle of Maastricht. Netherlands Germany #750 #47X VS Netherlands 1TDiv Panzer 1TDiv Flieger 343T 9 #183X 9AC 10
1940 Battle of Belgium. Germany 141Div 7.4G 2.4T 5.4 4Wor ?Ca #43PTX #100PTW VS Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands 144Div 14G 3.4T 2.5 222.4 #900 200C
1940 Battle of Fort EbenEmael. Netherlands Germany #493 #43X #99W VS Belgium 1+ #60X #40W 1C
1940 Battle of Hannut. Belgium Germany 2PTDiv 618T 49 111D 108A 1.3 25.9 #60X #80W VS France, Netherlands 2ArDiv 600AFV 121T 20.8 ?
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1942 Convoy PQ 17. Arctic Ocean Germany 9U(w/X) 33To 6B 5 VS UK, USA, USSR, Netherlands, Panama 6D 2AntAi 2Sub 11Sm 35M 24 #154 6Au
1942 Operation Torch. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK, Free French, Canada, Netherlands 107 479+X 720W VS Germany 2Sub in Mor., Vichy France 60 1.3X 2W
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Allied advance from Paris toRhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 ClearingChannel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Netherlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Market Garden. Netherlands, Germany UK, USA, Poland, Dutch Resistance 42.6PT 2IDiv 15.317.2 1ADiv 1ABri 88 144T VS Germany, German Netherlands 6.313.3 30T&SPG 159
1944 Battle of Arnhem Netherlands Germany, German Netherlands 1Div 1For 1.3X 2WVS UK, Poland 1AiDiv 1PTBri 2X 6.8C
1944 Battle ofScheldt Belgium, Netherlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 Battle of Clervaux Luxembourg Germany Div 2PTDiv + VS USA 2Reg 22.8
1945 Operation Blackcock Netherlands, Germany UK, Canada 2Div ComBri ArDiv 1.2 VS Germany 2Div 2PTReg HPTBat 2
1945 Operation Amherst Netherlands Free France 2PTBri #700 VS Germany Capture Canals
1945 Battle of Groningen. Netherlands Canada 1214 #43X #166W VS Germany 77.5 #300X 5.2C
1939 - 45 6 Battle ofAtlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle ofRiver Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
Kingdom ofNetherlands
1954 - Present 55
HREs Principality of
StavelotMalmedy

651 - 1795
1144
Stavelot
1568 Mercator Projection Map by Gerardus Mercator
1512 - 94 82 Gerardus Mercator famous cartographer Flanders, Belgium
1514 - 64 50 Andreas Vesalius B Belgium D Greece was an anatomist, physician, and author of one ofmost influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (OnWorkings ofHuman Body). Vesalius is often referred to asfounder of modern human anatomy.
PrinceBishopric of Liège
980 - 1789 809
 

1500s Banknotes Reintroduced in Europe Italy and Flanders, Belgium
1500s Aldenbiezen Castle
1521 Our Lady Cathedral Antwerp

 

 

Principality of
StavelotMalmedy

651 - 1795
1144
@ Stavelot. Part of HRE
1561 Belgic Confession of Protestant faith Guido de Bres draws up.
1577 - 1640 63 Peter Paul Rubens Flemish Painter
1593 - 1678 85 Jacob Jordaens Flemish Painter
1620 - 3 3 Chateau de Baronville Castle
1630s Rullingen Castle
Principality of
StavelotMalmedy

651 - 1795
1144
@ Stavelot. Part of HRE
1749 - 1811 62 Louis Montoyer, Belgian architect
1790 United States of Belgium proclaimed followingBrabant Revolution.
1728 - 40 12 Giuseppe Grisonis Carreer 1699 - 1769 70 Flemish Painter who worked in Florence.
United States of Belgium
1790
1
1700 bought jehaybohegne Castle
1700s Dave Castle
1700s Leeuwergem Castle
1700s Seneffe Castle
1708 Schloss Cappenberg Castle
1758 - 70 12 Deulin Castle
1782 - 4 2 Laeken Castle
1783 Paleis Brussel Castle
1787 - 9 2 Van Duras Castle
1767 St Aubins Cathedral
1776 - 80 Saint Jacquessur / Coudenberg Cathedral Brussels


1830 - 1 1 Belgian Revolution inUnited Kingdom ofNetherlands led tocreation of Belgium.
Kingdom of Belgium
1830 - Present
181
1831 - 65 34 Leopold 1 (1790 - 1865 75)
1865 1909 44 Leopold 2 (1835 - 1909 74) ^
1800s Gors Kasteel van Gors Castle
1800s Wijnendale Castle
1850 Lagendal Castle
1859 - 62 3 Loppem Castle



Kingdom of Belgium
1830 - Present
181

1865 - 1909 44 Leopold 2 (1835 - 1909 74) ^
1907 Meylandt Castle
1909 - 34 25 Albert 1 ^<
1934 - 51 17 Leopold 3 (1901 - 83 82) ^
1951 - 93 42 Baudouin (1930 93 63) ^
1993 - Present 18 Albert 2 (1934 Present 75) <
Belgium Empire
1901 - 62 61
1914 Liège, Belgium. 4 August17 Germans invade Belgium; start of World War I See Also a List of World War I Battles

1914 Battle of Charleroi, Belgium. 21 August

1914 Battle of Mons, Belgium. 23 August British forces hold Germans back.

1915 Second Battle of Ypres, Belgium. (22 April 25 May) Germans use poison gas

1918 2nd Battle ofLys. Belgium UK, (+Australia, Newfoundland), Portugal, Belgium, France, USA ? 120 VS Germany 800 120
1940 Battle of Belgium. Germany 141Div 7.4G 2.4T 5.4 4Wor ?Ca #43PTX #100PTW VS Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands 144Div 14G 3.4T 2.5 222.4 #900 200C
1940 Battle of Fort EbenEmael. Netherlands Germany #493 #43X #99W VS Belgium 1+ #60X #40W 1C
1940 Battle of Hannut. Belgium Germany 2PTDiv 618T 49 111D 108A 1.3 25.9 #60X #80W VS France, Netherlands 2ArDiv 600AFV 121T 20.8 ?
1940 Battle of Gembloux. Belgium France 3MDiv 3Div 2+XWM VS Germany 2TDiv Panzer 35%T 3Div #304X #413W #29M
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 1 1 East African Campaign. Sudan, British Somaliland, Colonial Kenya, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, Abyssinia UK, British Somaliland, Kenya Colony, British India, Gold Coast, Colonial Nigeria, N. Rhodesia, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, South Africa, Free Ethiopians, Belgium, Belgian Congo, Free French 20 then 250+ 4+ VS Italy 74, Italian E. Africa 182 Eritrean & Somalians 156 6+ 230C
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Allied advance from Paris toRhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 ClearingChannel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Netherlands Vs Germany
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Battle of Moerbrugge. Belgium Canada #5X #26W VS Germany #700X #150C
1944 - 5 Battle of Hürtgen Forest. GermanBelgian Border Germany 80 28 VS USA 120 33 (w/ 9 NCCas)
1944 Battle ofScheldt. Belgium, Netherlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 - 5 1 Battle ofBulge. Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 89.5 19X 47.5W 23CM 800T, UK 1.4 #200X #969W #239M, Canada, Free Belgians, Free Luxembourg 83 4IDiv 1ADiv 394A#242T To 610 20IDiv 9ADiv 4.2A 1.6T 182AFV 6 VS Germany 200 8IDiv 5ADiv 340+T 280+AFV 1.6A 955RL Rien 100 12IDiv 3⅔ADiv 440+T 440+AFV 600T&AG 2.4 500T 67.2100XMC 100s 3CiX
1944 Battle of St. Vith. Belgium Germany 2GrDiv 1Bri 1PTDiv 100+ 500T VS USA, UK 1IDiv 2ADiv 22 12.5XWCM 88T 25AC
1944 Battle of Foy. Belgium USA, Canada VS Germany Town taken
1944 Battle of Lanzerath Ridge. Belgium Germany Bat 2Reg Div#500 GrDiv20 #20X #63W #13M VS USA In&ScPla Reg Div18 A4 #1X #14W #20C
1944 Losheim Gap. Belgium Germany 25 #200X #300W200+T 112T VS USA 5 #450X 1+W 2.3C 20LT 12MT 32T
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Netherlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1939 45 6 Battle ofAtlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle ofRiver Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
1500s Mersch Castle
1500s Pettingen Castle
1557 Sanem Castle
1563 La Fontaine Castle
1572 Grand Ducal Palace, Luxembourg
1577 Differdange Castle
1590 Aspelt Castle






1600s Dommeldange Castle
1600s Fischbach Castle
1600s Schoenfels Castle
1610 Wintrange Castle
1630 Erpeldange Castle
1665 Clemency Castle
1613 - 1938 325 NotreDame Cathedral, Luxembourg
1700s Born Castle
1700s Colpach Castle
1724 Stadtbredimus Castle
1727 Wiltz Castle
1728 Bettendorf Castle
1733 Bettembourg Castle
1750 Senningen Castle
1753 BettangesurMess Castle
1775 Munsbach Castle
1775 Septfontaines, Rollingergrund










1800s Heisdorf Castle
1800s Schengen Castle
1824 Walferdange Castle
1830 Mamer Castle
1880 Meysembourg Castle
1890 Rosport Castle
1895 Beggen Castle
1898 Stolzembourg Castle







1914 Battle ofArdennes. Luxembourg. 21 August

1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1944 Allied advance from Paris toRhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 - 5 Battle ofBulge. Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 89.5 19X 47.5W 23CM 800T, UK 1.4 #200X #969W #239M, Canada, Free Belgians, Free Luxembourg 83 4IDiv 1ADiv 394A#242T To 610 20IDiv 9ADiv 4.2A 1.6T 182AFV 6 VS Germany 200 8IDiv 5ADiv 340+T 280+AFV 1.6A 955RL Rien 100 12IDiv 3⅔ADiv 440+T 440+AFV 600T&AG 2.4 500T 67.2100XMC 100s 3CiX
1944 Battle of Clervaux. Luxembourg Germany Div 2PTDiv + VS USA 2Reg 22.8
1944 Elsenborn Ridge. Belgium USA 4Div 28 5XM VS Germany 4GrDiv 56 + PTDiv 114T&V
1944 Operation Stösser. Germany USA 3 300T VS Germany PTReg #300 #200
1945 Siege of Bastogne. Belgium USA PTDiv 22.8+ 3+Ca VS Germany 54+
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Netherlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
Kingdom of France
843 - 1791
948
Valois
1328 - 1589 231
1498 - 1515 17 Louis 12 Father ofPeople
1500 Pays de la Loire Ballon Castle
1500s Brittany Pontivy Castle
1500s Brittany Tremazan Castle
1500s Burgundy de Berze Castle
1500s Burgundy Moulins en Gilbert Castle
1500s Centre Chamerolles Castle
1500s Centre Hallier Castle
1500s ÎledeFrance Louvre Castle
1500s Lorraine HombourgBudange Castle
1500s Pays de la Loire Breze Castle
1500s Pays de la Loire Careil Castle
1500s Picardy Thierry Castle
1500s ProvenceAlpesCôte dAzur Castle
1515 - 47 32 Francios 1 Frances 1st Renassaince Monarch
Sword andRose 1953
1519 Raid Provence and Toulon Barbary pirates led by Hayreddin Barbarossa in southern France.
1524 Exploration from South Carolina to Newfoundland by Giovanni da Verrazzano (1485 1528 43) Explorednortheast coast of America, from about present day South Carolina to Newfoundland. Italian explorer for France.
1525 Battle of Pavia Spain and Germany defeat France at, Francis I of France is captured.
1534 Quebec Claimed for France by Jacques Cartier
1536 John Calvin 1509 64 55 begins reforming
1540 Centre Valencay Castle
1544 Battle of Ceresole French Defeat an Imperial–Spanish army at the.
1st French Empire
1546 - 1803
257
King Francis I of France, consideredfirst Renaissance monarch of his Kingdom (1494 - 1547).
1547 - 59 Henry 2
Diane 1956  1553 - 1615 62 Margot
Queen Margot 1994
1551 SectionedBible into verses Robert Stephens
1553 - 1610 57 French Wars of Religion and reunitedkingdom under his command
1491 - 1557 66 Jacques Cartier Explorer. Discovered Canada.
1559 60 1 Francis 2
1560 Case of Martin Guerre Imposter
Le Retour de Martin Guerre (The Return of Martin Guerre) 1982 
1560 74 14 Charles 9
1562 98 36 French Wars of Religion. Politiques Huguenots England VS Catholic League Spain
1562 Massacre of Wassy and inFrench Wars of Religion.
1562 Battle of Dreux
1509 64 55 John Calvin Theologian, Reformer, Founder of Calvinism
1503 66 63 Michel Nostradamus French astrologer and doctor, author of Les Propheties, a book of world prophecies
1503 66 36 Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21.
1574 89 15 Henry 3
1577 Lorraine DeMonmort Castle
Bourbon
1589 1792 203
1589 1610 21 Henry 4
1553 1615 62 Queen Margot
Queen Margot 1994
15 1600s Castres Cathedral
15 1600s Le Havre Cathedral
1500s Entrevaux Cathedral
150631 Condom Cathedral
1520 Dol Cathedral tower started
1541 1704 Rennes Cathedral
1541 1704 Rennes ProCathedral
1552 Maillezais Cathedral Destroyed
1593 Ajaccio Cathedral




1672 Lynching of Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis de Witt inHague – William III of Orange takes power.
Kingdom of France
843 1791
948
Bourbon
1589 1792 203
1589 1610 21 Henry 4
French Empire
1605
1600s France witchcraft persecution
Devils 1971
1618 48 30 30 Years War United Provinces Sweden Bohemia DenmarkNorway 16251629 France Saxony Electoral Palatinate BrunswickLüneburg
England BrandenburgPrussia Transylvania Hungarian AntiHabsburg Rebels Zaporozhian Cossacks Ottoman Empire Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Kingdom of Hungary[10] Kingdom of Croatia Spain and its possessions DenmarkNorway 1643 1645
1610 43 33 Louis 13
=Anne of Austria
1601 66 65
3 Musketeers 1935 1939 1948 1973
1610 Orion Nebula is identified by Nicolas de Peiresc of France
1612 1st Flintlock Musket for Louis 13 of France by gunsmith Marin de Bourgeoys
1621 Centre Sancerre Castle
1624 42 18 Cardinal Richelieu 1585 1642 57 centralises power in France As chief minister
UnderRed Robe 1937
Cardinal Richelieu 1935
1627 Siege of La Rochelle Cardinal Richelieu Vs Protestant eventually capitulates.
1567 1635 68 Samuel De Champlain Explorer
1635 59 24 FrancoSpanish War. France, Spain, Netherlands, Italy. France vs Spain
1637 Pierre de Fermat formulates his socalled Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995. France.
1641 Meditations on First Philosophy by René Descartes
1643 Pays de la Loire Clermont Castle
1596 - 1650 54 René Descartes Philosopher, Mathematician
1642 Mechanical Calculator Blaise Pascal inventscalled Pascals calculator. France.
1643 - 1715 72 Louie 14
La Prise de pouvoir par Louis XIV (The Rise of Louis XIV) 1966
Vatel 2000

1635 - 1719 84 Françoise dAubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV
1588 - 1648 60 Marin Mersenne, Theologian, Philosopher, Mathematician Music Theorist "Father of Acoustics"
1593 - 1652 59 Georges de La Tour Painter
1648 53 5 Fronde civil war
1648 - 9 1 1st Fronde Mob VS Cardinal Mazarin
1650 - 3 3 2nd Fronde
1592 - 1655 63 Pierre Gassendi Philosopher, Priest, Scientist, Astronomer, Astrologer, Mathematician
1602 - 61 59 Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal & Politician from Italy
1623 - 62 39 Blaise Pascal Theologian, Mathematician, Physicist
1662 Jacques AymarVernayReintroduced Dowsing into popular use in Europe
1663 France takes full political and military control over its colonial possessions in New France.
1601 - 65 64 Pierre de Fermat Lawyer, Mathematician
1594 - 1665 71 Nicolas Poussin Classical Painter
1673 alsace Rohan Castle
1652 - 87 35 JeanBaptiste Lullys career 1632 - 87 55. Italianborn composer regarded asfather of French opera
1667 - 8 1 War of Devolution. Netherlands, France. France vs Spain, England, Sweden, Dutch Republic France invadesNetherlands.Peace of AixlaChapelle (1668) brings this to a halt.
1672 Rampjaar inNetherlands Combined attack by France, England and two German states onRepublic ofUnited Provinces.
1672 - 8 6 FrancoDutch War.
1622 - 73 51 Molière Dramatist Actor, Director
1678 Treaty of Nijmegen endshostilities with France
1674 Treaty of Westminster endswar between England andRepublic ofUnited Provinces.
1682 La Salle Explores Length of Mississippi River & claims Louisiana for France
1606 - 84 78 Pierre Corneille Dramatist
1685 Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France.
1688 - 97 9 9 Yrs War Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion duringNine Years War.
1605 - 94 89 Ismaël Bullialdus Astronomer
1693 - 4 1 Famine in France kills 2 million.
1621 - 95 74 Jean de La Fontaine Poet
1639 - 99 60 Jean Racine Dramatist
1600s Auvergne Chazeron Castle
1600s Burgundy Arcy Castle
1600s Centre dAzayleFerron Castle
1600s Lorraine Longwy Castle
1600s Montpellier Cathedral Rebuilt
1600s Uzès Cathedral Facade
1620 Quimper Cathedral Fire
1642 - 1762 Sospel Cathedral
1671 - 8 St Louis Cathedral, Les Invalides
1692 - 1739 Montauban Cathedral
1694 Alès Cathedral Diocese Established
1694 Dax Cathedral
1696 - 1703 Cambrai Cathedral




Kingdom of France
843 - 1791
948
Bourbon
1589 - 1792 203
1643 - 1715 72 Louie 14
Dies, leaving France deep in debt.
1613 - 1700 87 André Le Nôtre Landscape Architect
1640 - 1700 60 Monsieur de SainteColombe Composer of chamber music
1702 - 15 13 Camisard Rebellion France.
1643 - 1704 61 MarcAntoine Charpentier, Composer
1641 - 1707 66 FrançoiseAthénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of Louis 14
1636 - 1711 75 Nicolas Boileau / Despréaux Poet & Critic
1713 Central Banking in France and modern Finance by Scottish economist John Law (1671 - 1729 58)
1636 - 1711 75 Nicolas BoileauDespréaux Poet, Literary Critic
1714 French take Mauritius
1715 - 74 Louis 15
Madame du Barry 1934
1704 - 17 13 1001 Nights translated into French by Antoine Galland.work becomes immensely popular throughout Europe.
1720 - 1 1 Great Plague of Marseille
1684 - 1721 37 Antoine Watteau Painter
1735 - 7 2 Roman etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi appear in Paris 1720 - 78 58
1728 40 12 Giuseppe Grisonis Carreer 1699 - 1769 70 Flemish Painter who worked in Florence.
1733 Hippolyte et Aricie,1st opera by JeanPhilippe Rameau
1668 - 1733 75 François Couperin Composer
1735 - 7 2 Roman Etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesis in Paris 1720 78 58 Italian Painter
1757 - 1834 77 Marquis de Lafayette Continental Army officer
1666 - 1743 77 Robert Le Lorrain Sculptor
1753 French occupy Ohio valley in North America
1699 - 1753 54 JeanBaptisteS Painter
1754 - 63 9 Anglo French war in North America
Broken Chain 1993
Last ofMohicans 1936
Last ofMohicans 1992
Northwest Passage 1940 
Mohawk 1956
Frontier Times 1987 
Barry Lyndon 1976
1665 - 1755 90 JeanLouis Lemoyne Sculptor
1689 - 1755 66 Charles de Secondat (Montesquieu) Thinker
1712 - 59 47 LouisJoseph de Montcalm Officer
1759 Candide by Voltaire
1698 - 1762 64 Edmé Bouchardon Sculptor
1762 Emile (On Education) by JeanJacques Rousseau
1762Social Contract Or Principles of Political Right by JeanJacques Rousseau
1683 - 1764 81 JeanPhilippe Rameau Composer
1713 - 65 52 Alexis Clairault Mathematician
1768 Lousie6
Madame du Barry 1934
1703 - 70 67 François Boucher Painter
1715 - 74 59 Michel Benoist Painter, Architect, Missionary in China
1774 - 92 18 Louis 16
1776 Steamboat by Claude de Jouffroy
1712 - 78 66 JeanJacques Rousseau Writer & Philosopher
1694 - 1778 84 Voltaire
Voltaire 1933
1704 - 78 74 JeanBaptiste Lemoyne Sculptor
1782 Les Liaisons dangereuses by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
1717 - 83 66 Jean le Rond dAlembert Mathematician, Physicist & Encyclopedist
1713 - 84 71 Denis Diderot Writer, Philosopher
1751 - 85 34 French Encyclopédie
1788 1st French Quaker Community in Congénies
1789 Law of Conservation of Mass by Antoine Lavoisier discoversthe basis for chemistry, and begins modern chemistry
1789 - 99 10 French revolution
Ridicule 1966
Marie Antoinette 2006  1955 1938
Affair ofNecklace 2001
Jefferson in Paris 1995
La Marseillaise 1938
La Révolution française 1989
A Tale of Two Cities 1980 1958 1935
Reign of Terror 1949
Scaramouche 1952
Danton 1982
L Anglaise et le duc 2001
Nuit de Varennes 1982
1790 Reflections onRevolution in France by Irish Edmund Burke
1749 - 91 42 Honoré Mirabeau Writer, Politician
1st Republic of France
1792 - 1804 12
1716 - 91 75 Étienne Maurice Falconet Sculptor
1759 - 94 35 Georges Danton Revolutionary Leader
1743 - 94 51 Antoine Lavoisier Chemist, considered father of modern chemistry
1798 Napoleon 1769 1821 52 came to power and tookPope prisoner.
Napoleon 2003 1927
Pride andPassion 1957
Battle of Austerlitz 1960 Napoleon
Waterloo 1970
Sharpes Waterloo 2006
Sea Devils 1953
Conquest 1937
Desiree 1954
1792 - 1815 23 Great French War started asFrench Revolutionary Wars which lead intoNapoleonic Wars.
1792 - 1802 10 French Revolutionary Wars.
1792 - 7 5 War of1st Coalition. France. French Rep., French satellite states & Polish Legions Vs HRE, Prussia, GB, French Royalists, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Naples, Sicily, Other Italian states, Ottomans, Dutch Rep.
1755 - 93 38 Marie Antoinette, Austrianborn Queen of France
1743 - 93 50 JeanPaul Marat Journalist
1793 - 6 3 Revolt inVendée againstFrench Republic attime ofRevolution.
1793 Britain declares war against France
1793 - 5 2 Flanders Campaign. Belgium, France, Netherlands France VS Dutch Rep., HRE,
GB, Prussia, Hanover, HesseKassel
1792 Battle of Jemappes Belgium France 403 100G 2 VS HRE 13.8 1.25 56G 5G
1793 Battle of Neerwinden Belgium Austria 39 2 VS France 45 4
1793 Battle of Famars France Austria, Hanover, GB 53 1.1XW VS France 27 3XW #300C 17C 14AW 3S
1793 Battle of Hondschoote France France 40 3 VS GB, Hanover, HesseKassel 24 4
1793 Battle of Wattignies France French Rep. 45 5 VS Austria 30 3
1793 Battle of Mouscron. Belgium France VS Austria
1768 93 25 Charlotte Corday Revolutionary
1794 Battle of Tourcoing France France 70 3XW 7GC VS GB, Austria 74 4X 1.5W 60GC
1794 Battle of Fleurus Belgium French Rep. 70 12C 5 100G 1G VS Austria, Dutch Rep., BrunswickLüneburg, GB 52.5 18C 5 111G 1G
1794 Battle of Boxtel Netherlands French Rep. VS GB, Dutch Rep., Austria 32
1793 - 6 3 War inVendée. France. Republic Coasts of La Rochelle, Coasts of Brest, Mainz,
West, Coasts of Cherbourg,
Republican Vendeans, Local National Guards
13050 30X Vs Royalists, Catholics, Chouans, Royalist Vendeans, Émigrés & Great Britain. 80 130TX
170200TX Both Sides
1793 Battle of Cholet Republicans 26 4XW VS Royalists, Catholics Vendees 40 8XWM 12C
1793 Battle of Savenay Republicans 18So #30X #200W VS Vendeens, Chouans 6So 7C 46No 46X 24Cexecuted
1758 - 94 36 Maximilien Robespierre Revolutionary Leader
1726 - 95 69 FrançoisAndré Danican Philidor Composer & Chess Master
1795 Marseillaise Adopted as National Anthem.
1797 French Invasion & Partition of Republic of Venice ended over 1,000 years of independence forSerene Republic.
1795 Battle of Loano Italy France 25 3 VS Austria, Sardinia 18 7 48G
1796 Battle of Montenotte Italy France 914 #880 18G VS Austria, Sardinia 4.59 #6962.5 12G 12G
1796 Battle of Millesimo Italy France 9 #700XW VS Austria, Sardinia #988 #96X #892C
1796 2nd Battle of Dego Italy France 14th:12 15th:15 14th:1.5 15th:#938Cas VS Austria, Sardinia 14th:5.7 15th:3.5 14th:3 15th:1.8Cas
1796 Battle of Mondovì Italy France 17.5 #600 VS Sardinia 13 1.6 8C
1796 Battle of Fombio Italy France 11.5 #450 VS Austria 6.6 <#568
1796 Battle of Borghetto Italy France 28 #500 VS Austria 19 #572
1796 7 1 Siege of Mantua Italy France 16 7XW VS Austria 1420 18X 16C
1796 Battle of Rovereto Italy France 20 #750 VS Austria 10 3 25G 7Co
1796 Battle of Bassano Italy France 20 #400XWM VS Austria 11 #600XW 24C 30C 8S
1796 Battle of Arcole Italy France 20 3.5XW 1.3CM VS Austria 24 2.2XW 4C 11GC
1796 Battle of Theiningen Germany Austria VS France
1796 Battle of Emmendingen Germany Austria VS France
1797 Battle of Cape St Vincent Portugal GB 15L 5F 1S 1C #73X #327W VS Spain 27L 7F 4C #250X #550W 3C
1797 Battle of Rivoli Italy France 23 3.25 VS Austria 28 1214
1797 Treaty of Campo Formio Austrian Netherlands to France & Rhine as French Border. Austria & France partition Venice
1798 - 1800 2 QuasiWar betweenUnited States and France.
1798 - 1802 4 War of2nd Coalition.
1799 coup détat by Napoleon staged a and became First Consul of France.
1799 1st Battle of Zurich Switzerland Austria 40 3.5 VS France 30 1.7
1799 2nd Battle of Zurich Switzerland France 75 ? VS Russia 24, Austria 22 46 22
1732 - 99 67 Pierre Beaumarchais Writer
1800 Battle of Marengo Italy France 24 24G 1.1X 3.6W #900MC 5.6 VS Austria 22 55G 15GC 40CoC1X 5.5W 2.9C 9.4
1800 Battle of Hohenlinden Germany France 42 11.8C 3XW 99G 1GC VS Austria, Bavaria 46.1 14.1C 4.6XW 9C 214G 76GC
1801 Treaty of Lunéville
Austria enforces Treaty of Campo Formio.
France Gets east bank of Rhine & GD of Tuscany.
Bishopriocs of Trento & Brixen go to Austria
1801 Battle of Copenhagen Denmark UK 12L 5F 7B 6O VS DenmarkNorway 24 11O 12C 2S 1E 1LB 1.68XW 2C
1802 Treaty of Amiens UK regognizes French Rep.
1700s FrancheComté Castle DArlay
1700s Nancy Cathedral
1743 - 1843 Versailles Cathedral
1743 Toul Cathedral Consecrated
1748 - 60 Choisy Cathedral
1st Republic of France
1792 - 1804 12
French Empire 2
1803 - 1977
170
End of Empire was formally recognized withend of French presence in Comores.
1741 - 1803 62 Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Writer
1803 - 14 11 Napoleonic War between Britain & France War breaks out between Britain and France; this is considered by some to bebeginning of.
1803 - 5 2 War of3rd Coalition. France, Batavia, Italy, Etruria, Spain, Bavaria, Württemberg VS HRE, Russia, Portugal, UK, Naples, Sicily, Sweden
1804 Haiti Independent from France 1st Black Republic.
1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor ofFrench.
1725 - 1805 80 JeanBaptiste Greuze Painter
1805 Battle of Trafalgar eliminatesFrench and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance ofseas, a major factor forsuccess ofBritish Empire later incentury.
1805 Battle of Wertingen Germany France 12 #200+XW VS Austria 5.5 #400XW 2.9C
1805 Treaty of Pressburg.
HRE becomes Austria.
gains ofprevious treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies:King of Bavaria,King of Württemberg, andElector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception.most notable territorial exchanges concernedTyrol and Vorarlberg which went to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia which were incorporated inKingdom of Italy, of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, Austria receivedElectorate of Salzburg.
treaty markedeffective end ofHoly Roman Empire. Francis II renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor and became Emperor Francis I of Austria and a new entity,Confederation ofRhine, was later created by Napoleon. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also included intreaty.
Creation of Conf. of Rhine
1732 - 1806 74 JeanHonoré Fragonard Painter
1804 - 69 65 Allan Kardec, French sistematizer ofSpiritist Doctrine
1st French Empire 1
1804 - 1814 10
1805 - 10 5 FrancoSwedish War part ofNapoleonic Wars First French Empire Sweden
1805 Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon decisively defeats a AustrianRussian army at.
1812 French invasion of Russia is a turning point inNapoleonic Wars.
1736 - 1813 77 Joseph Louis Lagrange, ItalianFrench Mathematician & Physicist
1740 - 1814 74 Marquis de Sade Writer, Philosopher
2nd Kingdom of France
1814 - 1815 1
2nd French Empire
1814 - 1815 1
1815 Hundred Days War ofSeventh Coalition. France, Belgium, Italy. United Kingdom, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Hanover, German Confederation, Austrian Empire, Russian Empire, Sweden, Netherlands, Spain, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom ofTwo Sicilies, Grand Duchy of Tuscany vs First French Empire, Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples.
1815 Battle of Waterloo Napoleons defeat at brings a conclusion toNapoleonic Wars and marksbeginning of a Pax Britannica which lasts until 1870.
Napoleon banished from England
3rd Kingdom of France
1815 - 1830 15
1816 Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughoutNorthern Hemisphere, likely caused by1815 explosion of Mount Tambora.
1819 Raft ofMedusa painted by Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece , and exhibits it inFrench Salon of 1819 atLouvre. French
1759 - 1820 61 Joseph Fouché Politician
1871 - 1922 51 Marcel Proust Novelist, Critic, Essayist
1791 - 1824 33 Théodore Géricault. artist, painter and lithographer
1748 - 1825 77 JacquesLouis David Painter
1760 - 1825 65 Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de SaintSimon French Socialism
1830 July Revolution of 1830 French Revolution House of Orléans House of Bourbon
4th Kingdom of France
1830 - 1848 18
July Monarchy
1830 1848 18
1830 - 1848 18 Louis Philip 1
1763 - 1831 68 Antoine Ignace Melling FrenchGerman painter, Architect
1831 France invades and occupies Algeria
1757 - 1833 76 AdrienMarie Legendre Mathematician
1765 - 1833 68 Nicéphore Niépce Pioneer inventor of photography
1754 - 1838 84 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician
1839 - 60 21 Opium Wars France,United Kingdom,United States and Russia gained many concessions from China resulting indecline ofQing Dynasty.
1796 - 1846 50 Baptiste Deburau Bohemian/French Actor & Mime.
1768 - 1848 80 FrançoisRené de Chateaubriand Writer, Politician, Diplomat, Historian
1848 French Revolution of 1848
2nd Republic of France
1848 - 1852 4
1839 - 60 21 Opium Wars
1783 - 1842 39 Stendhal (MarieHenri Beyle). Realist Writer
1810 - 49 39 Frédéric Chopin FrenchPolish Composer, Pianist
1850 Little Ice Age ends
1809 - 52 43 Louis Braille Inventor of Braille
1768 - 1852 84 Antoine de Lhoyer Composer & Guitarist
2nd French Empire
1852 - 1870 18
1839 - 60 21 Opium Wars,
1861 - 7 6 French intervention in Mexico & creation of 2nd Mexican Empire ruled by Maximilian 1 of Mexico and his consort Carlota.
1798 - 1863 65 Eugène Delacroix. Impresionist, Lithographer
1780 - 1867 87 Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. Neoclassical painter
1819 - 68 49 Léon Foucault Physicist
1803 - 69 66 Hector Berlioz Romantic Composer
1802 - 70 68 Alexandre Dumas Historic Novelist
3rd Republic of France
1870 - 1940 70
1870 - 1 1 FrancoPrussian War. France, Germany. North German Confederation, Kingdom of Bavaria, Baden, Kingdom of Württemberg vs Second French Empire
1814 - 74 60 Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg French Archaeologist
1874 Impressionists exhibition Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known today asImpressionists organize and present their first public group exhibition atParis studio ofphotographer Nadar.
1796 - 1875 79 Camille Corot. landscape painter and printmaker in etching
1838 - 75 37 Georges Bizet Opera Composer
1800 - 76 76 Frédérick Lemaître Actor
1804 - 76 72 George Sand novelist and memoirist
1819 - 77 58 Gustave Courbet. Realist Painter
1804 - 79 75 Hércules Florence FrenchBrazilian pioneer inventor of photography
1808 - 79 71 Honoré Daumier
printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor
1821 - 80 59 Gustave Flaubert Novelist
1814 - 82 68 Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat Archaeologist
1832 - 83 51 Édouard Manet Painter
1884 - 5 1 SinoFrench War led toformation of French Indochina.
1860 - 87 27 Jules Laforgue FrenchUruguayan Symbolist Poet
1888 French take Madacasgar
1888 French IndoChina formed
1889 Eiffel tower Inaugurated
1842 - 90 48 Louis Le Prince French motion picture inventor and pioneer filmmaker
1809 - 91 82 Baron Haussmann French Civic Planner
1859 - 91 32 Georges Seurat. PostImpressionist painter and draftsman
1851 - 91 40 Arthur Rimbaud Decadent Poet
1894 IOC (International Olympic
Commitee) Formed
by Pierre de Coubertin 1st Summer Olympics in Athens in 1896
1841 - 95 54 Berthe Morisot. Painter
1822 - 95 73 Louis Pasteur Microbiologist & Chemist
1844 - 96 52 Paul Verlaine Symbolist Poet
1826 - 98 72 Gustave Moreau Symbolist Painter
1842 - 98 56 Stéphane Mallarmé Symbolist poet and critic
1800s Chalon Cathedral
1801 Absorbed in to Diocese of Nice. Grasse Cathedral
1801 Bishopreic of Mende created. Cathedral
1801 Bishopric of Ajaccio. Calvi Cathedral
1801 Bishopric of Orange Supressed. Cathedral
1801 Bishopric of Riez Abolished. Cathedral
1801 Bishopric of Tréguier Abolished. Cathedral
1801 Bishopric of Vence Abolished. Cathedral
1801 Diocese of Avignon Added. Apt Cathedral
1801 Diocese of Grenoble. Die Cathedral
1801 Diocese of Nice Added. Antibes Cathedral
1801 SaintOmer Cathedral Absorbed into Diocese of Arras
1808 - 18 Mâcon Cathedral
1827 - 75 Boulogne Cathedral
1830 Nice Cathedral Facade
1840 - 2 Annecy Cathedral
1852 - 96 Marseille Cathedral
1854 - 1913 Lille Cathedral
1855 Laval Cathedral
1866 - 1905 Gap Cathedral
1877 Lodève Cathedral Restored
1887 - 97 10 Nouméa Cathedral







3rd Republic of France
1870 - 1940 70
1900 - 45 45 French Colonialism in Africa
Noirs et blancs en couleur (Black and White in Color) 1976
Coup de Torchon (Clean Slate) 1975
1864 - 1901 37 Henri de ToulouseLautrec Painter, Printmaker, Draughtsman, Illustrator
1840 - 1902 62 Émile Zola. Naturalist Writer
1836 - 1902 68 James Tissot Painter
1830 - 1903 73 Camille Pissarro. Impressionist and NeoImpressionist painter
1848 - 1903 55 Paul Gauguin. PostImpressionist artist
1828 - 1905 77 Jules Verne Novelist, Poet, Playwright
1859 - 1906 47 Pierre Curie Physicist
1839 - 1906 67 Paul Cézanne. artist and PostImpressionist painter
1852 - 1908 56 Henri Becquerel, physicist.
1820 - 1910 90 Nadar aka GaspardFélix Tournachon Portrait photographer
1830 - 1904 74 ÉtienneJules Marey Pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer
1912 - 23 SaintÉtienne Cathedral
1912 Russian Orthodox Cathedral, Nice Consecrated
1914 - 18 4 World War 1
1914 Battle of Mulhouse, Alsace, France. 9 August Part ofBattle ofFrontiers, France takes town but then loses it again.

1914 Battle of Lorraine. Moselle, France. 14 August German victory in World War I

1914 Battle of Guise. St. Quentin, France. (29 August 30 August) Belgians delay Germans to allow British to rest.

1914 Siege of Maubeuge, France. (24 August 7 September) Germans capture fortress

1914 1st Battle ofMarne, France. 5 September9 German invasion of France halted by Allies

1914 Battle of Haelen. Belgium Belgium 5Reg 160X 320W VS Germany 6Reg 150X 600W 300C
1914 1st Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1915 Battle of Gallipoli. Turkey Ottomans 315.5 6 then 15div 251 %60 VS British 489, France 79 5 then 16div 220 59%
1916 Battle of Verdun. France France 75Div 1.14M 400542Cas 362X VS Germany 50Div 1.25M 355434Cas 336X
1916 2nd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1834 1917 83 Edgar Degas. paintings, sculptures, prints
1840 1917 77 Auguste Rodin. Sculptor
1917 Battle of Cambrai. France UK, Newfoundland 2Cor 55.2 476T (378CT) 179 VS Germany 1Cor 45
1917 Battle of Vimy Ridge. France UK, Canada 5Div 170 3.6X 7W VS Germany 3Div 3045 ?XW 4C
1918 Battle of Soissons . France France, UK, USA 125 VS Germany 168
1918 2nd Battle ofSomme. France UK, (+Australia, Canada), USA 5.6 VS Germany + #600+C
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1918 Battle ofPiave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End ofAustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1918 2nd Battle ofLys. Belgium UK, (+Australia, Newfoundland), Portugal, Belgium, France, USA ? 120 VS Germany 800 120
1918 Battle of SaintMihiel. France USA 14Div 550, France 4Div 48 598 7 VS Germany 10Div 2X 5.5W
1918 Battle ofArgonne Forest. France USA 117, France 70 550 187 VS Germany 190 90210
1918 Battle of St. Quentin Canal. France UK, Australia 2Div, USA 14Div VS Germany 13Div
1918 Battle of SommePy. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of SaintThierry. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Montfaucon. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Chesne. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Amiens. France UK 3Div 800, (Australia 5Div, Canada 4Div), France 12Div 1.1, USA 1Div 24Div 1.9 532T VS Germany 10ADiv 4RDiv 365 30XWM
1918 3rd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1918 Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge. France USA VS Germany
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Doiran. Macedonia Bulgaria 35 9thDiv 2.7 VS UK 3.5, Greece 29.3, France 75 6.67.8
1862 - 1918 56 Claude Debussy Impressionist Composer
1918 Treaty of Versaille
1841 - 1919 78 PierreAuguste Renoir. Impressionist painter
1835 - 1921 86 Camille SaintSaëns Composer, Organist, Conductor, Pianist
1921 Scaramouche by Sabatini 1875 - 1950 472M 17;12;02
1840 - 1926 86 Claude Monet. impressionist painting
1926 Paris Mosque france
1867 - 1934 67 Marie Curie Physicist, Chemist PolishFrench
1939 - 45 6 Battle ofAtlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle ofRiver Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
1940 Battle of Dakar. Senegal German France 1B 1D 2C 4D 1 3Su 2 1Fre F VS UK, Australia, Free French 2B 2D 1AC 6To 5C 2D 10D
1940 Battle ofGembloux Gap. Belgium Germany 3Div 2PTDiv 304X 413W 29M 337%T VS France 3Div 3MDiv 2XWM
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Battle ofNetherlands. Germany 22Div 1.4G 759T 830 22575 750 2.1X 7.3W1.4C VS Netherlands 2.3X 89W, UK #43X, France #216X 9Div 700G 1T 5ST 32AC 145 280 2+CivX
1940 Battle of Belgium. Germany 141Div 7.4G 2.4T 5.4 4Wor ?Ca #43PTX #100PTW VS Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands 144Div 14G 3.4T 2.5 222.4 #900 200C
1940 Battle of Gembloux. Belgium France 3MDiv 3Div 2+XWM VS Germany 2TDiv Panzer 35%T 3Div #304X #413W #29M
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 Battle of Sedan. France Germany 60 #647XW 41V 771T 1.5 141A 96RB 81 VS France, UK 10 ? 174A 152B 250F 167
1940 Battle of Arras. France Germany #300XW #400C VS UK, France 74T 35 5075XW #170C then X
1940 Siege of Calais. France Germany 1PTDiv #775XW VS UK, France 4T 40 #300X #200W 3.5C
1940 Siege of Lille. France France 5Div 40 VS Germany 4Div 110 3ArDiv 800T
1940 Operation Paula. France France 120F 31 35Pl #906 #254X VS Germany 1.1 460F 10 4B
1940 Battle of Dunkirk. France Germany 800 2020XW 100T 240 VS France, UK, Belgium 400 338E 11X 40C 50V 177 9D 200MV
1940 Battle of Tirlemont. Belgium Germany VS Belgium
1940 - 1 1 Operation Compass. Egypt, Libya UK, India, Australia, Free France 36 500X 55M 1.4W 275T 120A 142 15 VS Italy 150 3X 115C 600T 400 1.6A 1.3 331 1.2
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 - 5 4 Battle ofCaribbean. USA, UK, Canada, + VS Germany, Italy
1940 Battle of Saumur. France Germany 1CDiv 10 #2300 VS France 1CDiv #560 #79X #47W
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Battle of Keren. Eritrea UK, India 2Div, Free French 2Bat 13 536X 3.2W VS Italy 23 12.1X 21.7W
1941 Operation Stonewall. Off West France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1941 Battle of Bir Hakeim. Libya Germany, Italy 45 3.3X 277C 52TVS Free France 3.7 900C
1942 St. Nazaire Raid. France UK #265Com 4D 1G 1, 1To 1, 3Flot 13 15, 5Sq 2Pl #169X #215C VS Germany 1Brig 1Bat 1Div 5 #3602UBFlot 2MS 1To 2Ju 2Ta 2Tu 6 1Dock
1942 Dieppe Raid. France Germany 1Div 1.5 #311 #280W VS Canada 1Div 3.4XWC, UK 3ComB 10.5 8D 1 237 33LC 34 74Sq 94Fi 6B #887X #30W #17C, Polish Forces 4.3X
1942 Naval Battle of Casablanca. Morocco USA 1AC 1EC 1B 1D 3HC 1LC 14D 2D 15T 4 347L 150 1Ta ? 45 #174X ?W VS German, France 1B 1D 1LC 1 2FL 2Gr 7D 4 1Gr 8Sl 11MS 11Sub 5 2D 1Gr ? 7 ?Bat, Germany 2Sub 1 ? ?
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1942 Operation Torch. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK, Free French, Canada, Netherlands 107 479+X 720W VS Germany 2Sub in Mor., Vichy France 60 1.3X 2W
1942 Operation Terminal. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK 2D 1 622 VS German Empire Vichy France
1942 - 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1942 Battle of Kasserine Pass. Tunisia Germany, Italy 22 2 34T VS USA 6.5, UK, Free French 30 10 183T
1942 Battle of Medenine. Tunisia UK, New Zealand, Free French VS Germany, Italy
1942 Operation Pugilist. Tunisia UK India, Free French, New Zealand 51T 952 w/ 7AC VS Germany, Italy
1940 Attack on MerselKebir. Off Algeria UK 1AC 2B 1BC 2LC 11D 6 #2X VS German Empire Vichy France 2BC 1D 2B 1 1D 6D 1Gr 3D 1.3X 350W
1943 Battle of Sicily. Italy UK, USA, Canada, Newfoundland, Free French 160467 24.8 5.8X 15.7W 3.3C 14V 600T 1.8G VS Italy 230 131.4147 +C, Germany 60 20 260T 1.4
1864 - 1943 79 Camille Claudel. sculptor, graphic artist
1944 Battle of Pierres Noires. Off France Canada 4D VS Germany 4P 1 1D 1U
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Battle for Caen. France UK, Canada 11Div 3ArDiv 5ArBri 3TBri 50.5Cas VS Germany 7Div 8PTDiv 3HTBat 550T 50.5Cas
1944 Operation Perch. France Germany 1Div 3PTDiv 1HTBat VS UK 2Div 1ArDiv 2ArBri
1944 Battle of Carentan. France USA 1ABat 1TBat 1MBat VS Germany 2PaBat 4Bat 2PTBat
1944 Battle of Cherbourg. France USA 2.8X 5.7M 13.5WVS Germany 40 78XM 30C
1944 Battle of VillersBocage. France Germany 2BatG 1HTBat 3141T 815 VS UK 1Bri #270 60T 237 +Civ
1944 Battle of Bloody Gulch. France USA 1IDiv 1AirBat #32X #73W 1ArDiv 60T VS Germany 1Reg #43X #89W 1PTDiv 12T 2
1944 Operation Epsom. France UK 2IDiv 1ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri 4 VS Germany 1BatG 3PTDiv 1HTBat 123T 3+
1944 Operation Windsor. France Canada 4IBat 1MGBat 2ArReg 17T #377 VS Germany 1PTBat 1Bat 15T #155
1944 Operation Charnwood. France UK, Canada 3IDiv 3ArBri 80T 3.8 VS Germany 1IDiv 1ArDiv 61T 1821 2+ #3400CivX
1944 Operation Jupiter. France UK 2 VS Germany
1944 2nd Battle ofOdon. France UK 3.5 VS Germany 2
1944 Operation Goodwood. France UK 1IDiv 3ArDiv 1.11.3T 253314 3.5 VS Germany 4IDiv 3ArDiv 2HTBat 377T 75100T ?Cas 22.5C
1944 Operation Atlantic. France Canada 2IDiv 1ArBri 1.7 VS Germany 2PTDiv
1944 Battle of Verrières Ridge. France Germany 1IDiv 2.5PTDiv VS Canada 2IDiv 1ArBri #800X 2WC
German defensive victory
1944 Operation Spring. France Germany 3PTDiv VS Canada, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri #450X 1.1W
1944 Operation Cobra. France USA 8IDiv 3ArDiv 2.5T&TD 1.8 VS Germany 2IDiv 1PaDiv 5PTDiv 190T&AG
1944 Operation Totalize. France Canada, UK, Poland 85 1.3 3IDiv 2ArDiv 2Arbri 720A 2 146+T VS Germany 3IDiv 1PTDiv 1HTBat 74T 45 3
1944 Operation Lüttich. France USA 9thAF, UK 2ndAF 5IDiv 3ArCC VS Germany 2IDiv 3PTDiv 5PT&IDiv 150T
1944 Operation Tractable. France Canada, Poland 1.4, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 2IDiv 1PTDiv
1944 Battle of Hill 262. France Poland 1.5 #351 80T 11 VS Germany Remains of 20I&PTDiv 1.5
1944 Falaise pocket. France USA, UK, Canada, Poland, Free French 17Div + VS Germany 1415Div 100 60
1944 Battle for Brest. France USA, UK 3IDiv 1RaBat 4 VS Germany 3Div 1+X 4W 38C
1944 Operation Dragoon. France USA 2XCM 7.8OCO, Free French 10<, UK, Canada 175200 VS Germany 85100P 285300A 7X 20W 130+C
1944 Operation Romeo. France France 800 11X 50W VS Germany 300X 700C
1944 Battle of Port Cros. France USA, Canada 1.5 1D 9X VS Germany 5F 5 1A 1C 2
1944 Battle of La Ciotat. France USA 1D 1D #1W, UK 2GB 17PT VS Germany 1C 1AuC 2 #169C
1944 Allied advance from Paris toRhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 ClearingChannel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Netherlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Astonia. France Canada, UK 45 >#500 AFV 35 VS Germany 12 #600X 1.3C
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Operation Wellhit. France Canada, UK 2Brig + Ar, A, 1 #600 VS Germany 10 <#500 9.5C
1944 Operation Undergo. France Canada, UK #260 VS Germany 7.5 (Calais) 9.1C
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Lorraine Campaign. France USA 3rd Army 55.2 6.7X 36.4W 12.1MVS Germany 75C
1944 Battle of Metz. France USA VS Germany
1944 Battle of Nancy. France USA 3Div 2.9 VS Germany 2Div 2Reg 4
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Netherlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1945 Operation Nordwind. France USA 7thArm 29, France 1stArm 2 31VS Germany 1st&19thArm 23
1945 Colmar Pocket. France France 5Div 2ArDiv Rein ArDiv 14, USA 2Div Rein Div ArDiv 8 22 VS Germany 8Div PTBri 2238.5
1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany. Germany USA 6th,12thArmG 3M, UK 21stArmG, France 1stArm, Canada, Poland VS Germany ArmG:B,G,H 1M
1945 Operation Undertone. Germany USA, France 12.9 VS Germany 22C
1945 Operation Amherst. Netherlands Free France 2PTBri #700 VS Germany Capture Canals
German France
1940 - 1945 5
4th Republic of France
1946 - 1958 12
1787 - 1951 64 Louis Daguerre Inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist
1862 - 1954 92 Auguste & Louis Lumière Pioneer Filmmakers, Inventors
1798 - 1957 59 Auguste Comte Philosopher
5th Republic of France
1958 - Present 55
1992 ÎledeFrance Parisslott Castle
1973 - 7 Tai o Hae Cathedral
1995 - 2004 Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi
1995 Corbeil Cathedral
1995 Évry Grand Mosque France
6th Lordship of Monaco
1436 - 1633
180
1494 - 1505 11 Jean 2
1505 - 23 18 Lucien
1523 - 81 58
Honoré 1
1523 - 32 9
Augustine GrimaldiRegent
1532
Nicholas Grimaldi Regent
1532 - 40 8
Étienne Grimaldi Regent
1581 - 9 8 Charles 2
1589 - 1604 15 Hercule
6th Lordship of Monaco
1436 - 1633
180
1589 - 1604 15 Hercule
1604 - 33 29
Honoré 2
1604 - 16 12 Prince Francis Landi of Valdetare Regent
1633 Principality recognized by Spain
1st Principality of Monaco
1616 - Present 395
1633 - 62 29 Honoré 2
1662 - 1701 39 Louis 1
1st Principality of Monaco
1616 - Present 395
1662 - 1701 39 Louis 1
1701 - 31 30 Antonio 1
1731 Louise Hippolyte girl
1731 Jacques 1 Regent
1731 - 3 2 Jacques 1
1733 - 93 60
Honoré 3
1732 - 84 52
Chevalier de Grimaldi Regent
Republic of Monaco
1793
1793 Joseph Barriera
French Monaco
1793 - 1814
21
French Monaco
1793 - 1814
21
Under Allied Forces
1814
2nd Principality of Monaco
1814 - Present
197
1814 - 9 5 Honoré 4
1814
Joseph Grimaldi Regent
1814 - 9 5 State Council of 5 Regents
1815 - 9 4
Honoré Grimaldi (Honoré 5)
1819 - 41 22 Honoré 5
1841 - 56 15
Florestan 1
1856 - 89 33
Charles 3
1889 - 1922 33 Albert 1
2nd Principality of Monaco
1814 - Present
197
1889 - 1922 33 Albert 1
1922 - 49 27 Louis 2
1949 - 2005 54 Rainier 3
2005
Prince Albert, Marquis of Baux (Albert 2) Regent
2005 - Present 6 Albert 2
Old Swiss Confederacy
1291 1798
507
@ Baden
1500 Arenenberg Castle
1500 Fortified Church of St. Arbogast
1531 2nd war of Kappel Catholics: Uri Schwyz Zug Protestants: Zürich
1529 1st war of Kappel. Switzerland. Protestants: Zürich vs Catholics: Uri Schwyz Zug
1516 - 65 49 Konrad Gessner was a Swiss naturalist, bibliographer, Botanist, His threevolume Historiae animalium 1551 - 8 7 is consideredbeginning of modern zoology
1565 Graphite Pencil by Conrad Gesner.

 

Old Swiss Confederacy
1291 - 1798
507
@ Baden
1605 Aesch Castle
1636 Brestenberg Castle
Old Swiss Confederacy
1291 - 1798
507
@ Baden
1740 Kyburg Castle Herrliberger Kyburg
1784 Oil Lamp by Aimé Argand
1702 - 89 87 JeanÉtienne Liotard, Painter
1700 - 82 82 Daniel Bernoulli Mathematician & Physicist
1707 - 83 66 Leonhard Euler Mathematician
Helvetic Republic
1798 - 1803 5
Client ofFirst French Empire
@ Aarau, later Lucerne
Helvetic Republic
1798 - 1803 5
New Swiss Confederacy
1803 - 48
45
1803 Act of Mediation. Confederates it again.
1812 Modern Graphite Pencil
1846 Schadau Castle
1848 Civil War
Federal State of Switzerland
1848 - Present
163
1863 International Red Cross is followed byadoption ofin .
1864 1st Geneva Convention
1870 Meggenhorn Castle
1828 - 1905 77 Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, Swiss mining
1856 - 1930 64 Daniel Guggenheim (copper)
1827 - 1901 74 Arnold Bocklin
1825 - 98 73 Johann Jakob Balmer Mathematician, Physicist
Federal State of Switzerland
1848 - Present
163
1902 Anthroposophical Society Rudolf Steiner CroatianGerman. Centered in Switzerland. All over.
1905 Jungs Psychology of Unconscious. Switzerland.
 
@ Liechtenstein
1699 - 1712 13 HansAdam 1
1712 - 8 6
Joseph Wenzel 1
1718 - 21 3
Anton Florian
1721 - 32 11 Joseph Johann Adam
1732 - 45 13 Joseph Wenzel 1
1732 - 48 16 Johann Nepomuk Karl
1748 - 72 24 Joseph Wenzel 1
1772 - 81 9 Franz Joseph 1
1781 - 1805 24 Aloys 1
@ Liechtenstein
1781 - 1805 24 Aloys 1
1805 - 36 31 Johann 1 Joseph
1836 - 58 22 Aloys 2
1858 - 1929 71 Johann 2
1873 Vaduz Cathedral
@ Liechtenstein
1858 - 1929 71 Johann 2
1929 - 38 9 Franz 1
1938 - 89 51 Franz Joseph 2
1989 - Present 22 HansAdam 2
Holy Roman Empire
843 - 1806
963
1486 - 1519 33 Maximilian 1 ^ HRE 1508 - 1519 33
1500 Portable Watch by Peter Henlein
1503 - 5 2 Landshut War of Succession Duchy of BavariaMunich wins Duchy of BavariaLandshut & County Palatinate ofRhine lose
1515 Slovenian peasant revolt of 1515 Holy Roman Empire Slovenian rebels
1515 Protestantism Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli & John Calvi
1517 Martin Luther’s 95 Theses at Wittemberg Luther, a Catholic priest in Germany, broke fromRoman Catholic Church, and posted his "95 thesis" onchurch door. Luther decreed salvation by faith alone. He stated that theological rules couldnt save. He nullified church sacraments. Luther putBible above both church and Pope as highest authority on earth. He decreedright of individual interpretation of scripture. He rejectedGreek Old Testament and declared its books invalid.
1519 - 56 37 Charles 5 1500 - 58 58 ^^ Maximilian 1 HRE 1530 - 56 26 x1558 1st * King of Spain. Involved in almost constant conflict with France & Ottoman Empire while promotingSpanish colonization ofAmericas
1521 Diet at Worms Attended by Luther
1525 Bavaria Bramberg
1524 - 25 1 German Peasants War inHoly Roman Empire.
1529 Lutheran Protest drawn up and Protestant churches were born. End ofRoman Catholic Church Omnipotence age.
1530 1st Protestant creed Written at Augsburg in Bavaria.
1471 1528 57 Albrecht Dürer Painter, Engraver, Printmaker, Mathematician, & Theorist
1531 64 33 Ferdinand 1 < HRE 1558 64 6 Charles 5 last crowned in Aachen Cathedral
1500s Lower Saxony Merian_Erichsburg
1500s North RhineWestphalia Burgruine_Hardenstein
1524 - 6 2 German Peasants War Swabian League German Peasant Army
1533 Spinning Wheel revolutionizes textile production in Europe. Brunswick, Germany.
1534 Affair ofPlacards Francis becomes more active in repression of French Protestants.
1535 Münster Rebellion, an attempt of radical, millennialist, Anabaptists to establish a theocracy ends in bloodshed.
1542 War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII is allied toEmperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied toFrench.
1497 - 1543 46 Hans HolbeinYounger German artist
1543 Bavaria Ehrenburg
1546 Saxony Moritzburg
1483 - 1546 Martin Luther Religious Reformer
Luther 1973
Luther 2003 
Martin Luther 1953
1546 - 7 1 Schmalkaldic War Empire of Charles 5: Spain Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Saxony Schmalkaldic League: Electorate of Saxony Hesse
1549 Lower Saxony Ahlden_Eingang
1551 Lower Saxony Fallersleben
1493 - 1553 60 François Rabelais French Author
1547 Battle of Mühlberg Emperor Charles 5 decisively dismantlesSchmalkaldic League at, Germany.
1549 Lower Saxony Ahlden Eingang
1472 - 1553 81 Lucas CranachElder Painter German
1556 De re metallica Georgius Agricola,"Father of Mineralogy", publishes his . Germany
1563 Fierce religious wars between new faiths throughout Europe. Those seeking freedom fromEuropean religious turmoil speeded up colonization of America. Democracy rediscovered.
1562 - 76 14 Maximilian 2 ^ HRE 1564 - 76 12
1568 - 1648 80 Yrs War United Provinces England German Protestants Huguenots France Spanish Empire
1575 - 1612 37 Rudolf 2 ^ HRE 1576 - 1612 37
1500s Lower Saxony Landestrost
1525 - 69 74 Pieter BruegelElder Painter Netherlands
1581 Lower Saxony Gifhorn
1583 - 8 5 Cologne War
1524 - 85 61 Pierre de Ronsard French Poet. CalledPrince of Poets of his generation.
1515 - 86 71 Lucas CranachYounger Painter & Woodcutter German
1588 A Brief & True Report ofNew Found Land of Virginia by Thomas Harriot
1589 1st Voyage America Arthur Barlow
1533 - 92 59 Michel de Montaigne French Essayist
1594 Berlin and Brandenburg Spandau
1598 Bavaria Altesschlossschleissheim
1598 Edict of Nantes endsFrench Wars of Religion.

1660 - 1685 Charles 2
Charles 2:Power andPassion 2003 
Restoration 1995
Forever Amber 1947 
Stage Beauty 2004 
Holy Roman Empire
843 - 1806
963
1568 - 1648 80 Yrs War United Provinces England German Protestants Huguenots France Spanish Empire
1575 - 1612 37 Rudolf 2 ^ HRE 1576 - 1612 37BadenWürttemberg Ottilienberg 1600s
1604 Supernova SN 1604 is observed in Milky Way by Kepler
1605 1st newspaper Relation Johann Carolus
1605 Elliptical Orbits of Planets Investigated by Johannes Kepler
1608 Refracting Telescope Hans Lippershey constructs a,first for which sufficient evidence exists. Germany.
1609 Catholic League by Maximilian of Bavaria establishes the.
1609 - 14 5 War ofJülich succession Wolfgang William, Duke of PalatinateNeuburg John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor
1562 - 1612 50 Hans Leo Hassler Composer & Organist German
1612 - 9 7 Matthias < HRE 1612 - 9 7Bavaria Johannisburg 1614
1616 - 48 30 years war
Last Valley 1971
1619 - 37
18 Ferdinand 2 ^^ Ferdinand 1 HRE 1619 - 37 18
1556 - 1620 64 Johannes Nucius Composer & Music Theorist German
1620 Battle of White Mountain Emperor Ferdinand II defeatsBohemian rebels in.
1583 - 1634 51 Albrecht von Wallenstein Catholic German General in 30 Yrs War
1562 - 1621 59 Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Composer, Organist, Pedagogue. Netherlands
1626 - 9 3 Polish–Swedish War. Germany, Sweden, Poland. Sweden vs Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1560 - 1629 69 Hieronymus Praetorius Composer & Organist German
1571 - 1630 59 Johannes Kepler, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role inscientific revolution. German
1563 - 1633 69 Jean Titelouze France
1634 Battle of Nördlingen Germany results in Catholic victory.
1636 - 57 20 Ferdinand 3 ^ HRE 1637 - 57 20
1555 - 1642 87 Jacques Champion Harpsichordist, Dancer & Composer. France
1642 Mezzotint Engraving, 1ST Grey Tones in Printed Images by Ludwig Von Siegen. Germany
1646 North RhineWestphalia Godesburg_Merian
1648 Peace of Westphalia endsThirty Years War andEighty Years War and marksends of Spain andHoly Roman Empire as major European powers.
1653 - 4 1 Ferdinand 4 ^
1658 - 1705 47 Leopold 1 ^ HRE 1658 - 1705 47
1600s SchleswigHolstein Ploenerschloss
1616 - 64 48 Andreas Gryphius Poet & Dramatist
1664 Berlin and Brandenburg Schoenhausen
1667 Lower Saxony Oldenburg
1585 - 1672 87 Heinrich Schütz Composer
1675 Bavaria Nymphenburg
1679 Binary system developed by Gottfried Leibnitz. Germany.
1682 Berlin and Brandenburg Jagdschloss_Glienicke_Potsdam
1683 BadenWürttemberg Kirchheim Teck
1684 Calculus by Gottfried Leibnitz & Sir Issac Newton (independently) and used to formulate classical mechanics
Bavaria Adelsdorf 1687
1688 - 97 9 9 Yrs War Grand Alliance: Dutch Republic England Holy Roman Empire Spain PiedmontSavoy Sweden until 1691 Scotland France
1694 Rosicrucians Master Kelpius & Johann Andrea
1668 - 93 St. Stephans Cathedral, Passau
Holy Roman Empire
843 - 1806
963
1658 - 1705 47 Leopold 1 ^
1700 BadenWürttemberg Monrepos
1642 - 1703 61 Johann Christoph Bach Composer & greatuncle ofgenius
1690 1711 - 21 Joseph 1 ^ HRE 1705 - 11 6 Berlin and Brandenburg SansSouciNeuesPalais potsdam 1705
1653 - 1706 53 Johann Pachelbel Composer, Teacher
1711 - 40 29 Charles 6 < HRE 1705 11 6 BadenWürttemberg Ludwigsburg 1700s
1714 Monadology by Gottfried Leibniz 1646 - 1716 24.1M 52;43
1646 - 1716 70 Gottfried Leibniz Philosopher & Mathematician
BadenWürttemberg Favorite 1723
1724 St John Passion by J.S. Bach
1727 St Matthew Passion composed by J.S. Bach
Baden / Württemberg Schloss Favorite 1730
1741 Goldberg Variations for harpsichord published by Bach
Wittelsbach
1742 - 5 3
1742 - 5 3 Charles 7 =Maria Amalia, ^ Joseph 1 HRE 1742 - 5 3
Hapsburg Lorraine
1745 - 65 20
1745 - 65 20 Francis 1 Stephan =Maria Theresa ^Charles 6
1747 Berlin and Brandenburg Sanssouci
1747 Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Stuttgart NeuesSchloss
1749 Mass in B Minor by J.S. Bach assembled in current form
1685 - 1750 65 Johann Sebastian Bach, Composer
1750 BadenWürttemberg Schwetzingen
1751 Art of Fugue by J.S. Bach
1684 - 1759 75 George Handel GermanEnglish composer
Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Solitude 1764 1764 - 90 26 Joseph 2 ^ HRE 1765 - 90 25
1776 Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt
1781Robbers by Friedrich Schiller
1729 - 81 52 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Philosopher & Writer
1782 Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Schlosshohenheim
1783 - 1816 Selected Letters of Ludwig van Beethoven 17701827 96.8M 3;31;33
1714 - 87 73 Christoph Willibald Gluck Composer
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 2 ^ HRE 1790 - 2 2
1792 - 1806 14 Francis 2 < HRE 1792 - 1806 14 Dissolved Holy Roman Empire
1798 Lithographic Printing Process by Alois Senefelder
1798 - 1802 3 War of 2nd Coalition. Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Poland, Czeck Republic, Austria, Hungary. French Republic, Spain, Polish Legions, Denmark–Norway, French client republics: Batavian Republic, Helvetic Republic, Cisalpine Republic, Roman Republic, Parthenopaean Republic, vs Austria, Great Britain, Russia, French Royalists, Portugal, Two Sicilies, Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Prussia
1701 - 1918
217
@Berlin
1701 - 13 12 Frederick 1
1702 Berlin and Brandenburg Stadtschloss
1702 Hesse Wiesbaden
1700s Berlin and Brandenburg Charlottenburg
1700s Berlin and Brandenburg Charlottenhof_Park_Sanssouci_Potsdam
1708 SaxonyAnhalt Meisdorf_Sammlung_Duncker
1708 - 9 1 Famine in East Prussia Kills 1/3 Pop
1713 - 40 27 Frederick William 1 ^
1718 - 20 2 War ofQuadruple Alliance Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of France Great Britain Dutch Republic Savoy Spain
1721 Brandenburg concertos by J.S. Bach
1655 - 1728 73 Christian Thomasius Philosopher, Jurist
1728 Hesse Arolsen
1730 Berlin and Brandenburg Hesse Nymphenburg
1732 Thuringia Belvedere_weimar
1735 Monbijou
1662 - 1736 74 Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann Architect (Saxony)
Bavaria Amalienburg 1739 1740 - 86 46 Frederick 2 ^ Bavaria Wuerzburg 1744
1845 11 Theses of Feuerbach Karl Marx 3M 6;37
1745 Leyden Jar invented by German Ewald Georg von Kleist wasfirst electrical capacitor
1747 Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Stuttgart_NeuesSchloss
1848 Communist Manifesto Karl Marx 44.3M 1;36;54
1685 - 1759 74 George Frideric Handel GermanEnglish Composer
1685 - 1750 65 Johann Sebastian Bach Composer
1699 - 1753 54 Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff Painter & Architect
1700 - 60 60 Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf Religious Writer, Bishop
1761 SchleswigHolstein Traventhal
1764 Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Solitude
1770 BadenWürttemberg tettnang
1273 North RhineWestphalia Schloss_Gimborn
1774 Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe
1776 Thuringia Tiefurt bei Weimar
1778 - 9 1 War of Bavarian Succession Imperial Austria Prussia Electorate of Saxony
1680 Hesse Schlossbuchenauluft
1781 Critique of Pure Reason by Kant
1781 Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant 744M 27;06;36
1782 Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Schlosshohenheim
1783 - 1816 Selected Letters of Ludwig van Beethoven 1770 1827 96.8M 3;31;33
1784 Answer to Enlightenment Immanuel Kant 81.4M 2;57;48
1729 - 86 57 Moses Mendelssohn Philosopher
1786 - 97 11 Frederick William 2 ^
1786 Berlin and Brandenburg Berlin Bellevue
1788 Critique of Practical Reason Immanuel Kant 6;43;48
1790 Critique of Judgment Immanuel Kant12;12;11
1795 Perpetual Peace Immanuel Kant 2;11;44
1795 Perpetual Peace by Emmanuel Kant
1797 - 1840 43 Frederick William 3 ^<
1840 - 61 21 Frederick William 4 ^
1861 - 88 27 Wilhelm 1 <
1888 Frederick 3 ^
1888 - 1918 30 Wilhelm 2 ^
1700 - 12 Fulda Cathedral
1726 - 43 Katholische Hofkirche Cathedral Built
1773 St. Hedwigs Cathedral Consecrated
1858 East India Company dissolved
1804 - 81 Ben Disraeli
Disraeli 1929
1891 1st pension scheme uk
1896 Olympic Games Reappears
Holy Roman Empire
843 - 1806
963
1792 - 1806 14 Francis 2 < Dissolved Holy Roman Empire
1759 - 1805 46 Friedrich Schiller poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright, Writer
1737 - 1807 70 Jacob Philipp Hackert Painter
1806 Treaty of Pressburg Holy Roman Empire dissolved
Kingdom of Prussia
1701 - 1918
217
@Berlin
1797 - 1840 43 Frederick William 3 ^<
1800 History ofThirty Years War by Schiller, Friedrich 1759 1805 141,005 K
1744 - 1803 69 Johann Gottfried Herder Philosopher, Writer, Critic
1724 - 1804 80 Immanuel Kant Philosopher
1809 Bad Mergentheim lost by Teutonic Knights to Napoleon. Their last holdings
1810 University of Berlin Alumni: Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. Copied aroundworld
1811 Saxony Burganlage Neues Landratsamt PirnaSonnenstein
1770 - 1827 57 Ludwig van Beethoven Composer
1821 - 31 10 Intro Philosophy History by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1770 - 1831 126M 4;35;30
1770 - 1831 61 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Philosopher
1749 - 1832 83 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Writer, Artist, Politician
1834 German Customs Union
Bavaria Hohenschwangau 1837
1774 - 1840 66 Caspar David Friedrich Landscape Painter
1754 - 1835 81 Aaron HalleWolfssohn Writer, Jewish Theologian, Translator, Professor
1813 - 37 24 Georg Büchner
1841 Lower Saxony brunswick
1842 BadenWürttemberg Lichtenstein
1770 - 1843 73 Friedrich Hölderlin Poet
1846 Berlin and Brandenburg orangerieschloss
1777 - 1855 78 Carl Friedrich Gauss Mathematician, Physicist & Astronomer
1840 - 61 21 Frederick William 4 ^
1809 - 47 38 Felix Mendelssohn Musician
1848 Communist Manifesto Karl Marx
1848 Revolutions inGerman states
1349 Lower Saxony MarienbgGesamtansicht
1797 - 1856 59 Heinrich Heine Poet
1810 - 56 46 Robert Schumann Composer
1858 History of Friedrich 2 of Prussia Volume 122 By Thomas Carlyle 10,253 K
1769 - 1859 90 Alexander von Humboldt Naturalist, Explorer
1788 - 1860 72 Arthur Schopenhauer Philosopher
1860 North RhineWestphalia Palais_Schaumburg
1785 - 1863 78 & 1786 1859 73 Brothers Grimm
1861 - 88 27 Wilhelm 1 <
1864 Bavaria Linderhof
1800s SaxonyAnhalt Rudelsburg Tower and Gate
1800s SaxonyAnhalt Wernigerode Castle Winter
1821 - 65 44 Heinrich Barth Explorer
1866 AustroPrussian War, Seven Weeks War, German Civil War. Czeck Republic, Germany, Italy. Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Italy, MecklenburgSchwerin Oldenburg, County of Anhalt,
Duchy of Brunswick, Duchy of SaxeAltenburg, SaxeCoburg and Gotha, Principality of WaldeckPyrmont, County of SchwarzburgSondershausen,
Principality of Lippe Bremen, Hamburg Lübeck vs Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Bavaria, Grand Duchy of Baden, Kingdom of Württemberg,
Kingdom of Hanover, Grand Duchy of Hesse, HesseKassel, Principality of Reuss, Elder Line, Duchy of SaxeMeiningen, County of SchaumburgLippe, Nassau.
1870 - 1 1 FrancoPrussian War results inunifications of Germany and Italy,collapse ofSecond French Empire,breakdown of Pax Britannica, andemergence of a New Imperialism.
1810 - 74 64 Fritz Reuter Novelist
1805 - 80 75 Ida Gräfin HahnHahn
1882 Joyful Wisdom (Gay Science) Nietze 447M 12;38;50
1813 - 83 70 Richard Wagner Composer
1884 - 5 1 Berlin Conference signalsstart ofEuropean "scramble for Africa". Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves.
1788 Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant
1819 - 80 61 Jacques Offenbach Composer
1886 Capital, Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production V1 Karl Marx 1.05G 20;39;14
1888 Frederick 3 ^
1888 - 1918 30 Wilhelm 2 ^
18 - 1900s 100 BadenWürttemberg Teck
1892 Bavaria Neuschwanstein
1848 - 1925 77 Gottlob Frege Mathematician, Logician, Philosopher
1818 - 83 65 Karl Marx Political Philosopher
1883 Thus Spoke Zarathustra Friedrich Nietzsche 348M 12;40;10
1886 Beyond Good & Evil Friedrich Nietzsche 220M 8;02;14
1886 Beyond Good and Evil Friedrich Neitzsche 220M 8;02;14
1888 Twilight ofIdols Friedrich Nietzsche 129M 4;43;22
1890s Hesse Kransberg
1820 - 95 75 Friedrich Engels Political Philosopher
1895 Antichrist Friedrich Neitzsche 108M 3;58;01
1833 - 97 64 Johannes Brahms Composer, Pianist
1815 - 98 83 Otto von Bismarck Chancellor
1811 - 99 88 Robert Bunsen Chemist
Confederation ofRhine
1806
- 13
7
Bonaparte House
1806 - 13 7 Napoleon 1 ** French
1806 - 7 1 War ofFourth Coalition Part ofNapoleonic Wars. Germany & Poland. French Empire and allies: France Confederation ofRhine Bavaria Württemberg Saxony (from Dec.1806) Polish Legions Italy Naples Etruria Holland Swiss Confederation vs Spain Prussia Russia United Kingdom Saxony (1806 only) Sweden
Sicily
Grand Duchy of Würzburg
1805 - 14 9
1805 - 14 9 Ferdinand 3 of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Berg
1806 - 13 7
1806 - 9 3 Joachim 1
1809 - 13 4 Louis 1
Grand Duchy of Baden
1806 - 1918 112
1771 - 1811 30 Charles Frederick
1907 - 18 11 Friedrich 2 x1928
1843 - 1910 67 Robert Koch Physician, Bacteriologist
Grand Duchy of Hesse
1806 - 1918112
1806 - 30 24 Louis 1
1830 - 48 18 Louis 2
1848 - 77 29 Louis 3
1877 - 92 15 Louis 4
1892 - 1918 26 Ernest Louis
Kingdom of Bavaria
1806 - 1918
112
@Munich
1806 - 25 19 Maximilian 1 Joseph
1809 War of 5th Coalition part ofNapoleonic Wars France Duchy of Warsaw Confederation ofRhine Kingdom of Bavaria Saxony Württemberg Westphalia Italy Naples Swiss Confederation Holland Austrian Empire Tyrol Hungary United Kingdom Black Brunswickers Sardinia Sicily
1825 - 48 23 Ludwig 1
1848 - 64 16 Maximilian 2
1864 - 86 22 Ludwig 2
1886 - 1913 27 Otto
1837 - 98 61 Elisabeth of Bavaria
Sissi 1955
Grand Duchy of Saxony
1815 - 1918
103
1815 - 28 13 Charles Augustus
1828 - 53 25 Charles Frederick ^
1848 - 51 3 1st Schleswig WarThree Years War Denmark SchleswigHolstein Prussia Kingdom of Saxony
1853 - 1901 48 Charles Alexander ^
Kingdom of Württembergia
1806 - 1918
112
Kingdom of Westphalia
1807 - 1813
106
Kingdom of Hanover
1814 - 66
52
1777 - 1855 78 Carl Friedrich Gauss Mathematician, Physicist, Astronomer
1826 - 66 40 Bernhard Riemann Mathematician
German Empire
1871 - 1918 47

North German Confederation
1867 - 71 4
Hohenzollern
1867 - 71
4
1867 71 4 Wilhelm 1 * Prussia
German Empire
1871
- 1918
47
1871 - 88 17 William 1
1803 - 73 70 Justus von Liebig Chemist
1888 Frederick 3
1888 - 1918 30 Wilhelm 2
1857 - 94 37 Heinrich Hertz Physicist
1992 Break up of Yugoslavia
Welcome to Sarajevo 1997
1955 Warsaw Pact signed
1992 Communism crumbled inSoviet Union.
1994 End of Aparteid
Mandela 1987
Mandela and De Klerk 1997
1998 Belarus & Russia Unite their countries into a single state.
1907 Source Book of Mediæval History Documents Illustrative of European Life and Institutions fromGerman Invasions toRenaissance by 70,199 K
1916 Rounding upRaider A Naval Story ofGreat Warby Percy F. (Percy Francis) 56,442 K
Kingdom of Prussia
1701 1918
217
@Berlin
1871 1919 48 Rosa Luxemburg German labour reformer
Rosa Luxemburg 1986
1888 1918 30 Wilhelm 2 ^
1844 1900 66 Friedrich Nietzsche Philosopher
1834 1900 66 Gottlieb Daimler Engineer, Industrial Designer, Industrialist
1846 1907 61 Ottomar Anschütz Chronophotographer
Kingdom of Bavaria
1806 1918
112
@Munich
1886 1913 27 Otto
1913 8 5 Ludwig 3
Grand Duchy of Saxony
1815 1918
103
1901 18 17 William Ernest ^Charles Augustus
1914 Prussian Officer by D.H. Lawrence 206M 7;31;53
1914 8 4 World War 1. Allied (Entente) Powers France 8.66M 5.66, British Empire 8.84M, Russia 12M 6.76M 147, Italy 5.6M 1.6M 15–8, USA 4.74M 322 178, Romania 1.23M 370 168, Japan 800 1.3, Serbia 707 408, Belgium 380 82.9, Greece 250 47 178, Portugal 100 21 168 Australia 413 214, Canada 629 215, India 1.44M 143, Montenegro 50 13, Nepal 200 50, South Africa 136 21.5, UK 6.2M 2.5M
43M 5.5MX, 12.8MW, 4.1MM 22.48MT
VS Central Powers Germany 13.25M 7.2m, AustriaHungary 7.8M 6.74m, Ottoman Empire 3M 975, Bulgaria 1.2M 255 158, Jabal Shammar, Finland 18, Lithuania 18, Ukraine, Courland & Semigallia 18,
Azerbaijan, Northern Caucasus
25.25M 4.4MX, 8.4MW, 3.6MM, 16.4MT
Day That ShookWorld 1977
Guns of August 1964
Colonel Redl 1985
AndShip Sails On 1983
African Queen 1951
All Quiet onWestern Front 1930
All Quiet onWestern Front 1979
Blue Max 1966
Crimson Romance 1934
Dawn Patrol 1938
Eagle & Hawk 1933
Gallipoli 1981
Ararat 2002
Anzacs 1985
BehindLines 1998
Light Horsemen 1987
Forty Thousand Horsemen 1941
Britannic 2000
Paths of Glory 1957
Trench 1999
Mata Hari 1932
Mata Hari 1972
Untel père et fils (Heart of a Nation) 1943
Sergeant York 1941
Man I Killed 1932
Fighting 69th 1940
A Farewell to Arms 1932 1957
In Love and War 1996
Lost Battalion 2001
Joyeux Noel 2006

1914 1st Battle of Heligoland Bight, North Sea UK 5BC 8LC 1Da 33D 8Su #35X #55W VS Germany 6Lc 3Lc 1LcHD 1LcMD 19T 2T 12Mi 3DD 1D #712X #149W #336C

1914 Battle of Liège, Belgium. Germany 59.8 2Cas 100G VS Belgium 36 23Cas 4C 252G

1914 Battle of Charleroi, BelgiumGerman 11Cas VS France 30Cas

1914 Battle of Mons, Belgium. Germany 160 5Cas 600G VS UK 80 1.6Cas 300G
UK delays Germany.

1914 Battle of Lorraine. France. Germany 345 ?Heavy VS France ?Heavy

1914 Battle of Guise. St Quentin France. France 10Cas 2C VS Germany 7Cas
Belgians delay Germans to allow British to rest.

1914 Siege of Maubeuge, France. Germany 50 ? VS France 45 40C 435G 377C
Germans capture fortress

1914 Battle ofFrontiers Belgium Germany, Bavaria 1.3M ? VS France 1.25M 140, UK 70 1.6, Belgium #480
1914 Battle of Mulhouse, France. Germany 30 3 VS France 45 4
Part ofBattle ofFrontiers
, France takes town but then loses it again.
1914 Battle of Cer Serbia Serbia 180 3X 15W VS AustriaHungary 200 7X 30W
1914 Battle of Kolubara Serbia Serbia 250 133Cas 22X 92W 19C VS AustriaHungary 450 224.5Cas 28X 120W 76.5C
AustroHungarian invasion failed AustriaHungary withdraws from Serbia
1914 Battle of Tannenberg Poland Germany 8thA 166 5X 7W 12TCas VS Russia 1stA 210 2ndA 206 416T 78XW 92C 170Cas 500G

1914 1st Battle ofMarne, France. France 39Div, UK 6Div 1M 263Cas 81.7X VS Germany 27Div 1.5M 220 German invasion of France halted by Allies

1914 Battle of Penang Malasia Germany 1LC 0 VS Russia 1Cr 1Cr #89X #143W, France 1D 1D #47X ?W #136TX 2T 2T
1914 Battle of Coronel Chile Germany 2ACr 3LC 3W VS UK 2ACr 2ACr 1LC 1AuC 1.6X 2Acr
1914 Battle ofFalkland Islands UK 2BC 2AC 2LC 1G 7 10X 19W VS Germany 2AC 2 3LC 2 3Tr 2 8 1.9X #215C
1915 Battle of Más a Tierra Chile UK 2LC 1AuC 0 VS Germany 1LC 1 4X #14W #315C

1915 2nd Battle of Ypres, Belgium. France, French Army of Africa, UK, Canada, Newfoundland, British India 8Div 70XWM VS Germany 7Div 35XWM Germans use poison gas

1916 Story ofGreat War, V2 History ofEuropean War from Official Sources by Churchill, Miller, and Reynolds 178,639 K
1916 Battle of Verdun. France France 75Div 1.14M 400542 362X VS Germany 50Div 1.25M 355434 336X
1916 Battle of Jutland Denmark UK, Australia, Canada 28B 9BC 3 8AC 3 26LC 78D 8 1Ml 1spc 151 6X #674W #177C14 VS Germany 16Ba 5BC 4 6PDn 1 11LC 61Tb 5 99 11 2.3X #507W
1916 Battle of FlersCourcelette France UK, Canada, India, New Zealand 11Div 49T VS Germany ?
British/Canadian/New Zealand advances of as much as 2,000 yds on a 12,000 yd. front
1916 Battle ofSomme France UK 13Div, France 11Div, Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India 280 then 1.2M 623.9Cas 782Pl VS Germany 10.5Div then 50Div 1.35M 465
1916 Monastir Offensive Macedonia Allied Powers Serbia 122.6 27.3, France 115.4 13.8, Italy 30 <1, Russia 10 1.1, UK 80XCas 130T VS Central Powers Bulgaria 53, Germany 8, Ottomans 28.2 61
Capture of Monastir, limited Allied gains, stabilization offront line
1916 Battle of Tutrakan Bulgaria Bulgaria, Germany 31Bat 55 8 VS Romania 19then39Bat 39 7.5 25C
1916 Battle of Dobrich Bulgaria Bulgaria 23Bat 10ArBat 17CSq 1X 2.3W VS Romania, Russia 46Bat 17ArBat 19CSq ?
1916 Battle of Malka Nidzhe Macedonia France, Russia, Serbia ? ? VS Bulgaria 8Ri 1.7 56A 34
1916 Battle of Kajmakchalan Macedonia Serbia ? 4.6X VS Bulgaria ? ?
1916 Battle ofCerna Bend Macedonia France, Serbia ? + VS Bulgaria, Germany 8thDiv +
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1916 Battle of Mojkovac Montenegro Montenegro 18 8 VS AustriaHungary 30 <20
1917 Battle of Arras France UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland 27Div 158 VS Germany 7Div present 27Div not present 12030
1917 Battle of Jerusalem. Israel UK, Australia, India, New Zealand 18 VS Ottomans, Germans 25
1917 11th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1917 12th Battle ofIsonzo. Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, AustriaHungary 350 70XW 2.2A VS Italy 400 10X 30W 265C 2.2A
1915 Battle of Kosovo Kosovo Bulgaria, Germany, AustriaHungary 156Pre 79Com 372G 220MG VS Serbia 150 30XW 199G
Decisive Bulgarian victory,
Serbian Army retreated to Albania and Greece
1917 Toplica Uprising Serbia.
1917 Battle of Cambrai. France UK, Newfoundland 2Cor 55.2 476T (378CT) 179 VS Germany 1Cor 45
1917 Battle of Vimy Ridge. France UK, Canada 5Div 170 3.6X 7W VS Germany 3Div 3045 ?XW 4C
1918 Battle of Soissons . France France, UK, USA 125 VS Germany 168
1918 2nd Battle ofSomme. France UK, (+Australia, Canada), USA 5.6 VS Germany + #600+C
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Megiddo. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria British Empire, UK, British India, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, France, Hejaz 57 12 540G VS Ottomans, Germany 32 3C 402G 29XWC
1918 2nd Battle ofLys. Belgium UK, (+Australia, Newfoundland), Portugal, Belgium, France, USA ? 120 VS Germany 800 120
1918 Battle of SaintMihiel. France USA 14Div 550, France 4Div 48 598 7 VS Germany 10Div 2X 5.5W
1918 Battle ofArgonne Forest. France USA 117, France 70 550 187 VS Germany 190 90210
1918 Battle of St. Quentin Canal. France UK, Australia 2Div, USA 14Div VS Germany 13Div
1918 Battle of SommePy. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of SaintThierry. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Montfaucon. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Chesne. France USA, France VS Germany
1918 Battle of Amiens. France UK 3Div 800, (Australia 5Div, Canada 4Div), France 12Div 1.1, USA 1Div 24Div 1.9 532T VS Germany 10ADiv 4RDiv 365 30XWM
1914 1st Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1916 2nd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1918 3rd Battle of Albert. France UK, (Newfoundland) 13Div, France 11Div 24Div VS Germany 6Div
1918 Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge. France USA VS Germany
1918 Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, Austria 350 2.2A 70XW VS Italy 400 2.2A 10X 30W 265C
1918 9 1 German Revolution of 1918 1919.
1918 Battle of Dobro Pole Macedonia France, Serbia 75Bat 36.5Ri 2 756MG 580A 81 VS Bulgaria, Germany 26Bat 11.6Ri 3 245MG 50GC 146A 24
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1918 Treaty of Versaille.
1834 1919 85 Ernst Haeckel Biologist
1920 Nazis formed by Hitler
1926 Imperial conference gives Dominion status to settler colonies
1929 Secretary of State for Dominions instituted
1846 1929 83 Wilhelm Maybach Car Engine/Designer, Industrialist
1930 2 2 Great Depression
1933 Nazis come to power in Germany
Great Dictator 1940
Hitler 1962
Last Lieutenant 1993
1933 Night ofLong Knives in Germany
Greater German Reich
1933 1945
12
Berlin, 1933 1945 Flensburg 1945 Nazi Germany signed a treaty (Tripartite Pact) withJapanese and Italian Empires.
1934 Stalins Purges
1936 Reoccupation of Rhineland
1938 1945 7 Holocaust
Conspiracy 2001
Anne Frank Remembered 1995
1938 Munich peace accords
1939 Mobilisation of Dominion and Imperial forces
1939 1945 6 World War 2
Tea with Mussolini 1999
Big Red One 1980

1940 Blitz;
Evacuation of British forces from Dunkirk
Dunkirk 1958
Fall of France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark and Norway to Germans
A Rukajärven tie (Ambush) 1999
Battle of Britain
Dark Blue World 2001
Angels One Five 1952

1943 Commonwealth troops invade Italy
Bombing of Bremen
Memphis Belle 1990
Battle of Kursk
1944 D Day
Saving Private Ryan 1998
Battle ofBulge
When Trumpets Fade 1998

1940 Battle ofGembloux Gap. Belgium Germany 3Div 2PTDiv 304X 413W 29M 337%T VS France 3Div 3MDiv 2XWM
1940 Battle of Montcornet. France Germany TDiv VS France TDiv
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1940 Norwegian Campaign. Norway Germany 7Div 100 1.3X Land 2.4X Sea 5.3 1.6W VS Norway 6 Div 55 1.7 #860X, UK 1.9XWM Land 2.5X Sea, France, Polish Army 93 #400CivX
1940 Battles of Narvik. Norway Germany 10D 0 VS Norway 2CD 2 #343X
1940 Operation Weserübung. Denmark, Norway Germany 9Div 1MoRiBrig120 1.1AC #341X1ABat 1HCr 1LCr 10D #448M #341W 5.6XM VS Norway 6Div 60 1.3X ?M, Denmark 2Div 14.5 #16X, UK, France, Poland in Exile 109.5 6.1X
1940 Battle ofNetherlands. Germany 22Div 1.4G 759T 830 22575 750 2.1X 7.3W1.4C VS Netherlands 2.3X 89W, UK #43X, France #216X 9Div 700G 1T 5ST 32AC 145 280 2+CivX
1940 Battle of Rotterdam. Netherlands Germany 1 #123 VS Netherlands 7 12A #185X
1940 Battle of Zeeland. Netherlands Germany 7.5 #97X #300W VS Netherlands 10 #38X #115W, France 15 #229X #700W 3C, UK ? 25 #265X #815W 3C
1940 Battle ofAfsluitdijk. Netherlands Netherlands #225 1GB 1X #2W 2CivX #10CivW VS Germany #500 69H 4 #5X #25+W
1940 Battle ofGrebbeberg. Netherlands Germany 1Div 1Bri 23 #275X VS Netherlands 1Div 1Bri 15 #417X
1940 Battle forHague. Netherlands Netherlands VS Germany
1940 Battle of Maastricht. Netherlands Germany #750 #47X VS Netherlands 1TDiv Panzer 1TDiv Flieger 343T 9 #183X 9AC 10
1940 Battle of Belgium. Germany 141Div 7.4G 2.4T 5.4 4Wor ?Ca #43PTX #100PTW VS Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands 144Div 14G 3.4T 2.5 222.4 #900 200C
1940 Battle of Fort EbenEmael. Netherlands Germany #493 #43X #99W VS Belgium 1+ #60X #40W 1C
1940 Battle of Hannut. Belgium Germany 2PTDiv 618T 49 111D 108A 1.3 25.9 #60X #80W VS France, Netherlands 2ArDiv 600AFV 121T 20.8 ?
1940 Battle of Gembloux. Belgium France 3MDiv 3Div 2+XWM VS Germany 2TDiv Panzer 35%T 3Div #304X #413W #29M
1940 Battle of France. Axis Germany 141Div 3.35M 157.6Cas 7.4G 2.4T #795 5.6 1.3 400D, Italy 300 6 163.7 VS Allies France 150, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Canada, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg 144Div 3.3M 2.26M 14G 4T 2.9
1940 Battle of Sedan. France Germany 60 #647XW 41V 771T 1.5 141A 96RB 81 VS France, UK 10 ? 174A 152B 250F 167
1940 Battle of Arras. France Germany #300XW #400C VS UK, France 74T 35 5075XW #170C then X
1940 Siege of Calais. France Germany 1PTDiv #775XW VS UK, France 4T 40 #300X #200W 3.5C
1940 Siege of Lille. France France 5Div 40 VS Germany 4Div 110 3ArDiv 800T
1940 Operation Paula. France France 120F 31 35Pl #906 #254X VS Germany 1.1 460F 10 4B
1940 Battle of Dunkirk. France Germany 800 2020XW 100T 240 VS France, UK, Belgium 400 338E 11X 40C 50V 177 9D 200MV
1940 Battle of Saumur. France Germany 1CDiv 10 #2300 VS France 1CDiv #560 #79X #47W
1940 Battle of Britain. UK UK, Canada 2, 1.5 #544X #422W VS Germany, Italy 2.6 1.9 2.7X #967C #638B
1940Hardest Day. UK UK 2734F 39FD 29G 23GD #10X #8LW #11SW VS Germany 6971 31D #94X #40C #25W
1940 Battle of Britain Day. UK UK 50Ob 630Fi 29 21D #15X #14W #1CVS Germany 620Fi 500B 1.1 5761 20SD #6381X #635C #301W #21M #25479
1940 Battle of Graveney Marsh. UK UK 1Bat 0 VS Germany 1BoPl 1PlC 4 #1W
1940 1Blitz. UK UK 403CiX 46139CiW VS Germany 3.4ACX 2.3
1942 Operation Cerberus. English Channel Germany 2B 1D 1LD 1HC 6D 1HD 14To 2LD 26E 32B 252Fi 22 38 #13SaX #2SaW #23ACX VS UK 6D 3DE 32MTo 450 42 61 #40XM #21W
1942 Operation Donnerkeil. English Channel, North Sea & north Germany Germany 252M&FWF 30MTF 17 32DoBo 5 22 #23X VS UK 450 41
1942 St. Nazaire Raid. France UK #265Com 4D 1G 1, 1To 1, 3Flot 13 15, 5Sq 2Pl #169X #215C VS Germany 1Brig 1Bat 1Div 5 #3602UBFlot 2MS 1To 2Ju 2Ta 2Tu 6 1Dock
1942 Dieppe Raid. France Germany 1Div 1.5 #311 #280W VS Canada 1Div 3.4XWC, UK 3ComB 10.5 8D 1 237 33LC 34 74Sq 94Fi 6B #887X #30W #17C, Polish Forces 4.3X
1943 Battle of Ortona. Italy Canada 2Bat #650VS Germany 2Bat ? 1.3CiX
1943 Bernhardt Line. Italy UK, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Free French, India, + VS Germany
1943 Moro River Campaign. Italy UK ?, Canada 2.3, India 3.4, New Zealand 1.6 4Div 2ArB VS Germany 1PaDiv 2GrDiv 1TpDiv
1943 4 Battle of Berlin. Germany USSR, Poland 156200 196Div 2.5M (1.5 in Berlin) 81.1XM 280.2W 2.3T&G 2 41.6A 2.1, 7.5 917 VS Germany 50Div 767 (+45So 22 40Ci 22 in Berlin) 92100X 220W 480C, 1.5AFV 9.3A 2.2
1944 Battle of Monte Cassino. Italy UK, USA, Free French, Poland, Canada, India, New Zealand, Italian Royalists 1.9T 4 55 VS Germany, Italy 20
1944 Operation Diadem. Italy USA, UK VS Germany
1944 Battle of Anzio Italy USA, UK, Canada 36 then 150 2.31.5V 43 7X 36WM VS Germany 20 then 135, Italy 4.6 40 5X 30.5WM 4.5C
1944 Battle of Cisterna. Italy Germany 4Div 1PaDiv VS USA 1Div 1PaReg 1RaFor
1944 Trasimene Line. Italy USA, UK, France VS Germany
1944 Battle of Ancona. Italy Poland 50 #496X 1.8W #139M VS Germany #800X 3C
1944 Gothic Line. Italy UK, USA, India, Canada, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Brazil, Italian Resistance, Greece 40 VS Germany, Italy
1944 Battle of Gemmano. Italy British Empire UK, India 3Div 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 4Div
1944 Battle of Rimini. Italy UK, Canada, Greece, New Zealand 3.4 VS Germany
1944 Battle of San Marino. San Marino British Empire India 1Div VS Germany 1Div
1944 Battle of Garfagnana. Italy Germany, Italy 9.1 100A 1XM VS USA, UK, India 18 120T 140A 1XM #300+C
Territory in northern Tuscany falls back into Axis hands.
1944 Operation Overlord. France USA, UK, Canada, Free French, Poland, Czechloslovakia, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Free Belgians, Greece, Luxembourg 1.5 Then 2M 226Cas 4.1 4T VS Germany 380 then 1M 2.3T&AG 2.2, 210450 2.1 13.619.9CivCas
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Battle for Caen. France UK, Canada 11Div 3ArDiv 5ArBri 3TBri 50.5Cas VS Germany 7Div 8PTDiv 3HTBat 550T 50.5Cas
1944 Operation Perch. France Germany 1Div 3PTDiv 1HTBat VS UK 2Div 1ArDiv 2ArBri
1944 Battle of Carentan. France USA 1ABat 1TBat 1MBat VS Germany 2PaBat 4Bat 2PTBat
1944 Battle of Cherbourg. France USA 2.8X 5.7M 13.5WVS Germany 40 78XM 30C
1944 Battle of VillersBocage. France Germany 2BatG 1HTBat 3141T 815 VS UK 1Bri #270 60T 237 +Civ
1944 Battle of Bloody Gulch. France USA 1IDiv 1AirBat #32X #73W 1ArDiv 60T VS Germany 1Reg #43X #89W 1PTDiv 12T 2
1944 Operation Epsom. France UK 2IDiv 1ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri 4 VS Germany 1BatG 3PTDiv 1HTBat 123T 3+
1944 Operation Windsor. France Canada 4IBat 1MGBat 2ArReg 17T #377 VS Germany 1PTBat 1Bat 15T #155
1944 Operation Charnwood. France UK, Canada 3IDiv 3ArBri 80T 3.8 VS Germany 1IDiv 1ArDiv 61T 1821 2+ #3400CivX
1944 Operation Jupiter. France UK 2 VS Germany
1944 2nd Battle ofOdon. France UK 3.5 VS Germany 2
1944 Operation Goodwood. France UK 1IDiv 3ArDiv 1.11.3T 253314 3.5 VS Germany 4IDiv 3ArDiv 2HTBat 377T 75100T ?Cas 22.5C
1944 Operation Atlantic. France Canada 2IDiv 1ArBri 1.7 VS Germany 2PTDiv
1944 Battle of Verrières Ridge. France Germany 1IDiv 2.5PTDiv VS Canada 2IDiv 1ArBri #800X 2WC
German defensive victory
1944 Operation Spring. France Germany 3PTDiv VS Canada, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri #450X 1.1W
1944 Operation Cobra. France USA 8IDiv 3ArDiv 2.5T&TD 1.8 VS Germany 2IDiv 1PaDiv 5PTDiv 190T&AG
1944 Operation Totalize. France Canada, UK, Poland 85 1.3 3IDiv 2ArDiv 2Arbri 720A 2 146+T VS Germany 3IDiv 1PTDiv 1HTBat 74T 45 3
1944 Operation Lüttich. France USA 9thAF, UK 2ndAF 5IDiv 3ArCC VS Germany 2IDiv 3PTDiv 5PT&IDiv 150T
1944 Operation Tractable. France Canada, Poland 1.4, UK 2IDiv 2ArDiv 1ArBri 1TBri VS Germany 2IDiv 1PTDiv
1944 Battle of Hill 262. France Poland 1.5 #351 80T 11 VS Germany Remains of 20I&PTDiv 1.5
1944 Falaise pocket. France USA, UK, Canada, Poland, Free French 17Div + VS Germany 1415Div 100 60
1944 Battle for Brest. France USA, UK 3IDiv 1RaBat 4 VS Germany 3Div 1+X 4W 38C
1944 Operation Dragoon. France USA 2XCM 7.8OCO, Free French 10<, UK, Canada 175200 VS Germany 85100P 285300A 7X 20W 130+C
1944 Operation Romeo. France France 800 11X 50W VS Germany 300X 700C
1944 Battle of Port Cros. France USA, Canada 1.5 1D 9X VS Germany 5F 5 1A 1C 2
1944 Battle of La Ciotat. France USA 1D 1D #1W, UK 2GB 17PT VS Germany 1C 1AuC 2 #169C
1944 Allied advance from Paris toRhine. France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 240 50.4X 172.5W 24.4CM, UK, Poland, Canada, France, + 5.4M VS Germany 1.5M
1944 ClearingChannel Coast. France, Belgium Canada, UK, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Netherlands Vs Germany
1944 Operation Astonia. France Canada, UK 45 >#500 AFV 35 VS Germany 12 #600X 1.3C
1944 Siege of Dunkirk. France Canada, UK, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgian Resistance VS Germany
1944 Operation Wellhit. France Canada, UK 2Brig + Ar, A, 1 #600 VS Germany 10 <#500 9.5C
1944 Operation Undergo. France Canada, UK #260 VS Germany 7.5 (Calais) 9.1C
1944 5 Battle of Monte Castello. Italy Brazil 1Div #443, USA 1Div VS Germany 1Div 9 1.5+
1944 Invasion of Normandy. France UK, USA, Canada, Free French, Poland, Australia, Free Belgians, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Free Czechloslovak, Greece 1.3M 120 VS Germany 380 113
1944 Operation Market Garden. Netherlands, Germany UK, USA, Poland, Dutch Resistance 42.6PT 2IDiv 15.317.2 1ADiv 1ABri 88 144T VS Germany, German Netherlands 6.313.3 30T&SPG 159
1944 Battle of Arnhem. Netherlands Germany, German Netherlands 1Div 1For 1.3X 2WVS UK, Poland 1AiDiv 1PTBri 2X 6.8C
1944 Lorraine Campaign. France USA 3rd Army 55.2 6.7X 36.4W 12.1MVS Germany 75C
1944 Battle of Metz. France USA VS Germany
1944 Battle of Nancy. France USA 3Div 2.9 VS Germany 2Div 2Reg 4
1944 Battle of Moerbrugge. Belgium Canada #5X #26W VS Germany #700X #150C
1944 5 Battle of Hürtgen Forest. GermanBelgian Border Germany 80 28 VS USA 120 33 (w/ 9 NCCas)
1944 Battle of Hill 400. Germany USA, UK VS Germany
1944 Battle of Overloon. Netherlands USA, UK 2Div 1.9 3 40 VS Germany 1Div?
1944 Battle of Aachen. Germany USA 100 5 VS Germany 13 5 5.6C
1944 Battle of Crucifix Hill. Germany USA VS Germany
1944 Battle ofScheldt. Belgium, Netherlands Canada 6.4, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Norway, Poland 60 12.9 VS Germany 90 1012 41C
1944 Operation Queen. Germany Germany 38.5VS USA, UK 38.5 340T
1944 5 Operation Clipper. Germany UK, USA 2 #169X #752M #500NC VS Germany
1944 5 Battle ofBulge. Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany USA 89.5 19X 47.5W 23CM 800T, UK 1.4 #200X #969W #239M, Canada, Free Belgians, Free Luxembourg 83 4IDiv 1ADiv 394A#242T To 610 20IDiv 9ADiv 4.2A 1.6T 182AFV 6 VS Germany 200 8IDiv 5ADiv 340+T 280+AFV 1.6A 955RL Rien 100 12IDiv 3⅔ADiv 440+T 440+AFV 600T&AG 2.4 500T 67.2100XMC 100s 3CiX
1944 Battle of St. Vith. Belgium Germany 2GrDiv 1Bri 1PTDiv 100+ 500T VS USA, UK 1IDiv 2ADiv 22 12.5XWCM 88T 25AC
1944 Battle of Kesternich. Germany USA 1IDiv VS Germany 2GrDiv Allies take town
1944 Battle of Foy. Belgium USA, Canada VS Germany Town taken
1944 Battle of Lanzerath Ridge. Belgium Germany Bat 2Reg Div#500 GrDiv20 #20X #63W #13M VS USA In&ScPla Reg Div18 A4 #1X #14W #20C
1944 Losheim Gap. Belgium Germany 25 #200X #300W200+T 112T VS USA 5 #450X 1+W 2.3C 20LT 12MT 32T
1944 Battle of Clervaux. Luxembourg Germany Div 2PTDiv + VS USA 2Reg 22.8
1944 Elsenborn Ridge. Belgium USA 4Div 28 5XM VS Germany 4GrDiv 56 + PTDiv 114T&V
1944 Operation Stösser. Germany USA 3 300T VS Germany PTReg #300 #200
1945 Siege of Bastogne. Belgium USA PTDiv 22.8+ 3+Ca VS Germany 54+
1945 Operation Bodenplatte. Belgium, Netherlands, France Canada, New Zealand, Poland, UK 2nd AF, USA 8th&9thAF VS Germany Cor 2Div
1945 Operation Nordwind. France USA 7thArm 29, France 1stArm 2 31VS Germany 1st&19thArm 23
1945 Operation Blackcock. Netherlands, Germany UK, Canada 2Div ComBri ArDiv 1.2 VS Germany 2Div 2PTReg HPTBat 2
1945 Colmar Pocket. France France 5Div 2ArDiv Rein ArDiv 14, USA 2Div Rein Div ArDiv 8 22 VS Germany 8Div PTBri 2238.5
1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany. Germany USA 6th,12thArmG 3M, UK 21stArmG, France 1stArm, Canada, Poland VS Germany ArmG:B,G,H 1M
1945 Operation Veritable. Germany UK, Canada 200 15.6 VS Germany 90 44.2
1945 Operation Grenade. Germany USA 7.3 VS Germany 45.7
1945 Operation Lumberjack. Germany USA VS Germany
1945 Operation Plunder. Germany UK, Canada, USA VS Germany
1945 Operation Varsity. Germany UK, USA, Canada 16.9 2.42.7 72 VS Germany 8 ? 3.5C
1945 Operation Undertone. Germany USA, France 12.9 VS Germany 22C
1945 Operation Amherst. Netherlands Free France 2PTBri #700 VS Germany Capture Canals
1945 Battle of Kassel. Germany USA Div VS Germany 6 #50X 5.4C
1945 Battle of Heilbronn. Germany USA Cor #60X #250W #112M VS Germany Cor 1.5C
1945 Ruhr Pocket. Germany USA, UK, German Res. 300+ 4.1Ca #928X 3.3W VS Germany 400 ? 300+C
1945 Battle of Groningen. Netherlands Canada 1214 #43X #166W VS Germany 77.5 #300X 5.2C
1945 Spring Offensive in Italy. UK 633, USA 267, Poland, India, Brazil, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, + 900 16.3 VS Germany, Italy 394 302
Decisive Allied victory German surrender in Italy Execution of Benito Mussolini Italian Social Republic disestablished
1945 Battle of Bologna. Italy UK, USA VS Italy, Germany
1945 Battle of Collecchio. Italy Brazil 2Reg, USA 1TBat, Italian Partisan 1Brig VS Germany, Italy 1Div 15
1945 Battle ofArgenta Gap. Italy UK VS Germany #600+C
1939 45 6 Battle ofAtlantic. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) 36.2SaX 32MSX 3.5M 175W 3.7 VS Germany, Italy (403 3) 30SaX 783Sub
1939 Battle ofRiver Plate. Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea, Labrador Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Outer Banks, Arctic Ocean UK, Canada, USA (415 4), Newfoundland, Norway, Poland, Free French (405 5), Belgium, Brazil (425 3), Netherlands, France (3940) HC BD 2LC 2D 3D 72X 28WVS Germany, Italy (403 3)1PB Sc 30X 60W
1940 Altmark Incident. Norway UK D #1W VS Germany S #4X #5W #299 POWs Rescued
1940 Convoy SC 7. West of UK Germany 7U VS UK 35M 20 79.6GRT #141X5E
1940 Convoy HX 84. North Atlantic Germany HC VS UK 38M 5 1D, AMC 1 7
1941 Convoy HX 106. Atlantic UK 41M 1B VS Germany 2B
1941 Operation Berlin. Atlantic Germany 2B 5S&T VS UK 22M
1941 Action of 4 April. Mid Atlantic Germany 1AuC 1D VS UK 1AuC 1 #74X #100W #195C
1941 Action of 9 May. South of Iceland UK 40Fre 7 2D #40X, 3D 3Co 2Tr VS Germany 4Su 1C 2D #14X #32C
1941 Battle ofDenmark Strait. South of Iceland UK VS Germany 1B 1D 1BC 1 1.4X #9W 1HC
1942 Operation Drumbeat. 2nd Happy Time. Atlantic Germany 22U VS UK, USA 609 3.1MGRT
19425 3 Battle of Torpedo Alley. Off North Carolina Germany 3Sub #100X #40CVS UK, USA 397 5X
1942 Action of 27 March. Off Virginia Germany 1Sub 1D #1X VS USA 1Q 1 #141
1942 4 2 Battle ofSt. Lawrence. Gulf in Canada Canada 23 3D #340VS Germany
1942 Action of 6 June. Off Recife, Brazil Germany 1AuC 1D 2W VS USA 1Ca 1 17X 14W 37C
1942 Convoy PQ 17. Arctic Ocean Germany 9U(w/X) 33To 6B 5 VS UK, USA, USSR, Netherlands, Panama 6D 2AntAi 2Sub 11Sm 35M 24 #154 6Au
1942 Naval Battle of Casablanca. Morocco USA 1AC 1EC 1B 1D 3HC 1LC 14D 2D 15T 4 347L 150 1Ta ? 45 #174X ?W VS German, France 1B 1D 1LC 1 2FL 2Gr 7D 4 1Gr 8Sl 11MS 11Sub 5 2D 1Gr ? 7 ?Bat, Germany 2Sub 1 ? ?
1942 Battle ofBarents Sea. Norway UK 2C 6D 1 2Co 1MS 1 2Tr #250 VS Germany 2HC 1D 6D 1 #330
1943 Battle ofNorth Cape. Norway UK, Canada, Norway 1B LD 1HC 1D 3LC 9D 1D #11X #11W VS Germany 1B 1 1.9X #36C
1941 Operation Stonewall. West of France UK 2LC 2W, USA 1EC, Free France 4D, Canada 4Co, New Zealand 1C, Czechoslovakia 1B, Ireland 1St, Spain 2D VS Germany 2To 1D 1DD 4BR #154C Last of German control of French ports.
1945 Operation Teardrop. North Atlantic USA, Canada 4AC 42D 1 #126X ?WVS Germany 7Su 5 #218X ?W #00F
1944 Battle of Ushant. English Channel UK, Canada, Poland 8D 1D VS Germany 4D 1 1Sc #140C #39X
1944 Battle of Pierres Noires. Off France Canada 4D VS Germany 4P 1 1D 1U
1945 Action of 9 February. Off Norway UK 1Su VS Germany, Japan 2Su 1 #73
1945 Battle of Point Judith. Off Rhode Island USA 1D 2DE 1Fri 1Col 1 12 2Bl VS Germany 1U 55
1941 Operation Barbarosa. Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia USSR 2.9MPres 5.5M 465.4X 101.5XfmW 235.3NCX 2.3MM 3.13MTX 1.26MW 66.1S 13.6FB 1.3MTW 500C 125T(FL) 20.5 3540 21.2 VS Germany, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland 5.5M 220.6X 56.3M 261.8W 1M+CaT 4.3T 2.8 46A 4.4 2
1941 Battle of BiałystokMinsk. Poland, Belorus Germany 750 276 ?VS USSR 675 341XC 76.7W 417.8Cas 4.8T 9.4G 1.7
1941 Operation Arctic Fox. North Scandinavia Germany 1Div 2PTDiv, Finland 3Div 2Bat VS Russia 4RiDiv 1Bri 1TDiv
1944 Operation Bagration. Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland USSR 2.33M, Poland 79.9 4.1MT 770.9 180XM 590.8WS 2.7T 1.4AG 3T&AG 24.4G 2.4 5.3 822 VS Germany, Hungary 486.5FL 400Su 886.5 381X 158.5C 118T 377AG 2.6G 602
1944 Bobruysk Offensive. Belorussia USSR ? VS Germany 90 50X 20C
1944 Battle ofBay of Viipuri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany VS USSR Soviets capturemain Viborg Bay islands
1944 Belostock Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany 30X 1C
1945 Battle of Bautzen . Germany Germany 5090 6.5X 300T 620A VS USSR 20 ?, Poland 90 4.9X 2.8M 10.5W 500T 250 110
1941 2 Battle at Borodino Field . Russia Germany 1Div 1PTDiv 2PTBri VS USSR 2RiDiv 1ATReg 1MCReg
1942 Operation Braunschweig . Splitting of Germany Army into West & East fronts
1941 Defense of Brest Fortress . Russia Germany 1720 #414X VS USSR 9+ 2+ 56C
1945 Siege of Breslau . Germany USSR 87.3 6 VS Germany 50 30So&Ci
1941 Battle of Brody . Ukraine Germany 800T 200 VS USSR 2.5T 800
1941 Battle of Bryansk . Russia Germany 50thArm VS USSR 1TDiv 1TReg 1MecCor 80X 50C Inspired invention of AK47
1944 5 Budapest Offensive . Hungary USSR VS Germany 49X 110C 269TC
1944 5 Siege of Budapest . Hungary USSR, Romania 170 in city 500+T 80XM 240WS VS Hungary, Germany 90 in city 180T 99150XWC 40CiX
1942 Case Blue . Russia USSR 1.7So 1RS 2.7T 2.2 1.1MXM 1.1W3.7T 1.7 VS Germany 1M, Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Hungary, Croatia 300Allies 1.3M 1Ca 1.9T 1.6
1942 4 2 Battle ofCaucasus. Russia USSR VS Germany, Romania, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Chechnya
1943 Operation Concert. Russia USSR #Det 210 VS Germany Destroying German Infrustructure
1941 4 3 Continuation War. Finland, Russia USSR, UK VS Finland 530 63.3XM 158W #939Ci fm Pl #190Ci fm Soviots 2.43.5C , Germany 220, 14XM 37W ?NC Italy 275+
1944 5 1 Courland Pocket. Red Armys blockade or encirclement of Axis forces onCourland Peninsula
1941 2 Crimean Campaign. Ukraine Germany VS USSR
1944 Crimean Offensive. Ukraine USSR 462.4 85 17.8XM 67W VS Germany, Romania ? 96.7 57.5XM 39.2W
1944 Battle of Debrecen. Hungary Germany 15, Hungary 20 80 35 18C 200T 490G VS USSR 84, Romania 33.5 260 117.4 5C 500T 1.7G
1942 Demyansk Pocket. Russia Germany 100ini 48X 140W VS USSR 400ini 200X 400W
1944 Operation Doppelkopf. Lithuania Germany VS USSR
1943 Battle ofDnieper. Russia USSR 2.65M(Ini) 51G 2.4T 2.9 1.29MCa 348.8X 937.3WSVS Germany, Romania 1.25M(Ini) 12.6G 2.1T 2 4001.2M
1945 Battle ofTransdanubian Hills. Hungary Bulgaria 1stArm, USSR 57thArm, Yugoslavia 3rdArm VS Germany 1Cor 1PTArm
1944 Battle ofDukla Pass. SlovakiaPoland Border Germany, Hungary 100 70 2A 350T VS USSR 120150 80123 20.5X, Czechoslovakia 16.7 6.51.5A 1.7M 1T 136.7166.7 86.5129.5
1945 East Pomeranian Offensive. Germany USSR, Poland 996.1 55.3XM 179W VS Germany
1945 East Prussian Offensive. Germany USSR 1.67M 126.5XM 458.3WS VS Germany 580So 200M 780T ?XW 220C
1942 Operation Edelweiss. Russia USSR VS Germany 167 1.1T 4.5G 1 Geman attempt to captureoil fields of Baku
1945 Operation Frühlingserwachen. Hungary USSR, Bulgaria 465 8.5XM 24.4WS VS Germany, Hungary 431 12.4XWM 700AFV 31T
1944 Gumbinnen Operation . Germany Germany VS USSR 404.5 16.8X 62.7W
1945 Battle of Halbe. Germany USSR 280 20X VS Germany 80 30+X 25C 10CiX
1939 Battle of Hel. Poland Germany 4653 1DD 1BLD VS Poland 3 46G
1944 Heiligenbeil Pocket. USSR VS Germany 150? 80X 50C 605T 128
1943 Operation Iskra. Russia USSR 20Div 15Bri 33.9XM 81.1WS 4.6A 500T 900 VS Germany 26Div 12X700A 50T
1944 JassyKishinev Operation. Romania USSR, Romania 239th Aug 1.31M 13.2XM 54WS 16G 1.9T 2.2 111 VS Germany, Romania 203rd Aug 40Div 1.22M 170 100X 115C 800 T Romania: 8.3X 25W 170CM 25
1944 KamenetsPodolsky Pocket. Ukraine USSR 500 399T&AG 280G VS Germany 220 14.2 5.9XM
1944 Kaunas Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1941 2 Battle ofKerch Peninsula. Ukraine Germany, Romania 9 VS USSR 170XC
1943 KerchEltigen Operation. Ukraine USSR 27.7+ VS Germany 2Cor, Romania 1Cor 3Cor
1941 First Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 2Div 1030 12T VS USSR 1Div
1942 Second Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Italy 350 1T 700 VS USSR 765.3 277.2 171XWC 106.2W 1.2T 1.2 300SPC 2G 926 542
1943 Third Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany 70 11.5XWM VS USSR 346 86.5 45.2X 42.3W
1943 Fourth Battle of Kharkov. Ukraine USSR 4Arm 800T 450 VS Germany 2ArnGr
1941 Occupation of Kharkov. Ukraine Germany VS USSR 30CiX
1941 Battle of Kiev . Ukraine Germany 500 VS USSR 627 700.5 616.3XC 84.2W Occupation ofcity fornext 2 years.
1943 Battle of Kiev. Ukraine USSR VS Germany 1PTArm 15X 6.2C 286T 156
1945 Battle of Kolberg. Germany USSR, Poland 28+ 1.2XMVS Germany 10 ?X 8C
1945 Battle of Königsberg. Germany USSR 250 60 VS Germany 60130 50 80C
1945 Operation Konrad. Hungary USSR VS Germany, Hungary Part of Battle of Budhapest
1944 KorsunCherkassy Pocket Ukraine USSR 336.7 80.2 5.3A&M 524T 1 Rien 400T 728T VS Germany 58 30XWM 242A 59T Rien 259T 156T 50
1943 Battle of Krasny Bor. Russia Germany 1Div 5.9 3.6XW #300M 1PolDiv Rein 1Div+ VS USSR 39 10XWM 90T 1A&M
1942 Operation Kremlin. Russia Germany VS USSR Recon. flights over Moscow
1943 Battle of Kursk. Russia USSR 1.41M 863.3 5.1T 6T&AG 25G&M 5.2G 2.8 1.6 VS Germany 780.9 203 2.9T 720T&AG 10G&M 2.1 681
1943 Operation Kutuzov. Russia USSR 928 430 2.4T&AG 2.6T 26.4A 892 2.23 11.7 VS Germany 300.7 86 625T&AG 5.5G 610 218
1941 4 3 Battle of Leningrad. Russia USSR 1XCM 2.4WS 1.14MCiX (642 Siege 400 Evacuation) 2.14T VS Germany, Finland, Italy
1943 Battle of Lenino. Belarus Germany 1.5VS USSR, Poland 3
1945 Lower Silesian Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Lublin–Brest Offensive. East Poland/West Belarus USSR, Poland VS Germany, Romania
1944 Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. West Ukraine/East Poland USSR 1M 289.3 65XMC 224.3W 2AFV 11.3G 1.3T&G 289VS Germany, Hungary 900 136.9 55XMC900AFV 6.3G 1.9T 687
1944 Operation Margarethe. Hungary Germany, Hungary VS Russia German Occupation of Hungary
1944 Battle of Memel. Lithuania USSR VS Germany
1944 Minsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 100 60WC 40XM
1944 Mogilev Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 33X 3.3C
1944 Moonzund Landing Operation. Estonia USSR, Finland VS Germany
1941 2 Battle of Moscow. Russia USSR 1.25M 5001.3 3.2T 7.6G 1.4 VS Germany 1.93M 280750 1.7T 14G 599 1.29V
1943 Malaya Zemlya. Russia USSR 800 VS Germany
1942 Operation Mars. Russia Germany 40XM VS USSR 415 70.4X 145.3W 1.3T
1945 Nagykanizsa–Kermend Offensive. Hungary Bulgaria, USSR, Yugoslav Partisans VS Germany, Hungary, Croatia
1944 Battle of Narva . Estonia Germany, Estonian Partisans 123.5 68 14XM 54WS 32T 137 VS Russia 200 480 (Ci Incl) 100XM 380WS 2.5G 100T 300 800 230
1944 Battle for Narva Bridgehead. Estonia USSR 205 65XM 235WS 2.5AG 100T 130AV 800 230 VS Germany 123.5 12XMC 46WS32T 137
1944 Battle of Tannenberg Line. Estonia Germany, Estonian Conscripts 22.3 10 2.5XM 7.5WS 7T 6 7080AG 49 VS USSR 136.8 170 35XM 135WS 150AV 157164T 1.7AG 546
1942 3 Nevsky Pyatachok. Russia USSR 260 VS Germany 160
1943 Battle of Nikolayevka. Russia USSR 6 1XW VS Italy, Germany, Hungary 40 (4CR) 30XWC
1942 Operation Nordlicht. Leningrad, Russia USSR VS Germany
1945 Battle ofOderNeisse. Germany USSR VS Germany
1941 Siege of Odessa. Ukraine Romania, Germany 160 92.5 17.7X 63.3W 11.5M 19T 90A 20VS USSR 34.5 41.360 16.6XM 24.7W 240A 151
1944 Osovets Offensive. Poland USSR VS Germany
1944 Operation Panzerfaust. Budapest, Hungary USSR, Romania VS Hungar, Germany
1941 Operation Platinum Fox. North Finland Germany, Finland 27.5 VS USSR 3Div
1944 Polotsk Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany 37X 7C
1943 Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda. Saint Petersburg, Russia USSR VS Germany
1945 Battle of Poznań. Poland USSR 100 10X, Poland 5 #700X 105 10.7X VS Germany 82.9 6X, Hungary 1.1 #100X 84 23C
1945 Prague Offensive. Czech Rep. USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania 2M 12XM 40.5WS VS Germany 900 850XWC
1941 Pripyat swamps. Belarus Germany VS Jews 17.3X Punitive operation
1943 Battle of Prokhorovka. Russia USSR 5.5 4TArm 2TCor 207334T 420TD VS Germany 2Div 1PTDiv #522 #97XM 36T 4189TD
1944 Battle of Radzymin. Poland Germany VS USSR
1941 Battle of Raseiniai. Lithuania Germany 245T VS USSR 749T 704
1941 Operation Renntier. Finland Germany 2Div 27.5 VS USSR
1944 Riga Offensive. Latvia, Estonia USSR VS Germany
1941 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR SouthFro 33 VS Germany, Poland 1PTArm 20
1942 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1943 Battle of Rostov. Russia USSR VS Germany, Poland
1942 3 Battles of Rzhev. Russia.
1942 RzhevVyazma Strategic Offensive Operation.
1942 SychevskVyazma offensive operation.
1942 MozhaiskVyazma offensive operation.
1942 ToropetsKholm Offensive Operation. Russia USSR 122.1 29.2 10.4XM 18.8W VS Germany 12
1942 Vyazma airborne operation
1942 Rzhev operation.
1942 Operation Seydlitz.
1942 First RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation.
1942 3 Second RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation. See Operation Mars
1942 3 Battle for Velikiye Luki. Russia USSR 100 104 31.7XM 72.3W VS Germany 20 1759XWM
1943 Operation Büffel . Third RzhevSychevka Offensive Operation Germany retreats 230KM
1942 3 Operation Saturn. Russia USSR VS Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary
1945 Defense of Schwedt Bridgehead. Germany Germany VS USSR Successful Deception
1941 Sea of Azov coastal advance. Ukraine, Russia Germany, Romania VS USSR 106C 212T 766A
1945 Battle ofSeelow Heights. Germany USSR, Poland 1M 3T 16.9G&M 20 56X VS Germany 112.1 12X 587T 2.6G
1941 2 Siege of Sevastopol . Ukraine Germany 27 4.3X 21.6W 1.5M, Romania 8.5 1.6X 6.6W #277M, Italy, Bulgaria 203.8 35.9 VS USSR 118 95C 5W 18X
1944 Shyaulyay Offensive. Belorus, Lithuania, Latvia USSR VS Germany
1945 Silesian Offensives. Poland, Germany USSR VS Germany 40X 14C
1941 Operation Silver Fox. North Finland USSR 7Div 1Bri Navy VS Germany 21.5, Finland 5 6Div 3Bat
1941 Battle of Smolensk. Russia Germany 430 1T 100200T VS USSR 581.6 300C 1.43T Encirclement and capture of Soviots
1943 Battle of Smolensk. Russia USSR 1.25M 451.4 107.6XMC 343.8W 20.6G 1.4T 1.1 VS Germany 850 20050 8.8G 500T 700 Recapture
1945 Operation Solstice. Germany USSR VS Germany
1942 Battle of Someri. Gulf of Finland Finland, Germany 23X 68W 2G 2LMSD VS USSR 2P 11D 1GD 1LMSD 5 #328X #149C
1942 3 Battle of Stalingrad. Russia USSR 187 then 1.14M 478.7XM 650.9WS 40CiX 2.2A then 13.5 15.7 400T then 894 4.3T 300 then 1.1 2.8 VS Germany 400, Romania 200, Italy 235, Hungary 200, Croatia 5 270 then 1M 750XMW incl. 91C500T 1.5 3A then 10.3 6 600 then 1.6 + 732 900 inc339T
1944 Battle of Studzianki. Poland USSR 1Arm, Poland 1ArmBri 89 27T VS Germany 3Div 40T 26G&M 9APC
1941 4 3 Bombing of Tallinn in World War II.
1941 Luftwaffe raids
1942 3 2 Red Air Force raids
1944 Red Air Force raids 300 dropped 3Bombs #757X
1941 Evacuation of Tallinn. Gulf of Finland Germany, Finland VS USSR 12+X 12W 34M
1944 Tallinn Offensive. Estonia USSR 195 VS Germany 50 50, Estonian Cons. VS Estonian Independence 2
1944 1st Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania 3Div 2ArDiv 1PTDiv VS USSR 14RiDiv T 1AiDiv
1944 2nd Battle of Târgul Frumos. Romania Germany, Romania VS USSR
1942 Tatsinskaya Raid. Russia USSR 190T VS Germany 12X 5C ?W 84T 106G 300
1942 ToropetsKholm Operation. Russia USSR 122.1 29.2 10.4XM 18.8W VS Germany 12
1941 Battle of Uman. Ukraine Germany, Romania, Hungary 400 600T VS USSR 300 203 103C 100WX 317TC 858GC
1945 Upper Silesian Offensive. Germany USSR 408.4 66.8 15.9X VS Germany 40X 14C
1942 Operation Uranus. Russia USSR 1.14M 894T 13.5A 1.5 VS Germany 250+ 732 402Ser, Italy 220 ?A ?, Romania 143.3 827A 134T ?, Hungary 200 ?A&T 803+134+T 732+
1945 Vienna Offensive. Austria USSR 644.7, Bulgaria 100.9 4Arm 85Div 3Bri 746 18X VS Germany 19X 52C 20%Ci
1944 Vilnius Offensive. Lithuania USSR VS Germany 8X 5C VS Polish Home Arm
1945 Vistula–Oder Offensive. Germany, Poland USSR, Poland 2.2M 43.4XM 150.7WS VS Germany 450 ?X ?W 150C
1944 Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive. Belarus USSR VS Germany
1942 Battle of Voronezh. Russia Germany, Hungary VS USSR 568.3 370.5XC 197.8W
1943 Battle of Voronezh. Russia USSR VS Germany, Hungary
1944 Warsaw Uprising. Poland Germany, + 1325 79X 7M 9W 2C 310T&AV 340Tr&C 22A 1 VS Polish Res 41.7 10X 5.26M 5W 15C, UK AF, USSR AF, South Africa AF, USA AF 2049 150200CiX 700CiDis
1939 Battle of Westerplatte. Poland Germany 3.4 #2300XW VS Poland #209 1520X 53W +C
1942 Operation Winter Storm. Russia USSR 150 630T 1.5A VS Germany 50+ 250T
1939 Battle of Wizna. Poland Germany 42.2 1X 350T 657M&G&H 10AV ? VS Poland #720 650X 40C 6A 42MG 6Ri
1941 Operation Wotan. Russia USSR VS Germany
1941 Yelnya Offensive. Russia USSR 103.2 31.9 10.7XM 21.2W VS Germany
1945 Zemland Offensive. Russia USSR VS Germany 80XC
1944 Operation Valkyrie. Attempt to kill Hitler and free Germans
1939 Invasion of Poland. Poland Germany 60Div 6Bri 1.5M 16.3X 3.5M 30.3W 9G 2.8T 2.3, Slovakia 3Div 51.3 #37X #11M #114W, USSR 33+Div 11+Bri 466.5 5.3 1.5XM 2.4W, 5G, 4.7T, 3.3 2+M 59 VS Poland 39Div 16Bri 950 904 66X 133.7W 694C 4.3G 880T 400 * Decisive German and Soviet victory. Beginning of World War II. Polish territory divided between Germany,Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia
German Invasion.
1939 Battle ofBzura. Poland Germany 12Div 5A&MDiv 425 8X 4C 50T 100C 20A VS Poland 8Div 24CBri 225 1820X 32W 170C
1939 Battle of Kock. Poland Germany MCor 30 3500 185C VS Poland 18 250300 17C
Soviot Invasion
1939 Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski. Poland Germany VS Poland
1939 Battle of Krojanty. Germany Germany Reg 800 11X 9W ARV 30G VS Poland 4Sq 1Pla 250 1925X 450W
1940 Battle ofGembloux Gap. Belgium Germany 3Div 2PTDiv 304X 413W 29M 337%T VS France 3Div 3MDiv 2XWM
1940 Battle of Montcornet. France Germany TDiv VS France TDiv
Battle of Belgium
1940 Battle of Tirlemont. Belgium Germany VS Belgium
1914 Battle of Haelen. Belgium Belgium 5Reg 160X 320W VS Germany 6Reg 150X 600W 300C
1941 5 4 Battle ofCaribbean. USA, UK, Canada, + VS Germany, Italy
Africa and Middle East
1940 2 2 Battles of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Changes hands 4X
1940 Capture of Fort Capuzzo. Libya UK, New Zealand 1CReg 1TReg 1Sq VS Germany, Italy
1940 Battle of Dakar. Senegal German France 1B 1D 2C 4D 1 3Su 2 1Fre F VS UK, Australia, Free French 2B 2D 1AC 6To 5C 2D 10D
1940 Battle of Gabon. French Equatorial Africa (CAR, Chad, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon) UK, Free French VS German France 1Sl 1Su
1941 Siege of Tobruk. Libya Australia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, UK, India 27 3.8 VS Germany, Italy 35 74150
1941 Iraq Campaign. Anglo–Iraqi War Iraq UK, Abd alIlah loyalists, Assyrian Levies, India, British Palestine, Transjordan, Australia, New Zealand 1Div 2BriGr 60X 100+ 28 VS Iraq 116 5060Ser Most, Arab irregulars, Syrian Committee, Germany 219 19, Italy 12 3 4Div 1.8 500X 14957 +
1941 Operation Brevity. EgyptLibya Border UK, Australia 3Bat 53T 5 6 206+ VS Germany, Italy +Bat 3050T 3 605+
1941 Operation Skorpion. Egypt Germany VS UK 1Bat #173 12A 5T
1941 Operation Battleaxe. Libya Germany, Italy 13.2 169T 12 130Fi 84B 114T 10 698 VS UK, India 25 190T 9198 98Fi 105B 203T 36 969
1941 SyriaLebanon Campaign. Syria, Lebanon Australia, UK, India, Palestine, Transjordan, Free French, Free Czechs 34 4 50+ 27 1L 1+C 6D VS Germany, German France, Syria, Lebanon 45 6.48.9 90T 289 179 2D 3Su
1941 Operation Crusader. Egypt, Libya UK, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Poland, Czechloslovakia 118 17.7 738T 800 724 616Ser 300 VS Germany, Italy 119 38.3 390414T 340 536 342Ser 332
1941 Battle of Gazala. Libya Germany 3.4, Italy 90 560T 400 VS UK, India, South Africa, Free French 110 50XWC 843T 1.2
1941 Battle of Bir Hakeim. Libya Germany, Italy 45 3.3X 277C 52TVS Free France 3.7 900C
1942 Battle of Madagascar. UK, North Rhodesia, South Africa, Australia 1015 620 107X 280W 1B HD 1Ta VS German Empire Vichy France, Japan 8 150X 500W 1MSu
1942 1st Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa 150 13.3 179T 1+A 1.5+ VS Germany 10, Italy 90 70T 500
1942 Battle of Alam el Halfa. Egypt UK, New Zealand 4Div Cor 1.8XWC 68T 67 VS Germany 6TDiv, Italy 2.9XWC 49T 60G 400Tran 36
1942 2nd Battle of El Alamein. Egypt UK India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Free French, Greece 195 13.6 1T 332500 435AC 892908A 1.5ATG 111 73050 530Ser 97VS Germany, Italy 116 30.6 547T 500 192AC 552A 4961ATG 254 770900 480Ser 84
1942 Battle of El Agheila. Libya UK, Poland, New Zealand VS Germany, Italy * Axis retreats to Tunisia
1942 Operation Torch. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK, Free French, Canada, Netherlands 107 479+X 720W VS Germany 2Sub in Mor., Vichy France 60 1.3X 2W
1942 Operation Terminal. Morocco, Algeria USA, UK 2D 1 622 VS German Empire Vichy France
1942 3 1 Tunisia Campaign. Tunisia UK, India, USA, France, New Zealand, Poland, Greece 76 849 VS Germany, Italy 300 1 600+C
1942 Battle of Kasserine Pass. Tunisia Germany, Italy 22 2 34T VS USA 6.5, UK, Free French 30 10 183T
1942 Battle of Sidi Bou Zid. Tunisia Germany VS USA 2.5M 103T
1942 Battle of Medenine. Tunisia UK, New Zealand, Free French VS Germany, Italy
1942 Operation Pugilist. Tunisia UK India, Free French, New Zealand 51T 952 w/ 7AC VS Germany, Italy
1942 Battle of El Guettar. Tunisia USA 3555T 45XWVS Germany, Italy 46XW 40+T
1942 Battle of Hill 609. Tunisia USA 2.5 VS Germany
1942 Operation Vulcan. Tunisia UK, USA VS Germany, Italy
Mediteranean
1940 Attack on MerselKebir. Off Algeria UK 1AC 2B 1BC 2LC 11D 6 #2X VS German Empire Vichy France 2BC 1D 2B 1 1D 6D 1Gr 3D 1.3X 350W
1940 - 2 2 Siege of Malta. Malta UK, Malta, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Southern Rhodesia Supply: Free French, Greece, Poland, Norway, USA 30BuD 40Su 2AC 4C 19D 716F 369 64Gr 2.3ACXW 1.3CiX VS Italy 175 72%T 16Su, Germany 357 50U 23%M 2 2.3M 17.2X 2.3M
1941 Battle of Yugoslavia. Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia Germany 337 875T 990 40 #151X #392W #15M, Italy 666 10 22D 3.3XW, Hungary #120X #223W #13M 1+ VS Yugoslavia 700 103ACX +X 254345C by Ger 30 by It 200T 405 49 211C 3D 3Su
1941 Battle of Greece. Germany 680 1.1X 3.8W #385M 1.2T 700, Italy 565 13.8X 63.1W 25.1M 163T 463, Albania, Bulgaria #400XMC 1.24M VS Greece 430 13.3X 62.7W 1.3M 20T, UK, Australia, New Zealand 62.6 903X 1.3W 14C 100T 2300 512.6 14.2X 63.9W 1.3M 14C 120T 2300
1943 Operation Fustian. Sicily, Italy UK 1PTBri 1Div 141X 168MW 42T 5GlVS Germany 1PTDiv, Italy 1Div
1941 Battle of Crete. Greece Germany 14PT 15MT 280DB Fi180 500T 80Gl, Italy 2.7 6.7 3.7 370D VS Greece 11.5 1.3TXW, UK 15, Australia 7.1, New Zealand 6.7 40 Inc10NC 23.8 4X 17C
1943 4 1 Operation Strangle. Rome, Italy USA 2AF VS Italy, Germany
1943 Battle of Sicily. Italy UK, USA, Canada, Newfoundland, Free French 160467 24.8 5.8X 15.7W 3.3C 14V 600T 1.8G VS Italy 230 131.4147 +C, Germany 60 20 260T 1.4
1943 Battle of Troina. Sicily, Italy USA 2Div 80100 #40C 165A + VS Germany, Italy
1943 Allied invasion of Italy. UK, USA, Canada 189 2X 7W 3.5M VS Germany, Italy 100 3.5
1943 Operation Slapstick. Italy UK 1AiDiv 1CSq 1 2.2 #106X #154W VS Germany 1PTDiv
1943 Dodecanese Campaign. Off Greece Germany, Italian Rep 1.2 15L VS UK, Kingdom of Italy, South Africa, Greece 4.8 6D 4CLD 4CHD 2Su 10MS&CD 113
1943 Battle of Leros. Off Greece Germany 520X 45W VS Italy 8So&Sa, UK 1Bri 3 2Sq 115, Greece 20CiX 419X 4.8W 8.5C 115
1943 Battle of Kos. Off Greece Germany 4 15X 70W VS UK 1.4 1.4C, Italy 3.5 3.1C, South Africa 4.9 4.5C 91OX
1943 Battle of Naples. Four days of Naples Italy Italian Ci 30+ VS Germany 8
1943 Volturno Line. Italy USA 1Arm, UK 1Bri VS Germany 1TDiv
1943 Barbara Line. Italy USA 1Arm, UK 1Div, India 1Div VS Germany 1TDiv
1943 Air Raid on Bari. Italy Germany 1VS UK, USA 23 1HarHD 1So&SaX 1CiX
1945 Vienna Offensive. Austria USSR 644.7, Bulgaria 100.9 4Arm 85Div 3Bri 746 18X VS Germany 19X 52C 20%Ci
1941 Invasion of USSR
Jinnah 1998
1948 Berlin airlift
1959 Antarctic treaty
1961 Berlin wall erected
1964 Brezhnev ousts Krushchev
1969 Ulster troubles
1989 Berlin Wall crumbles
1992 Berlin Wall came down
1992 Cold war ended
Weimar Republic
1918 - 33
15
1918 - 25 7 Friedrich Ebert
1925 - 34 9 Paul von Hindenburg
Nazi Germany
1933 - 45
12
1933 45 12 Adolf Hitler
Federal Republic of Germany
1945 - Present
76
2008 Khadija Mosque france Germany
Habsburg Empire
1526 - 1804
278
Habsburg
1526 - 1780
254
1526 - 64 38 Ferdinand 1 1503 64 61 =Anna of Bohemia & Hungary 15C
1525 Modern square root symbol (√ ) Vienna
1529 Siege of Vienna Austria. Empire of Charles 5: Spain Holy Roman Empire With Austrian, Spanish, Czech and German Soldiers Ottoman Empire Moldavia
1493 - 1541 48 Paracelsus Austria Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist.
1563 Ambrass Castle
1564 Austrian territories were again divided among Emperor Ferdinands sons
1564 - 76 12 Maximilian 2 ^ 1527 76 49 =Maria of Spain 16C
1570 Morisco uprising Luis de Requesens, viceadmiral for king Philip 2 of Austria, leads a campaign into Alpujarras that ends by devastatingentire countryside.
1576 - 1612 36 Rudolf 5 ^ 1552 - 1612 - 60 0=
1612 - 9 7 Matthias < 1557 1611 54 62 =Anna of Tyrol 0C
1619 Albert 7 < 1559 1621 61 =Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain 0C
1619 - 37 18 Ferdinand 2 ^Ferdinand 1 1529 95 65 =1) Philipine Wesler 4C 2) Anne Juliana Gonzaga 3D
1595 - 1619 24 Matthias
1612 - 6 4 Maximilian 3 1558 - 1618 60 ^Maximilian 2 =0
1564 - 90 26 Charles 2 1540 - 90 50 ^Ferdinand 1 =Maria Anna of Bavaria 15C
1619 - 37 28 Ferdinand 3 ^ 1578 - 1637 58 =1) Maria Anna of Bavaria 7C 2) Eleanor Gonzaga 0C
1637 - 57 20 Ferdinand 4 ^ 1608 - 57 49 =1) Maria Anna of Spain 6C 2) Maria Leopoldine of Austria 1S 3) Eleanor Gonzaga 4C
1623 - 32 9 Leopold 5 1586 - 1632 45 ^Charles 2 =Claudia de Medici 5C
1632 - 62 30 Ferdinand Charles ^ 1628 - 62 34 =Anna de Medici 2D
1662 - 5 3 Sigismund Francis 1630 - 65 34 < =Hedwig Augusta of PalatinateSulzbach 0C
1665 - 1705 40 Leopold 6 1640 - 1705 65 ^Ferdinand 4 & Maria of Spain =1) Margarete Theresa of Spain 4C 2) Claudia Felicitas of Austria 2D 3) Eleanor Magdalene of Palatinate 11C
1705 - 11 6 Joseph 1 1678 - 1711 32 ^Eleanor =Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick 3C
1711 - 40 29 Charles 3 1685 - 1740 55 < =Elisabeth Christine of BrunswickWolfenbüttel 5C
"Karl 6." as Spanish King "Carlos 3"
1740 - 80 40 Maria Theresia (Maria Theresa) 1717 - 80 63 ^ =Francis 1 Stephen 16C
1740 - 65 25 Francis 1 Stephen 1708 - 65 56 ^Leopold, Duke of Lorraine & Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans =Maria Theresia
HabsburgLorraine
1780 - 1804
24
1765 - 90 25 Joseph 2great,Reformer 1741 - 90 48 ^ =1) Isabella of Parma 2D 2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria 0C
1790 - 2 2 Leopold 7 < 1747 - 92 44 =Maria Luisa of Spain 16C 1765 - 90 25 "Grandduke of Tuscany"
1792 - 1804 12 Francis 2 ^ 1768 - 1835 67 =1) Elisabeth of Württemberg 1D 2) ) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily 12C 3) Maria Ludovika of AustriaEste 0C 4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria 0C 1792 - 1835 43 correctly written "Franz" (became Emperor Francis 1 of Austria in 1804, at which point numbering starts anew)
1598 Eschelberg Castle
1500s Schallaburg Castle
Habsburg Empire
1526 - 1804
278
1616 - 48 30 years war
Last Valley 1971
1619 Bethlen Gabor is defeated outside Vienna.
1628 Salzburg Cathedral
1663 - 4 1 AustroTurkish War. Austria. Austria vs Ottoman Empire.
1683 - 99 16 Polish/Ottoman War. Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Greece and Ukraine. Holy Roman Empire, Tsardom of Russia, Cossack Hetmanate, PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Republic of Venice, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Albanian rebels, Serb rebels, Greek rebels, Spain vs Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate.
1683 2nd siege of Vienna Ottomans defeated at finishesOttoman Empires hegemony in southeastern Europe.
1683 A Habsburg council of war is held in Vienna.
Habsburg Empire
1526 - 1804
278
1703 - 11 8 Rákóczi Uprising againstHabsburg Monarchy.
1656 - 1723 67 Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach Austrian Architect
1740 Frederick 2 *Prussia; War of Austrian succession
1740 - 8 8 War of Austrian Succession France Prussia 1740 - 42; 44 45 Spain Bavaria 1741 - 5 4 Saxony 1741 - 2 1 Naples and Sicily Genoa
Sweden 1741 - 3 2 Habsburg Monarchy Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony 1743 - 5 2 Kingdom of Sardinia Russia 1741 - 3 2, 1748
1746 - 8 2 1st Carnatic War Part of War of Austrian Succession
1762 Orfeo ed Euridice, first "reform opera" by Gluck, performed in Vienna
1781 - 5 4 1st Step in Serfdom Abolition
1786 Marriage of Figaro, opera by Mozart
1719 - 87 68 Leopold Mozart, Austrian composer
1787 Don Giovanni, opera by Mozart
1788 Jupiter Symphony (Symphony No.41) composed by Mozart
1756 - 91 35 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Austrian Composer
1791 Magic Flute, opera by Mozart
1717 - 80 63 Maria Theresa, Austrian Empress
Franz Joseph 1 of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor
Habsburg Empire
1526 - 1804
278
Austrian Empire
1804 - 67
73
Vienna Austria 63 years preceded by Holy Roman Empire
1804 - 35 31 Francis 1
1797 - 1828 31 Franz Schubert Composer Austrian
1732 - 1809 77 Joseph Haydn Austrian composer
1809 - 10 1 Tyrol Rebellion part of Napoleonic Wars. Austria. Kingdom of Bavaria, First French Empire, Kingdom of Italy vs Austrian Empire, Tyrolean Rebels
1815 Congress of Vienna redrawsEuropean map.Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but it fails to stemtide of liberalism and nationalism that sweeps overcontinent.
1835 - 48 13 Ferdinand (1793 - 1875 82) ^Maria Theresa =Maria Anna of Savoy 0C
1848 - 1916 68 Francis Joseph (1830 1916 86) ^ Archduke Franz Karl of Austria & Princess Sophie of Bavaria =Elizabeth of Bavaria 4C
1773 - 1839 66 Joseph Perl Writer, Jewish Theologian, Educator
1848 2nd step in Serfdom Abolition
1849 Revolutions inHabsburg areas
1803 - 53 50 Christian Doppler Physicist, Mathematician
1773 - 1859 76 Klemens von Metternich Chancellor
AustroHungary
1867 - 1918
51
Vienna and Budapest 51 yrs preceded by Austrian Empire
1822 - 84 62 Gregor MendelBiologist
1889 Austrian Crown Prince Rudolph marries a commoner
Mayerling 1936 1969 1889
1824 - 97 73 Anton Bruckner Composer
AustroHungary
1867 - 1918 51
Vienna and Budapest 51 yrs preceded by Austrian Empire
1900 Interpretations of Dreams by Freud published
Freud 1962
InheritWind (Trial on evolution) 1960
1860 - 1904 44 Theodor Herzl Modern Political Zionism
1844 - 1906 62 Ludwig Boltzmann Physicist
1915 1st Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy 225 14.9 VS AustriaHungary 115 10
1915 2nd Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 130Bat 420G 45XW VS Italy 260Bat 840G 42XW
1915 3rd Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 184Bat 643AP 40.4 9X VS Italy 338Bat 130CSq 1.4AP 67.1 11X
1915 4th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy 370Bat 1.4G 49.5 7.5X VS AustriaHungary 155Bat 626G 32.1 4X
1916 - 8 2 Charles (1887 1922 34) ^ Archduke Otto Francis of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony =Zita of BourbonParma 8C
1916 5th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 100Bat (+30R) 470G 2XW VS Italy 286Bat (+90R) 1.4G 1.9XWM
1916 6th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 9Div 42 8X VS Italy 22Div 51 21X
1916 7th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 150Bat 770AP 15 VS Italy 240Bat 1.2AP 17
1916 Battle of Bucharest. Romania Germany, Bulgaria, AustriaHungary 250 ? VS Romania 150 60 85A 115MG
1917 8th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia AustriaHungary 14Div 25 VS Italy 20Div 24
1917 9th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy 225Bat 1.4A 39 VS AustriaHungary 170Bat 990A 33
1917 10th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy 400 150 35X VS AustriaHungary 200 75 17X
1917 11th Battle ofIsonzo. Slovenia Italy #600Bat 5.2G 148 30X 108W VS AustriaHungary, Germany 250Bat 2.2G 105 20X 45W 30M 20C
1917 12th Battle ofIsonzo. Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, AustriaHungary 350 70XW 2.2A VS Italy 400 10X 30W 265C 2.2A
1918 Reflections on War and Death Sigmund Frued 34.5M 1;15;28
1918 Totem and Taboo Sigmund Frued 175M 6;24;14
1918 Battle ofPiave River. Italy Italy 58Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechslovakia 80XW VS AustriaHungary 57Div 60X 90W 25C
1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy End ofAustroHungarian Empire Italy 51Div, UK 3Div, France 2Div, Czechloslovakia 1Div, USA 2Reg 57Div 7.7G 37.4XW VS AustriaHungary 61Div 35X 100W 300C 6.1G
1916 Battle of Asiago. Italy Italy 172Bat 850G 140Cas 12X 80W 50C VS AustriaHungary 300Bat 2G 100Cas 15X 75W 15MC
1918 Battle of Caporetto. Slovenia Germany, Austria 350 2.2A 70XW VS Italy 400 2.2A 10X 30W 265C
1918 Battle of Romani. Egypt UK, Australia, New Zealand 14 1.1VS Ottomans, Germany, AustriaHungary 16 9.2 w/ 4C
1st Republic of Austria
1919 - 34
15
Vienna
1919 - 20 1 Karl Seitz
1920 - 8 8 Michael Hainisch
1922 Tractatus by Ludwig Wittgenstein 18891951 116M 4;14;32
1928 - 34 6 Wilhelm Miklas
Federal State of Austria
1934 - 8
4
Vienna
German Austria
1938 - 45
7
Vienna
1856 - 1939 83 Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Austrian
2nd Republic of Austria
1945 - Present
66
Vienna
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Lucayan Archipelago